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Aida Islam

The Teke as an educational and socio-cultural core

Music is like food for the soul for those who love God, within it flows hope to come together with the beloved one an excerpt from Mesnevi by Mevlana Jelaleddin Rumi Although secular music (especially instrumental) plays a lesser role in Islamic convention, in the course of several centuries, it managed to develop, spread and become deeply rooted in all segments of Ottoman society. In fact, apart from the mosques, tekes were institutions crucial to the overcoming of doubts in terms of convention. Thus, in many ways, they made a significant contribution to Ottoman music life. These facts triggered us to focus our interest on researching these religious institutions and their role in society during Ottoman rule, and even nowadays. Therefore, we shall first briefly present the history of formation of these religious institutions, at the same time presenting their significance and function during Ottoman rule. Bearing in mind that the Ottomans formed these institutions on the lands they conquered, some of them still exist and are still active in our country. Even though from the large number of tekes built in Macedonia (around 77), only several remain, we shall present their role during Ottoman rule, as well as in modern times. Naturally, this research will stress the music aspects, music forms and music instruments employed during the rituals of the dervish orders, which are in fact a representation of the Ottoman cultural and spiritual inheritance.

1. The history of formation of the dervish orders The roots of spiritual music originate from the time Islam was received. Namely, the prophet Mohammed initiated the fine shaping of the voice during the reading of the sacred book - the Koran. Thus, music began to be used in religious rituals taking place at religious institutions (mosques and tekes), religious meetings, prayers, commemorations, etc. (zcan, N.: 724/3). Although the prophet Mohammed prohibited extremity and excess during prayers, the Islamic mysticism historians found mystics among Mohammeds men. At that time, the distinction between the religious Moslems and the members of the dervish orders - sufi was minor, except the latter attributing special meaning to some verses from the Koran. They thus stressed the dervish ritual called zikr, ascribing it equal importance as the prayer (Nicholson, R.A., 1914:5). According to sufist theoreticians, sufism or dervish mysticism incorporates a separate educational methodology, whose aim is to come closer and come together with the Absolute. Therefore, sufism is a separate movement and separate system of thought (Anawati-Gardet: 14; Trimingham, S., 1971:1). The emergence of Islam saw the creation of many dervish orders (tarikat, Arabic = way, method), whose existence was marked by their social, educational, cultural and artistic activities. Nowadays, Islamic civilisation counts a large number of dervish sects, considered as branches of the basic 12 dervish orders. The dervish orders, which carry the names of their founders, are the following: Rifai (Ahmet Rifai 12 century in Iraq), Kadiri (Abdulkadir Geilani - 12 century in Iraq), Jesevi (Ahmed Jesevi - 12 century in Bukhara), Shazeli (Ebul H. Shazeli -12 century in Africa), Mevlevi (Mevlana Jeladeddin Rumi - 13 century in Anatolia), Bektashi (Bektashi Veli - 13 century in Iran), Nakshibendi (Mehmed B. Nakshibend - 14 century in Bukhara), Halveti (Omer Halveti - 14 century in Iran - Afghanistan), Sadi (Sadeddin Muhammed - 14 century in Sheiban), Sinani, Gjulsheni (Ibrahim Gjulsheni - 16 century in Egypt) and Melami (Omer Sikkini - 18 century). Apart from being religious institutions, tekes played an important role in terms of the social needs of the population (Hasluck, F.W.1928:85), proven by the fact that once a day they served a free meal. They were institutions that promoted spiritual growth and culturaleducational processes (Oy, a. 1980:18), so that every dervish order promotes a specific cultural trait. The dervish orders such as Rifai, Sadi and Bektashi promote a militant spirit, the Mevelvi a literate and poetic spirit, the Halveti a lonesome, quiet spirit, etc.

