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Environmental Pollution News Environment Laws in India

Environmental Pollution
The environmental problems in India are growing rapidly. The increasing economic development and a rapidly growing population that
has taken the country from 300 million people in 1947 to over one billion people today is putting a strain on the environment,
infrastructure, and the country’s natural resources. Industrial pollution, soil erosion, deforestation, rapid industrialization, urbanization,
and land degradation are all worsening problems. Overexploitation of the country's resources be it land or water and the industrialization
process has resulted in considerable environmental degradation of resources.

The cost of environmental damage in India would shave 4 percent off of the country's gross domestic
product. Lost productivity from death and disease due to environmental pollution are the primary
The government agency responsible for environmental affairs is the Ministry of Environment and
Forests (MoEF). Coping with India’s industrial pollution is perhaps the agency’s top priority. MoEF
recognizes the need to strike a balance between development and protecting the environment in
administering and enforcing the country’s environmental laws and policies. The government heightened
the Ministry’s powers with the passage of the 1986 Environment Protection Act. This act built on the Industrial pollution
42nd amendment to India's constitution in 1976 that gave the government the right to step in and protect
public health, forests, and wildlife. This amendment however had little power as it contained a clause
that stated it was not enforceable by any court. India is the first country in the world to pass an
amendment to its constitution ostensibly protecting the environment.
Fog due to air pollution
Air Pollution
There are four reasons of air pollution are - emissions from vehicles, thermal power plants, industries
and refineries. The problem of indoor air pollution in rural areas and urban slums has assumed
significant attention lately.
India’s environmental problems are exacerbated by its heavy reliance on coal for power generation.
Coal supplies more than half of the country’s energy needs and is used for nearly three-quarters of
electricity generation. While India is fortunate to have abundant reserves of coal to power economic
development, the burning of this resource, especially given the high ash content of India’s coal, has
come at a cost in terms of heightened public risk and environmental degradation. Reliance on coal as Poison in the air due to Power
the major energy source has led to a nine-fold jump in carbon emissions over the past forty years. The plants. In India, air pollution is
government estimates the cost of environmental degradation has been running at 4.5% of GDP in estimated to cause, at the very
recent years. minimum, 1 lakh excess deaths and
The low energy efficiency of power plants that burn coal is a contributing factor. India's coal plants 25 million excesses illnesses every
are old and are not outfitted with the most modern pollution controls. Given the shortage of year.
generating capacity and scarcity of public funds, these old coal-fired plants will remain in operation
for sometime. Power plant modernization to improve the plant load factor, improvements in sub-
transmission and distribution to cut distribution losses, and new legislation to encourage end user
energy conservation were all mentioned as part of the energy efficiency effort. The government has
taken steps to address its environmental problems. As of now the use of washed coal is required for all
power plants.
Vehicle emissions are responsible for 70% of the country’s air pollution. The major problem with
government efforts to safeguard the environment has been enforcement at the local level, not with a
lack of laws. Air pollution from vehicle exhaust and industry is a worsening problem for India.
Exhaust from vehicles has increased eight-fold over levels of twenty years ago; industrial pollution Poison in the air due to
has risen four times over the same period. The economy has grown two and a half times over the past vehicle emissions
two decades but pollution control and civil services have not kept pace. Air quality is worst in the big
cities like Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, etc.
Bangalore holds the title of being the asthma capital of the country. Studies estimate that 10 per cent
of Bangalore’s 60 lakh population and over 50 per cent of its children below 18 years suffer from air
pollution-related ailments.
CHENNAI: Exhaust from vehicles, dust from construction debris, industrial waste, burning of
municipal and garden waste are all on the rise in the city. So are respiratory diseases, including
asthma. At least six of the 10 top causes of death are related to respiratory disease, says Dr D The brilliant white of the Taj Mahal
Ranganathan, director (in-charge), Institute of Thoracic Medicine. is slowly fading to a sickly
Mumbai: Not only are levels of Suspended Particulate Matter above permissible limits in Mumbai, yellow. In the famous “Tajmahal
but the worst pollutant after vehicular emissions has grown at an alarming rate. The levels of Case” a very strong step was taken
Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM), or dust, in Mumbai’s air have continued to increase by Supreme Court to save the Taj
over the past three years. Mahal Case being polluted by
fumes and more than 200 factories
were closed down.

