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CFD versus model tests

Blended wing body technology

Aft-body slamming

Twin-gondola LNG carrier design

body technology Aft-body slamming Twin-gondola LNG carrier design Report is a newsletter of MARIN September 2005
body technology Aft-body slamming Twin-gondola LNG carrier design Report is a newsletter of MARIN September 2005

Report is a newsletter of MARIN

September 2005 no. 86

6 Intercepting the Interceptor Both MARIN and Deltamarin talk about the Interceptor on large, relatively-slow,

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Intercepting the Interceptor

Both MARIN and Deltamarin talk about the Interceptor on large, relatively-slow, merchant ships.

CFD versus model tests, which one will be the winner?

MARIN and IHC debate the issue of CFD versus model testing.

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and IHC debate the issue of CFD versus model testing. 4 13 Inboard noise from cavitating
and IHC debate the issue of CFD versus model testing. 4 13 Inboard noise from cavitating

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Inboard noise from cavitating propeller tip vortices under scrutiny

Report looks into one of the major discussion topics among clients.

Cooperation helps wing the way to success

For a study of blended wing body technology MARIN made one of the most complex models ever tested.

MARIN made one of the most complex models ever tested. 10 colophon Report is a newsletter

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colophon

Report is a newsletter of MARIN, 2, Haagsteeg, P.O.Box 28, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands, Phone: +31 317 49 39 11, Fax: +31 317 49 32 45

Printing 5.000 Editorial Board Arne Hubregtse, Jan Otto de Kat, Ellen te Winkel (E.te.Winkel@marin.nl)

Cover CFD – streamlines and pressure distribution around hopper dredger in oblique viscous flow in shallow water. Editorial consultant Helen Hill Design & Production Communicatie & Onderneming B.V., Bavel, The Netherlands

MARIN addresses aft-body slamming concerns

Many designers face the possibility of slamming when applying a relatively-flat aft-body. MARIN probes this issue.

Scenario simulations for profitable shipping

The balancing act between operational performance and building costs is sometimes difficult to achieve. Simulations may have the key.

PELS proves to be a “SMOOTH” operator

Research on air-lubricated ships is close to being converted into practical applications.

Major steps forward in twin-gondola LNG carrier design with the aid of CFD

CFD tools are playing an important role in the development of LNG carrier design.

New JIP brings sea trials up to speed

Reports looks at what made leading shipowners take a fresh look at sea trials.

Lashing@Sea

This JIP aims to die down the problem of containers lost at sea.

News/at your service

News flashes on exhibitions, courses, PIV and Simulators.

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The editorial staff has made every attempt to ensure the accuracy of the contents. However, experience has shown that, despite the best intentions, occasional errors might have crept in. MARIN cannot, therefore, accept responsibility for these errors or their consequences. For remarks or questions, please contact Ellen te Winkel. E-mail: E.te.Winkel@marin.nl

For more information or a subscription to MARIN Report, please visit our website: www.marin.nl.

editorial

Report, please visit our website: www.marin.nl. editorial Dear Reader, I would once again like to welcome

Dear Reader,

I would once again like to welcome you to the latest edition of Report. This month you can really see the wide-range of work that MARIN does and we would like to take this opportunity to up-date you on some of our latest projects.

We are happy to share with you an interesting debate with IHC about CFD versus model testing. Studying the viscous-flow around a ship, sailing at a drift angle in shallow water, CFD turned out to be successful. In this same issue of Report we look at the CFD code being used in LNG carrier design.

Involving one of the most complex models MARIN has ever tested, we have been asked to examine the resistance, seakeeping and manoeuvring characteristics of blended wing body technology.

Larger, slower, vessels are the subject of a very interesting move by the Finnish consultant Deltamarin, which took the unusual step of deploying the Interceptor on large merchant ships. We talk to Deltamarin in this issue.

In other projects, we look at aft-body slamming worries and the increasing concern of our clients about low-frequent, broadband excitation caused by cavitating propeller tip vortices. Simulations as a way of improving profitability is another subject we touch upon.

This issue should certainly stimulate some interesting debate. But if you would like to follow-up on any of the articles, there will be several opportunities in the next few months. Visit us at the exhibitions SNAME, Europort Maritime, METS or Marintec. Or attend the MARIN Open Day on October 22 when we again open our doors to the public. See the news section for further details.

I certainly hope you will take up one of these opportunities to meet us, we very much look forward to welcoming you.

Arne Hubregtse President of MARIN

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CFD versus model tests, which one will be the winner?

41781 CFD versus model tests, which one will be the winner? IHC, Ballast HAM (now Van

IHC, Ballast HAM (now Van Oord), Boskalis and MARIN, initiated the HOppers in Shallow WAter (HOSWA) project when they realised there may be a glut of information about manoeuvring in deep water but the impact of shallow water is not yet fully understood.

