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Revist realizat n cadrul proiectului Munca are genul feminin, implementat de ctre Asociaia C4C - Communication for Community

Revist realizat de ctre Asociaia C4C-Communication for Community, n cadrul proiectului Munca are genul feminin POSDRU/97/6.3/S/63494 The magazine was published by the Asociaia C4C Communication for Community (C4C Communication for Community Association), within Munca are genul feminin/Work Is Feminine Project, POSDRU/97/6.3/S/63494

FONDUL SOCIAL EUROPEAN EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND

Programul Operaional Sectorial pentru Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 20072013 Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007 2013

Axa prioritar 6 Promovarea incluziunii sociale Priority Axis 6 Promoting social inclusion

Domeniul major de intervenie 6.3 Promovarea egalitii de anse pe piaa muncii Key areas of intervention 6.3. Promoting equal opportunities in the labour market

ISSN 2248 180X 2011 Asociaia C4C - Communication for Community (C4C Communication for Community Association)

Reproducerea integral sau parial a acestui material este permis numai cu menionarea sursei. Pentru mai multe informaii, v rugm s contactai Asociaia C4C-Communication for Community, Bd. Carol I, nr.54, et.3 sc.A, ap.4, Sector 2, Bucureti, Romnia.

This material can be copied or reproduced only if mentioning the source. For more information please contact the C4C Communication for Community Association, 54 Carol I Boulevard, 3rd floor, ap.4, 2nd District, Bucharest, Romania.

Tel.: +40 317 115 240 Fax: +40 317 115 242 www.c4c.ro www.facebook.com/AsociatiaC4C

Oare se cuvine? Ce se cuvine?


Ca orice romnc crescut ntr-un mediu tradiional, destul de cuprins de valorile morale ale ortodoxiei, am fost educat s neleg i s-mi asum zicerea: i iat, se cuvine, ca femeia s poarte respect soului su i s se supun. Feti fiind i mai apoi adolescent am ascultat cadena grav a cuvintelor acestora, repetate deseori, la multele nuni la care mi plcea s merg i s vd mireasa. coala i crile citite nu au schimbat nimic din armonia i cadena cuvintelor, ns au generat numeroase ntrebri: Oare se cuvine? Ce se cuvine? i de ce li se cuvine lor, brbailor, s le recunoatem dreptul de a merge cu jumtate de pas naintea noastr? Azi m-am gndit la imaginea a milioane de femei care ar merge supuse, la jumtate de pas, n spatele brbailor lor. M-am gndit la aceast imagine i, prin ea, am vzut parte din luminile i umbrele ce nconjoar dezbaterea asupra sistemului de cote, ca baz necesar creterii ponderii femeilor n viaa public din Romnia. Cred, sincer, c brbaii sunt pregtii s ne ofere tot ceea ce noi vrem s obinem de la ei i mai cred c nu e femeie care s fi vrut ceva i s nu fi putut dezvolta o strategie pentru a obine ceea ce i dorete. La nivel mondial, experiena acumulat pn n prezent demonstreaz c procentul femeilor angajate n instituiile politice nu poate crete fr ajutorul unor msuri specifice, promovate chiar de brbai, cum ar fi campaniile speciale i folosirea cotelor de reprezentare a femeilor. Susintorii proiectelor legislative prin care s fie garantat prin lege numrul de candidate femei de pe listele electorale ale partidelor, astfel nct s se genereze un numr de alei locali proporionali cu o anumit cot, spun c: este o cale de acces, femeile sunt valoroase, puternice, au nevoie de un mecanism de asigurare a egalitii de anse, au nevoie de un canal de ptrundere n zona puterii. E foarte posibil ca ei s aib dreptate. Problema egalitii de anse i a numrului de femei care sunt trecute pe list nu pot face ns obiectul legii electorale, nu pot face obiectul unei legi. Legea electoral prevede condiiile de concurs pentru toi candidaii, indiferent de genul lor. Nu poi s ceri fairplay i competiie deschis dac, pe de alt parte, solicii transformarea cursei ntr-una cu handicap celebrele curse n care un sportiv poate lua startul mai devreme.
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DANIELA VIOIANU
Manager Proiect

Cte femei sunt pe list i care e locul pe care ele l vor ocupa este o problem de partid. i o problem de ideologie. ntr-o societate aezat m feresc s folosesc termeni de tipul societate normal partidele sunt consecvente cu propria ideologie, i respect electoratul i stabilesc strategii pentru crearea de oportuniti femeilor care vor s se implice. Iar aceste strategii ar trebui s vizeze mai nainte de astfel de invenii majore cum este cea privitoare la legea electoral propriile lor structuri. Pot stabili sisteme de cote pentru structurile de conducere ale partidelor. Pot stabili sisteme de cote pentru prezena la congrese sau foruri de conducere. Pot construi aa numitele shadow cabinete cu asigurarea unei reprezentri pe baz de cote. Aceste decizii pot fi potrivite i perioadelor de opoziie, iar, dac vorbim de partide aflate la putere, este chiar mai simplu: de cte ori nfiineaz o comisie, un comitet, un consiliu de administraie, nimic nu-i oprete s respecte o cot de reprezentare pe aceasta chiar o pot reglementa legislativ. Nominalizate astfel, femeile pot ctiga vizibilitate. Deci ies din umbra brbatului care merge cu jumtate de pas n faa lor. Sunt vzute, deci exist! Ct despre timp, (?) ct va dura procesul de cretere a ponderii femeilor n poziiile de decizie, ar fi de dorit s ne asumm o cantitate important de rbdare. Eu nu v spun s muncii i s v implicai n campaniile i dezbaterile publice pe tema reprezentrii femeilor doar pentru ca fiicele dumneavoastr, sau cele mai tinere

dintre noi, s se bucure de rezultatele voastre. Eu v spun c timpul nu e pierdut, iar avantajul nostru, al romncelor, este c timpul pentru astfel de procese va fi mai grbit n Romnia dect n alte ri, dect n alte democraii. Treizeci de ani le-a luat norvegiencelor s parcurg drumul de la 15% reprezentante alese n Storting (Adunarea Naional Norvegian), pn la 36 39%. Acum 40 de ani sistemul cotelor de reprezentare a femeilor a fost adoptat prima oar n cadrul Partidului Socialist de Stnga i Partidului Liberal. n prezent, practic, toate partidele politice importante din Norvegia aplic un sistem al cotelor de reprezentare a femeilor cnd numesc candidaii la alegeri i cnd formeaz organele de conducere ale formaiunii politice respective, la toate nivelurile. Acest sistem de cote este voluntar i autoimpus. n Norvegia nu exist nici o dispoziie legal privind reprezentarea echilibrat a brbailor i femeilor n partidele politice sau n organismele alese prin vot direct. Nu brbaii trebuie s se opreasc pentru ca femeile s acopere jumtatea de pas, ci femeile trebuie s hotrasc dac sunt pregtite s ia decizia de a recupera aceast distan. Concluzionnd, pledez n favoarea unui sistem de cote ca opiune viabil. ns nu le consider un panaceu pentru c nc nu am un rspuns satisfctor la dou ntrebri: 1. Sunt femeile gata s fac pasul i lipsete doar sistemul de cote? 2. Sistemul de cote le este necesar ca factor motivator pentru decizia lor de a aciona?

Is it appropriate? What is appropriate?


As any Romanian woman who is raised in a traditional and rather imbued environment with the moral values of Orthodox Christian faith, I was brought up to understand and assume the saying: Women will respect and should submit to their husbands. First as a little girl and later as a teen-ager, I have listened to the earnest rhythm of these words at the many weddings I liked to attend and see the bride. My school years and the books I have read would not alter the harmony and rhythm of these words, but have raised various questions instead: Is it appropriate? What is appropriate? Why must we take for granted mens right to walk one half-step ahead of us? Today I have envisioned an image of millions of women obediently walking one half-step behind their husbands. I have pondered on this idea and seen through the lights and shadows surrounding the debate on quota system. This is a much needed ground for increasing womens participation
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and representation quota in the Romanian public life. I truly believe that men are ready to offer women everything we want to get from them. And I also trust that there is no such woman wanting something and being unable to develop a strategy to meet her goals. On a global scale, the experience we have accumulated shows that the percentage of women employed in public institutions cannot increase unless specific measures are taken. And these should be promoted by men themselves through dedicated campaigns and in using womens representation quota. Legislative advocacy aiming at granting the due number of female candidates running on the electoral lists of political parties - to generate a number of proportional local elected officials claims that: There is a gateway. Women are valuable and strong, need a mechanism to ensure equal opportunities, need a gateway to the power realm. It is very likely that they are right. It is very likely that they are right. The issue of equal opportunities and the number of women candidates may not be subject to the election law or any law at all. The election law stipulates the competition rules for the running candidates, regardless of their gender. On the other hand, one cannot claim a fair and open competition if one asks to change the race into a handicapped one the famous races where an athlete can start earlier. How many female candidates are on a list and what their future position would look like is one decision to be made by the political party. And its also an ideological issue. In a well-grounded society I try to avoid such terms as normal society parties are consistent with their own ideologies, meet their electorate and establish strategies to create opportunities for women who want to get involved. Before such major inventions as the one regarding the electoral law occur, these same strategies should target their own structures: They may establish quota systems for partys management and leadership. They can determine quota systems for the participation in congresses or leadership forums. They can build the so-called shadow-cabinets to ensure quota-based representation. Such decisions may also be appropriate when in

opposition; and if referring to ruling parties, the matter is even simpler: every time a commission, a committee, a board is set up nothing will stop them to comply with the party-proportional representation. This can be regulated by law. Thus nominated, women can gain visibility. They walk out from the shadow of the men who are one half-step ahead of them. They are seen, hence they exist! As for how long (?) it takes to increase quotas and womens representation in decision-making, it would be wise to have considerable patience. I wouldnt tell you to work and get involved in public debates and campaigns on womens representation so that your daughters or the younger women among us enjoy the results of your work. What I mean is that all is not lost, and our advantage as Romanian women is that the process will be more accelerated and the time shorter in Romania than in other countries with more advanced democracies. It took thirty years to Norwegian women to rise from 15% elected representatives in the Storting (The Norwegian National Assembly) to 36-39%. Forty years ago, the womens representation quota system was first passed by the Socialist Left Party and the Liberal Party. Today all major political parties in Norway actually enforce the womens representation quota system when they nominate their running candidates and form the administrative bodies of their respective political group, at all levels. This representation quota system is voluntary and self-imposed. There are no legal provisions in Norway regarding the balanced representation between men and women in political parties or bodies elected by direct vote. It is not men who should stop so that women recover that half-step; it is women who should decide if they are ready to take over and recover the gap. To conclude, I advocate the implementation of a representation quota system and trust to be a wise option. However, I do not consider this system a panacea because I still need a satisfactory answer to the following two questions: 1. Are women ready to take the step and the one thing missing is the quota system? 2. Is the quota system a necessary motivating factor for their decision to act?

Project Manager,

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who we are and how we help the community 8 Who We Are and How We Help the Community 12 Who Can Benefit From Work Is Feminine? 14 Work Is Feminine The Results of Our First Year 16 Research Developed with the Work Is Feminine the evolution of women in society 20 The Evolution of Women in Society 28 Women in the Orthodox Church 32 The Only Thing That Matters 34 Interview with Mrs. Ecaterina Andronescu, the Rector of the Politehnica University of Bucharest discrimination forms and effects 38 What Should Be Known About Discrimination? 44 Discrimination on the Labor Market Before and After 1989 48 Classic Discrimination in the Labor Market 52 Gender Based Wage Discrimination 54 How Much Money Does Barbie Make? 62 Pregnant Women - A Target for Discrimination at Work 64 Domestic Violence. Another Form of Gender Discrimination 72 Interview with Mr. Asztalos Csaba Ferenc, President of NCCD judicial discrimination 76 Legislative Framework in the Field of Equal Opportunities between Women and Men in Romania 78 Romanian Laws on Equal Opportunities between Women and Men 78 How to Align the Romanian Laws to the European Union Norms and Regulations 80 Interview with Mrs Irina Sorescu, Executive Manager of CPE institutions and programs for promoting equal opportunities 84 At a Governmental Level 86 At a Parliamentary Level 88 At a European Level 90 Programming Options that Support Equal Opportunities 92 The National Development Plan 2007-2013 96 National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013 (NSRF) 96 The Sectoral Operational Programme. Human Resources Development. 2007-2013 98 Interview with Mrs Andreea Paul (Vass), State Counselor for economic affairs
feminist organizations social tools for combating gender discrimination and promoting equal opportunities
112 114 116 120 122 124 126 128

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The Beginnings of Feminist Organizations Feminist Organizations in Romania Feminism under the Communist Regime Feminism after December 1989 When Feminism is Misunderstood Were Different. So what? The Magistrate (excerpt), by Magda Isanos Interview with Mrs Mihaela Miroiu, Professor at NSPAS lines of action to promote equal opportunities in organizations 134 Lines of Action to Promote Equal Opportunities in Companies 136 Building-up an Organizational Culture that Develops Equity 138 Concrete Steps to Communicate Equal Opportunities Policy in Organizations 140 The Unions Mediators between Employees and Employers 142 Why is Equal and Fair Pay of Male and Female Employees Important? 142 What is Fair and Equal Pay? 144 Promoting and Rewarding Excellence 146 Part-time and Temporary Employees 146 Equal Reward Systems for Men and Women 148 Women versus Men as Managers 152 Importance of a Balanced Professional and Personal Life for Organizations and Employees 154 Not Afraid to be Happy! 156 The Woman Who Works with Children 158 The Concrete and Glass Jungle 160 Interview with Mrs Theodora Bertzi, General Director at the Institute for Free Enterprise women's and men's health 164 Women and Men Health Differences 164 Treatment based on Symptoms 166 Interview with Mrs Simona Oprescu, Vice-President of Arge County Council women in society. perceptions and contributions 170 Women in Mass Media 172 Women in Literature 174 Gender Differences in Rock Culture 176 Women in the Bible 180 The Feminine Elite of the Romanian Society 186 From the Opposite Angle 190 Confessions from Italy 192 Happiness Is Feminine 194 Interview with Mrs. Barbara Turner, a Sandplay Therapist

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cine suntem i cum venim n ajutorul comunitii 9 Cine suntem i cum venim n ajutorul comunitii 13 Cine sunt beneficiarele proiectului Munca are genul feminin 15 Munca are genul feminin rezultatele primului an de proiect 17 Cercetri realizate n cadrul proiectului Munca are genul feminin evoluia femeii n societate 21 Evoluia femeii n societate 29 Biserica n Biserica Ortodox 33 Singurul lucru care conteaz 35 Interviu: Ecaterina Andronescu, Rectorul Universitii Politehnica din Bucureti discriminarea forme i efecte 39 Ce trebuie s tim despre discriminare? 45 Discriminarea pe piaa muncii nainte i dup 89 49 Discriminarea clasic pe piaa muncii 53 Discriminarea salarial ntre femei i brbai 55 Ce salariu are Barbie? 63 Femeile nsrcinate o int a discriminrii la locul de munc 65 Violena n familie, o alt form de discriminare de gen 73 Interviu: Asztalos Csaba Ferenc, Preedinte CNCD discriminarea din perspectiva juridic 77 Cadrul legislativ n domeniul egalitii de anse ntre femei i brbai n Romnia 79 Legile romne referitoare la egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai 79 Cum se aliniaz legile din Romnia la normele Uniunii Europene 81 Interviu cu doamna Irina Sorescu, Preedint Executiv CPE instituii i programe care promoveaz principiul egalitii de anse 85 La nivel guvernamental 87 La nivel parlamentar 89 La nivel european 91 Opiuni de programare care sprijin egalitatea de anse 93 Planul Naional de Dezvoltare 2007-2013 97 Cadrul Strategic Naional de Referin 2007-2013 (CSNR) 97 Programul Operaional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013 99 Interviu cu doamna Andreea Paul (Vass), Consilier de stat pe probleme economice organizaiile feministe instrumente sociale pentru combaterea discriminrii de anse i de gen 113 nceputurile organizaiilor feministe 115 Organizaii feministe n Romnia 117 Feminismul n perioada comunist 121 Feminismul n perioada post-decembrist 123 Cnd feminismul este greit neles 125 Suntem diferii. i ce dac? 127 Proz de Magda Isanos 129 Interviu cu doamna Mihaela Miroiu, Profesor universitar SNSPA linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii 135 Linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii 137 Dezvoltarea unei culturi organizaionale care valorific egalitatea 139 Aciuni concrete de comunicare a politicii de egalitate de anse n organizaii 141 Sindicatele mediatori ntre angajai i angajatori 143 De ce este important plata corect i plata egal a angajailor, femei i brbai? 143 Ce este plata corect i plata egal? 145 Promovarea i recompensarea performanelor 147 Angajaii cu norm redus i angajaii temporar 147 Sisteme de recompensare egale pentru femei i brbai 149 Femeia manager versus brbatul manager 153 Echilibrul dintre viaa profesional i personal beneficii pentru companii i angajai 155 S nu ne fie fric s fim fericite! 157 Femeia care lucreaz cu copii 159 Cnd jungla este de beton i sticl 161 Interviu cu doamna Theodora Bertzi, Director general Institutul pentru Liber Iniiativ sntatea femeilor i a brbailor 165 Femei i brbai diferene privitoare la starea sntii 165 Tratament n funcie de simptomele fiecruia 167 Interviu cu doamna Simona Oprescu, Vicepreedint Consiliul Judeean Arge femeia n societate. percepii i contribuii 171 Femeia n mass-media 173 Femeia n literatur 175 Diferenele de gen n cultura rock 177 Femeia din perspectiva biblic 181 Elita feminin a societii romneti 187 Din cellalt unghi 191 Mrturii...din Italia 193 Fericirea la feminin 195 Interviu cu doamna Barbara Turner, terapeut Sandplay
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Who We Are and How We Help the Community


People are successful in life not only due to the material conditions they are born in and brought up to, but also because of the concepts and cultural standards that influence their personal growth
Established in 2011, C4C Communication for Community Association has taken on the mission to become a social player that challenges stereotypes by suggesting alternative education and communication methods. We thus value those approaches that can engender development and facilitate communication without borders. During 2008 - 2009, through our partnership with Delta Cultural Foundation, C4C Communication for Community Association developed a series of educational projects. Starting 2010, we have directly implemented co-financed projects from European structural funds, which focus on supporting granted to the less fortunate aiming at their social inclusion and their becoming positive assets to society. At the same time, C4C Association aims at systematically identifying critical areas from the specialists perspective and supporting the introduction of new programs to induce increase of the human capital. We are fully aware that successful people owe their progress not only to their family background or material resources at birth and onward. Concepts, patterns and cultural standards have a tremendous impact on their personal development. We therefore believe that action must be taken so that all people benefit of equal opportunities and positive implications of self-respect and
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respect from others. C4C Communication for Community Association and Its Successful Projects Munca are genul feminin (Work Is Feminine) is one of the most cherished projects of our team. It is dedicated to women who wish to achieve a new status; have a chance to get a job; regain their dignity; and have a new vision for life.

Work Is Feminine is an innovative project designed to helping women in search for a job to get the utmost of their skills. We do this in placing the offered services as close as possible to its beneficiaries: both physically through events organized in the territory, directly in communes -, and in meeting their specific needs. Work Is Feminine is implemented in partnership with Arge County Council in the regions of BucharestIlfov and South-Muntenia. Its main objective is the promotion of social inclusion and equal opportunities on the labour market for women at risk of social exclusion. The project activities are dedicated to interests and concerns of women living in these two Euroregions, so that they have easy,

non-discriminatory access to work and equal treatment in assessing and establishing criteria for their recruitment, selection, promotion and access to all forms and levels of professional orientation, formation and improvement. We aim to reach and significantly change the lives of 2,800 women through: Direct information on qualification/requalification programs, and existing jobs on the labour market; Psychological counselling for women looking for a job; Mediation between persons looking for a job, or professional training courses, and their providers; Access of 2,800 women to qualification/professional training courses and support granted to this process; Accompaniment services for children - kindergarten and school after-school -, during their mothers or tutors participation in training courses; Professional training courses in IT&C; Two editions of the Women Job Fair to be focused on womens needs. Once implemented, this project aims at expanding womens role and rethinking the millennial relationships between the two hemispheres of humankind. For such a leap to take place, simultaneous empowerment of women and emancipation of men are needed. And therefore, development of this inclusive project is a must.

Cine suntem i cum venim n ajutorul comunitii


tim c oamenii se afirm n via nu doar datorit condiiilor materiale n care ei se nasc i cresc, ci i datorit concepiilor i normelor culturale care-i pun amprenta pe dezvoltarea lor
nfiinat n anul 2001, Asociaia C4C Communication for Community are ca misiune s devin un actor social care provoac stereotipurile, propunnd metode alternative de educaie i comunicare. nelegem, astfel, s valorizm metode care genereaz dezvoltare i faciliteaz comunicarea fr bariere. n perioada 2008-2009, Asociaia C4C Communication for Community a fost partenerul Fundaiei Culturale Delta n proiectele educaionale implementate de ctre aceasta, iar ncepnd din 2010 i-a propus s intervin direct, prin implementarea unor proiecte cofinanate din fonduri structurale europene, axndu-se pe sprijinirea celor mai puin favorizai, ajutndu-i s se integreze n societate, s devin un factor pozitiv n cadrul societii. Totodat, Asociaia i-a propus identificarea domeniilor deficitare din punctul de vedere al specialitilor i susinerea introducerii unor astfel de programe care s duc la creterea capitalului social. Deoarece tim c oamenii se afirm n via nu doar datorit condiiilor materiale n care ei se nasc i cresc, ci i datorit concepiilor i normelor culturale care-i pun amprenta pe dezvoltarea lor, considerm c trebuie s acionm n aa fel nct aceste persoane s aib oportuniti egale i s beneficieze de implicaiile pozitive ale respectului fa de sine i ale respectului din partea celuilalt.

Proiect Munca are genul feminin - Aciuni de informare i mediere

Asociaia C4C Communication for Community i proiectele ei de succes Munca are genul feminin este unul din proiectele de suflet ale Asociaiei C4C-Communication for Community dedicat femeilor care doresc s dobndeasc un nou statut, o nou ans la munc, la demnitate, o nou viziune asupra vieii. Gndit pentru a veni n ajutorul femeilor aflate n cutarea unei activiti care s le reprezinte, proiectul Munca are genul feminin ncearc s fie inovator prin deplasarea serviciilor oferite ct mai aproape de beneficiare. Ct mai aproape fizic prin aciuni n teritoriu, direct n comune i ct mai aproape de nevoile lor specifice. Proiectul Munca are genul feminin, implementat n parteneriat

cu Consiliul Judeean Arge, vizeaz regiunile Bucureti-Ilfov i SudMuntenia, i are ca obiectiv principal promovarea incluziunii sociale i a egalitii de anse pe piaa muncii a femeilor aflate n situaii de risc de excludere social.

Activitile proiectului sunt dedicate intereselor i preocuprilor femeilor din aceste dou euroregiuni, astfel nct ele s aib acces, n condiii nediscriminatorii, la ncadrare n munc i la tratament
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who we are and how we help the community

S redescoperim coala (Lets Rediscover School) is another project implemented by C4C Communication for Community Association to support long-term social inclusion of disabled youth (pre-school and students) or youth with difficulty to adjust to school curricula. The project is developed in partnership with Dmbovia County Council and aims at maintaining youth in the education system by using an adequate framework for the implementation of alternative specific and innovative educational solutions, in connection with guidance and counseling. All in all, Lets Rediscover School offers: Assistance through specific actions to prevent early school leaving for 2,400 children and 2,400 parents; Training of 400 experts in implementing the new alternative educational solutions; Development of five guidebooks for the implementation of the

new methods and tools; Development of a new occupational standard and five course books for the formation and implementation of the activity by the future trained specialists of the project; Creation of three annual surveys that result from the research conducted during the summer camps; Building an e-learning open modular architecture platform to be further developed and complemented with new alternative learning solutions. We know the challenges in womens life are endurance tests. Birth, upbringing and education of children, and daily domestic activities often diminish a womans chance to build up a career. Many women abandon employment indefinitely to totally devote themselves to motherhood and child upbringing. As more than often what really matters for most women in order to feel accomplished is peace

of mind and family life achievement. This is why C4C Communication for Community Association endeavours through its implemented projects to balance between work and family the life of Romanian women and mothers whose goal is their own and family fulfilment.