The air pollution in Mumbai is so high that Mumbai authorities have purchased 42,000 litres of
perfume to spray on the city’s enormous waste dumps at Deonar and Mulund landfill sites after people
living near the landfill sites complained of the stench. The Deonar landfill site, one of India’s largest,
was first used by the British in 1927. Today, the festering pile covers more than 120 hectares and is
eight story's high.
These cities are on the World Health Organization's list of top most polluted cities. Vehicle exhaust,
Multi-storeyed residential buildings
untreated smoke, and untreated water all contribute to the problem. Continued economic growth,
stand behind an expanse of slums in
urbanization, and an increase in the number of vehicles, together with lax enforcement of
environmental laws, will result in further increases in pollution levels. Concern with New Delhi's air
quality got so bad that the Supreme Court recently stepped in and placed a limit on the number of new
car registrations in the capital.
The effects of air pollution are obvious: rice crop yields in southern India are falling as brown clouds
block out more and more sunlight. And the brilliant white of the famous Taj Mahal is slowly fading to
a sickly yellow. In the famous “Tajmahal Case” a very strong step was taken by Supreme Court to
save the Tajmahal Case being polluted by fumes and more than 200 factories were closed down. In
the case of Shatistar of 1990, AIR 1990 SC 630 (pp.8 to 13), Supreme Court declared in a clear tone
that a citizen has right for a decent environment in his living area. Mumbai authorities have purchased
42,000 litres of perfume recently to
spray on the city’s enormous waste
dumps at Deonar and Mulund
landfill sites

River water Pollution

Fully 80 percent of urban waste in India ends up in the country's rivers, and unchecked urban growth
across the country combined with poor government oversight means the problem is only getting worse. A
growing number of bodies of water in India are unfit for human use, and in the River Ganga, holy to the
country's 82 percent Hindu majority, is dying slowly due to unchecked pollution.
New Delhi's body of water is little more than a flowing garbage dump, with fully 57 percent of the city's
waste finding its way to the Yamuna. It is that three billion liters of waste are pumped into Delhi's Yamuna
(River Yamuna) each day. Only 55 percent of the 15 million Delhi residents are connected to the city's
sewage system. The remainder flush their bath water, waste water and just about everything else down
pipes and into drains, most of them empty into the Yamuna. According to the Centre for Science and
Agara city's waste finding its
Environment, between 75 and 80 percent of the river's pollution is the result of raw sewage. Combined with
way to the
industrial runoff, the garbage thrown into the river and it totals over 3 billion liters of waste per day. Nearly
River Yamuna
20 billion rupees, or almost US $500 million, has been spent on various clean up efforts.
The frothy brew is so glaring that it can be viewed on Google Earth.
Much of the river pollution problem in India comes from untreated sewage. Samples taken recently from
the Ganges River near Varanasi show that levels of fecal coliform, a dangerous bacterium that comes from
untreated sewage, were some 3,000 percent higher than what is considered safe for bathing.
Groundwater exploitation
Groundwater exploitation is a serious matter of concern today and legislations and policy measures taken
till date, by the state governments (water is a state subject) have not had the desired effect on the situation.
Plastic Pollution
Plastic bags, plastic thin sheets and plastic waste is also a major source of pollution.
Every year, around 500 billion (500,000,000,000) plastic bags are used worldwide. So many that over one
million bags are being used every minute and they're damaging our environment. India's plastics
consumption is one of the highest in the world. Yet, precious little has been done to recycle, re-use and
dispose of plastic waste. Plastic bags are difficult and costly to recycle and most end up on landfill sites
where they take around 300 years to photo degrade. They break down into tiny toxic particles that
contaminate the soil and waterways and enter the food chain when animals accidentally ingest them. But
the problems surrounding waste plastic bags starts long before they photo degrade.
Our planet is becoming increasingly contaminated by our unnecessary use of plastic carry bags. Big black bin liners, plastic carrier bags
carrying advertising logos, clear sandwich bags, vegetable bags and a variety of other forms used to carry our daily food items and other
items are all polluting our environment. Just take a look around you. Plastic bags can be seen hanging from the branches of trees, flying in
the air on windy days, settled amongst bushes and floating on rivers. They clog up gutters and drains causing water and sewage to
overflow and become the breeding grounds of germs and bacteria that cause diseases.