W ithin the project, a study into the viscous-flow around the ship, sailing at a drift angle in shallow water, was defined. IHC naval architect Arie de Jager and Serge Toxopeus, one of

the HOSWA project managers of MARIN, debate the results and tackle the thorny issue of whether computer calculations will ever replace model testing.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were fundamental to the project. “We wanted to know more about the physics, to get information on the flow field”, says Serge. “We had actually been using CFD for deep water conditions but CFD for shallow water was something new for us. But this fitted in with our long-term plans. The project came along at exactly the right time. Based on experience, we know how to change the manoeuvra- bility, but why it works is not fully understood.” Arie replies: “For us viscous-flow calculations are very important due to

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the characteristics of our vessels and for manoeu- vring, turbulence is a determining factor. We only really get the relation between speed and power from model tests. Optimising a model is a time consuming and expensive procedure. CFD on the other hand, is more flexible and gives more insight into the physics. Therefore, CFD plays a very important role in optimising hulls nowadays.” They talk about their expectations from the project. “I’m interested to hear what Serge has to say here”, Arie grins. Serge seeks diplomatic words. “Some clients expect everything from CFD, Arie, but you are one of the few that realises that it can be difficult. A mutual understanding facilitates alternative approaches and then solutions can be found. We can try things, without having an angry client! “However, since it was the first time that we had used PARNASSOS – the viscous-flow solver of MARIN – to calculate the flow around a ship at a drift angle in shallow water we had some reservations.” Arie adds: “In former days there was the idea that scientists live in Ivory Towers. But I think we need each other from the very beginning. Nearly 30 years ago, IHC had a bad experience with a single screw dredger. A new project forced us to investigate but we had no funding for an in-depth model test programme. Then I remembered the existence of PARNASSOS and asked MARIN to do calculations. We were very lucky we took that decision because we delivered a successful ship. That was IHC’s first use of PARANASSOS.” “The beauty of CFD is that it allows IHC to actually use the information practically”, Arie stresses. “We used the information for propeller design, appendages were changed. We used it as a tool for improvement.” Four vessels have now been optimised successfully using the code. The present results were in line with practical experience, but MARIN was positively surprised by the possibilities of the flow

solver, Serge adds. He explains that the increase of the speed on the “windward” side

solver, Serge adds. He explains that the increase of the speed on the “windward” side was expected but the increase of the cross-flow underneath the ship “was quite substantial and surprising”. Some unexpected flow separation was also predicted and needs more investigation, he says. Arie agrees: “Now we have the information, we can do something with it.” Serge thinks it will be interesting to look at more drift angles and Arie wants to use the results for dynamic tracking studies so that time and therefore, money, can be saved during sea trials.

And the future?

“In the near future, CFD will be used more for research purposes but in daily practice, it is still too complicated. But it definitely facilitates more insight into the flow around the ship and helps with integrated design”, says Serge. Arie nods: “It is rather unpleasant to do calculations with the same hull, one after each other, with different computational tools. Furthermore, PARNASSOS is especially good for the model- scale effects problem.” “In the future, calculations will be done earlier, design decisions made earlier but because some calculations can never be 100% correct, model tests will be carried out for final verification,” Serge says to Arie. Vessels are becoming more complicated, making simulations more difficult. “I agree”, says Arie. “We believe we can trust

PARNASSOS. To convince clients however, we attempt to validate the investigations as often as possible. One should realise that we always have to satisfy our clients with good and reliable results, within a short time-span and with minimal costs. CFD will help us with this. But sometimes they require model tests in the design stage to be convinced of the performance of the vessel. So, calculations will not fully replace model tests but they will be used more often.” Despite being convinced of the possibilities of viscous-flow calculations, he adds: “I still like to do model tests because the performance data can be used for adjustment of our prediction tools but that’s me.” Both are pleased with the results but agree that it looks like calculations and model tests are set to work alongside each other for a few more years to

come!

to work alongside each other for a few more years to come! Courtesy IHC. Streamlines and

Courtesy IHC.

Streamlines and pressure distribution around hopper dredger in oblique viscous flow in shallow water.

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Although more associated with semi-planing motor yachts and other fast craft, such as patrol boats, the Interceptor is now being deployed on several models of large merchant vessels tested in MARIN basins. Report plots the progress of the Interceptor as demand grows.

Effect of an Interceptor on the aft-body flow.

demand grows. Effect of an Interceptor on the aft-body flow. Intercepting the Interceptor Ship model for

Intercepting the Interceptor

Ship model for RCI fitted with adjustable Interceptor plate.

Jaap Allema

J.Allema@marin.nl

adjustable Interceptor plate. Jaap Allema J.Allema@marin.nl A n Interceptor is a metal plate which is fitted

A n Interceptor is a metal plate which is

fitted vertically to the transom of a ship,

covering the main breadth of the transom

and protruding with its lower edge several centimetres below the transom. The principle is to create a virtual trim wedge below the transom. The protruding section below the transom causes a local pressure increase with a deadwater area in front of it. The flow over the aft-body of the ship then bends downward when approaching this high pressure deadwater area, thus creating a similar lift effect as a conventional trim wedge on the flow

near the transom (see illustration). An Interceptor on small craft can be moved up and down by a hydraulic or electric system and can be adjusted to create the optimal flow deflection for every ship speed. In this respect it has some advan- tages from adjustable trim flaps or tabs but flaps are protruding behind the transom and have a small width. For small, fast craft with stern drive or out- board propulsion, this creates additional drag and reduced lift. The Interceptor can be used over the full transom width and with any type of propulsion.

Cruise ship hull design

Although the Interceptor was developed for relatively small, fast craft, recently Royal Caribbean Cruise Line asked their Finnish consultant, Deltamarin and MARIN, to optimise a new cruise ship hull design. All known performance

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at MARIN

increasing appendages such as ducktails and trim wedges were tested but Deltamarin also proposed to investigate an Interceptor. And surprisingly, it also worked successfully for a large ship. After a series of trim wedge tests, the best Interceptor position supplied 2% more power reduction than the best wedge. Deltamarin then arranged full-scale boundary layer flow calculations with its alliance partner, Safety at Sea Ltd for the aftbody with this device. They found that the flow started to bend downwards when the flow approached the plate at a distance equal to the height of the Interceptor below the transom. So a final propulsion test was done where the Interceptor plate was used to model a 45 degree wedge, with a length similar to the height of the Interceptor below the transom, thus filling in the deadwater area. When this Interceptor wedge was tested, it appeared to yield a further 1% power reduction. After this initial success, many more cruise ships and ferries were tested with an Interceptor. But the Interceptor was not so successful with all ships. Its success on large displacement merchant vessels was not so straight forward. Some tests showed only small performance improvements and on some ships there was no, or even a small negative effect. MARIN intends to undertake further investigation to be able to give the best advice on these type of

aft-body flow optimisation devices.

advice on these type of aft-body flow optimisation devices. Juha Hanhinen, Deltamarin. Deltamarin: first Interceptor

Juha Hanhinen, Deltamarin.