This magazine aims to inform and educate. It tackles with issues related to women discrimination in the labour market, and also with their low employment. This magazine also covers the reasons why these issues occur and maintain, but also how they can be prevented, reduced or countered.

Proiect Munca are genul feminin - Aciuni de informare i mediere

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cine suntem i cum venim n ajutorul comunitii

egal n stabilirea i evaluarea criteriilor de recrutare, selectare, promovare i acces la toate formele i nivelurile de orientare, calificare i

perfecionare profesional. Ne propunem s atingem semnificativ viaa a 2800 de femei prin: informare direct privind programele de calificare/recalificare, dar i locurile de munc existente pe pia; consiliere psihologic a femeilor aflate n cutarea unui loc de munc; mediere ntre persoanele care caut locuri de munc sau cursuri de formare profesional i ntre ofertanii acestora; accesul unui numr de 2800 de femei la cursuri de calificare/ formare profesional i sprijinirea

acestui demers; servicii de acompaniere, de tip grdini i coal dup coal, pentru copii, pe perioada participrii mamelor sau tutorilor la cursuri de formare profesional; organizare de cursuri de formare profesional n domeniul Tehnologiei Informaiei i a Comunicaiilor; dou ediii Bursa locurilor de munc axate pe nevoile femeilor. Odat implementat, proiectul de fa se dorete a fi practic att n vederea extinderii rolului femeii, ct i a regndirii raporturilor milenare dintre cele dou jumti ale lumii. Pentru atingerea unui asemenea salt e nevoie i de emanciparea femeii i de emanciparea brbatului, existena acestui proiect complex fiind absolut necesar n acest sens.

mentare a noilor metode i instrumente; crearea unui standard ocupaional i a 5 suporturi de curs n vederea formrii i desfurrii activitii de ctre viitorii specialiti formai n cadrul proiectului; 3 studii anuale rezultate n urma sondajelor realizate n cadrul taberelor de var; o platform e-learning cu arhitectur modular deschis, cu posibilitatea dezvoltrii i comple-trii cu noi soluii educaionale alternative. tim c provocrile din viaa unei femei sunt adevrate teste de rezisten. Naterea, creterea i educarea copiilor, activitile pe care le desfoar zi de zi n gospodrie i micoreaz de cele mai multe ori

S redescoperim coala este un alt proiect implementat de ctre Asociaia C4C Communication for Community, ce are ca scop sprijinirea integrrii sociale pe termen lung a tinerilor (precolari i elevi) cu dizabiliti i a celor cu probleme de adaptare la programul colar. Proiectul este derulat n parteneriat cu Consiliul Judeean Dmbovia i vizeaz meninerea tinerilor n coal prin utilizarea unui cadru adecvat de aplicare a unor soluii educaionale alternative specifice i inovatoare, dublate de orientare i consiliere. n linii mari, proiectul S redecoperim coala ofer: asisten, prin aciuni specifice de prevenire a fenomenului de prsire timpurie a colii, pentru 2400 de copii i 2400 de prini; formarea a 400 de specialiti n aplicarea noilor soluii educaionale alternative; crearea a 5 manuale de imple-

posibilitatea de dezvoltare a unei cariere. Multe femei, dup ce devin mame, ntrerup serviciul pentru a se dedica n totalitate copiilor, pentru c, n multe situaii, linitea sufleteasc i mplinirea n plan familial le fac s se simt cu adevrat femei realizate. De aceea, Asociaia C4C Communication for Community, prin proiectele implementate, ncearc s aduc puin echilibru n viaa femeilor i a mamelor din Romnia, pentru care dezvoltarea lor i a familiilor lor reprezint un scop n sine. Revista de fa are rol informativ i educativ i abordeaz aspecte legate de fenomenul discriminrii femeilor pe piaa muncii, dar i gradul redus de ocupare al acestora. Tot aici sunt prezentate cauzele care duc la apariia i meninerea acestor fenomene, dar i modul n care acestea pot fi prevenite, diminuate sau combtute.
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Who Can Benefit From Work Is Feminine?


What seems to have drawn them to our project is their need to somehow improve their professional life and expand their horizon

The actions that we carried out during the first months of the project have helped us determine and define a psychological profile of our beneficiaries, which is useful in organizing our future actions. To achieve this we have taken account of the personal data of the registered women from our target group, and the information obtained during the semi-structured interview the psychological counseling was based on. The group of women so registered after these actions have the following main characteristics: first of all, they are women between 25-55 years old. (there also were a few women aged 16, 67 and 70 years old who could not be included in the following stages of the project, but nevertheless benefited from information and psychological counseling) Most of the women have children in their care (1-4 children and many cases

when one child is disabled). What seems to have drawn them to our project is their need to somehow improve their professional life and expand their horizon. As for why these women are so interested in our project, their expectations are quite diverse, sometimes unclear even to themselves. This is the reason why we had to clarify, as best possible, our goals and our offer with this project. Many of these beneficiaries are interested in the offered jobs and mediation related to future employment, while only a few have interest in enlisting in the training courses. After interviewing them, we have established a limited degree of personal autonomy that in many cases is due to both family responsibilities and the lack of any income, a fact that decreases their availability to work or take courses

in a different location. Their low level of education limits their choice and progress toward employment, so what remains from a wide list that has been put at their disposal are just a few options: jobs in cleaning, house-keeping, but also training courses for waiters and hairdressers. Another sub-group consisted of a large number of women from urban areas with medium and higher education (at least a high school diploma, but quite frequently a bachelors degree and a masters degree). Most of them work as personal assistants, offer care services for disabled people (in most cases, their own child). The rest are unemployed because of layoffs in recent years. Some of the beneficiaries face dramatic situations, given the fact that their husbands are unemployed as well, due to the same reasons. To observe in this profile:

Strengths supporting elements towards development of effective behavior patterns): 1. the similarity of personal situations created a certain connection and mutual support among the beneficiaries; 2. school and professional training of some of the beneficiaries facilitate their access to personal development programs and available jobs. Weaknesses (need intervention, remedy or improvement): 1. the education level of some beneficiaries, as well as their low personal autonomy largely limit the choice for such persons; 2. social, family or professional crisis are faced by many of them.
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No. 1 / 2011

Cine sunt beneficiarele proiectului Munca are genul feminin


Ceea ce le atrage spre proiectul nostru este nevoia de a-i mbunti cumva viaa profesional, de a-i lrgi perspectivele n aceast direcie

n urma aciunilor desfurate n primele luni ale proiectului, am reuit definirea unui profil psihologic al beneficiarelor, util pentru structurarea aciunilor care vor urma. n realizarea acestui profil am avut n vedere datele personale ale acestora nscrise n formularul de nregistrare n grupul int i informaiile obinute din interviul semistructurat pe baza cruia s-a fcut consilierea psihologic. Grupul de femei, nscris n urma acestor aciuni, are urmtoarele caracteristici principale: n primul rnd, sunt femei i majoritatea au vrste cuprinse ntre 25 i 55 de ani. Majoritatea au copii n ngrijire (1-4 copii i numeroase cazuri n care au n ngrijire un copil cu handicap). Ceea ce le atrage spre proiectul nostru este nevoia de a-i mbunti cumva viaa profesional, de a-i lrgi perspectivele n aceast direcie. Cu privire la motivaia manifestrii interesului acestor persoane fa de proiectul nostru, ateptrile exprimate au fost destul de diverse, de multe ori neclare chiar i pentru beneficiare, de aceea a trebuit s clarificm ct mai bine scopurile noastre i ceea ce putem oferi prin acest proiect. Multe dintre aceste beneficiare s-au artat interesate de ofertele de locuri de munc i de mediere n

vederea angajrii i doar cteva dintre ele au fost atrase de oferta de cursuri de calificare. Am constatat, vorbind cu ele, c gradul de auto-nomie personal al multora dintre ele este limitat de obligaiile familiale i de lipsa de venituri, aceasta reducndule disponibilitatea de a lucra sau de a urma cursuri n alt localitate. Gradul redus de colarizare limiteaz destul de mult posibilitile acestor persoane, rmnnd viabile, dintr-o list destul de bogat de oferte pus la dispoziie de noi, doar cteva opiuni: locuri de munc n domeniul cureniei, menajului, dar i cursuri de formare i calificare ca osptar i frizer.

Un alt subgrup destul de numeros a fost alctuit din femei care locuiesc n mediul urban i au un nivel de instruire mediu i superior (cel puin liceu, dar destul de frecvent licen i master). Dintre acestea, multe lucreaz ca asistent personal, avnd n ngrijire o persoan cu handicap (n cele mai multe dintre cazuri, copilul). Celelalte sunt omere, ca urmare a disponibilizrilor din ultimul timp. Unele dintre beneficiare se confrunt cu o situaie destul de grav, avnd n vedere faptul c nici soul nu mai lucreaz, din aceleai considerente. De remarcat este i profilul din caseta de mai jos.

Puncte forte (elemente de sprijin n vederea desfurrii unor comportamente eficiente): 1. similitudinea unor situaii personale a creat o anumit legatur i suport reciproc ntre beneficiare; 2. formarea colar i profesional a unora dintre beneficiare faciliteaz accesul ctre programele de dezvoltare personal i locurile de munc disponibile. Puncte slabe (care necesit intervenii, remedieri sau ameliorri): 1. gradul redus de colarizare a unora dintre beneficiare, gradul de autonomie personal redus i el, limiteaz destul de mult posibilitile acestor persoane; 2. situaii de criz pe plan social, familial sau profesional, pe care multe dintre beneficiare le traverseaz.

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who we are and how we help the community

Work Is Feminine The Results of Our First Year Work Is Feminine is implemented by a team mostly consisting of women and designed for women who want to make a change in their lives. We mean that change that starts

with and within themselves, in other words, their accepting they deserve the time and care for their own development and accomplishment. It all began with a series of field missions whose purpose has been to meet the women whom this project targets. We have met women who are

trapped in their own condition, who have now found out there is a chance for them and for those who have not completed high school yet as graduating high school is a minimal requirement to participate in most of the qualification and formation programs.

Activities developed through Work Is Feminine Activities for promoting equal opportunities and nondiscrimination principles

How?
Development and publishing of guidebooks, posters and flyers National and multi-regional information campaigns Training sessions to increase awareness on the importance of equal opportunities Meetings with the County Commission for Equal Opportunities between women and men (COJES) Gender differences in terms of profession, career and income, attitudes and practices related to gender relationship in family and in the workplace sociological fact finding; performed on a representative nationwide sample Focus groups on Women and How They Relate to Work Collection of information about jobs and occupational trainings Information and training of women on the existing offers regarding (re)qualification programs and jobs in the labour market Psychological counselling for women to increase selfconfidence, self-esteem and self-knowledge

Results
Execution of guidebooks, posters and flyers Dissemination of 1,000 guidebooks, 3,000 posters and 3,000 flyers 8 training sessions organized in 4 locations (160 participants) 5 meetings with COJES members The sociological survey was carried out in Arge, Clrai, Dmbovia, Giurgiu, Ialomia, Ilfov, Prahova, and Teleorman counties and the City of Bucharest, while the data was collected between June 20th and August 5th, 2011 4 Focus Groups in Piteti 4 Focus Groups in Buftea Monthly data bases with jobs and occupational training courses 2712 informed and trained women 2298 women have benefited from psychological counselling 2289 mediated women 11 children benefited from accompaniment during their mothers participation to classes 1568 assisted women through grants to participate in an occupational training program, according to their needs and education 60 women graduated the IT&C training program (Information and Communication Technology) One such Job Fair focused on womens needs was organized in Buftea, during May 18-20, 2011 Such visits were performed to: Piteti Antidiscrimination Local Centre; Piteti Counselling Centre for Equal Opportunities and NonDiscrimination; Hercules Association, Costeti, Arge Publishing a womens magazine, with a circulation of 2000 copies, with regional and national distribution Formation of work teams 3 public meetings The website is www.c4c.ro and the interactive portal http://c4c.ro/munca/locuri-de-munca/ 12 articles published in a national newspaper 4 radio shows One TV show Making of a 35 minutes film about the project

Research, surveys and studies (multi-regional and national)

Activities to ensure social inclusion and prevent genderand ethnicity-based inequalities related to access to the labour market

Mediation between women looking for a job/ professional training and their employers/providers Accompaniment/custody activities for kindergarten and after-school Placement in (re)qualification programs and grants to women who wish for a career in a certain field and who were selected subsequent to the information and counselling programs Training the support/resource people in IT&C (Information and Communication Technology) Organizing annual Job Fairs to focus on womens needs Visits to specialized counselling and support centres for women in distress Editing and publishing a yearly magazine to provide an information and advertising area to similar programs, institutions and research dedicated to womens promotion Establishment of working groups with partners Meetings with the Project Partner - Arge County Council Creating a website and an interactive portal to announce jobs and professional training

National activities for knowledge of good practice in the field and dissemination of results

Project Management

Information and advertising

Media coverage materials Making of a film about the project

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No. 1 / 2011

cine suntem i cum venim n ajutorul comunitii

Munca are genul feminin rezultatele primului an de proiect Proiectul Munca are genul feminin este un proiect implementat, n mare parte, de ctre o echip format din femei, pentru femeile care doresc o schimbare n Activiti derulate prin proiectul Munca are genul feminin Activiti pentru promovarea principiului egalitii de anse i non-discriminrii

viaa lor. Cnd vorbim de schimbare, ne referim la schimbarea care ncepe n primul rnd cu ele acceptarea c merit timp i atenie pentru dezvoltarea i mplinirea lor. Totul a nceput printr-o serie de deplasri n teritoriu cu scopul de a cunoate femeile crora le este Cum?
Elaborarea i publicarea de ghiduri, afie i pliante Campanii de informare multi-regionale i naionale Sesiuni de formare n vederea sensibilizrii fa de importana egalitii de anse ntlniri cu Comisia Judeean pentru egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai (COJES) Diferenele de gen n ceea ce privete profesiile, cariera i veniturile, mentalitile i practicile legate de relaiile de gen n familie i la locul de munc anchet sociologic, eantion reprezentativ pe plan naional Focus grupuri cu tema Femeia i relaia acesteia cu munca Colectare de informaii despre locuri de munc i cursuri de formare profesional Informarea i instruirea femeilor n legtur cu ofertele de programe de (re)calificare i locuri de munc existente pe pia Consilierea psihologic a femeilor n vederea creterii ncrederii, a stimei i a cunoaterii de sine Mediere ntre persoanele care i caut un loc de munc/cursuri de formare profesional i angajatorii/ furnizorii acestora Activiti de acompaniere de tip grdini i coal dup coal Plasarea n programe de (re)calificare i susinerea prin subvenii a femeilor care doresc o carier ntr-un anumit domeniu, selectate n urma programelor de informare i consiliere Pregtirea persoanelor suport/resurs n domeniul TIC (Tehnologia Informaiei i a Comunicaiilor) Organizarea anual a bursei locurilor de munc, axat pe nevoile femeilor

dedicat acest proiect. Am cunoscut femei prizoniere condiiei lor, care au aflat c exist o ans i pentru cele care nu au terminat liceul tiut fiind faptul c absolvirea unui liceu este o condiie minim pentru participarea la majoritatea programelor de calificare. Rezultate
Realizarea de ghiduri, afie i pliante Diseminarea a 1000 de ghiduri, 3000 de afie i 3000 de pliante 8 sesiuni de formare organizate n 4 localiti (160 persoane participante) Organizarea a 5 ntlniri cu membrii COJES Realizarea unei anchete sociologice n judeele: Arge, Clrai, Dmbovia, Giurgiu, Ialomia, Ilfov, Prahova, Teleorman i Municipiul Bucureti, iar culegerea datelor a fost realizat n perioada 20 iunie5 august 2011 4 Focus-Grupuri n Piteti 4 Focus-Grupuri n Buftea Baze de date lunare cu locuri de munc i cursuri de formare profesional 2712 femei informate i instruite 2298 femei au beneficiat de consiliere psihologic 2289 femei mediate 11 copii au beneficiat de acompaniere, pe perioada participrii mamelor la cursuri 1568 femei susinute prin subvenii pentru participarea la un curs de formare profesional, n funcie de nevoile i pregtirea acestora 60 de femei absolvente a cursului de formare n domeniul TIC (Tehnologia Informaiei i a Comunicaiilor) 1 burs a locurilor de munc axat pe nevoile femeilor, organizat la Buftea, n perioada 18-20 mai 2011 S-au realizat vizite n: Centrul local Antidiscriminare, Piteti Centrul de Consiliere n materie de Egalitate de anse i Nondiscriminare, Piteti Asociaia Hercules, Costeti, Arge Editarea unei reviste pentru femei, cu un tiraj de 2000 de exemplare, diseminate regional i naional Formarea echipelor de lucru 3 ntlniri publice Pagina de internet www.c4c.ro i portalul interactiv http://c4c.ro/munca/locuri-de-munca/ 12 articole publicate ntr-un ziar naional 4 emisiuni radio 1 emisiune tv Realizarea unui fim despre proiect cu durata de 35 de minute

Cercetri, studii i analize (multiregionale i naionale)

Activiti pentru asigurarea incluziunii sociale i n vederea combaterii inegalitilor pe baz de gen i origine etnic privind accesul pe piaa muncii

Activiti naionale pentru cunoaterea bunelor practici n domeniul i diseminarea rezultatelor

Vizite n centre specializate pentru consilierea i sprijinul femeilor aflate n dificultate Editarea i publicarea unei reviste cu apariie anual n vederea oferirii unui spaiu de informare i publicitate privind programele, instituiile i cercetrile dedicate promovrii femeilor Constituirea grupurilor de lucru la parteneri ntlniri cu Partenerul proiectului - Consiliul Judeean Arge Crearea unei pagini de internet i a unui portal interactiv cu locuri de munc i cursuri de formare profesional

Management de proiect

Informare i publicitate

Materiale pentru pres Realizarea unui film despre proiect

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who we are and how we help the community

Research Developed with the Work Is Feminine Democratic societies tend to guarantee a non-discriminatory life to their citizens. However, a survey conducted by the European Commission shows that approximately one of six persons in Europe believes to have experienced discrimination. In the European Union, several laws protect us against discrimination based on racial or ethnic criteria, religion, physical disability, age or sexual orientation, no matter where we are - in the workplace or other social environment. In Romania, discrimination in the labour market is still a common issue, and research and surveys in this area show that women are among the most vulnerable groups. According to the sociological survey conducted by C4C Communication for Community Association as part of our project Work Is Feminine, in Romania, women fulfil over 90% of household activities, allocating them about 4 hours every day. The researchs objective was to identify and measure gender

Participation of men and women in household activities


3.9 3.2 1.7 2.0

usual work day Women Men

week-end day

differences in terms of professions, career and income, mindsets, attitudes and practices related to gender relations in family and at work in two areas of development: Bucharest - Ilfov and South Muntenia. The survey sample consisted of 1078 people in Arge, Clrai, Dmbovia, Giurgiu, Ialomia, Ilfov, Prahova, and Teleorman counties, as well as in the City of Bucharest, and data was

collected from June 20th to August 5th, 2011. According to the survey, discrimination starts within family, so in most cases, women do most household chores. 72% of women are married and live in traditional families in terms of distribution of household activities. In these families, the wife (woman) performs 90% of the household activities: cooking, cleaning up, washing,

Role Distribution in Households


Ironing Washing-up Cooking Cleaning-up Dish washing Shopping Gardening Takes care of animals/pets Family eldercare Makes small repairs in the house Performs agricultural work 5% 3% 10% 12% 10% 6% 38% 13% 17% 1% 80% 17% 87% 85% 79% 77% 76% 18% 2% 4% 42% 18% 16% 5% 10% 3% 2% 8% 2% 10% 14% 19% 17% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 2% 4% 1% 4% 2%

Woman / wife

Man / husband

Both equally

Someone else

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No. 1 / 2011

cine suntem i cum venim n ajutorul comunitii

Cercetri realizate n cadrul proiectului Munca are genul feminin Orice societate democratic tinde s ofere cetenilor ei o via fr discriminare. Cu toate acestea, aproximativ una din ase persoane din Europa consider c a trecut prin experiena discriminrii, arat un sondaj de opinie realizat de ctre Comisia European. n Uniunea European, mai multe legi ne protejeaz mpotriva discriminrii bazate pe criterii rasiale sau etnice, religioase, dizabiliti fizice, vrst sau orientare sexual indiferent unde ne-am afla, la locul de munc sau n alte spaii sociale. n Romnia, discriminarea pe piaa muncii este nc un fenomen des ntlnit, iar cercetrile i studiile realizate n acest domeniu arat c femeile reprezint unul dintre cele mai vulnerabile grupuri. Conform anchetei sociologice realizate de ctre Asociaia C4CCommunication for Community, prin proiectul Munca are genul feminin, n Romnia, femeile realizeaz peste 90% din activitile casnice, alocnd pentru acestea aproape 4 ore n fiecare zi.

Participarea femeilor i a brbailor la activitile casnice


3.9 3.2 1.7 2.0

zi lucrtoare obinuit Femei Brbai

zi de week-end

Obiectivul cercetrii a fost de a identifica i a msura diferenele de gen n ceea ce privete profesiile, cariera i veniturile, mentalitile i practicile legate de relaiile de gen n familie i la locul de munc, n dou regiuni de dezvoltare: Bucureti Ilfov i Sud Muntenia. Eantionul anchetei a fost compus din 1078 de persoane din judeele: Arge, Clrai, Dmbovia, Giurgiu, Ialomia, Ilfov, Prahova, Teleorman

i din Municipiul Bucureti, iar culegerea datelor a fost realizat n perioada 20 iunie 5 august 2011. Potrivit studiului, discriminarea ncepe chiar n cadrul familiei, astfel, n majoritatea cazurilor, femeia face cel mai des treburile casnice. 72% dintre femei sunt cstorite i triesc n familii de tip tradiional din punct de vedere al mpririi treburilor casnice. n aceste familii, soia (femeia),

Distribuia rolurilor n gospodrie


Calc rufele Spal hainele Pregtete mncarea Curenie n cas Spal vasele Face cumprturile Se ocup de grdinrit ngrijirea animalelor ngrijirea vrstnicilor Face micile reparaii prin cas Face munci agricole, la cmp 5% 3% 10% 12% 10% 6% 38% 13% 17% 1% 80% 17% 87% 85% 79% 77% 76% 18% 2% 4% 42% 18% 16% 5% 10% 3% 2% 8% 2% 10% 14% 19% 17% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 2% 4% 1% 4% 2%

Femeia/Soia

Brbatul/Soul

Amndoi la fel

Alt persoan

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who we are and how we help the community

ironing, child care and upbringing, shopping and family eldercare. Apart from being a wife and a mother, women must also fulfil their professional role at work. 6% of women live in families where authoritarian decisions are exclusively made by men. They do not participate in decision-making, and their opinions are overlooked, even though most work in their household is performed by them. The survey has focused on both employment and efforts by respondents to find a job. Contrary to the recommendations of the European Commission which foresee a 60% employment rate for women in Romania, according to the research, the employment rate is only 39%, which means that less than half of the active women in the two regions have a job. Thus, the major hindraces in getting a job are lack of jobs (63%), lack of good connections on employment (34%), lack of work experience (31%) and lack of appropriate skills (31%). 10% of respondents consider the lack of appropriate skills to be the main cause for their failure in finding a job. Another survey of our project was conducted on eight focus groups in Bucharest-Ilfov and South-Muntenia regions, on Women and their relation to work, more precisely on issues related to womens training/ education, employment, remuneration, promotion and career development.

Employment Rate for Men and Women

70 60 50 40 30 20 10

60 %

65,1 % 39 %

The recommended employment The employment rate rate for women by EU for women in Romania*

The employment rate for men in Romania**

*according to research within Work Is Feminine POSDRU/97/6.3/S/63494 **according to the National Institute of Statistics (Romania)

The aim of this research was to highlight and increase awareness on prejudices and stereotypes about women, especially those related to their work and career. Subsequent to the focus groups involving women aged between 19 and 45 years old (both employed women and women seeking a job), we have determined they do acknowledge and are constantly facing such stereotypes, particularly when applying for employment. These take on many forms and particularly refer to age, gender and marital status of the one or the ones looking for a job. Thus, women who already have children or who want to become mothers must always choose between their careers and families.