Animals and sea creatures are hurt and killed every day by discarded plastic bags - a dead turtle with a plastic
bag hanging from its mouth isn't a pleasant sight but mistaking plastic bags for food is commonplace amongst
marine animals. Plastic clogs their intestines and leads to slow starvation. Others become entangled in plastic
bags and drown. Because plastic bags take hundreds of years to break down, every year our seas become
'home' to more and more bags that find their way there through our sewers and waterways. Given India's poor
garbage collection facilities, tons of plastic bags litter the roads, preventing rainwater from seeping into the
ground. Hundreds of cows die in New Delhi alone every year when they choke on plastic bags while trying to
eat vegetable waste stuffed in the garbage.

Every bag that's washed down a drain during rainfall ends up in the sea every bag that's flushed down a toilet (many mall bags are), ends
up in the sea - every bag that’s blown into a river will most likely end up in the sea. Besides choking drains, plastics are highly toxics.
When burned they release cancer-causing gases. Lying in the garbage, polythene bags also find their way in gut of cattle, asphyxiating the
animals. The cheap bags contain chemicals such as cadmium- or lead- based chemicals that are harmful to health. They leach into
vegetables, meat and food.
An estimated 15 lakh computers and 30 lakh mobile phones are disposed of every year in India. “Computers, mobiles and other
electronic items generate hazardous e-waste like lead, brominated flame retardants and chromium which can cause cancer,” There is
another problem: India has more to deal with than just the waste generated at home. The Environment Protection Authority of Britain
recently said 23,000 tonnes of e-waste was dumped in India, China and Pakistan.
Several countries have already banned their use and more will doubtless follow. Several Indian states such as Maharastra, Dehli, Punjab,
Rajasthan, Himanchal Pradesh, Goa , West Bengal etc. banned their use. Mumbai's storm water drainage choking with accumulated
plastics waste, making the floods unmanageable, is an old story. The Environment Ministry has banned manufacture and use of plastics
carry bags less than 8 inches X 12 inches in size 20 micron in width. The ministry has also asked State Governments to register all plastics
manufacturing unit, so that these can be regulated. However, the implementation of the order has been tardy, evident from the large number
of polythene bags strewn in every major town and city.
The alternative to plastic bags are paper bags, jute bags and cloth bags. Paper, Jute and Cloth are eco-friendly. Jute bags are most suitable
substitute then paper and cloth, because it is cheaper then cloth and reusable. Though paper bags are cheaper then jute bags but less
durable. The Rajasthan Government, has put a ban to use plastic bags for food stuffs in Rajasthan.
A Mumbai resident who lived in the United States for many years says every grocery store there offers the option of paper or plastic
carrybags. Besides, “large bins are kept outside the stores to collect used plastic bags’’ . Closer home, Delhi’s Shyamala Mani, programme
director, waste and resource management, Centre for Environment Education (CEE), advises : “Malls are the best places to easily promote
paper, jute, even non-woven cloth bags and other materials which are biodegradable.’’
The main reason of plastic bag pollution is that the poly-bag comes free. Shop-keepers blindly hand out polythene carry-bags, even if
you buy just a tube of toothpaste or a pencil, little caring that the bag will be in the dustbin after some time. The shopkeepers should
include the cost of poly bags in the bill, along with other billed products. People will then finally take some steps to reduce the dependence
on polythene and try and reuse them or carry cloth bags. The Government will be able to generate extra revenue through polythene tax and
the environment will be less polluted with polythene.

An Example of Strict plastic ban in Assam:

Dibrugrah, March 06, 2008: Use of non-degradable plastic as the carry bags has been banned from time to time by the Dibrugrah (Assam)
district administration. But since not much was done to ensure people did not use polythene, the “ban” would invariably die a natural
death. This time, the Dibrugarh Municipal Board has decided to take things into its hands and do everything it takes to banish polythene
from the town.
As a first step, the civic body will deploy 20 homeguards to keep an eye on shopkeepers and businessmen who have not been heeding the
ban on the use of polythene carry bags. And the penalty is not on the shopkeepers alone. If the neighbourhood grocer packs the month’s
stock into a polythene bag and the customer only “innocently” carries it home, chances are both the customer and the grocer will be
“We have been forced to take such stringent steps, as it seems that a section of these unscrupulous businessmen have taken the appeals
issued by the municipal board as just a formality. We will impose heavy penalty on all those who are still using polythene carry bags,” said
Bitul Talukdar, the vice-chairman of the civic body.