Deltamarin: first Interceptor success

Reports asks Juha Hanhinen from the Finnish consultant Deltamarin,

what made the firm decide to deploy the Interceptor on large,

relatively-slow, merchant ships.

Hanhinen admits that initially it was a desperate measure.“I was so frustrated after testing so many trim wedges on this particular aft-body without being able to fix the wake behind the transom.“I was expecting improved flow/wake behind the transom but I wasn’t expecting improvements in powering. I was just hoping that trying something completely different would bring fresh ideas.”The boundary layer flow calculations more or less confirmed what Deltamarin was expecting about the behaviour of the device.There were no major scale effects. The Finnish company hopes that the Interceptor will be applicable to more or less all transom stern ships.“It would definitely make life easier for designers as the transom type of flow is quite difficult to control.“We are almost certain that it works well on faster transom-type sterns. But we hope that after learning more about the flow mechanics, it will also work well with slower transom sterns.” “So far, the understanding is still very limited”, he points out.“Here, more RANS- calculations will help and experimental (model scale) feedback is very important at an early stage.” The transom type of flow is fairly constant at speeds high enough (close to Fn 0.2 and above) despite the motions of the hull, so he is not expecting any nasty surprises there. However, low speeds can cause some parasite drag. For large ships the interceptor will have to be fixed but luckily the additional drag at low speeds is quite small. Hanhinen expects that the performance improvements found in model tests will be also be found for full-scale ships but the first full-scale trials are yet to be made.“I remember the first time we tried a trim wedge on a Panamax size newbuilding cruiser.The gain according to the first scale tests was a bit questionable but in real life it turned out to be a major success.”

MARIN addresses aft-body slamming concerns

many

designers to apply a relatively-flat aft-body but in some cases this shape has raised concerns about the possibility of aft-body slamming.

High

propulsive

efficiency

has

motivated

aft-body slamming. High propulsive efficiency has motivated Reint Dallinga R.P.Dallinga@marin.nl 8 T here is no doubt
aft-body slamming. High propulsive efficiency has motivated Reint Dallinga R.P.Dallinga@marin.nl 8 T here is no doubt

Reint Dallinga R.P.Dallinga@marin.nl

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T here is no doubt that relatively-flat stern

sections have definite advantages in calm

water, compared to V-shaped sections.

Fuel savings of up to 10% are not uncommon. But when a ship sails among waves, there is a possibility of stern emergence. Both the pitch motions and the incident wave contribute to this phenomenon which occurs mostly in following and head seas. However, because a flat stern tends to “cling” to the water surface at higher speeds, stern emergence is most likely in the lower speed range. In the course of re-entry, the stern experiences an impulsive load which can be characterised by an impulse and a duration. If the sections are flat and the entry-velocity is high, the duration of the impulse is sufficiently short to excite the lower eigen modes of the ship structure. Discomfort and passenger concern related to the noise and transient bending and torsional deflections have been reported from onboard observations.

Quantifying “stern slamming” is challenging and relevant data is often hard to obtain.

Different techniques

MARIN applies two methods to quantify the flexural response. The first technique uses a large number of pressure gauges and a fast-sampling

technique to quantify the pressures during an impact and impulsive loads are derived. These are then used in a Finite Element Model of the ship to quantify

the transient flexural response.

A second technique mimics the structural stiffness of

the

prototype in the model. The lowest mode shapes

in

bending can be realised relatively-easily with a

segmented model. An important advantage of this technique is its simplicity, the fact that it accounts

for (possible) hydro-elastic interaction between the

pressures and the flexural response and the direct test results. A disadvantage is that the modelling of the higher and more complex mode shapes, is difficult.

A study that compares both techniques was

published in cooperation with Ingalls Shipbuilding Corporation 1 . Generally, the results showed that the vertical accelerations at the vessel’s extremities increase considerably in those cases where stern slamming occurs. The figure gives an example of a medium-size, fast, container vessel in head seas In test conditions, the flexural response increases the vertical accelerations fore and aft, by some 20-40%. Aft-body slamming affects, through the related hull girder vibrations, the operational performance of ships in certain wave conditions. The above techniques enable ship owners and yards to find an optimum compromise between these problems and a high fuel economy in good weather.

1 ) Kapsenberg G.K, Veer A.P. van 't, Hackett J.P. and Levadou M.M.D., 2002, Whipping loads due to aft body slamming, Proceedings, 24th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, 8-13 July, Fukuoka, Japan. Kapsenberg G.K., Veer A.P. van 't, Hackett J.P. and Levadou M.M.D., 2003, Aft-body slamming and whipping loads, SNAME 2003 Annual Meeting,

October 2003, San Francisco, USA.