2. The significance of the tekes in the development of music life during the Ottoman Empire With the conquering of new lands, the Ottomans formed religious institutions - mosques and tekes. The basic idea was to attract a large part of the population, regardless of ethnic or religious background (Hasluck, F.W. 1928:85). As previously mentioned, the orthodox Islamic tradition doubts the legitimacy of music; however, the Ottoman religious practice has contributed to music greatly by creating a classical religious repertoire. The teke had a fundamental music role in the cultural life of Ottoman society. Almost all tekes employed music in their rituals. Moreover, every teke represented different aspects of sufian theosophy (Mevlevi, Bektashi, Kadiri, etc.), and developed its own music practice and style. During Ottoman times, especially in the dervish orders of Mevlevi, Kadiri, Rifai and Bektashi, the tekes gathered many famous musicians. In fact, a large number of the eminent musicians recognised as authors of music theory, texts or composers were members of these religious institutions (Ergun, S.N. 1942:8). Spiritual, and especially secular music performed in these institutions formed the basis for Ottoman music. Not only were the most renowned musicians invited to the court, but also the Sultans frequented these institutions, greatly honouring the teachers that taught them the art of music (Demirer, M). The fact that members of other ethnic and religious communities regularly visited the tekes is of specific importance. They came to listen to music, to examine, or to enrich their knowledge. Even though most dervish orders employed music above all for practical purposes, some of the orders show an interest in music that exceeds the liturgical needs. The teke showing most interest in music is Mevlevi. According to some musicologists, although the court was the official music institution, the teke (especially with the dervish order Mevlevi), might be named a city association for the diffusion of music knowledge, for the transfer of music experience from one generation to another (Aksoy, B.:2). As a result, some sources point out that these spiritual institutions were called conservatories which functioned simultaneously with the official court educational institutions (zkan, I.H.1987:82). Owing to this, music became an integral part of Turkish national culture. According to the statements of the nej virtuoso Niyazi Sayin, true movement in the art of music began with religious (mystical) music (Jahjai, A. 2001: 55). In the initial periods of the formation of the tekes, liturgies were performed by singing. Later, instruments were incorporated, such as nej (wind),

kudum, def and cymbals (percussion), and sometimes tambur, ud, rebab, kanun (string) or kaval, which marked the formation of this kind of music genre (Kara, M. 1977: 37). Music in these institutions was based on oral tradition, which explains the limited documented sources on this music tradition. Thus, explaining this music genre requires analysis of the liturgical ceremonies. 2.1. Music forms and music instruments in the rituals Each of the dervish orders has its separate rituals. The ritual, which incorporates literature and music usually, begins with the so-called Evrad. It is a literary-music form performed collectively, often composed by professional musicians. Further on, apart from excerpts from the Koran and some prayers, several music forms are performed, such as ilahi, kaside, nat, mersije, durak, shugul, nefes, etc. (zcan, N.: 725/4). As opposed to the collective performance of the ritual, or parts of it, music forms are usually performed by an appointed individual known as zikirbashi. The choice of text and the makam of the music form depended on him. Hence, this function was performed by professional musician-composers due to their vast knowledge of spiritual songs. The collaboration between the different dervish circles was also present in the field of music. Namely, the composers of one dervish order often composed for the ritual needs of another dervish order, etc. The choice of spiritual music forms depended on the spiritual rituals. The music forms used in most dervish orders (Rifai, Halveti, Melami, Sadi, Djelveti, etc) are: - ilahi - A+B or A+B+C+B form; used with major and minor usuls; - kasida - kasidas and ilahijas are spiritual forms with religious and philosophical meaning, many of them have a deeply lyrical character; - gazel - songs of mystical love; a free secular form containing adapted spiritual texts; - mersije A form of music characteristic of the Bektashi is nefes. The nefes is a type of ilahi composed from the spiritual poetry of the Bektashi poets. The forms characteristic for the religious ceremonies of the Mevlevi are the following: - ayin - the longest and most complex form of music. Contains four parts known as Selam;

