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Designing Dredging Equipment OE4671/WB3408

Prof.ir. W.J.Vlasblm

12 September 2006

Section Dredging engineering

Purpose of the lecture


To design a particular type of dredger on basis of (simple) dredging processes. Such a method can be used for many design problems!

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Course development
Introduction lecture in the 5th quarter Assignment for one or two persons can be done the whole year around. Total 4 credits (ECT)

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Assignments for hydraulic dredgers


Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger (TSHD) for large reclamation works Multi Purpose TSHD for maintenance and beach nourishments Gravel Trailing Suction Hopper Dredgers Cutter Suction Dredger Environmental Dredger Plain Suction Dredger Dustpan Dredger
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Assignments for mechanical dredgers


The backhoe dredger The grab dredger Bucket ladder dredger

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Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger

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Cutter Dredger

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Plain Suction Dredger

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Plain Suction Dredger

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Dustpan Dredger

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The Environmental Dredger

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The Backhoe Dredger

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The Grab or Clamshell Dredger

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Bucket Ladder Dredger

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Work Load
The assignment for the TSHD, CSD are for 2 students The other ones are for 1 student

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Designing Dredging Equipment


Productions Dredging installation Propulsion (optional)

Prime movers (main engines) General layout


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Design productions
Yearly production Soil type Working hours Delays Effficeincy Excavating production Losses Transport production Deposing Losses Situ production
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Design basis = yearly output in m3 (production)


To be translated to the significant design parameters. Depends on the scale (or cycle) of the process. Large scales Hopper dredger volume and load per trip Barge unloader dredger Barge volume Backhoe dredger the volume per cycle Continuous operating dredgers or equipment m3/week or m3/month
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Design Basis (2)


Small scale: Wall speed of a breach Pump Cutter head Bucket ladder dredger Backhoe dredger Grab dredger
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mm/s output in m3/s Excavated output in m3/s Buckets/min Bucket volume/cycle Grab volume/cycle
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Problems during translation


Change of volumes In many cases the contractor is paid in volumes removed, but many processes are based on mass. Working hours per week (168 or 84 or 40) Down time Overhaul & Maintenance Bunkering, crew changes, etc Delays due to weather conditions
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Concentration (1/3)
By volume

Us Volume sand = Cv = Mixture volume U m

By weight

sU s s Sand mass = = Cw = Cv Mixture mass mU m m


U s / time Qs Cvd = = U m / time Qm
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Delivered

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Concentrations (2/3)
Ratio between Cvd & Cv follows from:

Qs vs ACv Cvd vs Cvd = = = Qm vm A Cv vm


Ratio between Cw & Cv

s Cw s = Cw = Cv Cv m m

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Concentrations (2/3)

Cvd vs = Cv vm
In horizontal transport vs < vm slip In vertical transport vs vm the difference is the settling velocity

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Mixture Densities

Volumetric Concentration

Massmixture=massliquid+masssolids

Us mU m = f U f + sU s with Cv = Um

m = f (1 Cv ) + s Cv m f Cv = s f
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" Note U is volume"


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Volume changes
When removing soil the insitu density will change; mostly from a dense to a loose state Increase in porosity; f.I. From 40 to 50% Porosity n is ratio pore volume over total volume Condition: V1(1-n1)=V2(1-n2) Examples: Sand; n1=0.4 and n2=.5 gives V2/ V1=0.6/0.5=1.2 Rock; n1=0 and n2=.4 gives V2/ V1=1/0.6=1.7
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Losses
Every dredging process can have losses, called spillage More excavated than picked up by the flow or bucket Non removed loads in TSHDs, particular when the loads is pumped ashore or rainbowed. Unstable slopes after dredging (plain suction dredgers) In accurate placing of material Losses due to current and waves

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Excavating production

Mechanically

Hydraulically

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Mechanical excavation Specific Energy Concept (SPE)


Energy required to excavated 1m3 of soil
Dimension is Joule/m3 or per unit of time J/s/m3/s=W/m3/s, That equals a power over production

power SPE = power = SPE production production


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Mechanical Excavating

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Mechanical Excavating

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Mechanical Excavating

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Hydraulic excavation Momentum of flow


A reasonable assumption is that the jet- production is linear with the total momentum flux of the jet system independent of the trail speed.