Levadou M.M.D., 2003, Aft-body slamming and whipping loads, SNAME 2003 Annual Meeting, October 2003, San Francisco,

Within the realm of safety, the shipping industry is continuously searching for a competitive balance between operational performance and building costs. Report highlights how MARIN helps the industry with this complicated problem.

how MARIN helps the industry with this complicated problem. Scenario simulations for profitable shipping M ARIN

Scenario simulations for profitable shipping

M ARIN has developed scenario

simulation methodology to quantify

the balance between investments,

operational revenues and costs. In these simulations several years of operational service are mimicked, taking into account the weather on the route. A key element in this analysis is the way the master handles the ship in adverse weather; prudent seamanship (risk-avoidance) and the impact of speed and reliability on short-term revenue. Most of the simulations that have been carried out are in the field of design verification or concept development. The first work performed was in 2001 for the Queen Mary 2. This addressed the issue of the required service margin needed to obtain a reliable transatlantic service. A very recent example was a contract to quantify the impact of adverse weather on the logistics operations of Airbus A380 airplane parts, which are transported by a specially-designed ro-ro carrier between manufacturing sites in Europe. Model tests were used to determine factors such as the sustained speed and this was then used to estimate the reliability of sea transport in the Airbus logistic chain. The relationship between the

encountered sea state and the risk of whipping and local accelerations on the cargo were obtained by

tests using a flexible segmented model. Scenario

Rob Grin

simulations that covered several years of service were carried out. These then provided a solid basis for determining the likelihood of encountering extreme accelerations that may damage cargo. In the area of concept development, MARIN investigated the reliability of a new inland/ short-sea concept within the European project InterModeShip. Issues examined included the trip duration and reliability, fuel consumption and extreme behaviour.

R.Grin@marin.nl

Opportunities

Voyage simulations also offer opportunities in the field of fleet development. What would be the most efficient round-trip schedule and which (charter) vessel had the lowest fuel consumption, were some of the many questions answered by simulation studies. Performing simulations at an early stage of the development of a design, enables shipyards and shipowners to get a detailed assessment. There is clearly a lot to gain from a preliminary evaluation of the future operational performance of a ship. But simulations need to be done at the preliminary stage in order to yield the right choices at the right

moment.

But simulations need to be done at the preliminary stage in order to yield the right

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CHSV at 40 knots in head waves.

Cooperation helps wing the way to success

In a fascinating project MARIN has been asked to deter- mine the resistance, seakeeping and manoeuvring characteristics, of blended wing body technology which involved one of the most complex models MARIN has ever tested.

John Hackett & Jessica Calix (NGSS), Marc Levadou M.M.D.Levadou@marin.nl

Jessica Calix (NGSS), Marc Levadou M.M.D.Levadou@marin.nl Panship pressure coefficients at 40 knots. G iven the

Panship pressure coefficients at 40 knots.

G iven the current trend in mission requirements for high speed vessels, there is a growing demand to reduce

hydrodynamic resistance and expand maximum speeds in a seaway on large displacement vessels. To this end, Navatek Ltd., a leader in design and construction of innovative, advanced ship hull systems, patented a design to enhance the lift of a vessel. The design incorporates blended wing body systems forward and aft. Each blended wing body system consists of two lifting bodies connected by a hydrofoil. While the hydrofoil provides lift, the large underwater lifting bodies provide motion damping to increase seakeeping capabilities. In order to prove the hydrodynamic advantages of the blended wing body system, the United States Office of Naval Research (ONR) sponsored

computational studies and hydrodynamic model testing on a vessel containing the Navatek patented design. The research group for this project included Northrop Grumman Ship Systems (NGSS), Navatek Ltd., and MARIN, and the project goal was to quantitatively determine the resistance, seakeeping and manoeuvring characteristics of a monohull outfitted with the blended wing body technology (identified as CHSV or Composite High Speed Vessel) to an equivalent conventional monohull (identified as HSV or High Speed Vessel).

Optimisation through CFD

Prior to model fabrication both hulls were optimised using CFD tools. Using MARIN’s potential flow code RAPID and viscous flow code PARNASSOS, the HSV hull form was optimised for wave making characteristics and chine alignment. The optimisation of the CHSV proceeded using the computational tools and expertise of NAVATEK. For both the vessels 3D non linear time domain seakeeping calculations were performed using MARIN’s PANSHIP code. This code, which is specifically developed for high speed vessels, assisted in the optimisation of the ride

control systems and gave an early indication of the seakeeping performance of both vessels.

Complex models a challenge

Models of the CHSV and HSV manufactured to a scale of 1:18 were used for seakeeping, manoeu- vring and powering tests. The HSV model was a relatively simple model with a double chine hull form propelled by two water jets and equipped with active trim flaps and fin stabilisers. The more complex CHSV model consisted of a centre hull form with outriggers (ama’s) on the side. It was equipped with three water jets and two blended wing body systems, one fore and one aft. The cross foils of the blended wing body systems were equipped with two flaps, port and starboard, for motion control. In addition to these control surfaces, the aft struts of the blended wing body system also had a vertical flap for directional control. In total the model was equipped with six servo actuated flaps. During the free running model tests all the flaps and water jets were active. With the active flaps and jets and the need to measure mid- ship bending moment and loads in each blended wing body, the CHSV model was one of the most complex models ever tested at MARIN.