- nat (A+B form) - performed by one individual; used with the rhythmic structures Durak Evferi (21 beat rhythm) or Turki Zarb; The texts of the above mentioned forms of music are usually in Arabic, Turkish, or more rarely - Persian. It should be noted that in the regions where these spiritual institution are conserved and still function, such as Macedonia, Bosnia, etc, there are regional variations in the language. Namely, in Bosnia, ilahis and kasidas are performed in Bosnian, apart from Arabic. In some tekes in Macedonia, apart from Arabic and Turkish, some forms of music are performed in Albanian or Romany (depending on the ethnic background of the dervish order members). In most dervish orders, vocal performance is accompanied with the use of instruments. Depending on the tradition of the dervish sect, the following instruments are used: bendir (or def = a tambourine without bells), kudum, cymbals and nej. Most orders use the first three instruments, whereas the nej is typical of the Mevlevi. Through the Mevlevi ceremonies (Sema - dervishes that spin) - supported by most Ottoman rulers, the nej is specifically related to the Ottoman court music. In the majority of dervish orders, instrumental performers were respected by the rest of the members of the sect. Apart from that, most tekes (especially Mevlevi tekes) incorporated a special part of the semahne (the liturgical quarters) for the spiritual musicians during their performance (Elezovik, 1925:16). The rhythmic structures characteristic of spiritual music forms are mostly Duyek (eight-part) and Sofiyan (four-part), even though other structures are also used. Depending on the dervish dance, the usul is determined by the leader (Ergn, S.N. 1942: 10). The Aksak usul - 9/8 rhythm - is common for the members of the Bektashi dervish order. Thus, each of the dervish order incorporates an individual tradition in the choice of text, music forms and instruments. The folk tradition dominates in the tekes of the smaller villages, whereas the classical court tradition dominates in the cities (Jahjai, 2001: 63). 3. The activities of the tekes in the cultural and artistic life in Macedonia Tekes played a significant role in the development of the cultural and artistic segments of Macedonian society. Some tekes in Macedonia can prove the validity of this statement: Tetovo Harabati Baba Teke, Skopje - Rifai Teke and Struga - Zejnel Abidin Halveti Teke. Many of them have conserved valuable literary works (poetry). The

interest towards ornamentation and painting is visible in many of the wall paintings, or works on wood, plaster or stone, mainly with floristic motifs (Abaz, 2001: 16). In addition, almost all tekes in Macedonia hold music instruments, which speaks of the presence of this type of art within these institutions. Such institutions existed in all the populated areas where members of the Islamic faith lived (Abaz, 2001: 19). The travel accounts of Evlija Chelebi mention that in the 17th century, there were 20 tekes in Skopje. (Celebi, E., 1967, I: 283). According to the statements of some of the chiefs (sheikh) of the existing tekes, apart from the members of the dervish orders, these institutions were frequented by members of other ethnic and religious backgrounds. In addition, dervish orders were often guests at each other's ceremonies, which allowed them to exchange beliefs, religious rituals, music traditions, etc. The teke building itself was appropriate for these kinds of social meetings, since apart from the main chamber, where collective prayers are held - the semahane, there is another chamber for guests. The teke library is also in this chamber, rich with rare copies of books and documents relevant to the teke (see Bogoevik, K.L. 1998: 131). Apart from the guild members, the regular visitors of the teke included people from higher social backgrounds, such as courts men and noblemen (agas, beys, etc), who within this institution were treated equally with the other visitors. Apart from its spiritual function, tekes often functioned as educational institutions, where the educated dervishes passed on their knowledge and skills to the younger members of the orders. Thus, the younger believers, besides spiritual and ethical enlightenment, were given the chance of studying some of the arts, such as poetry, instrument playing, etc. This opportunity depended on the education of their spiritual leaders. As far as the teke religious ceremonies are concerned, the dervishes perform their traditional ceremony known as Zikr - an ecstatic mix of community dance and singing. Depending on the dervish order, this ceremony may be accompanied by some music instruments, or realised only by vocal singing. Some of the members of the dervish orders (especially the leaders of the ceremonies - zirkbashi) were educated musicians. In addition to their enormous repertoire, they also composed spiritual works. The 16th century composer Nijazi from Skopje (according to some sources, he lived in the 15th century) left behind spiritual compositions sung in the course of the next several centuries. Apart from spiritual, he has also composed secular pieces. His music was extremely popular and spread widely across the Ottoman state (Ergn, N.S. 1942: 16). Owing to the lack of information about this composer - except the