Plastic, being non bio-degradable, is a major source of environmental pollution. Besides, they clog the drains causing artificial floods
during the monsoon season.
Innovation in Recycling Technology
Centre for Environment Education (CEE) has been awarded the ‘Plasticon 2005 Award' on 1st October 2005 in Mumbai by the PlastIndia
Foundation in the category of ‘Innovation in Recycling Technology' for its innovation of a ‘Polyloom' . The polyloom is a plastic weaving
handloom that helps reuse and recycling of discarded plastic bags (polybags).
The concept of ‘polyloom' has been popularized by CEE's Waste Management Initiative as part of its
mandate to address the reuse and recycling of dry waste from domestic garbage. Under this initiative, CEE has established an

‘Ecofriendly Reuse and Recycling Unit' (CEE-ERU) especially for recycling of paper scraps and plastic carry bags. In this unit, paper
scrap is recycled by the hand-made paper making method while polybags are reused through the polybags weaving method.
The plastic weaving concept is based on the fact that plastic bags which are thin and flimsy (be it 20µ or less) have an average life time of
2 to 3 hours after which they are discarded. They end up in gutters, dumpsites or on mountain sides and even in the stomachs of animals;
they are responsible for clogging, choking, flooding, asphyxiation, landslides, death and destruction. Instead, if they are collected, even
from roads, they can be washed, cleaned, dried, cut into strips and woven into the basic plastic textile fabric, which can then be stitched
into various products like mats, folders, hand bags and purses. In this manner, both the plastic and paper waste becomes more manageable
and less destructive.
The first CEE-ERU was first established in Coorg, Karnataka and subsequently, through various CEE offices, it has also been established
in Ahmedabad, Coimbatore , Delhi , Goa , Patna and Tirupathi. Today, the concept has been taken up by many women's self-help groups
who gather raw material either by door to door collection or by buying it from rag pickers. This provides them livelihood while taking the
plastic carry bags away from the environment.

Municipal solid waste

India’s urban population slated to increase from the current 330 million to about 600 million by 2030, the challenge of managing
municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally and economically sustainable manner is bound to assume gigantic proportions. The
country has over 5,000 cities and towns, which generate about 40 million tonnes of MSW per year today. Going by estimates of The
Energy Research Institute (TERI), this could well touch 260 million tonnes per year by 2047.
Municipal solid waste is solid waste generated by households, commercial establishments and offices and does not include the industrial
or agricultural waste. Municipal solid waste management is more of an administrative and institutional mechanism failure problem rather
than a technological one. Until now, MSW management has been considered to be almost the sole responsibility of urban governments,
without the participation of citizens and other stakeholders. The Centre and the Supreme Court, however, have urged that this issue be
addressed with multiple stakeholder participation. Cities in India spend approximately 20% of the city budget on solid waste services.
Pollution due to Mining
New Delhi-based Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) on December 29, 2007 said mining was causing displacement, pollution,
forest degradation and social unrest. The CSE released its 356-page sixth State of India’s Environment report, ‘Rich Lands Poor People, is
sustainable mining possible?’ According to the Centre for Science and Environment ( CSE) report the top 50 mineral producing districts,
as many as 34 fall under the 150 most backward districts identified in the country.
The CSE report has made extensive analysis of environment degradation and pollution due to mining, wherein it has said, in 2005-06
alone 1.6 billion tonnes of waste and overburden from coal, iron ore, limestone and bauxite have added to environment pollution. With the
annual growth of mining at 10.7 per cent and 500-odd mines awaiting approval of the Centre, the pollution would increase manifold in the
coming years.
In Orissa state, in the next five to 10 years, Jharsuguda will be home to production of 3.1 million tonne aluminum. This, however, will
generate 3,100 tonne of fluoride every year. Similarly, the State is gearing up for power projects - mostly coal-based - targeting 20,000
mega watt energy. This will require 3.2 lakh tonne of coal daily which in turn can lead to generation of 1,200 tonne ash a day.