Also, almost no one takes into serious consideration that a man can ask for paternity leave. Stereotypes and their adverse effects are affecting women and distorting the employers perspective; employment statements are often worded: I need a man to.. Facing stereotypes generates development in any company and under any circumstances. Thus an employee evaluation should be based on objective criteria, while the main goal for an organization is to have the best employee in terms of his/her performance, and not from his/her gender perspective. Focus group discussions have resulted in immediate increased awareness, free exchange of views and opinions on refining situations, highlighting some new issues, promoting examples of good practice, personal patterns or even suggestions of participants regarding the mentioned topic. Although important, these changes are not sufficient. Therefore, C4C - Communication for Community Association plan to pursue both our information and awareness increase actions on the importance of equal opportunities and combatting prejudices/stereotypes that inhibit womens personal and professional development.

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cine suntem i cum venim n ajutorul comunitii

realizeaz, n proporie de peste 90%, toate activitile casnice menajere: gtit, curenie, splat, clcat, ngrijirea i educarea copiilor, cumprturi i ngrijirea vrstnicilor. Ele trebuie s ndeplineasc, pe lng rolul de soie i mam, i rolul de profesionist la locul de munc. Exist femei (6%) care triesc n familii n care deciziile sunt luate exclusiv i autoritar de ctre brbai. Ele nu particip la luarea deciziilor, iar prerea lor este trecut cu vederea, chiar dac lucreaz cel mai mult n gospodrie. Studiul a acordat atenie ocuprii i eforturilor pe care respondenii le fac pentru a-i gsi un loc de munc. Contrar recomandrilor Comisiei Europene care prevd o rat de ocupare pentru femei de 60%, n Romnia, conform cercetrii, rata de ocupare este de doar 39%, ceea ce nseamn c mai puin de jumtate din femeile active din cele 2 regiuni au un loc de munc. Astfel, n topul barierelor pentru ocuparea unui post, se afl lipsa locurilor de munc (63%), lipsa cunotinelor i a prietenilor la angajare (34%), lipsa experienei n munc (31%) i lipsa calificrii adecvate (31%). 10% dintre persoanele intervievate consider c lipsa unei calificri adecvate este cauza principal pentru neputina de a-i gsi un loc de munc. O alt cercetare realizat n cadrul proiectului nostru, a constat n organizarea a 8 focus grupuri n regiunile BucuretiIlfov i Sud-Muntenia, ce au avut ca tem Femeia i relaia acesteia cu munca, respectiv aspecte legate de pregtirea/formarea femeilor, de angajare, remunerare, promovare i evoluie n carier. Scopul cercetrii a fost evidenierea i contientizarea prejudecilor i stereotipurilor legate de femei, ndeosebi a celor n raport cu munca i cariera profesional a acestora. n urma focus grupurilor la care au participat persoane cu vrsta cuprins ntre 19 i 45 de ani (femei ce au un loc de munc, ct i femei ce

Rata de ocupare pentru femei i brbai

70 60 50 40 30 20 10

60 %

65,1 % 39 %

Rata de ocupare pentru femei recomandat de UE

Rata de ocupare pentru femei n Romnia *

Rata de ocupare pentru brbai n Romnia *

* conform cercerrii realizate n cadrul proiectului Munca are genul feminin POSDRU/97/6.3/S/63494 * conform Institutului Naional de Statistic

sunt n cutarea unuia), am constatat c ele recunosc i se confrunt permanent cu astfel de stereotipuri, n special la angajare. Acestea capt diverse forme i se refer, n special, la vrst, sex i starea civil a celui sau a celei ce i caut un loc de munc. Astfel, femeile care au deja copii sau care i doresc s fie mame trebuie s aleag mereu ntre carier i familie. i aproape nimeni nu ia n serios posibilitatea ca un brbat s solicite concediu de paternitate. Stereotipurile i efectul nociv ale acestora afecteaz femeile i denatureaz perspectiva angajatorilor, o comand de angajare fiind formulat cel mai des astfel: am nevoie de un brbat care s. Confruntarea stereotipurilor genereaz dezvoltare, n orice companie i n orice situaie. Astfel, evaluarea unui angajat se poate face pe criterii ct mai obiective, scopul

fiind s ai n organizaie cel mai bun angajat din punct de vedere al performanei, nu din punct de vedere al sexului. Discuiile din cadrul focus grupurilor au avut ca efect imediat creterea gradului de contientizare, schimbul liber de preri i opinii, privind nuanarea unor situaii, evidenierea unor aspecte noi, promovarea unor exemple de bune practici, a unor modele personale sau chiar a propunerilor participanilor, referitoare la tema men-ionat. Dei importante, aceste schimbri nu sunt suficiente. Noi, Asociaia C4C-Communication for Community, ne propunem s continum aciunile de informare i sensibilizare fa de importana egalitii de anse i de combatere a prejudecilor/stereotipurilor care le mpiedic pe femei s se dezvolte personal i profesional.

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The Evolution of Women in Society


Irina Rdu A Team Member of Lets Rediscover School Project VIEWPOINT

o understand how modern womens status has evolved we need to review the roles they took from ancient times until today. Thus it will be easier to identify the roots of certain behaviours, mindsets and prejudices in present society as regard the manifold roles of modern women in terms of their personal environment: family, workplace, and society. Traditional Societies. Distribution of Roles within the Family History shows that men and women play different roles in many traditional societies. They also show they had a different evolution. Men were hunters, while

women were gatherers. The idea that men are almost always the ones who take action is connected with the males desire to play such parts as the wise man, the food provider and the conqueror of human societies. Based on this idea, the theories of human evolution have focused on mens activities rather than womens, and placed the power to adjust of individuals at its very core. As in primitive societies women could not procure food by themselves, and nutrients provision was central for life, they reached an agreement with men provided they would guarantee to become their partners. And thus, while men were away, women stayed at home to

Table 1.1 The different position of genders by type of activity in 244 traditional present societies after George P. Murdock (1935) (apud Constantin Schifirne, 1999, 99).

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Evoluia femeii n societate


Irina Rdu OPINIE Membru al echipei de implementare a Proiectului S redescoperim coala

entru a nelege cum a evoluat statutul femeii contemporane, este necesar o trecere n revist a rolurilor pe care le-a avut aceasta pe parcursul timpului, nc din epoca primitiv. Astfel, vor fi mai uor de identificat originile unor comportamente, atitudini i prejudeci existente n rndul societii actuale cu privire la multiplele roluri ale femeii moderne raportate la mediul cruia i aparine: familie, serviciu, societate.

Societile tradiionale. Diviziunea rolurilor n familie. Istoria ne arat c brbaii i femeile aveau roluri diferite n multe societi tradiionale, aadar au evoluat

diferit. Brbaii erau vntori, n timp ce femeile erau culegtoare. Faptul c cel care ntreprinde aceste acte este aproape ntotdeauna brbatul leag aceast idee cu dorina lui de a ocupa rolul neleptului, rolul furnizorului de hran i rolul cuceritorului n societile umane. Cu aceast idee ca temei, teoriile evoluiei umane s-au axat pe activitile brbailor i nu pe cele ale femeilor, ca parte central a puterii de adaptare a indivizilor. Deoarece n societatea primitiv asigurarea nutrienilor ocupa un rol foarte important, iar femeile, n cele mai multe cazuri, nu puteau procura singure hrana, ele ncheie o nelegere cu brbatul doar dac acesta dorete

Tabelul 1.1 Poziia diferit a fiecrui sex n raport cu tipul de activitate n 244 de societi tradiionale actuale dup George P. Murdock (1935) (apud Constantin Schifirne, 1999, 99). Nr. 1 / 2011

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the evolution of women in society

take care of the household and their children. In time, women have developed an increased sense of protection over their children. One could state the natural and strong mother-child bond has been the main constraint for primitive women to be subjected to more dramatic labour and living conditions. We cannot speak of a so-called liberation of women from the gatherer role but once men agreed working the land together and even later on when prisoners of war would no longer be killed, but taken as booty and turned into slaves instead. It is at that time that women would turn their attention onto children and start investing time and energy in their upbringing and education.

Women in the Ancient World Over the years, marriage turns from a union very much alike a partnership into a much respected institution by most community members. However, the roles of family members remain the same: the woman has the role of a wife, mother, household manager, while the man continues to be involved in the activities of the community, politics, and warfare. The woman is the one who takes care of the family elders, as in the Ancient World, there was a developed sense of belonging to a particular group and the group or collective interests prevailed over individual interests. Nevertheless when referring to women of those times we cannot confine to this descriptive picture of the role of women in society, as a womans status was determined by the cultural context to a great extent.

Privileges in Ancient Egypt. Egyptian society appears to have been more lenient towards women. Although much of the usual domestic responsibilities of primeval women are to be found in the lifestyle of female Egyptians (mostly household tasks), they enjoyed more privileges than their predecessors. After marriage
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is institutionalized, women and men are seen as equal individuals. Egyptian women enjoyed certain rights that their contemporaries in other civilizations of the ancient world did not: they could own property, secure various sources of income, become active members of their community. Ancient Egypt is the ideal background for the development of the family concept, the lower and middle classes being more than often monogamous. Only royalty could be polygamous. Although polygamy implies the existence of several wives, the queen alone could influence her husbands decisions. The most famous feminine figure of Ancient Egypt is undoubtedly Queen Cleopatra who epitomizes womens evolution in different societies. She acceded to the throne after her fathers death and proved to be a true leader who wouldnt let her territory be conquered by the enemy. A native Macedonian, she is the only member of her family to have learnt Egyptian apart from the other six she spoke. Through her diverse initiatives, she drew her people close to her and protected them from the Roman invaders. Her death was a queens demise as she took her life to avoid capture and the humiliation of being sent in chains to Rome by Octavian. Unlike their counterparts in ancient times, the modern Egyptian women have quite a different position today. In the Egyptian culture strongly influenced by Islam faith and law women are stated lower than men and must obey their husbands. Polygamy is a legal form of union under the law. Domestic violence and marital abuse are punished provided a witness can testify it. Until recently, women were allowed to travel or have a suitable job as long as their husbands approved of it. The very notion of beauty is different from the ancient Egyptian civilization, and this is largely due to their Islamic religion. Thus, womens code dress is so strict that they must wear a veil called Hijab to cover their head, ears and neck. The pbuh - women who keep to the religion of Islam exactly as the wives of the Prophet Muhammad did - are even stricter with their public appearances, as they wear a black veil called Niqab that covers their face. Roman Beauty. The Romans were strongly influenced by religion. And this shaped two attitudes towards life: conformity and formalism. While complying with tradition, they successfully adjusted to the new cultural influences and concurrently developed two kinds of eulogy: praise of the past and praise of the present times. What mattered for Romans was a sense of personal accomplishment through fully living ones life. This idea is largely shared and embraced by Roman women, especially women writers who depict how men writers apprehend certain social practices that are capital for womens lives. Like Egyptian women, Romans scored an evolution in relation to the strong sex. Following a time when women had no right to speak, Roman women are encouraged to take part in decision-making on family matters, and

evoluia femeii n societate

s i ofere garanii, ca partener. Astfel, n timp ce brbaii erau abseni, femeile devin responsabile de meninerea gospodriei i de creterea copiilor, dezvoltnd, n cele din urm, un sim de protecie mai sporit asupra acestora. Am putea afirma c tocmai aceast relaie natural i puternic a mamei cu copilul su a fost principala constrngere a mamelor primitive de a fi supuse unor condiii mai severe de munc i de trai. Despre o aa-zis eliberare a femeii din rolul de culegtor se poate vorbi n momentul n care brbaii au fost de acord s cultive pmntul alturi de ele, dar i mult mai trziu n istorie, cnd prizonierii de rzboi nu mai erau ucii, ci transformai n sclavi. n acel moment, femeia i ndreapt atenia din ce n ce mai mult ctre copii, investind timp n creterea i educaia acestora.

Femeia n Antichitate Odat cu trecerea anilor, cstoria i schimb natura, dintr-o uniune care seamn mai degrab a parteneriat, ntr-o form de instituie respectat de mare parte a membrilor comunitii. Totui, rolurile membrilor familiei rmn aceleai: femeia are rolul de soie, mam, administrator al gospodriei, pe cnd brbatul continu s se implice n activiti ale obtii, politic, rzboaie. Femeia este cea care are n grij i btrnii familiei, deoarece, n Anchitate, simul de apartenen la un anumit grup este foarte dezvoltat, iar interesul acestuia prima, n cele mai multe cazuri, fa de interesul individual. Cu toate acestea, atunci cnd ne referim la femeia acelor timpuri, nu putem avea doar aceast imagine descriptiv a rolului ei n societate, deoarece condiia femeii era foarte mult determinat de cultura creia aceasta i aparinea. Privilegiile Egipului Antic. Societatea egiptean era, poate, cea mai ngduitoare fa de condiia femeii. Dei mare parte din responsabilitile domestice ale femeii primitive se regsesc i n modalitatea de convieuire a femeilor egiptene (atribuii gospodreti), ele se bucurau de privilegii pe care predecesoarele lor nu le-au avut. Prin instituirea cstoriei, femeile i brbaii erau vzui ca indivizi egali. Femeile aveau anumite drepturi de care cele din alte civilizaii nu se bucurau la acea vreme: dreptul de a poseda o proprietate, de a-i asigura diverse surse de venit, de a fi un membru activ n colectivitate. Egiptul antic este un cadru ideal pentru dezvoltarea noiunii de familie, monogamia fiind cel mai des ntlnit n rndul claselor inferioare i de mijloc. Doar cei care aparineau regalitii aveau dreptul de a practica poligamia. Dei presupunea existena mai multor soii, una singur dintre acestea, regina, putea avea influen asupra deciziilor soului su. Cea mai cunoscut femeie din Egiptul Antic este, fr ndoial, regina Cleopatra, care ntruchipeaz cel mai bine evoluia femeii n diferite civilizaii. Ajuns la tron dup moartea tatlui su, aceasta se dovedete a fi un adevrat conductor care nu i las teritoriul cucerit de

dumani. De origine macedonean, ea a fost singura din familia sa care a nvat limba egiptean (n afar de alte ase pe care le cunotea) i care a avut diverse iniiative de a apropia poporul i de a-l apra de cotropitorii latini. nsi moartea ei a fost una demn de o regin, aceasta sinucigndu-se nainte s fie prins de Octavian i trimis n lanuri la Roma. n ciuda statutului su n Antichitate, femeia egiptean din ziua de azi are o condiie contrastant. n cultura egiptean (puternic influenat de legea i religia musulman), femeia este supus brbatului n tot ceea ce face. Poligamia este prevzut prin lege ca form legal de uniune, abuzurile fizice asupra femeilor, violena domestic pot fi pedepsite doar n cazul n care exist un martor la cele ntmplate. Pn acum civa ani, femeile nu aveau voie s cltoreasc fr acordul soilor lor, sau nu puteau practica anumite meserii. nsi noiunea de frumusee este diferit fa de civilizaia antic, acest fapt fiind datorat n mare parte religiei musulmane de care aparin. Astfel, femeile sunt obligate s se mbrace ct mai decent i s poarte un vl numit Hijab ce le acoper capul, urechile i gtul. Femeile care in religia islamic ntocmai nevestelor profetului Mohamed (pbuh), sunt i mai stricte cu felul n care se afieaz n public, ele purtnd un vl negru ce le acoper ntreaga fa, numit Niqab.

Frumuseea roman. Romanii aveau o mentalitate influenat de religie, care a generat dou atitudini n viaa indivizilor: conformismul i formalismul. Acetia au pus n balan respectarea cutumelor i adaptarea la noile influene, dezvoltnd astfel, simultan, dou tipuri de elogiere n stilul lor de via: elogierea trecutului i a prezentului. Pentru ei primeaz un concept de mplinire pe plan personal, prin trirea pe deplin a vieii, mprtit i de multe femei romane la acea vreme, n special scriitoare, care redau modul n care scriitorii brbai percep unele practici sociale, capitale pentru viaa femeilor. Asemntor femeii egiptene, i femeia roman se bucur de o evoluie n raport cu sexul puternic. Dup o perioad n care acestea nu aveau dreptul la cuvnt, femeilor latine le este ncurajat participarea la luarea deciziilor n familie, ba chiar i sftuirea soilor atunci
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even counsel their husbands whenever they ask for their more interested in religion and warfare, while Athenians advice. They are mater mother. The term is derived were more concerned about politics and arts. In terms from matron, which means a married woman enjoying of private life, family was its very core. Men were the certain rights and privileges in her family. authoritarian figures of the family and women played One difference in status between Egyptian and the supporting role in their childrens upbringing and Roman women is that education, especially the latter had less legal their daughters. rights. They were under Like Egyptian women, Romans scored an evolution in Women in Ancient the fathers authority relation to the strong sex. Following a time when women Greece did not enjoy or guardianship until had no right to speak, Roman women are encouraged to a different legal status marriage and entered take part in decision making on family matters, and even if compared to their under the husbands counsel their husbands whenever they ask for their advice. Roman counterparts. control afterwards. This They were under the They are mater mother. The term is derived from matron, was due to the current authority of and depenpopular belief that which means a married woman enjoying certain rights and dent on either their women are weaker and privileges in her family. fathers or husbands. more helpless creatures. They could not choose Nevertheless they were their husbands or maentitled to a certain Irina Rdu nage their dowries. A Team Member of Lets Rediscover School Project amount of education, Moreover so, the spouwhich would increase to ses did not live together, some extent so that in time women would be sufficiently the woman being confined to a specific room or flat prepared to teach their own children at home. They (thalamus) in the home, away from the eyes of men became more demanding with their domestic servants and allowed no contact with them. They would not eat claiming they had minimal knowledge about the sciences together, not even at feasts where the only present women of the time, especially philosophy. were servant slaves, courtesans and dancers. The womens fine education determines their more Nonetheless women were allowed to participate in active involvement in society hence an increased interest different activities, but only if accompanied by their in fashion and accessories, personal care and beauty. female slaves. They could take walks or go to the theatre, They were concerned about their looks and this was particularly tragedies, as comedies were for audiences of complemented by an adequate attitude for the fitting lower class. occasion: when going for a walk, attending gladiatorial A distinct rank of ancient women were priestesses shows, theater plays and pantomimes (the only time who worshipped the Greek goddesses. Priestesses were when women were allowed on stage). married women, as in Ancient Greece women were not considered impure as they would be perceived in the Christian world.

Hellenistic Purity. Ancient Greece laid the foundation for many of todays modern institutions and heralded superior political, government and legal structures. Public life was run differently in each polis (city-state) and this largely depended on the local interests Spartans were
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Women in the Middle Ages. Rediscovery of Beauty. The Middle Ages unveil a new feminine aspect, and thus womens role in society becomes increasingly important. Once guardianship is abolished, a woman is no longer owned as any other property by her husband who continues to be the head of the household. Women are entitled to own or sell property. English women of the aristocracy also lawfully enjoyed civil rights: they could write their will, be part of legal actions, sign documents. For over one thousand years, humankind had directed its efforts towards development of human thinking, proficiency and skills. However, under the influence of the Eastern world, people are increasingly enchanted by material possessions, the delight of colors and the pleasure to feel diverse objects. Love is coveted by many, sung by minstrels and embodied in vivid works of art where woman and her beauty are central. Poetry allowed reversing the traditional women obedience to men. And in doing so, women sexuality encouraged a new and accessible form of spontaneous love to those from

evoluia femeii n societate

cnd acetia o doresc. Ele sunt mater (mam, cuvnt face plimbri sau participa la spectacole de teatru, n derivat din matrona, n traducere, femeie cstorit cu special tragedii, comediile fiind adresate unui public de anumite drepturi n familie). clas inferioar. O diferen fa de femeile egipetene o constituie O categorie aparte de femei antice o reprezentau inferioritatea juridic a femeii romane, aceasta fiind sub preotesele care slujeau n mare parte zeielor. Acestea tutela tatlui pn la cstorie, apoi sub cea a soului, erau, ns, femei cstorite, deoarece n Grecia Antic din cauza credinei populare conform creia femeile femeia nu era considerat impur, cum urmeaz a fi sunt firi sensibile i neajutorate. Cu toate acestea, ele au etichetat n cretinism. acces la o anumit instruire pedagogic care crete cu Femeile n Evul Mediu. Redescoperirea frumosului. timpul ca exigen, iar femeile ajung s fie suficient de Evul Mediu aduce la lumin o nou latur a femeii, pregtite pentru a-i instrui proprii copii, ba chiar mai rolul su n societate fiind din ce n ce mai important. mult, pentru a avea pretenia ca i personalul de serviciu Odat cu suprimarea dreptului la tutel, femeile nu mai s aib minime cunotine despre tiinele ce erau sunt un bun aflat n proprietatea soului, capul familiei. dezbtute atunci, cu precdere filosofia. Ele au dreptul de a deine sau vinde bunuri materiale, Educaia aleas a femeilor determin o prezen iar n Anglia, pentru femeile nobile, s-au instituit i mai activ a acestora drepturi civile (de a n colectivitate, de scrie un testament, de unde un interes sporit Asemntor femeii egiptene, i femeia roman se bucur de a participa la aciuni fa de modul de a se o evoluie n raport cu sexul puternic. Dup o perioad n juridice, de avea drept mbrca i accesoriza, care acestea nu aveau dreptul la cuvnt, femeilor latine le de semntur etc.). de a se ngriji, de a se este ncurajat participarea la luarea deciziilor n familie, Vreme de mai cosmetiza. Aceast gri- ba chiar i sftuirea soilor atunci cnd acetia o doresc. bine de o mie de ani, j pentru a arta bine oamenii i canalizaEle sunt mater (mam, cuvnt derivat din matrona, n era completat de o ser energia spre dezatitudine potrivit afi- traducere, femeie cstorit cu anumite drepturi n familie). voltarea intelectului at n anumite mouman, a competenelor mente, acestea avnd i a abilitilor. Totui, numeroase ocazii de sub influena orienIrina Rdu Membru al echipei de implementare a Proiectului S redescoperim coala a-i etala frumuseea: tal, oamenii ncep la diverse plimbri, s fie din ce n ce mai lupte cu gladiatori, spectacole de teatru, de pantomim ncntai de lumea material, de plcerea culorilor i (singurele unde femeile puteau urca pe scen). de senzaia tactil oferit de diverse obiecte. Dragostea Puritatea elen. Grecia Antic a pus bazele multor ncepe s fie un sentiment rvnit de muli, cntat de instituii prezente i n societile actuale, inaugurnd trubaduri i ntruchipat n opere de art vii care au forme superioare de organizare politic, administrativ- n centrul lor femeia i frumuseea ei. n poezie a fost teritorial, judiciar etc. Viaa public se desfura posibil inversarea tradiionalei supuneri a femeii n diferit n fiecare polis (cetate-stat), n funcie de interesele faa brbatului, n condiiile n care sexualitatea femeii localnicilor (n Sparta se manifesta interes pentru res- ncurajeaz o nou form de iubire, spontan, accesibil pectarea religiei i pentru pregtirea rzboaielor, pe cnd celor din clase sociale diferite care vzuser n instituia n Atena oamenii erau preocupai de politic, arte), dar, cstoriei un agent de control social. n ceea ce privete viaa privat, aceasta avea ca nucleu Din momentul n care poligamia este condamnat familia. Brbatul era cel care se ocupa n mod autoritar de Biseric, iar femeile obin dreptul de a-i da de evoluia familiei, soiile avnd doar rolul de a asigura consimmntul pentru cstorie, apare aciunea de a suport pentru ngrijirea copiilor i educarea acestora, n curta o femeie, ca ideal cavaleresc, i idealizarea femeii special a fetelor. n literatura trubadurilor. Nici n Grecia Antic femeile nu beneficiau de un Totui, nu toate femeile se bucurau de aceste privilegii statut juridic aparte fa de cele romane. Ele erau sub n Evul Mediu. Mare parte dintre ele erau pregtite nc autoritatea tatlui sau a soului, dup caz. Nu aveau de mici copile pentru a deveni soii i mame. Cele din dreptul de a-i alege soul i nici de a-i administra dota. rndul nobilimii i cultivau talentele i aptitudinile, pe Mai mult dect att, soii nu locuiau mpreun, femeii cnd cele din clasele inferioare erau obligate s nvee s fiindu-i rezervat o camer sau un apartament ferit de lucreze inclusiv munci specifice brbailor, multe ateliere ochii brbailor (gineceu). Ei nu luau masa mpreun, nici meteugreti fiind alctuite majoritar din femei. mcar n cazul unor ospee organizate, unde singurele Cele care nu doreau o viaa domestic, aveau opiunea femei prezente erau sclavele care serveau, curtezanele de a merge la mnstire, unde puteau obine o funcie i dansatoarele. important i exercita autoritatea care nu li se permitea Femeile aveau, totui, dreptul de a participa la diverse n afar. activiti, ns numai nsoite de sclavele lor. Ele puteau n Evul Mediu, ns, nu existau foarte multe
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different social classes who had seen in the institution of this aspiration was born with the French Revolution, the marriage an agent of social control. first state to have granted the right to vote was Finland Once polygamy is condemned by the Church and (1906) and this occurred after a long period when women obtain the right for consensual marriage, the voting had been the exclusive privilege of wealthy men. courtly practice of wooing and chivalric ideal occur and Subsequently, by WW I and during the interwar period, women are idealized in the troubadours literature. most European countries regulated the right to vote However, not all women enjoyed such privileges in for women. Later on, these rights were introduced into the Middle Ages. From international law: the early childhood, the Universal Declaration Since Renaissance, women from well off families had majority of women were of Human Rights (1948) raised to become wives gained certain rights that the ones of lower condition and the Convention and mothers. Noble did not have. As a consequence of their contribution on the Elimination ladies were encouraged to society in keeping family life-work balance, women of All Forms of to foster their talents gradually realize their importance and value and Discrimination against and skills, while women Women in 1978. begin to aspire to new rights they had been deprived of from lower classes were In Romania, women until then. bound to work as hard were officially entitled

as men, and in many to freely exercise workshops labour was their right to elect the done by women. Irina Rdu leaders in 1938. The Those women who establishment of the A Team Member of Lets Rediscover School Project did not want to live a Communist regime, and domestic life could choose to go to a monastery where more specifically under Gheorghe Gheorghiu Dej rule, they would eventually hold an important position and encouraged womens involvement in a massive form of exercise the authority they were denied in the outside employment. However, women did not enjoy the legal world. There were not so many nuns in the Middle Ages, framework that allowed development of a career and as an important donation was imperative from all to be access to managing positions. On the contrary, the official admitted, so young girls from the lower classes had no speeches by Communist leaders encouraged women to access in monasteries. focus on family life and praised them whenever they Thus, there were but two options available to honest fulfilled their motherly duties. women: the obedient wife or the devoted nun though not all chose one of the two patterns. There were other roles for women during that period: a writer, poet, courtesan, witch etc.