fact that he was born in Skopje - we cannot establish where he lived, worked, or which dervish order he belonged to. 4. Religious orders in Macedonia and the music characteristics of their ceremonies During Ottoman rule, 77 tekes were built in Macedonia, of which about 20 were in Skopje. Out of a total of 12 dervish orders, we possess information of about 8 of them: Rifai, Halveti, Bektashi, Melami, Kadiri, Mevlevi, Nakshibendi and Sadi (Izeti, 2003: 116). 4.1. The Rifai dervish order The dervish order Rifai was formed by Ahmed Rifai, born in the vicinity of Basra in 1118. According to him, music and dance had an elevated meaning (Uludag, S. 1999: 334). From the 9 tekes in Skopje of the 17th century, today only one Rifai teke exists, formed by Sheikh Mehmet-Efendi in 1818. In Turkey, the dervish orders such as Rifai, Halveti and Kadiri are related to the collective music ceremonies known as zikr - the main principle of Ottoman dervish ceremony. In these rituals, which take place every Saturday evening with the Rifais, the believers meditate by continuously repeating the words expressing the unity of God (tehvid) in rhythm, including rhythmic breathing and rhythmic body movements.

Iljahis, gazels, and mersijes are sung. This type of religious meditation is concluded by reciting excerpts from the Koran. Percussion instruments dominate: kudum, bendir (or def), and zil (cymbals) (see next picture). In the Skopje teke of this dervish order some of the mentioned instruments are used. In the initial part of the ceremony - zikr, in addition to prayers, several ilahis are sung to instrument accompaniment, mainly performed in the Hijaz and Rast makam. (Jahjai, a> 2001:62). According to the statements of Sheikh Erol Baba - the current chief of the

teke, apart from the above-mentioned instruments, others were also used in the past, such as nej, ud, saz, kanun, etc. This was specifically the case during the usual hosting of other dervish orders. However, the change in the demographic structure of Macedonia in the 1950s (to be more precise, with the migration of the Turkish population to Turkey) was reflected on the long-lasting spiritual traditions. Namely, some of the more difficult instruments were thrown out of use, because no one was able to play them (from the interview with the Sheikh - 27.02.2004).



During Ottoman rule, this teke was one of the most esteemed and most important tekes of the region. Famous people gathered there, including the famous poet Jahja Kemal Beyatli. The end of the 18th century saw the appearance of a very important figure named Sheikh Sadeddin Sirri. In addition to being the Sheikh of the teke, he was a poet, composer and ud performer. According to the claims of the current Sheikh, the poet Jahja Kemal Beyatli was among his students (Beyatli, Turkish = devoted, meaning to his teacher). This poet learned poetry and ud playing from his teacher. The Sheikh Sadeddin also composed music pieces, but in the fashion of the tradition of the time, he signed anonymously (Sirri - Turkish = anonymous).


More than 140 literary works in manuscript have been preserved within the teke library. This teke served as a gathering place for the Turkish town