Besides, there is emission of sulphur dioxide. The emissions at Jharsuguda alone will be higher than that of all refineries in India put
together. Jharsuguda will also see 12 million tonne steel annually being produced when the projects go on stream. This will mean
generation of 20 million tonne of solid waste every year.
In Jharkhand there are abundant coalmines, most of the coalmines are situated in Hazaribag, Chatra, Palamau, Rajmahal, Dhanbad and
Ranchi district. Mighty Damodar River and its tributaries flow through these coalmines. Due to extensive coal mining and vigorous growth
of industries in this area water resources have been badly contaminated. The habitants have, however, been compromising by taking
contaminated and sometimes polluted water, as there is no alternative source of safe drinking water. Thus, a sizeable populace suffers from
water borne diseases. Besides mining, coal based industries like coal washeries, coke oven plants, coal fired thermal power plants, steel
plants and other related industries in the region also greatly impart towards degradation of the environmental equality and the human
Delhi's air is choking with pollutant PM 2.5
PM 2.5 is only 2.5 microns in diameter is very very small particle. The diameter of a human hair strand is around 40-120. Being so small,
it escapes emission apparatus prescribed by Euro II and III. Any kind of combustion, especially of vehicular origin, contains this particle.
If PM 2.5 is not regulated it will ensure major health hazards. The number of Asthma patients will rise and in future there may huge rise of
lung cancer cases also. The toxic value of PM 2.5 is such that metals like lead present in the PM 2.5 get inhaled deeper into lungs which
deposits there. The children are most affected by depositing lead due to inhaling the poisonous air. The increasing amount of PM 2.5 is
like a poison in the air we breathe. Researchers believe particulates, or tiny particles of soot, interfere with the respiratory system because
they are so small they can be breathed deeply into the lungs.
Toxic smog is set to engulf New Delhi once again this winter after a six-year respite because of the huge number of new cars clogging the
roads. New Delhi adds nearly 1,000 new cars a day to the existing four million registered in the city, almost twice as many as before 2000.
Pollution levels are up to 350 micrograms per cubic metre in 2006-2007 and the levels of nitrogen oxides have been increasing in the city
to dangerous levels, which is a clear sign of pollution from vehicles. Of these it is the diesel cars that are responsible for the pollution.
Diesel- run vehicles constituted just two percent of the total number of cars on Delhi's roads seven years ago compared to more than 30
percent today and a projected 50 percent by 2010.Diesel is being increasingly used because it is a cheaper fuel. Diesel emissions can
trigger asthma and in the long run even cause lung cancer.
A survey by the Central Pollution Control Board and the All India Institute of Medical Sciences survey showed that a majority of people
living in Delhi suffered from eye irritation, cough, sore throat, shortness of breath and poor lung functioning. One in 10 people have
asthma in Delhi. Worse, the winter months bring respiratory attacks and wheezing to many non-asthmatics who are old, who smoke, have
respiratory infections or chronic bronchitis. Across the national capital and its suburbs, polluted air is killing people, bringing down the
quality of life, and leaving people feeling ill and tired.
Some studies show children are among the worst-affected by the dense haze that often shrouds the city, and doctors frequently tell parents
to keep their children indoors when smog levels are particularly high. In a survey of almost 12,000 city schoolchildren late last year, 17
percent reported coughing, wheezing or breathlessness, compared to just eight percent of children in a rural area.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
India emits the fifth most carbon of any country in the world. At 253 million metric tons, only the U.S., China, Russia, and Japan
surpassed its level of carbon emissions in 1998. Carbon emissions have grown nine-fold over the past forty years. In this Industrial Age,
with the ever-expanding consumption of hydrocarbon fuels and the resultant increase in carbon dioxide emissions, that greenhouse gas
concentrations have reached levels causing climate change. Going forward, carbon emissions are forecast to grow 3.2% per annum until
2020. To put this in perspective, carbon emissions levels are estimated to increase by 3.9% for China and by 1.3% for the United States.
India is a non-Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and as such, is not required to reduce
its carbon emissions. An historical summary of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel use in India is increasing rapidly and
causes global warming.
All inhabitants of our planet have an equal right to the atmosphere, but the industrialized countries have greatly exceeded their fair, per-
capita share of the planet’s atmospheric resources and have induced climate change. The most developed countries possess the capital,
technological and human resources required for successful adaptation, while in the developing countries, a large proportion of the
population is engaged in traditional farming, that is particularly vulnerable to the changes in temperature, rainfall and extreme weather
events associated with climate change.