Model tests

For both vessels free sailing seakeeping and manoeuvring, resistance, powering and captive manoeuvring tests were performed. The purpose of

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CHSV model (above) and HSV model (below).

the model tests was threefold: to obtain data to quantify the hydrodynamic performance of both vessels in calm water and motions in a seaway, to obtain engineering data to quantify such things as loads in the struts and midship bending moments, and to use the obtained model test results to fine tune the designs. The test program started with seakeeping and manoeuvring tests where issues which could not be calculated were investigated in the tank. Waterjet inlet ventilation was one such issue. Using under water cameras, it was possible to detect if and how air bubbles were entering the water jets. Using these observations the forward strut/ama and spray rail configurations were optimised to give the lowest possible disturbances (air bubbles) in the water. In addition, the effect of spray on the vessel performance was quantified, leading to design changes that proved to significantly improve the spray associated with vessel operations.

Cooperation a key to success

A comparison was made between the two optimised

concepts using the model test data. The results of the seakeeping tests show that CHSV (lifting body concept vessel) performed equal to or better than the monohull (HSV) design. In calm water a small increase in resistance was found over the HSV design. The results suggest that an improvement can be achieved by further optimising the position of the cross foil with respect to the hull, as inter- ference phenomena were observed between the hull and the two blended wing body systems. The manoeuvring characteristics between the two

vessels are quite different. This is due to the large vertical struts on the CHSV which make it more course stable than the HSV, but also increase the turning circles over HSV. The cooperation between all parties involved resulted in a very successful project. The use of CFD in the initial phase together with model tests

in the later phase helped reduce development time

and costs while producing valuable engineering information for the final design. Once again, this approach has proven indispensable in the develop-

ment of new concept designs.

for the final design. Once again, this approach has proven indispensable in the develop- ment of

PELS proves to be a “SMOOTH” operator

The national Dutch research project PELS (Project Energy-saving air-Lubricated Ships) was actually completed in December 2004 after considerable success, with net energy-savings resulting. MARIN is keen to convert this research into practical applications. Report explains.

Cornel Thill

C.Thill@marin.nl

Part of a ship’s bottom built in the large tunnel of TU Berlin, tested at Re~10 8 .

A presentation on PELS at the renowned

Second International Symposium on

Seawater Drag Reduction, held in Busan

in May, received overwhelming positive feedback. The paper identified an important missing link – the validation that air bubbles reduce drag, even when they are applied close to full-scale Reynolds numbers. The result was achieved by mounting a whole part of a ship’s bottom in the measurement section of Europe’s largest cavitation tunnel, the UT2 in Berlin. Reynolds numbers close to 108 could be tested this way in laboratory circumstances, even allowing for correctly scaling the ambient pressure.

For PELS’ free sailing model experiments in calm water, MARIN’s Depressurised Towing Tank was used. In this way, the compressibility of air was found to be responsible for several measurable scale effects on the micro and macro scale of air- lubrication techniques.

Considerable savings

Final calculations have shown that one single inland shipping vessel could save as much as 130 tonnes of diesel on an annual basis (15 to 18%) and about 400 tonnes of CO2, five tonnes of NOx , plus about half a tonne of soot (PM10) particles. Given the fact that these results apply to one single inland navigating craft, there has been a large amount of interest from inland shipping companies. There might also be sufficient interest to start a second Dutch research initiative on the subject.

All these positive results concerning air-lubrication are very important in both social and economic terms and research in this area is supported by the European Commission. Consequently, a European consortium of well-known partners, with MARIN at the helm, is currently preparing a 6th framework EU STREP proposal “SMOOTH” (Sustainable Methods for Optimal design and Operation of ships with air lubricaTed Hulls) to continue PELS. The aim is to expand the fundamental research done in PELS 1 and to move a step closer to a practical application. There is certainly a great deal of interest in taking this project to the next stage. Interested potential partners are still welcome to join the consortia. The knowledge gained so far will be of great benefit to those who undertake further research into lubrication. And it will be very interesting to see if the first practical application validates the positive findings from laboratory

experiments.

very interesting to see if the first practical application validates the positive findings from laboratory experiments.

795020

An increasing number of MARIN’s clients consider low-frequent, broad- band excitation caused by cavitating propeller tip vortices as the most important topic in inboard noise and vibration abatement.

Inboard noise from cavitating propeller tip vortices

Propeller tip vortex cavitation on scale model.

C avity dynamics in the vicinity of ship propeller blades cause pressure fluc- tuations which excite the hull structure

above the propeller. As these pressure fluctuations act largely in phase over the aft-body surface, cavitation is very effective in generating inboard noise and vibration. The last decades however, have seen a considerable reduction in cavitation-induced hull pressure forces, leading to lower inboard noise and vibration levels. Unfortunately, an opposing trend of increasing low-frequent broadband hull pressure fluctuations is also witnessed within a range of about 20 to 70 Hz. This trend has received a lot of attention as the ship’s aft-body structure is likely to be excited at resonance in this range of frequencies. Such resonant vibrations often cause annoyance, despite the low magnitude of the excitation forces involved. As a result of changes in propeller design philosophy many modern propellers show leading edge or tip vortex cavitation. As yet, there is no clear under- standing of the physical mechanisms underlying the type of broadband excitation they are causing. The lack of theoretical models has led to the

development of empirical methods to relate tip vortex characteristics to inboard noise (e.g. Ræstad’s Tip Vortex Index). The notion of broadband noise being completely random in nature is not confirmed when pressure time traces are studied. It seems that bursts of energy in the frequency range of interest cause a

Erik van Wijngaarden H.C.J.v.Wijngaarden@marin.nl

cause a Erik van Wijngaarden H.C.J.v.Wijngaarden@marin.nl Typical hull pressure spectrum showing broadband excitation

Typical hull pressure spectrum showing broadband excitation in between spikes at multiples of BPF.

broadband excitation in between spikes at multiples of BPF. ‘ringing’ effect, superimposed on the tonal components

‘ringing’ effect, superimposed on the tonal components at blade passage frequency. Such a phenomenon has been observed in time traces of pressure signals measured with flush mounted pressure transducers on board passenger vessels. At MARIN’s Depressurised Towing Tank detailed model scale studies are conducted, where high-speed video images and hull pressure data are synchronised to study the character of the cavity dynamics and resulting pressure pulses. Combining information from such studies with results from wake flow experiments, CFD computations and experience, allows for the best trade-off between propulsive efficiency and low noise levels. Practical design studies need to backed up by background research (see references) as there is still much to be learned in this field.