guild who were not only of Islamic background, but also members of other ethnic and religious groups. 4.2 The Halvetije dervish order This dervish order was most widely spread in the Ottoman state, especially in the regions of Anatolia and Rumelia (Seluk E. 1994: 439 449). Thus, this sect is most present in Macedonia. According to several Islamic theologises from Macedonia, the reason for this is the structural characteristic of this order. Namely, the members of this order were mostly guildsmen. According to the Skopje Ulema from 1938-39, Macedonia had about 25 halvetian tekes. There were two such tekes in Skopje, formed at the end of the 18th century. One of them stood on the right bank of the river Vardar, in the centre of the town (also established at the end of the 18th century), whereas the other, known as Zinjirli teke, stood on the other bank of the river (Bogoevik K.L.1998: 133). The Halvetian tekes in Ohrid, Struga and Kichevo were also of great importance, still acting today. The Halvetian order is one of the most moderate dervish orders, coming closest to orthodox Islam. Even though they fulfil all that is decreed in religion, they practice common prayers known as zikr, as a way of directly communicating with God. During these ceremonies taking place on Fridays, at noon, the dervishes sing spiritual songs, mostly ilahis and kasidas, written in the makams Huzam, Nihavend, Kurdi, etc. Some of them are particularly lyrical (Palikrusheva, G. 1958: 107). The texts of the spiritual compositions are in the Arabic and Turkish language. Some of the ilahis have been written by members of the Halvetian order, or have been borrowed from other dervish orders, famous poets, or philosophers. The repertoire of this dervish order (as well as the remaining ones) consists of compositions written between the 13th and 19th centuries. According to some beliefs, the majority of spiritual compositions have been written by the Halvetije order (Ergn, N.S. 1942P 15). Although the employment of some music instruments was a common practice throughout Ottoman rule in these regions, today, the spiritual ceremonies of the Halvetije order lacks instrument use. The Halvetije dervishes from the tekes in Ohrid and Struga testify that the rhythmical instruments kudum and def were used up till the 1930s, when Sheikh Zekerya Efendi was Sheikh of the teke. The Ohrid teke property includes several specimens. There are assumptions that during the Sheikh's time, other instruments were also employed, bearing in mind that he practiced the dervish dance - sema, common for the Mevlevi. This dance usually requires

other instruments such as nej, ud, etc. The assumption is reinforced by the fact that the remainders of a string instrument - saz or ud - were found in the tekes attic. The end of the long-lasting tradition of instrument use in the religious ceremonies of this dervish order probably comes as a result of the chiefs orders, successors of Zekerya Efendi. However, separate individuals - members of this order - pledged to reanimate the old tradition and to reintegrate music instruments into practice. Thus, Dervish Osman - member of the Ohrid Halvetije teke - has issued a compact disk where he performs the spiritual compositions accompanied by def, saz, kudum and kanun. 4.3 The Bektashi dervish order The spread of this sect in Macedonia is related to the janissaries, who were members of this dervish order. During Ottoman times, there were many Bektashi tekes in Macedonia (about 12, 2 of which in Skopje). The most active ones were: Mustafa Baba Teke, Suleiman Baba teke in Skopje and Arabati Baba Teke in Tetovo (Jahjai, A. 2001: 35). The members of this dervish consider music particularly important, especially the string instrument saz (the Arabati Baba Teke museum displays several such instruments).


Thus, as opposed to the Rifai tradition, the Bektashi have a different ritual. The music forms and instruments come close to the realm of secular music. It is interesting that their spiritual compositions were not written by any of the prominent musicians, as is the case with the music repertoire of most dervish orders (especially Mevlevi). According to some information, they are works by members of folk music circles (ashik - folk singers). The reason for this occurrence is their ideology, which does not comply with all Islamic principles (as opposed to the Sunnites, who praise Ali at the same time not complying with all the rules of Islam). Consequently, their ceremonies were not

well accepted by the authorities, so sometimes they were carried out secretly (the meaning of the word Bektashi means secret, mysterious) (Ergn, S.N.1942: 9). The music forms gazel and nefes are used during the ceremony. As far as the usul is concerned, the most frequent rhythmic pattern is the Aksak rhythm (9/8 bar). Classical Turkish music influence is visible in the music forms of the Bektashi in Istanbul, whereas in the peripheral areas of the Empire - Rumelia and Anatolia, the music forms such as the nefes have local features. 4.4. The Melami dervish order The tekes of this mystical order usually serve as a gathering place for discussions (_ehaji_, D., 1986: 209). Eight tekes of this dervish order functioned in Macedonia: in Strumica, Skopje, Dojran (Dedeli village), Veles, Kavadarci, Shtip and Bitola (Izeti, M. 2003: 262-3). According to Turkish authors, the members of this dervish order did not defy music, as it was not a part of their rituals. However, the Melami order - still active in Macedonia, more specifically in Strumica - use the music instruments def, nej and kudum in addition to the vocal forms. 4.5 The Kadiri dervish order The members of this order probably began their activities in Macedonia in the 16th century (Izeti, 2003: 206). According to Palikrusheva, during Ottoman rule, the Kadiri became the most widely spread dervish order after the Halvetije order (Palikrusheva, 1958: 106). From a total of 18 tekes in Macedonia, three were in Skopje. They were active to the day of their demolition, in the period between 1940 and 1950. Bearing in mind that tekes of this order no longer exist in Skopje, that we lack information about their rituals, we shall describe the religious ceremony common for the tradition of the Kadiri order. The ceremony of the Kadiri dervish order begins with excerpts from the Koran praising the prophet Mohammed. Then the poems are interpreted by singers known as zakir, supported by the rhythmic accompaniment of the believers. After the singing of the gazel form, the ceremony continues with other forms, such as ilahi, where the prophet is praised. The section closes with the form taksim (solo instrumental improvisation with free rhythm). This is followed by the performance of the mersije, gazel and at last ilahi forms, accompanied by the chanting of the word Hu (He). The ceremony closes with the first and the last three chapters of the Koran (Markoff, I:2). The entire