According to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol , the most industrialized countries are mainly
responsible for causing climate change. Thus equity requires that they should sharply reduce their emissions in order to arrest further
climate change and allow other countries access to their fair share of atmospheric resources in order to develop.
Pollution of Indian Seas
The first sophisticated Pollution Control Vessel to patrol the seas for oil spills and other environmental exigencies is likely to be ready by
October, 2008, Vice Admiral Rusi Contractor, Director-General, Indian
Coast Guard, said in the 11th National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan (NOSDCP) preparedness meeting on April 23, 2008. Mr.
Contractor said the proposed induction of at least three specialised vessels by mid- 2009 would shorten the response time to an emergency.
The Coast Guard chief highlighted the importance of enforcement of maritime laws. He said 90 per cent of trade was essentially sea-borne
and substantial numbers of vessels were old and un-seaworthy or single-hull vessels and raised the risk of significant pollution of Indian
He said pollution remedy measures were being thought of following the various international conventions on environmental pollution that
would also include exhaust and greenhouse gas emissions from ships and energy efficiency certification. He pointed out that none of 10
accidents involving vessels during 2007 in Indian waters had resulted in an oil spill.
NASA research findings
Latest research findings by NASA and Stanford University indicate that aerosol pollution will slow down winds, impacting normal
rainfall pattern in tropical countries. The unique combination of meteorology, landscape (relatively flat plains framed by the Himalayas to
the north and open ocean to the south), and the large population maximize the effects of aerosol pollution in India. The skies over North
India are seasonally filled with a thick soup of aerosol particles all along the southern edge of the Himalayas, streaming southward over
Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal. Most of this air pollution comes from human activities.
Accumulation of aerosol particles in the atmosphere also makes clouds last longer without releasing rain. This is because atmospheric
water forms deposits on naturally occurring particles, like dust, to form clouds. But if there is pollution in the atmosphere, the water has to
deposit on more particles. Thus it causes lesser rain.
Environmental Pollution and chronic diseases
In an Indo-US joint workshop, on September 05, 2008 at Chandigarh, Prof S K Jindal said it has been
globally recognised that environmental factors, have important links with infectious as well as non-infectious diseases of both acute and
chronic nature. “The WHO estimates that 24 per cent of global disease burden and 23 per cent of all deaths can be attributed to
environmental factors. The burden is more on the developing than the developed countries.” He said: “In developing countries, an
estimated 42 per cent of acute lower
respiratory infections are caused by environmental factors.”
The major burden of these hazards is borne by the lungs. Bronchial asthma and other allergies; chronic obstructive lung disease,
respiratory infections including tuberculosis and occupational lung diseases are some of the common problems with a strong
environmental risk which, account for a large disease burden all over the world, including in India. “There is a need for extensive studies to
gauge the effects of environmental
factors on the human health.”
According to New England Journal of Medicine, 2007, even a short exposure to traffic fumes can increase your chances of heart disease,
including heart attack. People who exercise in areas where there is heavy traffic may be especially at risk, researchers say.
The most polluted places in India
Vapi in Gujarat and Sukinda in Orrisa is among the world's top 10 most polluted places, according to
the Blacksmith Institute, a New York-based nonprofit group.
Vapi : Potentially affected people: 71,000 -Pollutants: Chemicals and heavy metals due to its Industrial
Sukinda: Potentially affected people: 2,600,000. -Pollutants: Hexavalent chromium due to its ETP dicharge at Vapi
Chromite mines.
The most polluted cities in India
As many as 51 Indian cities have extremely high air pollution, Lucknow, Raipur, Faridabad and
Ahmedabad topping the list. An environment and forest ministry report, released on September 14, 2007
has identified 51 cities that do not meet the prescribed Respirable Particulate Matter (RSPM) levels,
specified under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). In 2005, an Environmental
Sustainability Index (ESI) placed India at 101st position among 146 countries.
Taking a cue from the finding, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) formulated NAAQS and
checked the air quality, which led to the revelation about air quality in leading cities.