REFERENCES

• “Aspects of the cavitating propeller tip vortex as a source of inboard noise and vibration”; Erik van Wijngaarden, Johan Bosschers, Gert Kuiper; ASME Fluids Eng. Div. Summer Meeting and Exhibition; June 19-23, 2005, Houston, TX, USA. • “Recent developments in predicting propeller-induced hull pressure pulses”; Erik van Wijngaarden; The First International Ship Noise and

Vibration Conference June 20-21, 2005, London, UK.

Erik van Wijngaarden; The First International Ship Noise and Vibration Conference June 20-21, 2005, London, UK.

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35384 Major steps forward in LNG carrier design The world has enormous quantities of natural gas

Major steps forward in LNG carrier design

The world has enormous quantities of natural gas but much of it is located in areas far from where the gas is needed. As natural gas becomes an increasingly important energy source a large fleet is needed to transport it in liquefied form, hence the development of specially-designed LNG carriers. Report outlines the importance of CFD tools in LNG carrier design.

Henk Valkhof & Klaas Kooiker H.Valkhof@marin.nl

I n the overall design process of an LNG

carrier, the hull form and propulsors play an

important role from a hydrodynamic point of

view. The twin-gondola aft-body has proven to be an adequate design concept but due to the complexity of the flow around the aft-body, the design must be carried out with great care. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools are extremely valuable in the hydrodynamic hull form optimisation process. Both potential flow and viscous flow codes are used to obtain the optimum hull form.

Particular attention is always paid to the shape and the orientation of the gondolas. Usually the design process starts with calculations carried out by MARIN’s non-linear potential flow code, RAPID. In such a pre-design phase the bulbous bow and the shape of the hull can be optimised. In addition, the pressure distribution around the gondolas is often studied to obtain a first impression of the optimum gondola orientation.

PARNASSOS also plays vital role

Viscous effects play an important role in the flow around the aft body and therefore, the shape of the aft-body and the orientation of the gondolas can be further improved by using MARIN’s viscous flow code, PARNASSOS. With the results of the PARNASSOS calculations it is possible to make decisions with regard to the horizontal angle and the inclination of the gondolas and the slope of the buttocks in the area between the gondolas. The wake field in the propeller plane can also be improved by optimising the shape of the gondolas. And these have to be oriented in such a way that maximum efficiency is achieved. Furthermore, the effect of a working propeller can be investigated by

applying an axial force field in the propeller plane. Scale effects can be studied by conducting calculations for both model and full scale. Although the CFD part is of great importance during the pre-design stage of the project, verification of the performance of the ship by means of model tests is still needed. The combina- tion of CFD calculations and model tests makes it possible to compare the calculated and measured results. For the model measurement of the wake field, a 5-hole Pitot tube is mounted in the propeller plane. The results of the axial velocity components show a wake peak depth of about 60 percent. The gradient of the velocity through the propeller plane is soft on the outer side of the gondola, while on the inner side the gradients are somewhat steeper.

Further improvement expected

A few aspects are still being studied through a research programme with internal MARIN funding. In this programme, PARNASSOS calculations for full scale Reynolds numbers are carried out. Propulsive coefficients will be determined to study the sensitivity of the change of the position of the gondola on the hull efficiency and other relevant parameters. In the near future, several CFD calculations will be carried out with gondolas perfectly oriented in the flow but also with gondolas deliberately placed somewhat out of the flow to increase hull efficiency. It is expected that these additional studies will lead to a

further improvement in performance.

studies will lead to a further improvement in performance. twin-gondola with the aid of CFD At

twin-gondola with the aid of CFD

At the right a comparison between the calculated circumferential axial velocity field (through PARNASSOS) and the measured wake survey is presented. Both the slopes and the depth of the wake peak compare well.

Several design approaches

From recent studies it became clear that the design of a twin gondola aft-body can be approached in several ways. Whether the priority is to minimise resistance, or whether it is to maximise hull efficiency, both approaches can lead to good designs. For both approaches a thorough under- standing of the flow over the aft body is needed. In this regard CFD tools like PARNASSOS are vital and it is believed that an even more extensive use of these tools will lead to better design in which the optimum combination between resistance and hull efficiency can be found. A few recent designs following the approach described above have resulted in significantly (between 10 and 15 percent) improved powering performance, leading to significant reductions of fuel consump- tion, or in some cases to an increased payload at equal fuel consumption characteristics.

payload at equal fuel consumption characteristics. Comparison calculated (above) and measured (below) wake
payload at equal fuel consumption characteristics. Comparison calculated (above) and measured (below) wake

Comparison calculated (above) and measured (below) wake field.

New JIP brings sea trials up to speed

Courtesy BuNova Development B.V.

sea trials up to speed Courtesy BuNova Development B.V. As leading shipowners and shipyards co-operate in

As leading shipowners and shipyards co-operate in the “Sea Trial Analysis” Joint Industry Project, Report takes a closer look at the new initiative.