ceremony is accompanied by percussion instruments employed by other dervish orders: kudum, def and cymbals. 4.6 Mevlevi dervish order The Mevlevi dervish order was formed in the 13th century by Jelaleddin Rumi. It is practiced in urban centres, as an aristocratic and intellectual brotherhood. The spread of such institutions through the rest of the Empire (the Balkans and the Middle East) represent the dissemination of Ottoman music. The spiritual ceremonial compositions known as mevlevi ayini, performed by singing, playing and dancing (ayinhan-mitrib-semazen) constitute the core of Ottoman music (Tanrikokur, C. 1998: 501). Bearing in mind that this dervish order was constituted by the higher social classes, it mainly existed in the larger towns in Macedonia, such as Skopje, Bitola, Strumica, Kriva Palanka and Veles. The Skopje Teke (located in Chair) was prominently active, until 1954 when the last Sheikh Hakki Efendi moved to Turkey. The Teke was renovated in 1909 during the visit of Sultan Reshad in Skopje, who was a member of this order (Elezovik, G. 1925: 683). The teke was destroyed in 1955. Some sources state that until the Bulgarian occupation of Skopje in World War II, liturgical ceremonies took place in the teke on Fridays, where many music forms were performed in accompaniment to music instruments (Izeti, 2003: 131). This marked the end of the Mevlevi spiritual inheritance in these regions. However, owing to the fact that his order is considered the crucial factor for the development and path of both spiritual and secular Turkish music, we shall include a description of their religious ceremony. The spiritual compositions known as Ayin, according to musicologists, are considered the most valuable works of Turkish spiritual and secular music. Owing to the complexity of the form, creating such compositions was considered a challenge even for the musicians who were not members of this order (Ergn, N.S. 1942: 14). This complex music form contains four parts, and is generally written in the rhythmic patter Muzaaf Devr-i Kebir. This pattern represents a mixture of two Devr-i Kebir usuls, and contains 56 beats About 166 ayins exist in spiritual repertoire, created between the 17th and 20th centuries (eviko_lu, T.:11). In its liturgy, this dervish order incorporates an elaborate choreography (sema) accompanied by the poetry by the founder of this order - Jelaleddin Rumi (Mevlana). They are compositions in the tradition of Ottoman secular classical music within their religious ceremonies. The musicians performing

this music are often professionals and sometimes composers that do not fall into a trance. The religious ceremony known as sema - a dervish dance where the participants spin around an axis - is considered an integration of music, poetry and dance. It culminates with the so-called zikr - more intense and fast movements (next pictures)

The music composed of four parts called Selam, is performed with classical Turkish instruments (the same ones used in the court: nej, kanun, rebab, tambur, ud, kudum, def, etc.) and a chamber choir. Each part has different rhythmic patterns. Thus, for instance, in the first Selam - the usul Devr-i revan (3+4+3+4) or Agir duyek - 8 beats; in the second Selam - the usul Evfer (4+5); in the third Selam - a sequence of the usuls Devri kebir, 28 beats, Aksak semai (3+2+2+3) and Yuruk semai (2+1+1+2) (this part constitutes the culmination of the composition); and in the fourth Selam - again the usul Evfer ( The Mevelvi is a dervish order where music is especially honoured (it is considered Gods language) (Ycel, M.) and is at the top of the musicalaesthetical values (Tanrikokur, C. 2003: 27).