Qsand = (1 n ) Qdredged M sand = Qsand sand = (1 n ) Qdredged sand

M sand = I = w Qu = w Q
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2p

= 2 w

Ppower p pressure
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Excavation by dragheads is hydraulically

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Water injection dredger

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Transport production

Mechanically ship/barge conveyor

Hydraulically pipeline

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Mechanical transport
Trailing suction hopper dredger Barges Be aware of the effective load, because the unloading is not always 100%

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Transport by barges

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By Trailing Suction Hopper Dredgers

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Pressure [kPa]

Hydraulic transport Pump-pipeline system


mixture 3 water 4 mixture 1 2

water

Flow [m3/s]
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Hydraulic transport

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Methods of deposing (1/2)

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Methods of deposing (2/2)

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disposing

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Rainbowing

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Mechanical Assistance

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Design examples

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TSHD

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Example 1
Design a Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger that can dredge yearly 5 Mm3 coarse sand & gravel at 75 nautical miles from a port. The dredger works 5 days at 24 hours Bunkers will be taken in the weekend Overhaul 2 weeks Weather delays 3 weeks Workability 95% Christmas 1 week
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Designing TSHD
Main dimensions

Dredging installation Propulsion

General layout
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Main dimensions
Yearly production Soil type Overflow losses Hopper capacity and Payload Dead weight Displacement Bock coefficient Main dimensions ship LxBxT
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Working hours Delays Effficeincy

Cycle time
First estimate of dredge cycle: Sailing to the dredging area: 75/15=3.0 hr Loading =1.5 Sailing to the unloading area: =3.0 Unloading =1.5 Total =9.0 hr

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Required load/trip
Available hours: (52-6)x5x24=5520 Effective hours: 0.95x 5520=5244 Number of trips per year: 5244/9= 582 Required volume per trip: 5,000,000/582=8591 m3 In coarse sand & gravel max.filling hopper is 90% Required hopper volume: 8591/.9=9546 10000 m3 Density of sand & gravel in hopper 2000 kg/m3 PayLoad is: 8600x2=17200 ton Hopper density: load/volume=1.72 t/m3.
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Deadweight & lightweight


Crew and their possessions, consumer goods, spare parts, and ballast water and payload. Deadweight=1.05 x payload
Light weight as function of deadweight
25,000 Light weight [t] 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 Deadweight [t[
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y = -3E-06x 2 + 0.5586x R2 = 0.9607

60,000 70,000

Displacement
70,000 60,000 50,000 Weight [t] 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 Displacement [t]
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y = 0.6827x R2 = 0.9929 G Light weight Dead weight y = 0.3173x R2 = 0.9622

Block coefficient

T L B

Cb = LBT
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Ship Numbers
Ships Numbers
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1965

L/B, B/H, B/T

L/B B/H B/T

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

Year of Construction

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Dredging installation Cvd


Required pump capacity

Overflow losses

No Main Dimensions

Overflow losses equal as assumed?

Yes Pumps and pipelines


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Pump capacities
10000 m3 in 90 min=1.85 m3/s including pores or 1.85x0.6=1.11 m3/s excluding pores Assume Cvd=0.2 capacity Q=1.11/0.25=5.55 m3/s or per suction tube 2.8 m3/s Critical velocity for course sand is 5 m/s, so pipe diameter is 0.85 m 0.85 m In coarse sand and gravel there are no overflow losses to account for.
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Excavation process

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Calculated the required jet pressure


Sand mass follows from production

Qsand = (1 n ) Qdredged M sand = Qsand sand = (1 n ) Qdredged sand


Momentum follows from: M sand = I With =0.1

I = w Q jet u = w Q
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2p

= 2w

Ppower p pressure
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Relation between Qmix, Qjet and Qerosion


1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Qjet / Qmixture Cvd/(1-n)=0 Cvd/(1-n)=0.2 Cvd/(1-n)=0.4 Cvd/(1-n)=0.6 Cvd/(1-n)=0.8

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Pumps and pipelines

Determine jet capacity and pressure

Submerged pump required? No Yes Depth of submerged pump Determine headlosses and power(s) Choose pump(s)
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Submerged pump required?


k H water mixture hs

Non cohesive material

1 1 2 water gH + Vac = mixture ghz + mixture v = mixture g( H k ) + mixture v 2 2 2


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Hydraulic transport
From seabed into the hopper From hopper to the shore Mostly empirical relations (Matousek)

For gravel dredgers this is mostly be mechanically

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Pump characteristics

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Propulsion
For dredging & sailing

Bow trust power

Total Installed

Power balance

General layout
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Propulsion power

25000 y = 0.4641x - 510.11 20000 Pp [kW] 15000 10000 5000 0 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 Displacement [t] R = 0.8741
2

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Bow trust power


Bow trust power
3,500 Bow trust power [k 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 Propuls ion power during trailing [kW] y = 0.1758x - 19.495 R2 = 0.8036

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General Arrangement

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General Arrangement of gravel dredger