According to the report, Gobindgarh in Punjab is the most polluted city, and Ludhiana, Raipur and
Lucknow hold the next three positions. Faridabad on the outskirt of Delhi is the 10th most polluted city,
followed by Agra, the city of Taj Mahal. Ahmedabad is placed 12th, Indore 16th, Delhi 22nd, Kolkata
25th, Mumbai 40th, Hyderabad 44th and Bangalore stands at 46th in the list. The Orissa town of Angul, Worst 5 Indian power companies
home to National Aluminium Company (NALCO), is the 50th polluted city of the country. in terms of total emission of CO2
Emissions of gaseous pollutants: satellite data -NTPC LTD.
Scientists and researchers from around the world gathered at ESRIN, ESA’s Earth Observation Centre -Maharastra State Power Gen Co.
in Frascati, Italy, recently to discuss the contribution of satellite data in monitoring nitrogen dioxide in - Gujrat Urja Vikas Nigam
the atmosphere. Using nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data acquired from 1996 to 2006 by the Global Ozone - Uttar Pradesh Rajya Vidyut
Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument aboard ESA’s ERS-2 satellite, Nitrous oxide emissions - Andhra Pradesh Power Gen
over India is growing at an annual rate of 5.5 percent/year. The location of emission hot spots correlates Corp.
well with the location of mega thermal power plants, mega cities, urban and industrial regions.
Emissions of gaseous pollutants have increased in India over the past two decades. According to Dr
Sachin Ghude of the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), rapid industrialization,
urbanization and traffic growth are most likely responsible for the increase. Because of varying
consumption patterns and growth rates, the distribution of emissions vary widely across India.
Is nuclear energy a solution of global warming?
India a country of 1.1 billion people currently gets only a fraction of its electricity from nuclear power. Nuclear power plants in India
Now the US atomic trade pact with India and an atomic energy
pact with France, India can fight global warming with clean nuclear energy. Nuclear energy has been
recognized as a clean as CO2 to the atmosphere after its reaction that could damage our environment. It's
also known that nuclear energy has reduced the amount of greenhouse gas emission, reducing emissions
of CO2 for about 500 million metric tons of carbon.
Despite the advantage of nuclear as a clean energy, the big concern is the waste resulted from nuclear
reaction, which is a form of pollution, called radioactivity. Nuclear waste is also a problem with nuclear
power, in that spent nuclear fuel has no safe place to be stored right now. Perhaps the greatest problem
with nuclear power is the price to taxpayers. Each new nuclear plant built in the United States will cost
at least one billion dollars in federal subsidies.
Reduce pollutions: suggestions
Reduce tax on incomes and institute a tax on pollution was a suggestion environmental crusader Al
Gore had for India to tackle the issue of global warming effectively. "Reduce tax on employees and
employers and put a tax on pollution. Tulsi (Holy Basil) chosen for its
The more carbon dioxide one emits the more he pays in taxes," said Gore in an interactive session at the anti- pollutant anti-oxidation and
India Today Conclave here on March 16, 2008. Replying to a question by Minister of State for External air-purifying properties making it
Affairs Anand Sharma, Gore also suggested subsidising clean energy generation instead of carbon fuels an ideal ornamental shrub in the
like kerosene. vicinity of the Taj Mahal.
AGRA, December 12, 2008: Now Tulsi an ayurveda wisdom to help Taj Majal retain its pristine
allure. The forest department has come up with a quick-fix project -- plant a Tulsi drive in Agra. The
recommended complexion care regimen, officers claim, has full backing from ancient texts which hold
Tulsi to be the panacea for all problems from cosmic to cosmetic. The department is all set to launch the
Tulsi plantation drive from January 2009. The public-private joint venture is expected to provide an eco-
protection cover to sensitive Taj trapezium zone surrounding the 17th century monument as well as the
other two world heritage monuments -- Agra Fort and Aitma-ud-Daula tomb. Tulsi (Occinum sanctum)
chosen for its anti-pollutant anti-oxidation and air-purifying properties making it an ideal ornamental
shrub in the vicinity of the Taj Mahal.
By the initiatives of the Delhi Metro and the Delhi Bicycling Club, which encourage people to use
bicycles for short distances, pedaling a cycle is increasingly and becoming routine for people. On
bicycle, one can change destination without hassles and it’s cheap.Taking to pedal, Delhiites choose an Choose an eco- friendly bicycle
eco-friendly saddle. for short distance.