Women in Modern Times Whereas in the Ancient World and the Middle Ages womens standing was influenced by their being subordinated to men, industrialization brought about gradual involvement of women in labours and tasks that had been traditionally performed by men. More precisely, women began to change their priorities and devote less time to their domestic life at the expense of their newly acquired social life and employment in various jobs that helped them spend more time in plants, factories and workshops than with their family or taking care of their children. Since Renaissance, women from well off families had gained certain rights that the ones of lower condition did not have. As a consequence of their contribution to society in keeping family life-work balance, women gradually realize their importance and value and begin to aspire to new rights they had been deprived of until then. A major step forward in acknowledging and accepting womens role is made by society itself when granting the voting right for women, perhaps one of the most important rights of democratic societies. Though
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By the end of the Communist dictatorship, Romanian women get increasingly involved in their professional life. They wish to have equal rights and rewards to those of men. They have gained equal opportunities in education and employment. However, no matter how hard they try to be considered equal to men, women come up against a cultural barrier that requires them to abide by the tradition of patriarchal society where women are reduced to running their homes and being in charge with upbringing their children. Thus, a great many contemporary women are facing a reality where they need to manage their time so that they can fulfil both roles: a wife/mother and a career woman.

evoluia femeii n societate

condiie inferioar nu se bucurau. Treptat, datorit aportului adus societii prin armonizarea vieii de familie cu slujba pe care o aveau, femeile i contientizeaz valoarea i ncep s aspire la a se bucura de drepturi de care erau private n acel moment. Un pas important fcut de societate n recunoaterea i acceptarea rolului important al femeii este fcut n momentul n care acestora le este garantat dreptul la vot, poate unul dintre cele mai importante drepturi ntr-o societate democratic. Dei aceast dorin a femeilor s-a nfiripat n contiina lor nc din timpul Revoluiei Franceze, primul stat care a acordat acest drept a fost Finlanda (1906), dup o lung perioad n care votul era un privilegiu doar al celor bogai, exclusiv brbai. Ulterior, n apropierea primului rzboi mondial i n perioada interbelic, mare parte dintre rile Europei au reglementat dreptul la vot al femeilor, urmnd ca, mai trziu, acesta s fie stipulat i n legea internaional, n Declaraia Universal a Drepturilor Omului (1948) i n Convenia pentru eliminarea tuturor formelor de discriminare a femeilor din 1978. n Romnia, femeile au devenit capabile oficial s-i exercite dreptul de a-i alege conductorii n anul 1938. Odat cu instaurarea comunismului, mai ales n timpul regimului lui Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, femeile sunt clugrie, deoarece era necesar o contribuie financiar ncurajate s se implice masiv ntr-o form de activifoarte important pentru a fi admise, iar fetele din clasele tate remunerat. inferioare nu au avut acces. Cu toate acestea, femeile nu s-au bucurat de cadrul Astfel, pentru femeie existau doar dou alegeri legislativ care s le permit o evoluie ierarhic, considerate respectasau accesul la unele bile: soia supus, sau funcii de conducere. clugria devotat nc din Renatere, femeile din clasele bogate obinuser Dimpotriv, discurreligiei, ns nu toate anumite drepturi de care celelalte femei, de condiie surile oficiale comufemeile optau pentru inferioar, nu se bucurau. Treptat, datorit aportului adus niste ncurajau viaa unul dintre aceste pro- societii prin armonizarea vieii de familie cu slujba pe care de familie a femeilor, totipuri, ceea ce deter- o aveau, femeile i contientizeaz valoarea i ncep s aspire acestea fiind elogiate min existena altor ca nite eroine n mola a se bucura de drepturi de care erau private n acel moment. roluri ale femeii n acea mentul n care i perioad: scriitoare, arndeplineau datoria de tist, curtezan, vra fi mame. jitoare etc. Odat cu sfritul Irina Rdu dictaturii comuniste, Membru al echipei de implementare a Proiectului S redescoperim coala Femeia modern femeile din Romnia Dac n antichitate devin din ce n ce mai i n evul mediu, condiia femeii era una influenat implicate n viaa profesional. Ele i doresc drepturi i de relaia ei de subordonare fa de brbat, odat cu recompense egale cu ale brbailor. Au acces la acelai tip industrializarea, respectiv cu implicarea progresiv a de educaie i locuri de munc. femeilor n muncile specifice brbailor, femeia ncepe Totui, orict de mult ar ncerca s fie considerate s se bucure de un nou statut. Mai exact, femeile ncep egale ale brbailor, femeile ntlnesc o barier cultus i schimbe axa prioritilor i i dedic din ce n ce ral care le impune s respecte cutumele unei societi mai puin timp vieii exclusiv domestice, n detrimentul patriarhale, unde femeii i este rezervat funcia unei viei sociale dobndite odat cu angajarea acestora de administrator al gospodriei i responsabil de n diverse posturi, care le oblig s petreac mai mult creterea copiilor. timp n uzine, fabrici i ateliere, dect n snul familiei, Astfel, mare parte dintre femeile contemporane avnd grij de copii. se confrunt cu anumite situaii n care trebuie s-i nc din Renatere, femeile din clasele bogate organizeze timpul, astfel nct s poate ndeplini ambele obinuser anumite drepturi de care celelalte femei de roluri: soie/mam i femeie de carier.
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Women in the Orthodox Church

Diana Budeanu

VIEWPOINT

A social worker with Work Is Feminine Project In my attempt to describe women and their relationship with the Orthodox Church, I would like to start with the noble emergence of the first woman in history, whose very foundation is Gods reason to create her. When God created woman, He clearly showed what rank, prerogatives and rights were given to her. God modeled woman with His own hands from Adams ribs and named her Eve, or life, as this was to be her greatest role. In the Churchs teachings, so wonderfully integrated by the Holy Fathers of Spirituality, woman is endowed with a major, extensive mission. Holy women are perfect icons in which every woman can mirror herself. They are mothers, wives, virgins, empresses, humble married women or widows. No aspect of womans complex personality is left aside. In the Orthodox Church, womens primary mission, apart from their roles in society, is to be a wife and mother. Both parts are equally important and complementary. Womens most important role is by far being mothers. The most precious gift that women have received from their Creator is that they can give birth to a new life. Woman is called to give birth to a bodily and spiritual life and creates, in turn, an intimate relationship when she conceives. During pregnancy, the baby is completely dependent on its mother; it feels, hears and lives through her. One can say that a mother shapes her own child from the very beginning. Many surveys have repeatedly emphasized that the same stress related factors that afflict the mother may inflict congenital disorders with her unborn child. The inseparable and unspoiled bond that God planted in mother and child is unique; the child is soft wax where his mother deeply impresses her seal. This mystery persists after birth when the child makes no difference between itself and its mother, for
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Femeia n Biserica Ortodox

Diana Budeanu OPINIE Asistent social n cadrul Proiectului Munca are genul feminin n ncercarea de a face o prezentare a femeii n Biserica ortodox, a ncepe cu istoria apariiei ei, care, din punctul meu de vedere, este una nobil, ce are ca temelie motivaia Lui Dumnezeu de a o crea. n actul Su creator, El arat foarte clar ceea ce trebuie s fie, n ce rang o plaseaz, ce prerogative i confer, precum i ce drepturi i pstreaz. Dumnezeu a creat femeia cu propriile mini din coasta primului creat, Adam. I-a pus numele Eva (via), pentru c acesta avea s fie cel mai important rol al su. n nvtura Bisericii, sintetizat de Sfinii Prini, femeii i se aloc un rol important ca ntindere i importan. Sfintele sunt exemple n care fiecare femeie se poate regsi. Ele sunt mame, soii, fecioare, mprtese, femei modeste, cstorite sau vduve. Nimic din personalitatea complex a femeii nu este lsat la o parte. n Biserica Ortodox, femeia este, naintea tuturor rolurilor pe care le ndeplinete n societate, mam i soie. Ambele roluri sunt pe o poziie echivalent ca valoare i chiar sunt complementare. Rolul cel mai de pre al femeii este, de departe, acela de mam. Cel mai mare dar pe care femeia l-a putut primi de la nsui Creatorul ei este naterea de prunci. Ea este chemat s druiasc via trupeasc i sufleteasc, crend, la rndu-i, o relaie foarte strns nc de la zmislire. n timpul sarcinii, copilul este complet dependent de mama lui; el simte, aude i triete prin ea. Astfel, nc de la nceput, mama l modeleaz. Multe studii au subliniat, n mod repetat, c factorii de stres care afecteaz mama afecteaz i copilul, pn ntracolo nct acesta se poate nate cu unele boli. Legtura indisolubil sdit de Dumnezeu ntre prunc i mama sa nu are excepii, copilul este ca o cear moale n care se imprim sigiliul mamei. Aceast tain este continuat i dup natere, cnd copilul nu face diferena ntre el i
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they are one. A baby senses when its mother is anxious and will absorb her feelings. And it may experience physiological feedback such as cramps. Scientific research acknowledges Gods work and what the Saints teach us: to have healthy children, women must live a calm and peaceful life, pray and keep alive the bond with their Creator. And children will receive this spiritual wealth that becomes manifest in the harmonious rapport between body, spirit and mind. This role has no immediate end in offering a natural birth; it will however materialize only in childs upbringing through a conscientious education in the years to come until the childs full development. Here is a good example of a mothers spiritual giving nature. This is a vital role in society. We have an old saying for someone

Saint Paul says: Men love your women as Jesus Christ has loved His Church. In other words, a man shall love and cherish his wife as much as Jesus Christ loves His Church, and he shall take care of her as much as Jesus Christ takes care of His Church. So the only way the Church allows man to submit his wife is affection, love, gentleness and care.
who misbehaves: the seven-years parental input at home is missing, which emphasizes the importance of family education. A mother is building the backbone of both the future individual personality and society. Family dysfunctions are directly reflected in society. Women and mothers have a tremendous influence on society at large and therefore on its development. A healthy society cannot exist unless populated by well-educated individuals. And where would manners and good
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education be better grounded if not family? A mother watches with deep patience, love and wisdom every step that her child takes. Mothers are support pillar for child development and the future evolution of a whole generation and the nation. They are the corner stone that cannot be replaced or equaled by any other parameters. There is no substitute for a mothers commitment and love towards her child and his/her education, as her most successful work is her childs achievement. God gave women so much power of love that they can take on fathers role in their children education. No matter how a woman is or looks like, in her childs eyes she will always be the perfect woman and the recipient of his/her steady flow of love. Thus, a mothers soul is filled with strength, courage and boldness that can move mountains. In the Orthodox Church, the icon mother figure is Virgin Mary, the Mother of God, who endures with infinite love and patience the martyrdom and crucifixion of Her Son. It is worth mentioning that, in time, the gift of motherhood has highlighted other distinct feminine merits, which do not cast shade on mans qualities. Another aspect of womans spiritual giving nature is the role of a wife. The most precious gift of God to man is to make him wife. And the Lord God said: It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him1. Woman was created for man to fulfill two major roles: wife and help, and she has equal greatness. Woman was obviously created to be mans equal counterpart, so Gods purpose fully emphasizes that woman is not inferior to man. She is not created of inferior matter; she is made out of Adams rib: This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man2. The man-woman (husband-wife) relationship is based on equal and complementary terms, and each party acts in accord with its counterpart and with a view to form a whole union that nothing would break or disturb. In this light, stating that the doings of a mans are more important than a womans would be meaningless. Each one of them has a distinct and complementary part inside the union. Each of them has to honor what the other succeeds to accomplish for the whole to work well. As Father Cleopa said: Man is the head of family, and Jesus Christ is the head of man3. What should be noted is that this quotation asserts a relationship of submission and not obedience. To clarify this issue, its worth explaining that no man needs an obedient woman who would respond to rules as a slave, but one who would submit to him with love, patience and gentleness, in other words one who would support him. What would marriage look like if women are afraid of men? God did not create the woman to be a slave to the man, but to help, love, respect and submit to him as long as he takes care of her. Saint Paul says: Men love your women as Jesus Christ has loved His Church4. In other words, a man

evoluia femeii n societate

mama lui; pentru el, ei doi sunt una. Copilul simte cnd pentru el ca s fie asemenea lui.1 mama lui este agitat i devine i el la fel, putnd avea n alt ordine de idei, femeia a fost fcut pentru i reacii fiziologice, cum ar fi colicii. tiina confirm brbat cu scopul de a ndeplini dou mari roluri: de soie lucrarea lui Dumnezeu i ceea ce au spus Sfinii: pentru i de ajutor, avnd n acelai timp, o noblee egal cu a a avea copii sntoi, femeia trebuie s fie linitit, s se acestuia. Scopul pentru care a fost creat subliniaz n roage, pstrnd nealterat legtura cu Cel care a creat-o. mod clar faptul c femeia nu-i este inferioar brbatului. Copilul primete aceast bogie duhovniceasc ce se Ea nu a fost creat dintr-o materie inferioar lui, ci este manifest prin armonie fizic i sufleteasc. scoas din Adam nsui: Aceasta-i os din oasele mele i Acest rol ns nu are finalitate n oferirea unei nateri carne din carnea mea; ea se va numi femeie, pentru c naturale copiilor, ci se concretizeaz numai dac i este luat din brbatul su2. va educa pe acetia, ntr-un mod contient, n anii ce Relaia dintre brbat i femeie (ca so i soie) urmeaz pn la maturizarea lor deplin. Aici vedem un este o relaie de egalitate, fiecare acionnd n aspect al druirii de via sufleteasc la mam. Pentru complementaritate cu cellalt, n scopul de a se completa societate acesta este un rol vital. Cnd un om se comport urt se spune c i lipsesc cei 7 ani n acelai sens, Sfntul Apostol Pavel de acas, subliniindu-se rolul spune: Brbailor iubii pe femeile voastre educaiei primite acas. Mama, prin eforturile ei, construiete precum i Hristos a iubit Biserica . Cu alte coloana vertebral a personalitii omului i, implicit, a societii. cuvinte dac brbatul i va iubi femeia Disfuncionalitile familiale se precum Hristos a iubit Biserica, el va avea reflect direct n societate. Femeia, ca mam, exercit o influen grij de ea la fel cum Hristos a avut grij extraordinar asupra societii de Biseric. Aadar singura modalitate n ansamblu i, implicit, asupra funcionrii i dezvoltrii acesprin care Biserica i permite brbatului teia. O societate sntoas este o societate bine educat. i unde ar s-i supun femeia este prin afeciune, putea avea temelia aceast bun blndee i grija pentru ea. educaie, dac nu n familie? Mama este cea care, cu rbdare, cu dragoste i nelepciune, urmrete fiecare pas al copilului n evoluia sa. Ea devine i de a forma un ntreg care s nu permit niciunei fisuri astfel stlpul de susinere pe care se cldete viitorul s-i deregleze funcionalitatea. Privit astfel, aceast unei ntregi generaii i naiuni, o temelie care nu poate relaie nu permite afirmaia c ceea ce face soul este fi nlocuit n parametri reali i egali de altceva. Nimeni mai important dect ceea ce face soia. Ambii au roluri i nimic nu poate substitui devotamentul i dragostea definite i complementare. Amndoi trebuie s respecte unei mame pentru educaia copilului, care este, prin ceea ce reuete cellalt s fac pentru funcionarea excelen, opera cea mai valoroas a ei. Dumnezeu a ntregului. Aa dup cum amintete Printele Cleopa, nzestrat-o pe femeie cu atta putere, nct ea poate ierarhia n familie este urmtoarea: Brbatul este cap suplini lipsa tatlui n educaia copilului. Indiferent cum al femeii, iar Hristos cap al brbatului3. Ceea ce trebuie ar arta, sau cum ar fi o femeie, n ochii pruncului ei, ea observat este faptul c acest citat exprim o relaie este femeia perfect i spre ea i revars o foarte mare de supunere i nu o relaie de subjugare. n explicarea parte din dragostea sa. Astfel, sufletul mamei se umple acestuia se poate porni de la simpla afirmaie c niciun de puterea i ndrzneala ce pot muta munii. Imaginea brbat nu are nevoie de o femeie care s-i fie sclav, ci emblematic a mamei din Biserica Ortodox este Maica de o femeie care s i se supun n scopul ajutorrii lui, Domnului care, cu dragoste i rbdare fr margini, cu dragoste, rbdare i blndee. Ce fel de csnicie este ndur suferina rstignirii uciderii propriului Fiu. aceea n care femeia se teme de brbat? Dumnezeu nu Foarte interesant de observat este faptul c, n timp, a gndit femeia ca pe o sclav a brbatului, ci ca pe un acest dar de a fi mam i-a scos n eviden caliti cu ajutor, care s-l iubeasc i s-l respecte i s i se supun totul aparte fa de cele ale brbatului, ns nu l-a pus n pentru c acesta i poart de grij. umbr pe acesta. n acelai sens, Sfntul Apostol Pavel spune: Un alt aspect al druirii de via sufleteasc este rolul Brbailor, iubii pe femeile voastre precum i Hristos de soie al femeii. Ca soie, ea este darul cel mai de pre a iubit Biserica4. Cu alte cuvinte dac brbatul i va pe care Dumnezeu l-a putut face brbatului. Dumnezeu iubi femeia precum Hristos a iubit Biserica, el va avea zice: nu este bine ca omul s fie singur. S facem ajutor grij de ea la fel cum Hristos a avut grij de Biseric.
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The Only Thing That Matters


by Lucian Avramescu

Woman is the only thing that really matters and in saying it I know that many will raise their eyebrows... her skin speaks the languages of universal bliss, and cuddled to it, as if to earth, I can grasp constellations, heaven and hell, happiness and distress; walking by myself will better me not to mention the architecture of her inner self that makes beautiful cathedrals wane San Piedro, Duomo di Milano ... Woman is the only thing that really matters and carrying her in your arms you will swim across oceans, even though you cannot swim but in the waters of her eyes Without a woman our limousine is but a rumbling cart our bank account decreases even though it is rising our friends are afflicted by catching treason, in expensive wine tadpoles swim If only you have one a nightingale would sing in your chest you would gladly put prison clothes on as if going to your wedding, you would take stock of the stars in the sky as if being a universal Croesus and even though wind is whistling through your social tags: a train will run you over and if one whisper is unbitten you would roam the letters of her name and would be ready to make plans for the future when a luxury mortuary is lurking close to you a woman, dear gentlemen, is the only thing that can't be replaced but by her inner self her skin can speak all the languages of universal bliss, the glamorous delusion cheque is her currency in which we defeat global crises and here is why I think her knowledgeable science to make us happy or unhappy entitles her to be the doctor honoris causa of our soul mathematics the woman, gentlemen, - not to bore you the woman with her skin teaching us the alphabet of the blind, with her ever reversed cups of her breasts in which we can never foresee anything, the woman with her smiles silver and her nakedness that makes the universe complete is the only thing that really matters, gentlemen.

shall love and cherish his wife as much as Jesus Christ loves His Church, and he shall take care of her as much as Jesus Christ takes care of His Church. So the only way the Church allows man to submit his wife is affection, love, gentleness and care. St. John Crysostom Golden Mouth says: Woman is mans haven5. This golden word plainly refers to the womans role in her mans life. She should be his sanctuary when he comes back from war, be it a traditional battlefield war, or a war for survival in the present society. This haven should be a hospitable one filled with affection, devotion, gentle words and loving submission. Men generally tend to show off more in society, at work and in their social relationships; but they open their heart only at home. A woman deeply knows her husband, and she also knows when and how to motivate him reach his goals. So it is the woman who also knows how and when to listen to him, soothe him and stanch his wounds. The Holy Fathers say that a faithful woman who fully loves her husband is his greatest wealth. Likewise, the man who is happy at home will reach the stars, while an unhappy one will fall into the abyss. One good example of strong woman, who was actively involved in her husbands philanthropic activities during his life and after his death, was Saint Elisabeth, the Grand Duchess of Russia. She lived during the last period of the Romanov dynasty. She was a native German who united herself to the Orthodox Church and embraced the Russian people with love and protection. She was fully devoted to her husbands - the Grand Duke Sergei work and she fully supported him in his work. When he was killed in a bomb blast, she was strong enough to collect what had remained of his body and organized his funerals. When the Grand Dukes coach who had been wounded in the explosion too asked her if his master was well she answered that he had sent her and stayed with the wounded man until he was healed. Then during the civil war and the war against the Germans, the Duchess organized and ran hospitals and factories with volunteers. It is in these endeavors that she showed the true virtues of her soul. Therefore, the relationship between the two spouses should be based on love. And the driving force of love between man and woman could be what keeps society one. What I needed to emphasize with these thoughts is that the woman in the Orthodox Church is not a discriminated and so much the less an enslaved or exploited woman. On the contrary, she is a much loved and appreciated human being for her true value and virtues as a loving, gentle, tolerant and wise mother and wife. If every woman tried to consciously achieve the roles for which God created us, the whole world would be a better, wiser and happier place to live in. So before we live to be loved by society, let us live to please God!