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Simple general arrangment


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N

Tship = 13,2

H
ho pp er

Hs
hip

= 1 3 Bh
op per

See figure B7.1

= 1 4, 7

Bs
hip

= 2 5 m

= 3 3

Lhopper = 62 m Lship= 165 m


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The Cutter Suction Dredger

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Example 2
Design a cutter dredger that can dredge dredge yearly 5 Mm3 rock with a unconfined compressive strength of 5 MPa. The tensile strength is 1 Mpa The dredgers have to work 168 hrs a week. Yearly overhaul 4 weeks Christmas leave 1 week General delays 10% Dredging delays 20 SPE~qu
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Required cut production


Available hours (52-5)x168=7896 Non dredging hours:0.3x7896=2369 Dredging hours 7896-2369=5527 Estimated spillage 25% Required hourly output: 1.25x5000000/5527=1130 m3. Qdredged=1130/3600=0.314 m3/s Time losses due to stepping, spud changes 15% Qcut=0.31/0.85=0.37 m3/s SPE=5MJ/m3. Required mean cutter power 0.37x5=1.85 MW
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Cutter head productions c.q. Spillage


The rotational speed of the cutter head causes spillage. The productivity c.q. spillage depends on the ratio: For sand the productivity is:
Pr 2.5 Q pump
3 Rcutter

For rock the productivity is much lower


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Cutter head productions c.q. Spillage


RELATIVE PRODUCTION
Gravel 10 mm 80 70 60
Pr [%]

Gravel 15 mm

Ladder 25 deg.

Sand

50 40 30 20 10 0 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80

Flow number [-]


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Cutter head production process in rock or gravel

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Cutter head dimensions for rock with 25 % spillage


Vm=2.67 m/s 120
Cutter head speed [rpm]

Vm=3.5 m/s

Vm=5 m/s 12 Capacities 10 8 6 4 2 0


Pump capacity [m3/s]

cutter head speeds

100 80 60 40 20 0 0.0 0.5 1.0

1.5 2.0 2.5 Cutter diameter [m]

3.0

3.5

4.0

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Pump capacity and concentrations


Qdredged=0.314 m3/s Qmixture=3.5 m3/s

Qdredged (1 n ) Qsand Cvd = = Qmixture Qmixture

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Pumping distances and installed pump power


Knowledge of hydraulic losses can be found in the lecture notes of Matousek c.q. Talmon Knowledge of dredge pump can be found on our website and is downloadable.

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Lightweight of pontoon
10,000 Light weight [t] 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 Total installed power [kW]
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y = 0.3485x R = 0.925
2

Pontoon dimensions (1/2)

L/B 12.00 10.00 L/B & B/T 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 0 1000 2000 3000 4000

B/T

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

Light weight [t]

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Pontoon dimensions (2/2)

10,000 9,000 8,000 Light weight [t] 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 y = 0.4664x R 2 = 0.9597

BLD [m 3]

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Simple Plan

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Backhoe dredger

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Example 3
A backhoe dredger have to dredge 500 m3/in fine sand with a SPE of .7MJ/m3. Calculated the Bucket size and cylinder forces

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Fill Degree & Bulk factor

Soil type Soft clay Hard clay Sand & Gravel Rock; well blasted Rock, unblasted

Filling degree 1.5 1.1 1 0.7 0.5

Bulking factor 1.1 1.3 1.05 1.5 1.7

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Dredge Cycle
Cycle times of the bucket depends on the dredging depth and soil type, but are in the order between 20 and 40 seconds. The cycle consists of: Digging Lifting and swinging Dumping Swinging and lowering Positioning.
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Crane weight versus bucket size for soft soil


30 25 Bucket size [m3] 20 15 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Crane weight [ton] bucket2 y = -7E-06x + 0.0494x + 1.5486 R = 0.9778
2 2

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Required power
Liebherr Excavators
2500 2000 Power [kW] 1500 1000 500 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Crane weight [tons] y = 4.4679x R2 = 0.9936

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Relation for existing dredgers

1200.00 1000.00 Installed power [kW] 800.00 600.00 400.00 200.00 0.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 Bucket size [m3] 15.00 20.00
Rock buckets

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Light weight pontoon


1800 1600 1400 Light weight [t] 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 250 500 750 1,000 1,250 Total installed power [kW]

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Pontoon volume

1800 1600 1400 Light weight [t] 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 LBD [m3] 2000 2500 3000 y = 0.4713x R = 0.6122
2

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Ships numbers for BHD


L/B 9.00 8.00 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Light weight [t] B/T

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L/B & B/t

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Simple Plan

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Newer ideas can be discussed

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The shallow draught TSHD

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