Owing to the attention the Mevlevi order paid to education, literature, art and music, they attracted the attention of the ruling authorities in society. Therefore, this dervish order became an order of intellectual townsmen (Kusic, D. 1996). It is an unquestionable fact that these religious cores performed secular music forms. While music and folk literature developed simultaneously in the other tekes, Mevlevi music managed to gain consideration as Turkish classical music. 4.7 The Nakshibendi dervish order The teke of the Nakshibendi order was established by Lutfullah Uskubi in the beginning of the 16th century, in Skopje, on the Vodno mountain. Such tekes were later formed in Kochani, Shtip, Veles and Tetovo (Izeti, 2003: 151). The members of this dervish order neither use music in their rituals, nor defy it (Uluda_, S. 1995). 4.8 The Sadi dervish order Apart from the Rifai teke, the second teke that still exists in Skopje is Vefa Baba Teke, belonging to the Sadi dervish order. Nevertheless, the Sheikh of the Rifai teke - Sheikh Erol Baba, who is the chief of the dervish orders in Macedonia, states that this institution has not been registered as a teke. Still, aside from this situation, this religious institution has gained the status of a teke by performing all conventions characteristic of its order. This institution was formed by Vefa Baba. The rituals take place each Friday at noon. Apart from the vocal performances of the ilahis, kasidas and gazels, the instruments kudum, def and zil are used. During the holidays, the members of this order use other instruments as well, such as nej, saz, violin and even synthesizers. Besides Arabic and Turkish, some music forms are performed in the Romany language.

*** With the historical and social developments, the role of these spiritual institutions changed both in Turkey (where in 1925 a decree was issued forbidding their existence) and in Macedonia. Namely, most of the existing tekes have been closed, turned into museums, or destroyed. Several of the dervish order chiefs (sheikhs) migrated to Turkey in the 1950s, contributing to the halt of the teke activities. Another reason for the failing of the functions of the Macedonian tekes is the inadequate succession of the function of chief (hilafetmane - a type of diploma where an individual becomes sheikh and gains the right to present the dervish order). Namely, the title is inherited by the principle of evladiye (from father to son) or erbabije (according to capability). As the former Ulema of the Islamic Religious Community in Macedonia Hadzi Jakup Efendi points out, in this region the first principle is practiced, which doesnt guarantee proper leadership (from the interview with Hadzi Jakup Efendi on 3.03.2004). The still-existing tekes play a role in the spiritual life of the dervish order members. With the regular performance of the religious rituals and the establishing of spiritual music choirs and instrumental ensembles, the remaining several tekes greatly contribute to the continuance of the spiritual music tradition, dating as far back as the 12-13 century. Summing up the common characteristics of the music rituals in the dervish orders of Macedonia, we shall note the following: - the religious ceremonies (zikr) of most dervish orders incorporate music instruments; the most common ones used are kudum, def and cymbals. An exception can be seen in the Nakshibendi dervish order, which does not use music instruments by tradition, as well as the Halveti dervish order, which saw a halt of the previously existing tradition of instrument use in the 1930s. - even though many spiritual compositions exist which are composed by contemporary Turkish composers (20th century), the dervish orders spiritual repertoire in these regions generally involves spiritual music forms created in the period between the 13th and 19th centuries. - the continuity of tradition is observed in few tekes in Macedonia, as a result of the change in the demographic structure of Macedonias population, as well as the inadequate succession of the function of chief. Thus, to a certain extent, the previous socio-cultural role of these spiritual institutions is slowly declining.

Ilahi composed by Sultan Veled (1228 - 1312), the son of the founder of Mevlevi dervish order - Jelaleddin Rumi

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