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Aadar singura modalitate prin care Biserica i permite brbatului s-i supun femeia este prin afeciune, blndee i grij pentru ea. Sfntul Ioan Gur de Aur spune: femeia este liman al brbatului5. Acest cuvnt de aur face referire la rolul pe care femeia trebuie s-l aib n viaa brbatului. Ea trebuie s fie limanul pe care s se refugieze brbatul atunci cnd se ntoarce de la rzboi, fie c este vorba de un rzboi concret pe un cmp de lupt, fie c este un rzboi al supravieuirii, reprezentat de locul de munc al societii actuale. Limanul acesta trebuie s fie unul primitor, plin de dragoste i blndee, de cuvnt bun i de ascultare. n general, brbaii au tendina de a se manifesta mai mult n societate, la locul de munc i n relaiile cu ceilali; dar ei nu i pot deschide sufletul dect acas. Soia este cea care i cunoate soul n profunzime, care tie cum i cnd s-l motiveze s ajung la elurile propuse, dar i cnd i cum s-l liniteasc, s-l asculte i s-i oblojeasc rnile. Sfinii spun c o femeie credincioas, care i iubete deplin brbatul, este cea mai mare bogie a acestuia. Un so care i-a gsit mplinirea alturi de soia lui ajunge la stele, iar cel nefericit acas se cufund n adncuri. Un exemplu de femeie puternic ce s-a implicat activ n sprijinirea soului ei i, dup moartea acestuia, a avut o mare lucrare social, este Sfnta Elisabeta, Marea Ducesa a Rusiei. Ea a trit n timpul ultimei familii domnitoare n Rusia, dinastia Romanov. Era de origine german, dar a trecut la ortodoxism i a mbriat cu tot sufletul poporul rus. n timpul vieii soului ei, Marele Duce Serghei, a fost implicat activ n munca acestuia i l-a susinut ntrutotul. n momentul n care el a fost ucis de explozia unei bombe, a avut tria s strng rmiele trupului lui i s se ocupe de cele necesare. Cnd vizitiul Ducelui, care a fost rnit i el n explozie, a ntrebat-o dac stpnul lui este bine, Ducesa i-a spus c el a trimis-o i a stat la cptiul bolnavului pn la sfrit. Apoi, n timpul rzboiului intern i al celui cu nemii, Ducesa a organizat i condus spitale, fabrici n care lucrau voluntarii i i-a pus n valoare toate virtuile sufleteti. Aadar, relaia dintre soi trebuie s aib ca temelie dragostea, iar influena pe care o poate exercita legtura dragostei dintre brbat i femeie ar putea fi fora care s susin societatea laolalt. Ceea ce am dorit s subliniez prin aceste gnduri este faptul c femeia n Biserica Ortodox nu este o femeie discriminat i, cu att mai puin, o femeie subjugat i exploatat ci, mai degrab, ea este fiina apreciat la adevrata ei valoare, de mam i soie iubitoare, blnd, rbdtoare i neleapt. Dac fiecare femeie ar ncerca s ndeplineasc ntr-un mod contient rolurile pentru care Dumnezeu a creat-o, lumea ntreag ar fi mai bun, mai neleapt i, mai ales, fericit. Aadar, nainte de a fi femei plcute n societate, s fim femei plcute Lui Dumnezeu!

Singurul lucru care conteaz


de Lucian Avramescu

Femeia este singurul lucru care conteaz i afirm asta tiind c destui vor strmba din nas... Pielea ei tie toate limbile fericirii universale, lipit de ea, ca de rn, neleg constelaiile, raiul i iadul, bucuria i nefericirea; mersul pe jos prin mine nsumi mi face din ce n ce mai bine pentru a nu mai vorbi de arhitectura sinelui su care face s pleasc marile catedrale ale lumiiSan Piedro, Domul din Milano... Femeia este singurul lucru care conteaz cu trupul ei n brae poi traversa un ocean chiar dac nu tii s noi dect n apele ochilor ei Fr femeie limuzina noastr este o cru hodorogit contul la banc scade chiar dac este n cretere prietenii sunt plini de pojarul trdrii, n vinul scump mic mormolocii O ai i cnt privighetoarea n coul pieptului te mbraci n haine de pucrie fericit cum ai pleca la nunt, faci monetarul stelelor pe cer ca un nabab universal chiar dac-i fluiera vntul prin gicile sociale: te calc trenul i o oapt dac i-a rmas ntreag parcurgi literele numelui ei gata s urzeti planuri de viitor cnd de aproape te pndete o morga de lux femeia, domnilor, este singurul lucru care nu poate fi nlocuit dect de sinele sau pielea ei tie toate graiurile fericirii universale, cecul iluziilor este valuta ei prin care noi nvingem crizele mondiale iat de ce cred c tiina ei de-a ne face fericii sau nefericii i d dreptul la titlul de doctor honoris causa al complicatei noastre algebre sufleteti femeia domnilor - pentru a nu v plictisifemeia cu pielea ei care ne nva alfabetul orbilor, cu mereu ntoarsele ceti ale snilor n care noi nu ghicim niciodat, nimic, femeia cu toat argintria sursului sau cu goliciunea ei care umple universul este singurul lucru care conteaz domnilor

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Interview with Mrs.

Ecaterina Andronescu
The Rector of the Politehnica University of Bucharest, a Romanian woman politician, a former Minister of Education and also a wife, mother and grandmother, Mrs. Ecaterina Andronescu has successfully balanced these aspects and become one of the most popular public figures in Romania. She kindly accepted our invitation for an interview and shared with us a few secrets of her professional life, as well as her opinion on the issue of equal opportunities for men and women.
C4C Communication for Community Association During your professional career, you have managed to be in offices that women are hardly expected to accede to. You have hold important leading positions in politics: in 2009, you were the minister for Education and since 2004 you have been the Rector of Politehnica University of Bucharest. What is the secret of your successful career? EcaterinaAndronescu: I believe that hard work is the secret of professional success. My answer may seem plain and unexpected, but I think I have learnt to work out of love for my profession. Let me tell you that apart from all the offices you have mentioned before, I am a teacher. I graduated the Politehnica University and I knew back in my 8th grade that I would study here, in the Department of Industrial Chemistry. After graduation, I started teaching here. I truly believe that my teachers are the ones who have taught me the love for my profession and work; first of all, my master in the primary school, then my Chemistry teacher from high school, and then my Professors at the university. I must admit that I have chosen the Politehnica University of Bucharest knowing that the most demanding professors are here. Besides, I enjoy being challenged, as I feel this gives me the opportunity to measure my capabilities day by day. When I entered the university, I found out that the program does not close by the end of the day, once you closed your last lecture or seminar. You cannot teach sciences unless you strive after creating science, and this cannot be accomplished if always asking what time it is. Consequently, you beat the 24 hours of the day, but this is not a burden. You do this as if nothing else would exist in this world. I have a confession to make: I have always enjoyed working with my students, and the best time I recall is the occasions I have shared with my students. The students I used to work with in the lab until late at night, sometimes very late at night, and whom I would occasionally drive back to their campus. It sometimes happened that the police it was called militia then would stop us and ask where we were coming from at that late hour at night and we would innocently answer: From school. And that was the truth. A teachers job has its daily rewards. Today two of my Ph.D. candidates
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presented their doctoral dissertations and they were well received by the commission. Such events are reasons of sheer joy for me and they feed me and give me strength to go on. My professional career started as a Vice-dean of Politehnica University and then continued when I was elected a Dean of the same for a number of years. After that, I was a Secretary of State, a Minister and a Rector. All these offices came in a natural way and without my wanting to hold them, but this probably happened when I was more experienced. I recall having had a discussion when I was invited for Secretary of State, a very important discussion with one of my professors, and he said to me then: This school has helped you acquire this experience and you must now give this experience back to those who need it. C4C - What is your position on the issue of equal opportunities for women and men? EcaterinaAndronescu: It has never occurred to me that I have certain rights or that someone should grant me specific rights only because I am a woman. On the contrary, I believe that a person should be rewarded for his/her own merits, for what he/she does regardless the gender of that person. But we have to admit that things do not generally happen this way in society, on normal grounds, so to speak. Women must always work more than men for similar achievements and rewards. Because work does not mean to busy yourself with the activity that you carry out on a daily basis, but to also prove its worth. You have to accept that nobody will recognize your achievements simply because you are a woman, you have to prove that you deserve a higher office or rank in society. I think that women are favored because of their more balanced nature; they are more well-balanced and less warlike. Since childhood, they are taught to be creative, to build and not to destroy. Due to these aspects, women transfer what they are taught at home in their workplace. In this respect, I believe that institutions without women are unbalanced. I therefore invite and advice women to get involved in and penetrate those institutions where there are no women today and that they should dare accede to managing and decision-making positions. I also think there are fewer women in Parliament than needed and

evoluia femeii n societate

Interviu cu doamna

Ecaterina Andronescu
Rector al Universitii Politehnice din Bucureti, politician romn, fost ministru al Educaiei, soie, mam i bunic, doamna Ecaterina Andronescu a reuit s ating un echilibru ntre toate acestea, devenind una dintre cele mai cunoscute femei din Romnia. A acceptat cu amabilitate interviul nostru, din care am aflat cteva secrete legate de parcursul profesional i care este poziia dumneaei fa de problematica egalitii de anse ntre femei i brbai.

Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: De-a lungul activitii dvs. profesionale ai reuit s v aflai n anumite poziii sociale unde se presupune c femeilor le este dificil s accead. Ai avut funcii importante i de conducere n politic, n 2009 ai deinut portofoliul Ministerului Educaiei, iar din 2004 pn n prezent suntei Rectorul Universitii Politehnice din Bucureti. Care este secretul unui astfel de parcurs profesional? Ecaterina Andronescu: Cred c munca este secretul oricrui parcurs profesional. Poate c rspunsul meu este simplu i oarecum neateptat, dar eu cred c am nvat s muncesc cu dragoste fa de aceast meserie. Spun acestea pentru c, nainte de toate funciile pe care dvs. le-ai menionat, eu, de la nceput, am fost dascl n aceast coal. Am termint facultatea aici, tiam din clasa a 8-a c voi face Politehnica din Bucureti, Facultatea de Chimie Industrial, iar mai apoi am rmas cadru didactic aici. Cred c am nvat dragostea pentru meserie i munc de la profesorii mei. nti, de la nvtoarea mea, apoi de la profesoara mea de chimie din liceu, de asemenea de la profesorii mei din facultate. Trebuie s recunosc c am ales Universitatea Politehnic din Bucureti pentru c am aflat c aici sunt cei mai exigeni profesori, iar mie mi se prea normal s ntlneti o confruntare, pentru ca astfel s i msori forele n fiecare zi. Cnd am intrat n aceast Universitate am nvat c programul nu se termin nici dup ce i termini ora de seminar sau de curs. Nu poi s predai tiin dac tu nu te strduieti s creezi tiin, iar aceste lucruri nu se pot face cu ochii pe ceas. Ca urmare, treci de ziua-lumin, nu percepi asta ca pe o corvoad, faci asta ca i cnd nu ai putea face altceva. Vreau s v mrturisesc c mi-a plcut i mi place s lucrez cu studenii, iar lucrurile de care mi aduc foarte bine aminte i cu plcere sunt acele evenimente pe care le-am petrecut cu studenii. Studenii cu care stteam n laborator pn trziu, uneori foarte trziu, iar mai apoi

i duceam cu maina la cmin. Se ntmpla chiar s ne opreasc i poliia, la vremea respectiv miliia, i s ne ntrebe de unde venim la ora aceea foarte trzie, iar noi le rspundeam cu senintate c venim de la coal, ceea ce era adevrat. Meseria de dascl vine zilnic cu recompense. Chiar astzi doi dintre doctoranzii mei i-au susinut tezele de doctorat, iar aceste lucrri au fost privite foarte bine de comisia de evaluare. Aceste evenimente sunt reale motive de bucurie pentru mine i tot ele mi dau puterea de a merge mai departe. Parcursul meu profesional ncepe astfel: mai nti am fost pro-decan al UPB, apoi decan un numr important de ani. Dup aceea, am devenit secretar de stat, ministru, rector. Toate aceste funcii au venit fr a le cere eu - au venit, probabil, pentru c aveam mai mult experien. mi amintesc c am avut la un moment dat o discuie atunci cnd mi se propusese funcia de secretar de stat, o discuie foarte important cu unul dintre profesorii mei, iar domnia sa mi-a spus urmtoarele: ai ctigat de la coal foarte mult experien, coala i-a dat aceast experien, iar acum eti obligat s ntorci aceast experien fa de cei care au nevoie. C4C: Care este poziia dvs. fa de problematica egalitii de anse ntre femei i brbai? Ecaterina Andronescu: Niciodat nu am considerat c eu, ca femeie, am nite drepturi sau c trebuie s-mi dea cineva nite drepturi. Dimpotriv, eu consider c nu ar trebui s punem problema aa, ci, pur i simplu, fiecare om s primeasc recunotine pe baza meritelor pe care acesta le are, pe baza muncii depuse i astfel s nu te uii c este brbat sau femeie. Oricum, trebuie s recunoatem c, n general, n societate nu se ntmpl cum ar fi, s zicem, normal. Totdeauna o femeie, pentru aceleai reuite i recompense asemntoare celor realizate de un brbat, trebuie s munceasc mult mai mult. Munca nu nseamn numai s-i ocupi timpul cu activitatea pe care i-o desfori, nseamn s i dovedeti. Din start trebuie
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the evolution of women in society

this may be the reason why this institution does not function as it should. I truly believe that more women senators and deputies would bring about more credibility to our Parliament, because if we look around we shall easily notice fewer women involved in corruption and antisocial actions and deeds. C4C: According to certain biases, men are more liable than women to become engineers. This is perhaps the reason why the majority of the professors in Politehnica University are men. Would you like to tell us how you managed to integrate? EcaterinaAndronescu: You are so right! I must confess it was not easy at all; and I do not necessarily mean my profession. As a teacher, you are an interface for your students and therefore they are the ones to evaluate your teaching performance. They are the ones who give you, as their teacher, their vote of confidence. And from this perspective, I must tell you that I used to be very anxious during my first teaching year. I was afraid not to be asked questions I would be unable to answer. In this respect, any meeting with the students must be carefully prepared. Students are very drastic when assessing a professors abilities. Nevertheless, when you successfully manage to prove that you are ready and teach interesting things, your problem fades away. And then it does not matter anymore whether you are a man or a woman; in front of your students you are just their well trained teacher and thats it. In exact sciences, one has to permanently read, assimilate new knowledge and be updated. New breakthroughs are being discovered every day, and teachers must be well informed. What I can tell you is that things got more complex and it was difficult for me in the beginning, when I was appointed in different official positions at the university; and this happened after 1990. By the beginning of 1990, I was elected vice-dean of the Faculty of Chemical Industry. At the time, I was the only woman vice-dean in the University. This was a tremendous advantage and a valuable experience that I preserved and which helped me two years later when I became the dean of the University. And this advantage resides in the fact that its mainly a managing position; you must have managing skills on complex education issues knowledge on how to build up education plans, how scientific research is carried out, how to organize the different departments of the university, how all these relate and so on. I had the chance to have managed and acquired these required skills prior to my becoming the vice-dean. In 1992, when I was elected a dean, I was the only woman dean and the only female science professor who was teaching in the Politehnica University. I must confess that during the first university board meetings I was hardly noticed by my fellow academics, I was insignificant in their eyes. I was fully aware of that fact. What really helped me was my ability and strength to listen to their opinions, a quality that later helped me be heard and command respect. Patience and fortitude
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gave me the courage to keep on and successfully prove to my fellow academics that I was as knowledgeable an academic and managing professional as they were. And this is how I succeeded in getting equal treatment from them in less than one year. In doing so, I have understood that it is not important to stand up, but to convince the others take note, accept and share my ideas. I was referring to my former experience. It is this experience that helped me consolidate my position as the dean and later as the rector of the University. And I must confess that when appointed a Secretary of State, my previous experience as a rector was of great help. This position had nothing to do with politics. To all intents and purposes, my job was to devise solutions when there was no academic autonomy and the rectors used to visit me to ask solve the problems they encountered with their universities. So I have to reiterate that if I had no prior experience as a dean and rector, Im sure I would have spoiled many things in the ministry. C4C: What role does education have in eliminating gender bias? EcaterinaAndronescu: Education plays a primary role during our whole life. I do not state this because I am a teacher. Each and every educated individual contributes to society his/her knowledge and skills that are first gained in family. Its his/her own family that teaches him/her the ABC. I do not solely refer to Romania, any society and any country benefits from the knowledge its citizens acquire in childhood. The education process systematically continues then in school. The education system does not teach you maths, language skills, chemistry or physics. Education and schools have an important role in training an individual and developing his/her personality. This is the reason why I claim that school and education should fulfill three objectives, at least: contribute to the process of personality development; offer students the cultural acquisitions that can help them adjust to reality during life and career; train and develop skills and abilities so that individuals can achieve professional success. So, if school succeeds in accomplishing these three issues, it will definitely fulfill its mission. There are people who claim that school should train students to be apt for the labor market. In my opinion, this is a huge error. Also, it would be wrong to build-up and develop the education system for the sole purpose of reforming students and solely focusing on their mistakes. I think this is the time to completely change our approach and philosophy. We must place the education system on a sound foundation able to help students develop their inborn qualities, because this is how we directly improve and increase their chances of success. On the other hand, we should focus less on correction of their mistakes. I believe it is important to offer an individual all the needed support and assistance to develop his/her skills, so that he/she discovers this precise profession that would give him/ her the satisfaction of a job well done.

evoluia femeii n societate

s i asumi c nimeni nu i d mai mult sau mai puin pentru c eti femeie, ci trebuie s dovedeti c merii s accezi la funcia sau poziia social mai nalt. Eu cred c femeile sunt n avantaj. O femeie este mult mai echilibrat, mai puin rzboinic, este nvat din familie s construiasc, nu s distrug. Datorit acestor lucruri, femeia duce aceste nvminte i la locul de munc. Cred c orice instituie n care nu exist i femei este o instituie dezechilibrat. Astfel, le ndemn pe femei s intre n acele instituii unde astzi nu au acces i s nu aib reineri n a accede la funcii de conducere i decizionale. i n Parlament sunt prea puine femei i, din aceast cauz, e posibil ca el s nu funcioneze tocmai bine. Cred c, dac ar fi mai multe femei deputat sau senator, Parlamentul ar avea mai mult credibilitate pentru c, dac ne uitm n jurul nostru, observm c nu sunt multe femei antrenate n fapte de corupie sau antisociale. C4C: Conform prejudecilor, meseria de inginer este predispus a fi profesat de brbai. Din aceast cauz, majoritatea cadrelor didactice din Politehnic sunt brbai. Cum ai reuit s v integrai? Ecaterina Andronescu: ntr-adevr! Trebuie s v mrturisesc c nu a fost tocmai simplu i asta nu neaprat din poziia mea de cadru didactic. Din aceast poziie, practic, eti n interfa cu studenii. Ca urmare, ei sunt judectorii ti. Ei te valideaz sau nu ca i cadru didactic. Din acest punct de vedere v mrturisesc c n primul an de predare aveam o team permanent. mi era fric s nu cumva s fiu pus n faa unor ntrebri ale studenilor mei i s nu pot rspunde. Din aceast cauz, fiecare ntlnire cu studenii trebuie pregtit. Studentul este un judector aspru. Totui, cnd ai reuit i ai dovada c eti pregtit i ai ce s le spui, problema ta dispare. Tot atunci nu mai conteaz dac eti femei sau brbat, n faa lor eti un cadru didactic bine pregtit i punct. n domeniul tiinei trebuie s citeti, s te informezi permanent. Zi de zi se fac noi descoperiri i tu, ca i cadru didactic, trebuie s fii la curent. Din momentul n care am nceput s am funcii n Universitate, din acel moment pot spune c a fost mai dificil, funciile venind dup anii 90. La nceputul anului 1990 eu am devenit pro-decan la Facultatea de Chimie Industrial. Eram singura femeie pro-decan n Universitate. Aveam ns un avantaj formidabil. Un avantaj pe care l-am conservat ulterior, doi ani mai trziu, n calitate de decan. Avantajul deriva din faptul c activitatea aceasta, de administrare, de gestionare a problemelor din nvmnt (care nseamn s tii planuri de nvmnt, cum se desfoar activitatea de cercetare tiinific, cum se organizeaz catedrele, care sunt relaiile dintre acestea i aa mai departe), toate acestea, s spun aa, mi le nsuisem anterior obinerii funciei de pro-decan. n momentul n care am devenit decan n anul 1992, eram singura femeie decan i singura femeie din cadrul conducerii Politehnicii. Ca urmare, n consiliile de conducere, v mrturisesc, n prima etap nu eram bgat n seam,

eram o cantitate neglijabil. Sigur, i eu eram contient de acest lucru. Ce m-a ajutat, a fost faptul c am avut puterea de a-i asculta i pe alii ca, mai apoi, s reuesc s m impun i eu. Cu rbdare i atenie am fost convins c voi reui i astfel, voi dovedi c tiu i eu cel puin la fel ca i colegii mei de catedr. Astfel, n mai puin de un an, am nceput s fiu tratat ca de la egal la egal. Nu neaprat s iau poziie, ci, mai degrab, poziiile mele s fie luate n considerare. Vorbim aici de experiena pe care o aveam n prealabil. Aceast experien m-a ajutat s-mi consolidez ulterior poziia de decan i, mai apoi, de rector. Astfel, n momentul n care am ajuns n funcia de secretar de stat, trebuie s recunosc, experiena precedent de rector m-a ajutat. Poziia de secretar de stat nu avea nicio treab cu politica. Practic, eu trebuia s gsesc soluii ntr-o perioad n care nu exista autonomie universitar, iar rectorii veneau la mine s le rezolv problemele din universiti. Repet, dac eu nu aveam n prealabil experiena poziiilor de decan i rector, sunt sigur c a fi ncurat multe lucruri n minister. C4C: Ce rol credei c are educaia n eliminarea prejudecilor dintre sexe? Ecaterina Andronescu: Educaia, n toat viaa noastr, joac un rol primordial i nu fac aceast declaraie din poziia mea de om al colii. Fiecare om vine cu achiziiile din ceea ce nseamn procesul educaional din familie, acolo nva ABC-ul. Acum noi vorbim, i nu m refer doar la Romnia, ci i la alte ri, de importana acestor achiziii, ncepnd cu anii cei mai fragezi ai copilriei. Conteaz enorm aceste achiziii n educaie. Mai apoi, ncepe procesul de educare prin coal. coala nu te nva numai matematic, limba romn, chimie, fizic - coala are i rolul de a te forma i a te educa ca om, ca personalitate. De aceea, permanent, spun c coala trebuie s ndeplineasc cel puin 3 obiective: s contribuie la formarea personalitii umane, s ofere elevului sau studentului achiziiile culturale care s-l fac pe acesta adaptabil n ntreaga lui via i carier, iar al treilea obiectiv ar fi acela de a forma i instrui competenele i abilitile individului n aa fel nct el s-i poat asigura un succes profesional. Astfel, dac coala reuete s fac aceste 3 lucruri, eu cred c ea i ndeplinete menirea. Foarte muli vorbesc despre faptul c coala trebuie s corespund cu piaa muncii. Dup prerea mea, este o mare greeal. Tot o greeal este aceea de a construi coala numai pe corectarea defectelor acelora ce se afl n coal. Eu cred c ne aflm ntr-un moment n care trebuie s schimbm filosofia de abordare, trebuie s construim o coal n care s-l ajutm pe copil, pe adolescent s-i dezvolte calitile naturale, pentru c, astfel, ansa lui de a face performan crete exponenial i n mai mic msur s ne concentrm pe corectarea defectelor. Cred c trebuie s-i dai omului sprijinul i ajutorul s-i gseasc n via acea meserie pe care s o fac cu plcere i n care s dea randament maxim.
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discrimination forms and effects

What Should Be Known About Discrimination?


Psychological Aspects of Discrimination and Its Impact on Personal Development

Aurora Popa, Psychologist Family Mediator with Work Is Feminine Project

Discrimination is unfortunately a well-known issue of our society and it can take many forms. Discrimination has been studied and measured in many ways. Studies have obviously led to its categorization as a harmful process with implications and consequences on both society as a whole, and on each and every individual if and when experiencing a discriminatory situation. According to DEX, discrimination means: difference, distinction between several elements; restrictive and prejudicial difference regarding the rights for one part of a population, a country, or an organization. To discriminate means to make distinctions and show prejudice to some party who has equal rights. According to another definition, discrimination is the aggregate of actions and behaviors toward individuals and groups who are denied and restricted rights and opportunities, which are available to other individuals and groups of the same society. According to the definition provided in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1965), discrimination is any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, color, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life. One aspect should be added to this definition: the intentional and unintentional discriminatory behavior or the awareness on the consequences of such behaviors.
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An important question on discrimination is: What are the mechanisms that generate discrimination and which are its causes? Researchers (sociologists and psychologists) who have studies this issue speculate that there is a series of patterns of thinking that result in discrimination. These arguments (discrimination justified in the light of social classes, actual social conflicts, a sense of social identity, a sense of behavioral interaction and so on) show and prove that discrimination does not have an aggression-based motivation; it is grounded on selfish reasons. One individual discriminates another individual in a given group, because he/she has a sense of self-importance and preeminence arising from his/ her belonging to a different group, and not necessarily because he/she despises that other individual. Discriminatory attitudes are generally justified by increased selfishness and desire for self-promotion that result in placing the opponent in an inferior position. Nevertheless this justification is no excuse for discriminating behaviors, whose forms can take on preposterous and huge proportions and may turn into hatred against certain categories of individuals. (Cristina Babii). The incapacity to understand ones peers and lack of effort directed to this end adds contempt to discrimination, which can be displayed in hidden or aggressive forms. This is the reason why one can assert that education plays an important part in combating discrimination, and the duty of both family and the

discriminarea forme i efecte

Ce trebuie s tim despre discriminare?