Henk van den Boom H.v.d.Boom@marin.nl

H istorically, the analysis of shipbuilders’ speed trials utilises corrections to allow for deviation between the conditions during the

trial and those defined in the contract. However, recent adverse experiences of several shipowners suggests that it is time to reconsider these corrections, as some have not been revised since they were developed 30 or 40 years ago. The STA-JIP is aiming at transparent and accurate methods for the speed/power tests of ships upon delivery. A rational review of the trial analysis procedures will be conducted within the framework of the existing ISO Standard 15016. Shipowners and yards are invited to join this project and to work towards a new industry standard in this field.

The STA-JIP started-off with case studies to investi- gate results of trials by various analysis methods, from which recommended practice for trial procedures and measurements will be developed. Subsequently, the project group aims to develop ship-type specific analysis

project group aims to develop ship-type specific analysis methods and software. The project focuses on LNG-carriers,

methods and software. The project focuses on LNG-carriers, tankers, bulk carriers, container ships and car carriers. Evaluation of the results of some 20 previous sea trials were made available by the owners and these have clearly indicated areas in need of improvement. Trial procedures and measurement techniques are specified in detail in the recommended practice guidelines. New correction methods for waves and wind for instance, are being developed and these will be included in the STA-analysis software to be delivered to all participants.

Demonstration trials

As a final stage of the project, trials on selected ships are conducted according to the new practice guidelines and analysed with the new software. One of these demonstration trials concerned the COLOMBO EXPRESS. This 8,600 teu container vessel was constructed by Hyundai Heavy Industries for Hapag Lloyd and is currently the largest container vessel in operation. During the trials in March 2005, the shaft power and ship speed were measured, as well as the incident wave and wind conditions.

Interested?

The STA-JIP is still open to new participants, with shipowners and yards welcome. The project will be completed in 2006. For further information please contact Henk van den Boom (H.v.d.Boom@marin.nl) or Ivo van der Hout

(I.v.d.Hout@marin.nl).

or Ivo van der Hout (I.v.d.Hout@marin.nl). Companies currently participating in the STA-JIP
or Ivo van der Hout (I.v.d.Hout@marin.nl). Companies currently participating in the STA-JIP

Companies currently participating in the STA-JIP

Claus-Peter Offen Reederei, Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering, ER Schiffahrt, Hanjin, Hapag Lloyd Container Line, Hyundai Heavy Industries, Maersk, MARIN, Norddeutsche Reederei H. Schuldt, NSB Reederei, Samsung Heavy Industries, Shell Shipping, STX Shipbuilding, Sumitomo Heavy Industries,Teekay Shipping, United European Car Carriers,Vroon

Unofficial sources estimate that the number of containers lost at sea worldwide is between 2,000 and 10,000 each year. Lashing@Sea aims to tie down the problem.

Jos Koning

J.Koning@marin.nl

aims to tie down the problem. Jos Koning J.Koning@marin.nl Lashing@Sea JIP addresses the problem of containers

Lashing@Sea JIP addresses the problem of containers lost at sea

M ost lost containers go unnoticed and the incidents that make it into the headlines often relate to hazardous

and toxic chemicals in western waters. These events are often just the tip of the iceberg, therefore it is extremely worrying that at any one time, there are likely to be thousands of containers floating around worldwide, close to shipping lanes, endangering traffic, the marine environment, local fishing industries and beach economies. Transport safety and efficiency is governed by cargo lashing and lashing procedures. Containers, cars and trucks are transported worldwide in heavy winds and high seas, while often knowledge con- cerning the actual cargo securing loads is lacking. The current economies of scale have led to the development of new generations of ultra large,

deep sea container ships that stretch design limits beyond experience. Cargo securing loads might change drastically, while lashing material remains the same.

Pressure on schedules

Efficiency improvements in the ferry and shortsea shipping sector has put additional pressure on schedules and consequently, time is of the essence for lashing work in ports on trucks, cars and containers. The industry is calling for a reduction in lashing requirements in order to improve efficiency. This might jeopardise safety because it is unclear what the loads really are.

safety because it is unclear what the loads really are. The tendency to reduce lashing efforts,
safety because it is unclear what the loads really are. The tendency to reduce lashing efforts,

The tendency to reduce lashing efforts, in combination with unknown loads, the increasing scale of the ships and the large number of containers lost at sea, have been the major reasons for the start of the Lashing@Sea project. Together with operators, suppliers, authorities and class societies, MARIN will investigate the mechanics, safety and efficiency of container and ro-ro transport. The project focus will be on deepsea container shipping, the ferry industry, shortsea shipping and on feeder lines. The overall goals are to gain insight, improve safety, reduce the number of damaged and lost cargoes at sea and where possible, to increase efficiency of lashing practice for transport companies. With a combination of a review of current practice, in-service monitoring campaigns on three different vessels and extensive analysis, the load mechanisms will be investigated. Based on this, guidelines for recommended practice for lashing procedures will be formulated in order to provide a level playing field for all operators.

Interested?

New participants are welcome to join. Please contact Jos Koning (J.Koning@marin.nl).

for all operators. Interested? New participants are welcome to join. Please contact Jos Koning (J.Koning@marin.nl). 17

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Combined dredging and fishing manoeuvring simulator for CMO Zeebrugge. Project Team Simulator off to a
Combined dredging and
fishing manoeuvring simulator
for CMO Zeebrugge.
Project Team Simulator
off to a good start

MARIN’s Project Team Simulator (PTS) started in January this year and it focuses on the selling, developing and support of simulators. The group is currently active in a number of delivery and development projects.

Within PTS, a Real-time Manoeuvring Simulator can run either as a Full

Mission Simulator, like the combined dredging and fishing manoeuvring one for CMO Zeebrugge, or as a Special Simulator (DNV classification) such as the one owned by TESO. This simulator became operational last November on the island of Texel and many months in advance, all TESO captains and officers were trained to handle the new

Dr Wagemaker ferry that comes into service this summer!

On the development side, very interesting projects have been initiated regarding enhanced modelling of ship motions in multi-directional waves, improved interaction with other vessels (also bottom and banks), as well as a full-scale upgrade of the visual system to include the latest features from the gaming industry.

Early June, PTS sent out a mailing for a Compact Manoeuvring Simulator that can be installed in your own offices. The initial reactions are quite promising. We will keep you up-dated on the team’s progress.

For more information please contact Noël Bovens (N.L.A.Bovens@marin.nl).

New PIV system available at MARIN

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A new underwater, three-component Particle

Image Velocimetry system (3C-PIV or stereo-PIV)

is available now at MARIN for detailed flow

measurements. This system has been successfully used for the EU-project LEADING EDGE. The challenge within this project was to measure the flow near a rotating propeller in open-water condition. The experimental PIV tool yields unsteady and

averaged 3D flow field and this data can be used

to gain insight into the dynamics of unsteady

flows and of unsteady flows with immersed

bodies. PIV is also a powerful tool to validate CFD-tools and it is also possible to quickly measure the mean ship wake. This maritime PIV system has been developed through strong cooperation between the system operator, Sirehna of France and the manufacturer, DANTEC of Denmark. This system is available from any European maritime experimental research facility on a rental basis, with operational support provided from Sirehna. For further information please contact Jan Tukker (J.Tukker@marin.nl).

information please contact Jan Tukker (J.Tukker@marin.nl). Visualisation of averaged flow fields measured at 8 planes

Visualisation of averaged flow fields measured at 8 planes with 3C-PIV.

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New course schedule

Last spring, MARIN organised the very popular courses “Hydrodynamics of Floating Offshore Structures” and “Ship Hydrodynamics I”. For 2006 the course schedule

is as follows:

38304
38304

2005 Offshore participants in action.

“Hydrodynamics of Floating Offshore Structures” March 6-10, 2006 (5 days) This course will focus on floating offshore structures. Emphasis will be on hydro- dynamic and aerodynamic aspects relevant to optimi- sing the design of monohulls, semi-submersibles, mooring

layouts and DP systems. Attention will also be paid to the statistical determination of design values in general and in particular, as a function of the simulation or test duration. The operability analysis of ships and offshore structures will be explained. Case studies will be used to explore different approaches and techniques.

“Ship Hydrodynamics I” March 20-24, 2006 (5 days) Various hydrodynamic design aspects (resistance, propulsion, manoeuvring and seakeeping) will be presented in a balanced and integrated way. The physical background, as well as the techniques and tools available today will be dealt with. Case studies will be included to facilitate direct application of the acquired knowledge to selected practical problems. An advanced course (Ship Hydrodynamics II) will be organised in 2006. These two courses are intended for both existing professional staff

and for newcomers in the maritime industry. Participants should have

a university degree in naval architecture or ocean engineering, or equivalent education or experience. Fee: 1 3,250 per course (excl. hotel accommodation).

Interested? For registration and additional information please refer to www.marin.nl.

SNAME, Houston, October 19-21 Traditionally, MARIN is present at the 2005 SNAME Maritime Technology Conference & Expo and Ship Production Symposium and this year is no exception. Meet us at stand no. 426/428 to discuss the latest developments in maritime research.

to discuss the latest developments in maritime research. Europort Maritime, Rotterdam, November 1-5 Europort
to discuss the latest developments in maritime research. Europort Maritime, Rotterdam, November 1-5 Europort

Europort Maritime, Rotterdam, November 1-5 Europort Maritime, the international maritime and inland shipping exhibition in Rotterdam is a result of a merger between Europort and Rotterdam Maritime. Visit us at stand 1306A to discuss our latest technologies.

Visit us at stand 1306A to discuss our latest technologies. METS, Amsterdam, November 15-17 Together with

METS, Amsterdam, November 15-17 Together with NEDCAM (shaping technology) MARIN will present its latest technologies for the yacht industry. Meet us at stand 01.610.

for the yacht industry. Meet us at stand 01.610. Marintec, Shanghai, December 6-9 This year you

Marintec, Shanghai, December 6-9 This year you can also meet us in China at the All China Maritime Conference & Exhibition, Marintec 2005. Visit us at stand 2D65 for the latest maritime R&D.

Open day MARIN, October 22

With more then 4,000 visitors during the open day in 2003, MARIN will again open its doors to the public. The event takes place at our Wageningen headquarters on Saturday, October 22, from 10 am until 3 pm. For more information please refer to www.marin.nl.

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2, Haagsteeg P.O. Box 28 MARIN USA, Inc. 6700 AA Wageningen The Netherlands 2500 City
2, Haagsteeg
P.O. Box 28
MARIN USA, Inc.
6700 AA Wageningen
The Netherlands
2500 City West Blvd Suite 300
TX 77042, Houston
USA
Phone
+31 317 49 39 11
+31 317 49 32 45
Phone
Fax
Fax
+1 713 267 2234
+1 713 267 2267

E-mail info@marin.nl http://www.marin.nl

317 49 39 11 +31 317 49 32 45 Phone Fax Fax +1 713 267 2234
317 49 39 11 +31 317 49 32 45 Phone Fax Fax +1 713 267 2234