Aspecte psihologice ale discriminrii i consecinele ei n planul dezvoltrii personalitii

Psiholog Aurora Popa Mediator familial n cadrul proiectului Munca are genul feminin

Fenomenul discriminrii este, din pcate, foarte cunoscut n societate, prin multele lui forme de manifestare. El a fost analizat i cntrit n multe moduri. Toate tipurile de analiz au dus, evident, spre categorizarea lui ca fiind un fenomen nociv, cu implicaii i consecine asupra dezvoltrii societii n ntregul ei, ct i asupra fiecrui individ n parte, atunci cnd se afl intr-o situaie de discriminare. Conform DEX, discriminare nseamn: deosebire, distingere efectuat ntre mai multe elemente; difereniere restrictiv de drepturi pentru o parte a populaiei, a unei

ri, pentru o organizaie. A discrimina nseamn a lipsi de egalitate n drepturi. O alt definiie spune c discriminarea reprezint totalitatea aciunilor i comportamentelor prin care anumitor indivizi i grupuri li se refuz drepturile i oportunitile pe care le au ali indivizi i grupuri n cadrul uneia i aceleiai societi. Conform definiiei pe care o d Convenia pentru eliminarea tuturor formelor de discriminare rasial (1965), discriminarea este: orice deosebire, excludere, restricie sau preferin ntemeiat pe ras, culoare, ascenden sau origine naional sau etnic, care are drept scop sau efect distrugerea sau compromiterea recunoaterii, folosirii sau exercitrii n condiii de egalitate a drepturilor i libertilor fundamentale ale omului n domeniul politic, economic, cultural i social, sau n orice domeniu al vieii publice. Ceea ce ar mai fi de adugat la aceste definiii este caracterul de intenionalitate sau neintenionalitate a comportamentului de discriminare sau gradul de contientizare a efectelor respectivului comportament. O mare ntrebare legat de discriminare este aceea privitoare la mecanismele producerii fenomenului i de cauzele care genereaz discriminarea. Cercettorii (sociologi, psihologi) care s-au ocupat de aceast problem au fondat unele teorii care arat c exist anumite feluri de gndire care au drept consecin discriminarea. Aceste teorii (a motivrii discriminrii prin existena stratificrii sociale, a conflictelor reale, a identitii sociale, a interaciunii comportamentale etc.) arat c discriminarea nu are o motivaie agresiv, ci una egoist. Un individ discrimineaz un alt individ dintr-un grup pentru c el se consider superior fcnd parte dintrun alt grup dect cel al celui discriminat i nu neaprat pentru ca l dispreuiete pe cellalt individ. Atitudinea discriminatorie se justific, n general, printr-un egoism accentuat i prin dorina propriei promovri prin punerea n inferioritate a adversarului. Dar aceast justificare nu este o scuz pentru comportamentul discriminator ale crui manifestri pot lua proporii uriae, transformndu-se ntr-o ur fa de anumite categorii de indivizi. (Cristina Babii) Avnd ca izvor neputina de a nelege i lipsa oricrui efort ndreptat n aceast direcie, discriminarea capt, de multe ori, forma dispreului, manifestat mai voalat sau de-a dreptul agresiv. Din acest motiv, se poate spune c educaia are un rol foarte important n combaterea discriminrii, coala i familia fiind datoare s i canalizeze demersurile educative i n direcia formrii
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school is to direct their educational approaches and (associated with diseases, physical or other disabilities); efforts towards development of anti-discriminating mental stigma (determined by mental illness); behaviors with children. poverty stigma (determined by poor and improper When referring to discrimination, we must address living conditions, unemployment); addiction stigma such concepts as stereotype, prejudice, and social stigma. (determined by addiction to social protection); moral Gordon Allport was an American psychologist who stigma (determined by offence to moral code); stigma maintains that prejudice is a negative attitude or pre- generated by deviations in personal traits (alcoholism, judgment that drives people embrace negative behavior criminal background, homosexuality, attempted towards a group as a whole or the members of that group, suicide) and tribal stigmas (determined by a persons and is usually based on a rigid and unfair bias whose sole membership in a race, ethnic group, nation, religion). motivation is group membership. This also means rejection (Cristina Babii, 2006) of the other as based on his/her membership in that These forms of stigmas and each one can generate group that is subjected to negative feelings. Prejudice has discriminatory behaviors help us realize how wrong two aspects: cognitive thinking and emotional responses. is to put individuals into categories and isolate them The relationship between discrimination and prejudice for such shallow criteria. It is common knowledge that is a very complex one, and by no means automatic or a disabled person having either physical or mental implicit. Our behavior depends both on our personal disabilities naturally develops skills that would beliefs, and circumstances of the outside world that may compensate, and they are sometimes better than the be out of our control. abilities of discriminating people. Stereotypes are elements of a similar From a social viewpoint, to keep kind of thinking, called stereotypical on discriminating, stereotyping, thinking. They are sets of features stigmatizing and biasing people assigned to a social group, can only lead to negative conwhich can be either positive, sequences. (Cristina Babii, or negative. Unfortunately, 2006) most are negative. One of the most Whereas mobbing targets over-qualified Negative stereotypes common forms of dispersons, with bullying, the weaker employee are linked to groups crimination is age disother than the one crimination, followed of a group is identified among the newcomers the discriminating by gender discriminabefore starting the process. Potential victims individual belongs to. tion and then racial are generally selected among the so-called Stereotypes stem from and ethnic discrimicollective origins; they nation. New forms of soft targets, or individuals who do not resist appear within society discrimination have octo pressure in other workplaces. and are shared by each curred such as political individual in a personal discrimination, sex and way. They are long-lasting sex identity discrimination, and self-preserving. infectious diseases discrimiSocial stigma is the severe and nation or discrimination of disnegative attribute of disapproval of a abled people. (Cristina Babii, 2006) person from other members of a society, At the same time, there are newer whose primary consequence is isolation of and more specialized forms of professional the stigmatized. This can obviously be translated by discrimination in the workplace: mobbing and bullying. discrimination. A stigmatized person is aware of the Though these processes are less known, analyzed and process and would consequently accumulate frustrations highlighted in Romania, both terms have entered the and discontent that will eventually lead to either a specialized thesaurus of experts in organizational submission attitude, due to decreased self-esteem and psychology and sociology, as they can be interpreted negative self-assessment, and will display incapacity as social processes. In DEX, mobbing is referred to as to respond in order to be accepted; or confrontational bullying of an individual in the workplace. It stands and aggressive attitude of resentment that will lead to for a process where the individual is placed in a lower antisocial tendencies. It sometimes happens that social condition and becomes the target of negative social stigma attributed to a person is transferred upon his/her actions by his/her co-workers, superiors or subordinates. family, friends or acquaintances, which will determine (Alexandra Gheondea). It is displayed through gestures, discriminatory attitudes towards the other persons who rumors, deeds, improper and vicious actions whose end will also be categorized according to prejudices and is to disparage the professional image of the respective biases. individual who is perceived as a threat for the position There are several forms of stigmas: physical stigma of the group that initiated mobbing and to intimidate
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discriminarea forme i efecte

unui comportament anti discriminare la copii. srciei (determinat de condiii improprii de trai, Atunci cnd vorbim de discriminare trebuie s de lipsa locuinei sau de omaj), stigma dependenei vorbim de concepte precum stereotip, prejudecat, (determinat de dependena de serviciile sociale), stigm. Psihologul G. Allport spune c prejudecata este stigma moral (determinat de nclcarea normelor o atitudine negativ sau o predispoziie de a adopta un morale), stigma generat de existena unor caracteristici comportament negativ fa de un grup sau fa de fiecare individuale percepute ca lips de voin (alcoolism, individ, membru al unui grup, bazat pe o generalizare detenie, homosexualitate, tentativ de suicid) i stigma eronat i rigid i care este motivat doar de apartenena tribal (determinat de apartenena la o anumit ras, la grup. Ea nseamn i respingerea celuilalt, naiune, religie). (Cristina Babii, 2006) considerat membru al acelui grup fa de Vznd enumerarea tipurilor de care se manifest sentimente negative. stigm, fiecare generatoare de comPrejudecile se situeaz la nivelul portamente discriminatorii, pujudecilor cognitive i al tem uor s ne dm seama reaciilor afective. Relaia ct de superficial este catedintre discriminare i pregorizarea persoanelor n judecat este complex i funcie de aceasta i marn vreme ce mobbing-ul are ca inte persoane nu este automat. Comginalizarea lor. Din portamentul nostru experiena de zi cu zi calificate peste medie, n cadrul unui proces depinde att de conse tie c o persoan cu de bullying este testat mai nti terenul, n vingerile noastre perun anumit handicap special cu angajaii noi, pentru a-l identifica sonale, ct i de cir fizic sau mental cumstanele exterioare de cele mai multe ori pe cel mai slab din grup. Sunt cutate victime care ne pot scpa de dezvolt n mod natural care nu opun rezisten la atacuri, aa sub control. capaciti compensatorii numitele inte uoare. Stereotipurile sunt care sunt chiar supeelemente ale gndirii de rioare calitilor sau capaacelai gen, gndirea sterecitilor persoanelor care otip. Ele reprezint seturi discrimineaz. de trsturi atribuite unui Din punct de vedere sogrup social i pot fi pozitive sau cial, practicarea discriminrii, stenegative. Din pcate, cele mai multe reotipizrii, stigmatizrii i pstrarea sunt negative, gradul lor de dezvoltare fiind prejudecilor nu pot dect s aib consecine net superior celor pozitive. Stereotipurile negative sunt negative. (Cristina Babii, 2006) n legtur cu alte grupuri dect acela din care face parte Dintre formele clasice de discriminare, una dintre individul care le dezvolt. Originile stereotipurilor sunt cele mai rspndite este cea de vrst, urmat de cea colective, ele se nasc n societate i sunt mprtite de de gen, apoi de cea de ras, etnie. Forme mai noi sunt fiecare individ n modul propriu. Ele dureaz foarte mult cele de discriminare n baza orientrii politice, sexuale, n timp i se autoconserv. a bolilor potenial transmisibile sau a persoanelor cu Stigma este un atribut, de regul destul de grav handicap. (Cristina Babii, 2006) si cu conotaie ultra negativ, pe care o persoan l De asemenea, mai noi i foarte specifice sunt i primete din partea celorlali i care are drept prim efect formele de discriminare n plan profesional, la locul de marginalizarea persoanei respective, izolarea ei. Desigur munc: mobbing-ul i bullying-ul. Dei sunt fenomene c acest lucru se traduce prin discriminare. O persoan mai puin studiate i puse n eviden n Romnia, stigmatizat i contient de aceasta va acumula ambii termeni au intrat deja n vocabularul specialitilor frustrri i nemulumiri care vor avea drept finalitate, fie din domeniul psihologiei organizaionale i chiar ai o atitudine de resemnare, datorit scderii stimei de sine sociologiei, ele putnd fi privite i ca fenomene sociale. i autoevalurii negative, dovedindu-se incapabil s Conform DEX, mobbing-ul nseamn exercitarea strelupte pentru a fi acceptat, fie o atitudine de nfruntare, sului psihic asupra unei persoane atunci cnd se afl la agresiv i de revolt, dezvoltnd tendine antisociale. locul de munc, n activitate. El reprezint un proces n Se ntmpl ca stigma atribuit cuiva s se transfere i cursul cruia persoana n cauz ajunge ntr-o poziie asupra familiei acelei persoane, prietenilor sau oricui s-ar inferioar i devine inta actelor sociale negative n relaiona cu ea, determinnd atitudini discriminatorii i colectivul de munc. (Alexandra Gheondea) El se fa de ceilali, catalogai conform unor prejudeci. manifest prin gesturi, vorbe, fapte, aciuni incorecte, Exist mai multe tipuri de stigm: stigma fizic care au drept scop compromiterea imaginii profesionale (determinat de anumite boli, handicapuri fizice, a persoanei vizate (care reprezint o ameninare pentru dizabiliti), stigma mental (determinat de existena poziia sau funcia celor care iniiaz mobbing-ul) i unui handicap mental sau a unei boli psihice), stigma intimidarea sa. Prin caracterul insistent, repetitiv, toate
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him/her. Due to their persistent and repeated character, these acts of aggression may induce adverse effects on the aggressed person such as loss of self-confidence, lack of self-esteem, occurrence of diverse psychological complexes and the desire to abandon the group and migrate to a different workplace. Mobbing is an unpredictable, irrational and unfair process. (Vega and Comer, 2005) Mobbing victims are usually enthusiastic and intelligent persons; they have integrity, demonstrate dedication and are easily noticed and considered a threat by their co-workers. Whereas mobbing targets over-qualified persons, with bullying, the weaker employee of a group is identified among the newcomers before starting the process. Potential victims are generally selected among the socalled soft targets, or individuals who do not resist to pressure in other workplaces (Bultena i Whatcott, 2008, 654). According to other researchers, bullying refers to aggressive behaviors displayed by a person in a leading position. Common discrimination is largely displayed by stereotypes linked to a group characteristic, usually on grounds of ethnicity, sex, gender, religion and belief or political orientation. Any discriminating behavior, no matter its form of manifestation, may generate damages such as suffering, discomfort, grievance, different disorders that have severe and irreversible effects on personal and personality development. Harmful effects of discrimination are more detrimental to the individuals personal life than his/ her social life. Discriminated persons suffer severe personality distortions, especially if at an age when his/her personality is in full development. The persons will and emotional attitude are more affected and an altered set of values applied to oneself and society may sometimes occur. Such accompanying processes as lower self-esteem, self-isolation, insecurity, frustration, embarrassment, shame, helplessness, resentment (sometimes), and inferiority complexes lead to the dissolution of personality, neutralization of willpower and inability to protect oneself and to fight back. All these may ultimately turn the discriminated person into a victim. Thats why it is so paramount to promote equal opportunities and nondiscrimination so that none of our peers should ever experience such situations. Grasping, compliance with and promoting equal opportunities and nondiscrimination have such ethical objectives as: moral sensibilization on discrimination; development of relevant response to injustice; fearlessness in combating sexist, racist, anti-Semitic, chauvinist and xenophobic actions; rejection of inequity based on differences other than merit of persons, groups and communities, and encouragement of equal opportunities in competitive environments; solidarization with other excluded or marginalized groups who are facing discrimination as well.
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Other psychological benefits and advantages at personal and social level are: at social level: more comprehensive sympathy for the victims of discrimination; wiser motivation for the public partnership between men and women, in terms of accepting and appreciating race, ethnic and religion-

based differences; increased communication skills; and understanding and cooperation with people of other gender, ethnicity, religion and so on. at personal level: personality development through positive self-assessment and increased self-esteem and self-confidence, to lead to embracing a new attitude that favors breaking through; repositioning, overcoming inhibition, changing perceptions; development of social networking skills; development of a positive outlook mostly with regard to the future of children; increased desire and motivation for professional growth and social standing achievement; giving-up taboos, elimination of stereotypes and prejudices, or at least their adjustment to a new vision.

discriminarea forme i efecte

aceste atacuri pot duce la efecte asupra psihicului celui agresat, concretizate n pierderea ncrederii n sine, subestimare, descurajare, apariia unor complexe i dorina de prsire a colectivului, hotrrea de a migra spre un alt loc de munc. Mobbing-ul este un fenomen impredictibil, iraional

i incorect. (Vega i Comer, 2005) Victimele mobbingului sunt de obicei persoane entuziaste, inteligente, integre, dedicate, care se fac remarcate i sunt considerate o ameninare de ctre colegi. n vreme ce mobbing-ul are ca inte persoane calificate peste medie, n cadrul unui proces de bullying este testat mai nti terenul, n special cu angajaii noi, pentru a-l identifica pe cel mai slab din grup. Sunt cutate victime care nu opun rezisten la atacuri, aa numitele inte uoare. (Bultena i Whatcott, 2008, 654) Dup ali cercettori, termenul de bullying vizeaz agresiunea din partea cuiva aflat n poziie superioar sau managerial. n mare parte, discriminarea clasic se manifest prin stereotipuri legate de o trstur a unui grup, fie c

este etnie, sex, orientare religioas sau politic etc. Orice comportament discriminator, indiferent de forma pe care o mbrac, este generator de suferine, disconfort, tulburri n plan personal, cu consecine - uneori foarte grave i ireversibile - asupra dezvoltrii personalitii, n general. Efectele pe care discriminarea le produce n plan personal sunt, dup prerea noastr, mai nocive dect cele din planul social. O persoan discriminat, mai ales dac se afl ntr-o perioad a vieii n care personalitatea sa se structureaz, este n plin proces de dezvoltare, sufer distorsiuni serioase ale personalitii, mai ales n sfera atitudinal, concretizat n manifestarea unor seturi de valori aplicate siei i societii, n cea volitiv i n cea afectiv. n felul acesta, scderea stimei de sine, autoizolarea, nesigurana, frustrarea, sentimentul jenei, ruinii, neputina, revolta (cteodat), complexele de inferioritate sunt, toate, procese care duc la destructurarea personalitii, la anihilarea voinei, a capacitii individului de a se apra i de a lupta mpotriva celor care l discrimineaz, la transformarea lui ntr-o victim. De aceea este att de important s promovm principiul egalitii de anse i non discriminarea, pentru ca semeni de-ai notri s nu mai fie pui n situaii de acest fel. nelegerea, respectarea i promovarea egalitii de anse i a principiului non discriminrii au drept finaliti de ordin etic: sensibilizarea moral fa de discriminare; dezvoltarea reaciei pertinente la nedreptate; curajul n confruntarea cu manifestrile sexiste, rasiste, antisemite, ovine i xenofobe, cu intolerana; respingerea inechitii bazat pe diferene independente de meritele unei persoane, a unor grupuri i comuniti i orientarea spre egalitatea de anse n competiie; solidarizarea cu alte grupuri excluse sau marginale aflate n situaii de discriminare. De asemenea, are beneficii i finaliti de natur psihologic att n plan social ct i n plan personal: n plan social: mai mult simpatie comprehensiv fa de victimele discriminrii; motivaie mai avizat pentru parteneriat public ntre brbai i femei, pentru aprecierea i acceptarea diferenelor rasiale, etnice, religioase; creterea capacitii de comunicare, nelegere i cooperare de alt gen, etnie, religie etc. n plan personal: dezvoltarea personalitii prin autoevaluare pozitiv i creterea stimei de sine, a ncrederii n propria persoan, ceea ce duce la adoptarea unei atitudini care favorizeaz depirea barierelor existente; repoziionarea, depirea inhibiiilor, schimbarea percepiilor; dezvoltarea capacitii de relaionare i socializare; dezvoltarea unei perspective optimiste mai ales n ceea ce privete viitorul copiilor; creterea dorinei i motivaiei pentru profesionalizare, pentru dobndirea unui statut social onorabil; renunarea la tabu-uri, eliminarea propriilor prejudeci i stereotipuri sau, mcar, ajustarea acestora, adaptarea lor unei viziuni noi.
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Discrimination on the Labor Market Before and After 19891

I
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n Romania, participation rates of men and women in the labor force, in both production and services, are almost equal. Prior to 1989, and due to the economic policy, women were employed and sometimes misemployed in all economic and social activities, not taking into account their actual working capabilities. This massive involvement of women in the labor
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market was not accompanied by attuned social measures and overlooked their having to perform additional household work. Transition to industrialized capitalism brought about a new and dramatic dichotomy. This process is characteristic to the second wave of feminism where antagonism between economic dependence and independence is emphasized.

An essential alley of this dichotomy and remunerated work has been that paid work is overrated; there is division of labor on the grounds of sex and impossibility for women to get acknowledgment for their professional skills. During Communism, equality between men and women was strongly advocated, at least in the party official ideology, and was

discriminarea forme i efecte

Discriminarea pe piaa muncii nainte i dup 891

n ara noastr, femeile particip aproape n aceeai proporie cu brbaii la activitatea productiv i de servicii. Datorit politicii de dinainte de anul 1989, femeile au fost angajate n toate sectoarele activitii sociale i economice, uneori fcnduse abuzuri, neinndu-se seama de posibilitile reale ale femeii de a ocupa anumite locuri de munc. Aceast masiv implicare a femeilor

n cmpul muncii nu a fost nsoit de msuri sociale adecvate, neinnduse seama de suprasolicitarea lor, prin munca suplimentar din propria gospodrie. Prin apariia capitalismului industrial, s-a practicat o nou i dramatic dihotomie. Acest fenomen este caracteristic celui de-al doilea val al feminismului n care este accentuat opoziia dintre dependena i independena

economic care sunt opuse una celeilalte. Un culoar esenial al acestei dihotomii i al muncii salarizate, n general, au fost supraaprecierea muncii salarizate, diviziunea sexual a muncii i imposibilitatea femeii de a se remarca profesional. n perioada comunist, egalitatea femeilor i a brbailor a fost puternic susinut, cel puin la
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one of the most important ideas of the modernization of post-war Romanian society. Equality led to labor market overcrowding by women as mens workmates, who almost exclusively kept on their domestic tasks, children upbringing and care of family elders. The attempt to shape society and eradicate prejudices on the superiority of one gender over the other is as old as the civilized worlds walk towards progress, or womens empowerment movement, for that matter, and inflicts, in advanced democratic countries reconsideration of the traditional roles and judgments about men and women in family and the society. Womens involvement in production and services was almost equal to mens.

support his family. Then, theres a continuing trend of women being employed in subordinate positions. On the one hand, the majority of associate professors, academics,

women. Although there are coherent legal provisions in this respect, women social welfare for maternity leave is not ensured, especially in the private sector. The issue of equal

In spite of all the rights that Romanian women have gained from society, they still have to fulfill two-thirds of the total amount of social work, though their income is by 10.9 percent lower than the average income.
engineers, politicians, police officers and military are men, and, on the other hand, there are jobs with a strong feminine character such as pre-university education system, secretarial activity and so on. After 1989, the Romanian society has been invaded by products and icons that convey and strengthen certain female models that Western societies gave up some decades ago: women as sex symbols, frivolous women concerned by their looks, the beautiful but narrow-minded woman. In spite of all the rights that Romanian women have gained from society, they still have to fulfill twothirds of the total amount of social work, though their income is by 10.9 percent lower than the average income. Owing to reduced services and obsolete mindset on womens role in the household, womens work is still performed according to the stereotype of a womans vocation for family care and work. Womens status also derives from the difficult economic situations, which are typical for the Romanian society. Wages for women employed in economic fields with majority female employment are below average wages. This is a relevant characteristic and directly related to gender inequity. The women unemployment rate is higher than mens and one must admit that loss of job is higher with opportunities and promotion for both genders represents an essential requirement for the Romanian society and is a relevant element of concern for the observance of the fundamental human rights. The impact of economic, political and social change that took place during the 90s has consistently affected womens versus mens status. Significant differences are still persistent in terms of mens and womens involvement in production, as well as regarding the income that result from the work of both categories, their health condition, how they participate in public life and decision-making. To conclude, gender discrimination largely depends on mens and womens attitude towards the labor market and this unbalanced situation should be carefully studied from both viewpoints: the person being discriminated and the discriminating person. Research undertaken in Romania on mens and womens attitudes points that mindsets are based on potential gender discrimination - even though wages difference between men and women is not that important (the gap has been reduced during the past years). Men are more grounded in out-of-home activities and more attached to their jobs and workplace, whereas women are more traditional and more attached to their households.

After 1989, the role of mass media was essential in shaping a picture on social realities and advertising contemporary models, though the Romanian media is still far from promoting assertive messages regarding gender partnership and social involvement of women. In the written press and the audio-visual media, use of discriminatory stereotypes is continued and sometimes enhanced, and they contribute to perpetuation of distorted models of men and women in the public mind.
We witness a mindset clich where man must have a bigger income in order to be able to
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nivelul ideologiei oficiale, fiind una dintre ideile importante folosite n procesul de modernizare a societii romneti, n perioada postbelic. Chiar dac n practic, aceast egalitate a dus la apariia fenomenelor de supra-aglomerare a femeilor devenite tovare de munc cu brbaii, dar nc responsabile aproape n exclusivitate de treburile casnice, de creterea i educarea copiilor, de ngrijirea btrnilor. ncercarea de a modela societatea n sensul abolirii prejudecilor legate de superioritatea unui sex era, de altfel, contemporan cu evoluia lumii civilizate, a micrilor de emancipare a femeilor, impunnd, n rile cu democraii avansate, reconsiderarea rolurilor tradiionale i a percepiilor despre femei i brbai n societate i familie. Femeile participau aproape n aceeai proporie cu brbaii, la activitatea productiv i de servicii. Dup 1989, rolul mijloacelor de informare n mas a devenit esenial n formarea imaginii asupra realitilor sociale i n popularizarea unor modele contemporane, dar mass-media romneasc este nc departe de a promova mesaje pozitive n privina parteneriatului de gen i a participrii sociale a femeilor.

tendina femeilor de a ocupa funcii subalterne. Majoritatea profesorilor universitari, a inginerilor, politicienilor, polititilor, cadrelor ofiereti sunt brbai, iar alte ocupaii

pentru perioada de natere i pentru ngrijirea copiilor. Problematica promovrii egalitii anselor n viaa social pentru ambele sexe constituie o

Cu toate drepturile pe care le au femeile n societatea romneasc, ele sunt obligate s ndeplineasc 2/3 din timpul total de munc social, dar veniturile lor sunt cu 10,9% mai mici dect media lucrtorilor.
sunt puternic feminizate, cum sunt cele din nvmntul preuniversitar, activitatea de secretariat etc. Societatea romneasc a fost invadat, dup anul 1989, de produse i imagini care transmit i consolideaz cu preponderen anumite modele de feminitate la care societile occidentale au renunat n ultimele decenii: femeia ca obiect sexual, ca fiin frivol, preocupat doar de aspectul su estetic, femeia ca fiin frumoas, dar limitat. Cu toate drepturile pe care le au femeile n societatea romneasc, ele sunt obligate s ndeplineasc 2/3 din timpul total de munc social, dar veniturile lor sunt cu 10,9% mai mici dect media lucrtorilor. Din cauza dezvoltrii reduse a serviciilor i datorit mentalitii despre rolul femeii n gospodria casnic, femeile presteaz o munc n virtutea unui stereotip despre rostul ei n familie. Statutul femeii deriv i din contexte economice dificile n care funcioneaz societatea romneasc. Ctigurile salariale n ramurile n care femeile sunt majoritare se situeaz sub media pe economie, o premis important n manifestarea inegalitii dintre sexe. Procentul de omeri este mai ridicat n rndul femeilor i trebuie spus c riscul pierderii locului de munc este mai mare la femei. Dei exist prevederi legale clare, nu se asigur, cu deosebire n sectorul privat, protecia social a femeii cerin esenial pentru societatea romneasc, fiind considerat o component esenial a preocuprilor pentru respectarea drepturilor fundamentale ale omului. Impactul transformrilor economice, politice i sociale care au avut loc n Romnia n anii 90 a afectat n mod diferit situaia femeilor i cea a brbailor. Mai persist nc diferenieri semnificative n ceea ce privete nivelul de participare a femeilor i brbailor la activitile productive, veniturile obinute de cele dou categorii din munca prestat, starea de sntate, modul de participare a acestora la viaa public i la luarea deciziilor. Pentru a conchide, se poate spune c discriminarea de gen depinde foarte mult de atitudinea femeilor i brbailor fa de piaa forei de munc, iar acest dezechilibru trebuie analizat att din punct de vedere al celui discriminat, ct i al celui care discrimineaz. Analiza atitudinilor femeilor i brbailor n cazul Romniei arat c exist o baz atitudinal foarte consistent ce favorizeaz discriminrile poteniale de gen, chiar dac diferena salarial dintre femei i brbai nu este att de mare (avnd o dinamic descendent n ultimii ani). Brbaii sunt mai ancorai n activiti extrafamiliale i acord o mai mare importan locului de munc, n schimb, femeile sunt mai tradiionaliste i mai ataate de gospodrie.
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Att n presa scris, ct i n cea audio-vizual, se continu i, uneori, se amplific utilizarea unor cliee discriminatorii, acestea contribuind la perpetuarea n contiina public a unor modele deformate de prezentare a femeilor i a brbailor.
Asistm la o mentalitate n care brbatul trebuie s aib un venit mai mare pentru a ntreine familia. Apoi, edificatoare rmne

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Classic Discrimination in The Labor Market


Gender discrimination can be explained by the segregation level in the labor force market, the employees perception on the feminine and masculine labor force, the development of a country, its employers and employees. Discrimination in the labor force market can also occur before entering the labor market , and here we refer to pre-discrimination. This means that an individuals chance for personal development does not entirely depend on his/ her skills. This covers the idea of unequal opportunities owing to the social background of the respective individual. Day to day life has proven us that these goals are often violated for different reasons and motives. Most cases of violation of these principles are forms of classic discrimination - gender, age, geographical location, religion, sexual orientation, chronic or potentially communicable, contagious diseases, or different forms of disabilities. To some extent, there have recently occurred other forms of networking in the workplace, which break the principle of equal opportunities. This falls under what is termed as mobbing and bullying, two other distinct forms of discrimination that do not derive from classic discrimination and have specific forms of manifestation. Consequently, classic discrimination refers to unequal or unfair treatment in relation to that applied to co-workers or groups, due to gender, ethnicity, age, country of origin differences and other. A characteristic feature of discrimination is that what is reprimanded does not fall onto the target of discrimination, but onto the specificity of the group whom

Generally, equal opportunities in the labor market may refer to the non-discriminatory access to: choice of profession; employment and promotion in any position or any vacant position, at any hierarchical level; professional information and counselling; qualification, training and formation, life-long learning; professional development; working conditions that comply with health and safety norms in force; equal payment for equal work and access to additional or incentive pay or other benefits or social welfare measures.

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discriminarea forme i efecte

Discriminarea clasic pe piaa muncii


Discriminarea de gen poate fi explicat de nivelul de segregare pe piaa forei de munc, de percepia angajatorilor cu privire la fora de munc feminin i masculin, de nivelul de dezvoltare al unei ri, de angajatori i salariai. Discriminarea pe piaa forei de munc poate aprea i nainte de a intra pe piaa muncii, iar n acest caz vorbim de prediscrimare. Aceasta nseamn c ansele de dezvoltare personal ale unui individ nu depind de aptitudinile sale. Se poate vorbi astfel de inegalitatea de anse care se datoreaz mediului social din care provine fiecare individ. Realitatea cotidian a dovedit c aceste deziderate sunt adesea nclcate, din motive care in de diferite mobiluri. Majoritatea cazurilor de nclcare a acestor principii sunt forme de discriminare clasic (de gen, vrst, arie geografic, religie, orientare sexual, boli cronice sau potenial transmisibile sau diferite grade de handicap). n mai mic msur i, parial, mai recent contientizate, apar alte forme de relaionare la locul de munc, care ncalc principiile egalitii de anse. Acestea in de ceea ce definete mobbing-ul i bullying-ul, care sunt forme speciale de discriminare, nu deriv din cele clasice i, mai ales, au forme particulare de manifestare. Prin urmare, discriminarea clasic se refer la tratament inegal sau nedrept, n raport cu cel aplicat altor colegi sau grupuri, datorat diferenelor de gen, etnie, vrst, ar de origine etc. Specific discriminrii este c ceea ce se imput nu este adresat persoanei care devine inta discriminrii, ci specificului grupului din care aceasta face parte. Discriminarea poate fi direct sau indirect, pozitiv sau negativ.

Generic, egalitatea de anse pe piaa muncii se refer la accesul nediscriminatoriu la: alegerea unei profesii; angajarea i promovarea pe orice post sau loc de munc vacant, la orice nivel de ierarhie profesional; informare i consiliere profesional; calificare, perfecionare, life-long learning; posibilitatea dezvoltrii profesionale; condiii de munc care respect normele de sntate i securitate n munc conform reglementrilor n vigoare; plat egal la munc egal i acces la beneficii extrasalariale sau msuri de protecie social.

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he/she belongs to. Discrimination can be direct or indirect, positive or negative. The targeted group is represented by the individuals defined by their membership to the aforesaid group.

male strength or the feminine orientation towards good organizing and details can be fully explained in relation to a jobs characteristics. Removal from the application announcements of justified require-

It is harder for women to be more visible and assertive in real competition and the other way round. For example, in the judiciary, where examination is fair, there are 78% female judges and 58% women prosecutors. In the private environment, where quality and competence are important, there are 30 - 40% women in management and top-management.
Asztalos Csaba Ferenc
President, NCCD

Duration is permanent due to approach, though discrimination can also be sporadic, so that it is not necessarily associated with general practices at company level. Gender and age discrimination are by far the most common forms of classic discrimination. More recent are sexual orientation-based discrimination, as well as potentially contagious diseases or people with disabilities. Classic discrimination mostly resides in stereotypes. The greatest risk is to take stereotypes for functional or cultural patterns differences. At the same time, theres a risk of attributing the labor market discriminations that are uncharacteristic: unequal access to education will be retraced at different levels of qualification (high or low, according to group), which will then be transferred at income level. Comparison between diverse average pay levels, at whole economy and sector levels, is totally inappropriate as a discrimination index in the labor market. Predominance of women or men in certain industries, is neither relevant on how gender discrimination operates in the labor market. Preference for experienced employees (older), or for flexibility (time and learning) of younger employees, for the potential
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ments for a job does not dilute its functional characteristics or the candidates natural skills and does not equalize the access to education. As a reaction to discrimination, society has operated positive discrimination, and employers used indirect discrimination; the first, in order to balance previous inequities (possibly related to access to education), and the latter with a view to gradually use human resources (and avoiding undesirable candidates). Ultimately, they are both a means to perpetuate discrimination. The least exposed to misinterpretation as discriminating situations are those regarding sexual orientation, potentially contagious diseases and religion and beliefs for reasons related to compliance with non-working days other than those provided under national labor laws. In this latter case, members of a denomination become favorite candidates for part-time employment. Therefore, when referring to discrimination, one must prove that there are no functional arguments for these limitations, that professional skills are eluded and that it all operates at random. On the other hand, mobbing usually refers to subtle and repetitive actions, meant

to undermine or compromise the targets professional performance/ image. It is described according to the duration and frequency of actions and cannot be related to specific causes of occurrence. Mobbing is not weakened when the target counterattacks, but it may change its form and strength. It is a coercive form addressed to one person, in order to remove the danger it represents; most often it is about removing the target, but the stake remains: to prove he/ she is not as competent as it seems. Therefore, removal of danger is by attacking credibility or undermining performance. Mobbing can have a shorter or longer effect upon the victims mental condition. Mobbing is typically directed against an individual, co-worker, subordinate, or a manager and its displayed duration is repetitive for at least 6 months.

discriminarea forme i efecte

Grupul vizat este reprezentat de indivizii definii prin apartenena la un grup n sensul amintit. Durata este permanent prin abordare, dar situaiile de discriminare pot fi i sporadice astfel nct s nu fie asociate neaprat cu practici la nivelul companiei. Dintre formele clasice de discriminare, de departe, una dintre cele mai rspndite este cea de gen i de vrst. Mai noi sunt discriminarea n baza orientrii sexuale, ca i a bolilor potenial transmisibile sau a persoanelor cu handicap. n mare parte, discriminarea clasic rezid n stereotipuri. Marele risc este acela de a confunda stereotipul cu diferenele funcionale sau de model cultural. De asemenea, exist riscul de a atribui pieei muncii discriminri care nu-i sunt specifice: accesul inegal la educaie se va regsi n nivelul diferit de calificare (preponderent superior sau inferior, n funcie de grup),

care, la rndul su, se va perpetua n nivelul de venit. Comparaia nivelurilor medii de salarizare, pe economie i chiar i pe ramuri, este cu totul nepotrivit ca indicator al discriminrii pe piaa

i apartenena religioas (pe considerente altele dect respectarea zilelor nelucrtoare diferite de cele prevzute n legislaia naional a muncii; n acest ultim caz membrii confesiunii devin candidai predi-

Femeile se impun greu acolo unde concurena nu este real i viceversa. De exemplu, n magistratur, unde examenul este corect, avem 78% femei judectoare i 58% femei procuror. n mediul privat, unde calitatea i competena sunt importante, avem 30-40% femei n poziii de management, chiar i top-management.
Asztalos Csaba Ferenc
Preedinte, CNCD

muncii. Preponderena femeilor/ brbailor pe anumite ramuri, de asemenea, nu spune nimic despre cum opereaz sau nu discriminarea de gen pe piaa muncii. Preferina pentru personalul cu experien (vrstnic) sau pentru flexibilitatea (de timp i nvare) a celui tnr, pentru fora potenial a brbailor, respectiv pentru orientarea spre detaliu/organizare a femeilor pot fi deplin justificate n raport cu specificul unui post. Radierea unor cerine justificabile pentru post din anunul de concurs nu dizolv specificul su funcional, nu dizolv abilitile natural diferite ale candidailor de a-l ocupa i nu egalizeaz accesul la educaie. Ca reacie la situaiile de discriminare, societatea a operat discriminarea pozitiv, iar angajatorul discriminarea indirect, prima, din dorina de a echilibra inechiti anterioare (eventual de acces la educaie), iar cel de-al doilea, din dorina de a-i doza resursele (evitnd candidai pe care nu i-i dorete). La limit, ambele sunt o cale de a perpetua situaiile de discriminare. Cel mai puin expuse interpretrii greite, ca situaii de discriminare, sunt cele care in de orientarea sexual, boli potenial transmisibile

leci la angajarea part-time). Pentru a vorbi despre discriminare trebuie dovedit, prin urmare, c nu exist nici un argument funcional n aceste condiionri, c sunt eludate competenele profesionale, c opereaz arbitrariul. Pe de alt parte, mobbing-ul se refer la aciuni, de regul, subtile, repetitive, menite s submineze sau s compromit performana/imaginea profesional a intei. Se definete prin durata i frecvena aciunilor i nu poate fi legat de anumite cauze ale apariiei. Mobbing-ul nu slbete la contraatacul intei, dar i poate schimba forma de manifestare i intensitatea. Este o form de coerciie la adresa unei persoane, pentru ndeprtarea pericolului pe care l reprezint; cel mai adesea este vorba de ndeprtarea intei, dar miza poate fi i aceea de a demonstra c nu este att de competent pe ct pare. Prin urmare, ndeprtarea pericolului se face prin atacul la credibilitate sau subminarea performanelor. Discriminarea de tip mobbing poate avea efect mai mult sau mai puin de durat asupra strii mentale a victimei. Mobbing-ul este ndreptat tipic mpotriva individului, coleg, subaltern, sau persoan cu funcie de conducere i, ca durat, se manifest (prin repetitivitate) cel puin 6 luni.
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Gender Based Wage Discrimination


1
Salary determination process and gender-based wage discrimination are issues for hot debate in studying the labor market. Many well grounded empirical studies and theoretical contributions highlight that in the mature labor market of economically developed countries similar individuals may have wage disparity for reasons that do not relate to compensations usually granted in return for work under different conditions. These studies also show that such factors as unemployment rate, unemployment aid, product market concentration index, overall labor productivity, unions involvement, insiders power and so on are accountable for wage divergence and asymmetry from competitive equilibrium. Wage discrimination occurs when an individual gets from his/her employer comparatively lower wages than normally paid to other equally skilled and experienced employees who deliver the same work productivity. Women are one class of persons that can be discriminated. Discrimination may affect women in two situations: in many cases, they get lower wages than men under comparatively similar conditions and tasks in the workplace; they may be forced to perform low-wage job activities if compared to payment for jobs that women are denied access to. Wage differences do not necessarily express discrimination. Nondiscriminating income disparities occur as a result of different skilled training and relevant experience between women and men. When women have the general skills and the required expertise for a given workplace, but are held back and cannot get the job, then we have a case of discrimination.
Source: The National Institute of Statistics. Press release no. 208 dated 30 September 2011

Press release no. 208 dated 30 September 2011


The National Institute of Statistics released the official news on employee related data In Romania, their share by gender and region; productivity related costs; as well as incomes. Thus, it is a fact that the average number of employees was 4376.0 thousand persons in 2010, a drop by 398.3 thousand persons if compared to 2009. Women earned on average RON 221 less than men, collecting a gross monthly wage of RON 1,786 lei (if compared to RON 2007 for men) and a monthly net salary of RON 1,308 (compared to RON 1,466 for men). Men earned higher net monthly wages than women in most economic activities, while the most significant income disparities (over 25%) were in other activities and services (33.0%), financial intermediation and insurance (32.2%), trade (31.2%) and the processing industry (26.5%). Men dominate among employees (2291.1 thousand people, i.e. 52.4% of total average number of employees). If compared to the previous year, the decrease of average number of male employees (-251.3 thousand persons) was higher than the number of female employees (-147.0 thousand persons). The share of employees by economic sector shows that the majority are employed in the tertiary sector, with a share of 61.8% in 2010. In the secondary sector (industry and constructions), 36.0% of employees are employed, while in the primary sector, there are only 2.2%. Activities in construction and extractive industry are mainly performed by men and represent 86.2%, respectively 84.1% of the total employees. Activities with strong feminization in the labor force market are in healthcare and social protection (79.7% of the total employees in the field), financial intermediation (68.8%), education (68.0%), hotels and restaurants (63.4%), entertainment, cultural activities (55.6%).

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discriminarea forme i efecte

Discriminarea salarial ntre femei i brbai


1
Determinanii ctigurilor salariale i discriminarea salarial ntre brbai i femei au fost i rmn subiecte de dezbateri aprinse i controversate n studiul pieei muncii. Numeroase studii i analize empirice, robust argumentate, evideniaz faptul c i n situaia unei piee a muncii mature, caracteristic rilor dezvoltate economic, indivizi similari din punctul de vedere al pieei muncii pot fi pltii diferit datorit unor motive care nu au legtur cu compensaii acordate pentru condiii de munc diferite. Aceste studii arat c o serie de factori, cum ar fi rata omajului, nivelul ajutoarelor de omaj, gradul de concentrare a pieei produselor, dar i nivelul general al productivitii muncii, prezena sindicatelor, puterea insider-ilor etc., sunt responsabili de devierea salariilor de la punctul de echilibru competitiv. Discriminarea salarial exist atunci cnd o persoan primete de la angajator un salariu care este mai mic dect cel oferit altor salariai, care au aceeai pregtire, experien i care lucreaz cu aceeai productivitate a muncii. O categorie de persoane care poate fi discriminat este cea a femeilor, iar discriminarea le poate afecta n 2 moduri: n multe cazuri sunt remunerate mai slab dect brbaii, n condiiile n care ndeplinesc aceleai sarcini la locul de munc; pot fi obligate s desfoare activiti care sunt mai prost remunerate n raport cu remunerarea de la locurile de munc la care nu au acces. Nu orice diferen salarial exprim o discriminare. Diferenieri salariale nediscriminatorii apar atunci cnd sunt determinate de o pregtire i o experien diferit a femeilor fa de brbai. Dac o persoan feminin dispune de capital general i de capital specific locului de munc, dar este mpiedicat s obin slujba corespunztoare, nseamn c exist discriminare.
Sursa: Institutul Naional de Statistic

Comunicat de pres nr. 208 din 30 septembrie 2011


ntr-un comunicat de pres al Institutului Naional de Statistic s-au anunat, n mod oficial, datele privind salariaii din Romnia, distribuia lor pe sexe i regiuni, costurile cu productivitatea precum i ctigurile salariale. Astfel, este cert faptul c n anul 2010, numrul mediu al salariailor a fost de 4376,0 mii persoane, n scdere fa de anul 2009 cu 398,3 mii persoane. Femeile au ctigat n medie cu 221 lei mai puin dect brbaii, realiznd un ctig salarial brut lunar de 1786 lei (fa de 2007 lei al brbailor) i un ctig salarial net lunar de 1308 lei (fa de 1466 lei al brbailor). Brbailor le-au revenit ctiguri salariale medii lunare nete superioare femeilor n majoritatea activitilor economice, cele mai mari diferene (peste 25%) regsindu-se n alte activiti de servicii (33,0%), n intermedieri financiare i asigurri (32,2%), n comer (31,2%) i n industria prelucrtoare (26,5%). Brbaii predomin n rndul salariailor (2291,1 mii persoane, respectiv 52,4% din totalul numrului mediu de salariai). Fa de anul precedent scderea numrului mediu de brbai salariai (-251,3 mii persoane) a fost mai mare dect cea a femeilor (-147,0 mii persoane). Repartizarea salariailor pe sectoare economice arat c majoritatea se regseau n sectorul teriar, ponderea acestora reprezentnd 61,8% n anul 2010. n sectorul secundar (industrie i construcii) lucrau 36,0% dintre salariai, iar n cel primar numai 2,2%. Activitile din construcii i industria extractiv sunt desfurate cu preponderen de brbai, acetia reprezentnd 86,2%, respectiv 84,1% din totalul salariailor. Activitile caracterizate prin grad pronunat de feminizare a forei de munc salariate sunt cele de sntate i asisten social (79,7% din numrul total al salariailor din ramur), intermedieri financiare (68,8%), nvmnt (68,0%), hoteluri i restaurante (63,4%), activiti de spectacole, culturale i recreative (55,6%).
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How Much Money Does Barbie Make?


Teodora Sarchiz
Project Assistant to Work Is Feminine Project

VIEWPOINT

Discrimination is more frequently tackled with in public debates today. The term is typically addressed to when referring to its more classic forms: gender discrimination, age discrimination, disabled people discrimination and so on. Nobody has addressed this issue yet in terms of physical criteria, more precisely beauty-based discrimination. Its real, but its a taboo for us all. If we also take into account the social stress placed on women for a perfectly beautiful body, an idea that is heavily and artificially advertised in movies, magazines and commercials, we can add a new form of discrimination that women are facing day in, day out. This form of discrimination is relevant not only in our personal life, but it has penetrated the professional environment. Hereinafter, I shall mainly refer to discrimination experienced by women, though I wont oust mens similar experiences. Any head hunter will admit that the first impression is always important in an interview; and it can sometimes be even more relevant than the experience mentioned in the rsum. What does first impression mean? The way you are smiling? It is likely. The way you are talking? It is very likely. More than often, the person facing you, your interlocutor,
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will remember the information you provide, but the image, or images that you convey will certainly be more relevant for him and make a stronger impression. To evaluate candidates on these grounds may seem superficial, but it works even for those who are cautioned to be wise and not judge the content by packaging. Even though beauty-based discrimination may seem a trivial matter, this type of discrimination has a major impact on discriminated women and may refer to appearance such as weight, height or size of breasts. Research undertaken by Biddle and Hamermesh (1998) demonstrates the correlation between physical appearance and salary level. They selected a prestigious law school whose identity has not been disclosed. Their study refers photos of the 70 class that were taken upon registration. These were shown to the research participants who had to rate them on a 1 to 5 scale. When Biddle and Hamermesh analyzed the results, they realized that the subjects who were two scores away from beauty standard deviation earned higher wages by 3% if compared to the rest, during the first year after graduating. Five years after graduating, the salary of the same was 10% higher, and after they succeeded to build up a career

discriminarea forme i efecte

Ce salariu are Barbie?


OPINIE Teodora Sarchiz
Secretar Solicitant n cadrul proiectului Munca are genul feminin

Termenul discriminare apare din ce n ce mai des n dezbaterile publice iar de cele mai multe ori face referire la tipurile clasice: discriminarea de gen, discriminarea de vrst, discriminarea persoanelor cu dizabiliti etc. Nimeni ns nu abordeaz subiectul discriminrii pe criterii fizice, sau mai exact discriminarea n funcie de frumusee. Exist, este real, dar e o un subiect tabu pentru toi. Dac lum n considerare i presiunea social pentru un corp feminin perfect, alimentat artificial de filme, reviste i reclame, nu putem dect s mai adugm un nou tip de discriminatre cu care femeile se confrunt zilnic. Aceast form de discriminare nu exist doar n sfera relaiilor personale, ci se infiltreaz i n mediul profesional. n continuare voi face referire n principal la discriminarea resimit de femei, ns nu exclud experienele similare ale brbailor. Orice specialist n recrutare spune c prima impresie conteaz la angajare, poate cteodat mai mult dect experiena acumulat n CV. La ce se refer aceast prim impresie? La modul cum zmbeti? Posibil. La tipul de discurs pe care l abordezi? Probabil. Dar, de cele mai multe ori, interlocutorul, persoana din faa ta, va reine ansamblul de informaii pe care l oferi, iar imaginea, sau mai zis,

imaginile pe care i le transmii vor avea o pondere mai mare. Da, ntradevr e o modalitate superficial de a evalua un candidat, dar aceasta exist chiar i la cei care au nvat s nu judece coninutul dup ambalaj. Dei pare un subiect trivial, acest tip de discriminare are un impact major asupra femeilor discriminate i poate face referire n general la aspecte fizice cum ar fi greutatea, nlimea sau mrimea snilor. Studiul realizat de Biddle i Hamermesh (1998) demonstreaz corelaia direct dintre aspectul fizic i nivelul de salarizare. Acetia au luat exemplu o facultate prestigioas de drept, fr ns a-i divulga numele. Studiul realizat la facultatea respectiv se refer la fotografiile studenilor din promoia 1970 fcute n momentul nmatriculrii; acestea au fost artate participanilor la studiu, care trebuiau s acorde note de la 1 la 5. Cnd au fost analizate notele date fotografiilor, Biddle i Hamermesh (1998) au realizat c persoanele notate care se aflau la dou puncte fa de deviaia standard aveau salariul mai mare cu 3% fa de restul, n primul an dup absolvire. Dup cinci ani de la absolvire, aceeai diferen reprezenta un salariu mai mare cu 10%, iar dup ce avocaii i creaser o carier stabil, procentul a crescut la 12%. Dup o vechime de 15 ani, fiecare cretere fa de
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the difference increased to 12%. The results showed that people modifications were unexpectedly After 15 years, the raise compared generally disliked: short legs, short valued by the participants in the to the beauty standard deviation was thighs, bandy legs, large skulls, survey. For instance, the bipedal worth 3,200 $ for public defenders prominent gums, short fingers, long movement is what altered the and 10,200$ for private lawyers palms, curved fingers, short necks legs and necks length, shoulders (J. Biddle i D. Hamermesh, 1998 and undershot (prominent) jaws. stretching and backwards reclining. p. 184). On the other hand, the subjects Other examples are: passing to To prove the importance of liked: tall persons, long legs, thin omnivorous feeding habits drove good looks in building up a career, waists, long necks, red and arched dentition and mandible changes; or in her article Does Image Matter? lips, wide eyes, straight shoulders, the evolution of human intelligence (1995), Jennifer Laabs quotes straight and perfectly aligned teeth, led to increase and change in skull David Blanchflower research on straight fingers, smooth skins and shape and volume, which in turn wages earned by overweight female with no hair, straight foreheads, generated increased manual dexteteenagers. This study analyzes the flat stomachs and last, but not least, rity and enlargement of arms and issue of the salary earned by teens on flexible soles. hands. If referring to lips, humans their first job, and results show that Magro (1997) determines that are the only species that have discrimination starts as this early Barbie Doll aggregates all the outward labial mucosa. This aspect age. Research has also pointed out human features valued by the is not common to other primates, that overweight teenagers (the first participants, because - we shall but in the fetus stage. Red lips are 10%) aged 16 years old had a salary see this later - the doll features the popular for they denote advanced by 7.4% lower than thinner girls of specific traits of human genetic development. A.M. Magro (1997) the same age, and those qualified evolution. Magro also reminds also notes that disliked features are among the first 1% earned 12% less. studies on genetic and hominid present with primitive hominids and On the other hand, weight was not a fossil showing that, due to human most of these features are present in significant factor in deciding salary apes today. Flexible soles encourage of male teenagers in the same age wearing hilled shoes, which create the category (16 years old). On the illusion of longer legs. Desmond contrary, for each additional Morris (2004, 281) notes that Research has also 10 centimeters in height, in the 40s, cartoonists and pointed out that overweight the boys earned 2% more commercial illustrators than their mates (J. featuring attractive teenagers (the first 10%) aged 16 years old Laabs, 1995, 49-61). women exploited What are the these features and had a salary by 7.4% lower than thinner girls criteria for female created characters of the same age, and those qualified among the beauty today? And whose legs were 1.5 why do many of us, longer than their first 1% earned 12% less. On the other hand, weight when we imagine a real life models. beautiful woman, (D. Morris, 2004, was not a significant factor in deciding salary of see a replica of the apud S. Ciccotti, male teenagers in the same age category (16 years Barbie doll? 2007, 81) A.M. Magro Human perold). On the contrary, foreach additional 10 (1997) conducted a ception of beauty study on sociobiology has evolved in centimeters in height, the boys earned 2% (Why Barbie is time along with the more than their mates (J. Laabs, Percived as Beautiful ) evolution of our physical on a total of 495 adults that features. The newly 1995, 49-61). resulted in the conclusion acquired characteristics are that the dolls body shape is largely present today, because considered attractive. The researcher people choose their partners on used a number of photographs and this basis. And they have been charts featuring human beings with evolution, some physical attributes preserved as a result of selective different physical characteristics. were lost in favor of other traits. The reproduction. Women who have The participants in the study were newly developed features are largely these characteristics are more likely asked to evaluate their features and due to the upright position, or biped, to give birth to children who will explain how attractive they found evolution of human intelligence, display the same characteristics. these (A.M. Magro, 1997, apud S. manual dexterity and omnivorous Barbie doll exemplifies how human Ciccotti, 2007, 80). feeding habits. These very physical perception of beauty has evolved.
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deviaia standard valora 3.200$ pen- spun ct de atrgtoare le gseau parte posturii bipede, dezvoltrii tru avocaii din sectorul public i (A.M. Magro, 1997, apud S. Ciccotti, inteligenei, dexteritii manuale, 10.200$ pentru avocaii din sectorul 2007, 80). dar i regimului omnivor adoptat. privat. (J. Biddle i D. Hamermesh, Rezultatele au artat c oamenii Surprinztor, chiar aceste schimbri 1998 p. 184) detestau n general: gambele scurte, fizice aprute au fost valorizate de Pentru a dovedi importana pe coapsele scurte, picioarele crcnate, participanii la studiu. De exemplu, care o joac aspectul fizic plcut n craniile mari, gingiile proeminente, postura biped care a modificat carier, Jennifer Laabs citeaz n degetele scurte, palmele lungi, de- creterea lungimii picioarelor, crearticolul su Does Image Matter? getele curbate, gturile scurte i terea lungimii gtului i o ndreptare (Conteaz imagine?) (1995) studiul a umerilor, uor nclinai spre spate. realizat de David Blanchflower Un alt exemplu ar fi adoptarea Cercetarea referitor la salariul adolescentelor regimului omnivor care a antrenat cu greutatea peste medie. modificarea mandibulei i a a demonstrat c Studiul viza salariul de dentiiei, dezvoltarea inteadolescentele care se ncadrau la primul loc de munc ligenei a mrit forma al adolescenilor, iar rei volumul craniului printre cele cu greutatea cea mai mare zultatele arat c disi, de asemenea, a (primele 10%) din categoria de vrst 16 criminarea ncepe mrit dexteritatea chiar de la aceast manual, ceea ce a ani, aveau un salariu cu 7,4% mai mic dect vrst. Cercetarea dus la modificarea fetele mai slabe din aceeai categorie, iar cele care a demonstrat c minilor. Despre adolescentele care buze trebuie s se aflau printre primele 1% ctigau cu 12% mai se ncadrau printre tim c suntem sinpuin. Greutatea ns nu a reprezentat un factor cele cu greutatea gura specie care cea mai mare prezint mucoasele semnificativ n ceea ce privete salariile bieilor (primele 10%) din labiale ntoarse spre cu aceeai vrst (16 ani), din contr, pentru categoria de vrst exterior. Acest asfiecare 10 cm n plus din talie, bieii 16 ani, aveau un pect nu se ntlsalariu cu 7,4% mai mic nete la celelalte maictigau cu 2% mai mult dect colegii dect fetele mai slabe din mue dect n stadiul lor. (J. Laabs, 1995, 49-61) aceeai categorie, iar cele fetal. Buzele roii sunt care se aflau printre primele apreciate pentru c reprezint 1% ctigau cu 12% mai puin. semnul dezvoltrii avansate. Greutatea ns nu a reprezentat A.M. Magro (1997) constat, de un factor semnificativ n ceea ce asemenea, c trsturile neagreate privete salariile bieilor cu aceeai maxilarele prognate (proeminente, sunt cele prezente i n conformaia vrst (16 ani), din contr, pentru ieite nainte). Pe de alt parte, su- oamenilor primitivi i majoritatea fiecare 10 cm n plus din talie, biecii apreciau: persoanele nalte, dintre ele se regsesc i la maimuele bieii ctigau cu 2% mai mult picioarele lungi, taliile subiri, g- de astzi. Bolile plantare flexibile, dect colegii lor. (J. Laabs, 1995, turile lungi, buzele roii i arcuite, apreciate n acest studiu, fac posibil 49-61) ochii mari, umerii drepi, dinii utilizarea tocurilor i implicit Dar care sunt criteriile frumuseii drepi i nespaiai, degetele drepte, lungirea suplimentar a picioarelor. feminine azi? i oare de ce muli pielea neted i lipsit de piloziti, Desmond Morris (2004, 281) remarc dintre noi, cnd ne imaginm o frunile drepte, abdomenele plate i, i el c n anii 40, creatorii de benzi femeie frumoas, vedem o replic a nu n ultimul rnd, tlpile flexibile. desenate sau reclame ce prezint ppuii Barbie? Magro (1997) constat c p- femei atrgtoare au exploatat aceste A.M. Magro (1997) a realizat un pua Barbie nsumeaz toate carac- caracteristici, crend personaje ale studiu socio-biologic (Why Barbie is teristicile dezirabile valorizate de cror picioare erau de 1,5 ori mai Perceived as Beautiful) pe un numr participani pentru c, vom vedea mai lungi dect cele ale modelelor reale. de 495 de persoane adulte, n urma trziu, ppua prezint trsturile (D. Morris, 2004, apud S. Ciccotti, cruia a rezultat c forma corpului specifice unui om evoluat genetic. 2007, 81) ppuii este considerat atrgtoare. Cercettorul amintete de studiile Percepia noastr asupra fruAcesta a utilizat mai multe scheme efectuate pe fosilele hominide ce museii a evoluat n timp, odat cu i fotografii ce reprezentau fiine arat c, datorit evoluiei umane, trsturile noastre fizice. Caracumane cu caracteristici fizice diferite. unele atribute fizice s-au pierdut teristicile nou dobndite sunt Participanii la studiu trebuiau s n favoarea altora. Caracteristicile prezente n mare msur astzi, evalueze trsturile acestora i s nou-dezvoltate se datoreaz n mare pentru c oamenii i aleg partenerii
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And if Barbie Doll displays the ideal is 0.7 (http://en.wikipedia. than girls of their age. elements that we consider attractive, org/wiki/Waist-hip_ratio). WHR Ultimately, was Marilyn Monroe then this must be the reason why all is an excellent indicator of body right? Do men prefer fair haired the winners of beauty contests will fat distribution, which means that women? It is likely. It is certain, eventually replicate her. however, that we prefer people who Another survey conducted by have different genes from ours, so that British Broadcasting Company we can ensure our descendants (2005), which materialized in a good and wide genetic a three part documentary legacy able to strengthen International beauty icons series: BBC -Secrets of the immune system and the Sexes Brainsex, perpetuation of our such as Audrey Hepburn, Marilyn BBC - Secrets of the species. Therefore, in Sexes Attraction the countries with Monroe or Sophia Loren have a WHR and BBC -Secrets dark haired people, ratio of almost 0.7, even though they have of the Sexes fair haired women Love, examines and men will be different waists and hip sizes. In other how mens and preferred. womens mind And Barbie is cultures, preference varies from 0.6 in China works and the mostly fair haired. to 0.9 in some parts of South America or difference between Lighter colored hair the two genders also suggests higher Africa. Nevertheless, the universal ideal and whats in our fertility potential (N. mind when we fall Guguen, 2008, 132). is 0.7 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ in love. The second In order to test Waist-hip_ratio). part: Secrets of the this theory, D.C. Matz Sexes Attraction is an and V.B. Hinsz (2000) attempt to determine whether conducted an experiment consciousness can predict and and showed the participants anticipate sexual attraction. To test photographs of women whose hair their theories, the researchers have color had been digitally changed. turned to a novel method: speed an unsatisfactory ratio indicates The subjects were asked to assess the dating. They examined the bodies unequal distribution and can have attractiveness, age, health condition of the participants in the study adverse consequences on health, and the capacity to bear children of and their psychological and social while a low WHR ratio is an indicator the person in the photograph. profiles as well. The conclusion is of health and fertility. Even though Light colored hair seems to be that men prefer women with small Barbie Doll has a thin waist and is associated with youth and fertility. waist-to-hip ratios (WHR), which therefore attractive, if we applied This is a crucial criterion for people is an indicator of fertility, while this ratio to her sizes (12.7/8.9) the who, from an evolutionist point of women prefer men over 1.80 m result would be 1.42. In real life, a view, want to have more children high. The ideal WHR ratio is 0.7 for woman with this WHR would have with a varied genetic inheritance. At women and 0.9 for men and it has a hard time in getting pregnant. some point, the light color of the hair been shown to be correlated strongly Youth is valued in our society. was an indicator of the reproductive with general health and fertility. And again our Barbie Doll is potential and it may contribute to Women within the 0.7 range have forever young, because age is also maintaining sexual attractiveness optimal levels of estrogen and are an indicator of fertility. In Magros today. less susceptible to major diseases research (1997), large eyes are Regardless our gender or social such as diabetes, cardiovascular favored as an indicator of youth. background, we are genetically disorders and ovarian cancers. At all times, men have preferred programmed to recognize and International beauty icons such as younger women and women prefer appraise beauty. And Barbie best Audrey Hepburn, Marilyn Monroe older men. As researchers D.T. integrates the characteristics of or Sophia Loren have a WHR Kenrick, C. Gabrielidis, R.C. Keefe feminine beauty. ratio of almost 0.7, even though and J. Cornelius, from the University Nevertheless, this media they have different waists and hip of Arizona (1996, 1499-1511 apud S. influence can be stopped by some. sizes. In other cultures, preference Ciccotti, 2007) noted, this balance is A few days ago, I received an e-mail varies from 0.6 in China to 0.9 in disturbed when it is about teenagers; message (a pamphlet), which shows some parts of South America or they prefer older women (5 years that sound sense of humor is our Africa. Nevertheless, the universal older) because they are more fertile best defense. After browsing the
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pe aceast baz. Ele au fost pstrate Marilyn Monroe sau Sophia Loren, c reprezint un semn al tinereii. ca urmare a reproducerii selective. toate au avut WHR aproape de 0,7, Dintotdeauna, brbaii au preferat Femeile cu aceste caracteristici au chiar dac ele au diferite mrimi ale femeile mai tinere, iar femeile preanse mai mari ca, la rndul lor, taliilor i oldurilor. n alte culturi, fer brbaii mai maturi. Aa cum s dea natere unor copii care vor au observat i D.T. Kenrick, C. prezenta aceleai caracteristici. Gabrielidis, R.C. Keefe i J. Cornelius, Ppua Barbie ilustreaz mocercettori la Universitatea din dul n care a evoluat percepia Arizona (1996, 1499-1511 Simboluri ale asupra frumuseii umane. apud S. Ciccotti, 2007), frumuseii precum Audrey Iar dac ppua prez-int acest echilibru este puin elementele pe care noi perturbat, cnd vine Hepburn, Marilyn Monroe le considerm fruvorba de adolesceni sau Sophia Loren, toate au avut moase, nseamn c care prefer femei cu acesta este i moticinci ani mai mari, WHR aproape de 0,7, chiar dac ele au vul pentru care adic femeile mai toate ctigtoarele fertile dect cele de diferite mrimi ale taliilor i oldurilor. concursurilor de vrsta lor. n alte culturi, preferinele variaz de la Miss ajung s-i n final, avea semene. Marilyn Monroe 0,6 n China la 0,8 sau 0,9 n unele pri Un alt studiu dreptate? Domnii ale Americii de Sud sau Africii. Totui efectuat de British prefer blondele? Broadcasting ComSe poate. Este sigur, preferinele universale tind spre 0,7 pany (2005), finalizat ns, c preferm perprintr-un documentar soanele care au gene (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ format din trei pri: diferite de ale noastre, Waist-hip_ratio). BBC-Secrets of the Sexes astfel nct s putem asi Brainsex, BBC- Secrets gura urmailor notri o of the Sexes Attraction i palet ct mai variat de gene ce BBC-Secrets of the Sexes Love, poate ntri sistemul imunitar i ar cerceteaz n ce fel difer creierul permite conservarea speciei. Deci, femeii fa de cel al brbatului i preferinele variaz de la 0,6 n n rile unde predomin persoanele cum gndim cnd ne ndrgostim. China la 0,8 sau 0,9 n unele pri brunete, blondele i blonzii vor fi Partea a doua (Secrets of the Sexes ale Americii de Sud sau Africii. foarte cutai, iar Barbie, de cele Attraction) ncearc s afle dac Totui preferinele universale tind mai multe ori este blond. Prul tiina poate prezice atracia sexual. spre 0,7 (http://en.wikipedia.org/ mai deschis la culoare sugereaz, de Cercettorii au apelat la o metod wiki/Waist-hip_ratio). WHR este asemenea, tinereea i potenialul de inedit pentru a-i testa teoriile: un bun indicator al repartizrii fecunditate (N. Guguen, 2008, 132). ntlnirile rapide, sau speed dating. grsimilor corporale, deci un raport Pentru a testa aceast ultim Acetia au analizat pe rnd corpurile nesatisfctor trdeaz repartizarea ipotez, D.C. Matz mpreun cu V.B. celor care au participat la studiu, dar inegal a acestora, avnd consecine Hinsz (2000) au artat fotografiile i profilurile lor psihologice i sociale. negative asupra strii de sntate, pe unor femei la care fusese editat Concluzia la care au ajuns este c cnd un WHR sczut este un semn digital culoarea prului. Subiecii brbaii prefer femeile cu raportul al sntii i fertilitii. trebuia s evalueze puterea de dintre olduri i talie mic (waist-toChiar dac Barbie are talia foarte atracie a persoanei, vrsta, starea hip ratio sau pe scurt, WHR), ceea ce bine marcat, i este deci atrgtoare, de sntate, dar i capacitatea de a indic fertilitatea, iar femeile prefer dac am aplica acest raport i pe avea copii. brbaii cu o nlime de peste 1,80 msurile ei (12,7/8,9) rezultatul ar fi Se pare c, n general, prul m. Raportul WHR ideal este de 0,7 de 1,42 ceea ce nseamn c ntr-o deschis la culoare este asociat cu pentru femei i 0,9 pentru brbai lume real, o femeie cu msurile ar tinereea i fecunditatea. Acesta i coreleaz puternic cu starea de avea mari dificulti n a rmne este un criteriu determinant pentru sntate i cu fertilitatea. Femeile al nsrcinat. cei care, din punct de vedere cror WHR este de 0,7 posed nivelul Tinereea e foarte valorizat n evoluionist, ncearc s aib mai optim de estrogen i sunt mai puin societatea noastr, din nou, Barbie muli urmai cu un bagaj genetic predispuse la boli majore precum este mereu tnr, iar vrsta este variat. Culoarea deschis a prului a diabetul, bolile cardio-vasculare sau i ea un indicator al fertilitii. fost, la un moment dat, un indicator cancerul ovarian. Simboluri ale fru- n cercetarea lui Magro (1997), al potenialului reproductiv i museii precum Audrey Hepburn, ochii mari sunt preferai pentru probabil c mai contribuie i azi la
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internet, I noticed this pamphlet was translated in several languages on a number of websites, forums and blogs. Here is the e-mail message:

psychoanalysts due to identity much information and wisdom crisis. Fish or human? They dont in our heads that when there is have a sex life because they kill no more room it distributes out men who get close to them not to the rest of our bodies. So we

Recently, in a big French city, to mention, how could they have arent heavy, we are enormously a poster featuring a young, thin sex? Therefore they do not have cultured, educated and happy. and tan woman appeared in the kids. Not to mention, who wants Beginning today, when I look window of a gym. It said: This to get close to a girl who smells at my butt in the mirror I will summer do you want to be a like a fish store? think, Good gosh, look how mermaid or a whale? The choice is perfectly clear to smart I am!

A middle aged woman, whose me; I want to be a whale. To conclude, no matter what our physical characteristics did not P.S. We are in an age when wages, education or weight, a way to match those of the woman on media puts into our heads the combat this type of discrimination the poster, responded publicly to idea that only skinny people are is to promote people who are truly happy with their looks. the question posed by the gym. beautiful, but I prefer to enjoy an Their attitude towards standard To Whom It May Concern,
rejection of patterns should remind

ice cream with my kids, a good images promoted by the media and

dinner with a man who makes us that a woman is more than a nice Whales are always surrounded me shiver and a coffee with my body. A good example is the woman whose e-mail travelled around the by friends (dolphins, sea lions, friends. With time, we gain world. I wonder: How much does she curious humans). They have an weight because we accumulate so earn? active sex life; they get pregnant and have adorable baby whales. They have a wonderful time with dolphins, stuffing themselves with shrimp. They play and swim in the seas, seeing wonderful places like Patagonia, the Bering Sea and the coral reefs of Polynesia. Whales are wonderful singers and have even recorded CDs. They are incredible creatures and have virtually no predators other than humans. They are loved, protected and admired by almost everyone in the world. Mermaids dont exist. If they did exist, they would be lining up outside the offices of Argentinean
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meninerea atraciei fizice. Indiferent de sex sau de mediul social din care provenim, suntem programai genetic s recunoatem i s apreciem frumuseea. Iar Barbie nsumeaz cel mai bine caracteristicile frumuseii feminine. Totui, aceast influen mediatic poate fi stopat de unele persoane. Am primit zilele trecute un mesaj prin e-mail (un pamflet) care poate demonstra cum umorul poate fi o bun modalitate de aprare. Cutnd mai mult pe Internet, am observat c pamfletul era tradus n mai multe limbi i deja apruse pe un numr semnificativ de site-uri, forumuri i bloguri. n continuare, voi reda mesajul e-mail-ului.

Acum cteva zile, ntr-un ora din Frana, pe un afi cu o tnr spectaculoas, la intrarea ntr-o sal de gimnastic, scria: n vara asta ce vrei s fii: siren sau balen? Se spune c o femeie tnr, ale crei caracteristici fizice

nu conteaz, a rspuns la Sirenele nu exist. i dac ar ntrebarea de publicitate n exista, ar sta la coad la cabinetele aceti termeni: de psihoterapie, deoarece acestea ar avea o problem serioas Drag domnilor, de personalitate: Femeie sau Balenele sunt mereu ncon- pete? jurate de prieteni (delfini, lei de Nu ar avea via sexual, mare, oameni curioi). Acestea pentru c-i omoar pe brbaii au o via sexual foarte activ, care se apropie de ele i, pe lng rmn gravide i au balenue acest aspect, pe unde i cum ar micue i drglae, pe care putea? Deci, din aceast cauz, la alpteaz. Se distreaz de nu au copii. Ele sunt frumoase, minune cu delfinii, umplndu- adevrat, dar singure i triste. i burta cu crevei. Se joac Oricum, cine ar vrea s se i noat, cutreier mrile, apropie de o tip care miroase ca cunoscnd astfel de locuri un pete? minunate ca Patagonia, Marea Pentru mine este clar, doresc Barens sau recifele de corali s fiu o balen. din Polinezia. Balenele cnt PS: n vremurile astea, n care foarte bine i chiar nregistreaz toat mass-media ne bag n CD-uri. Sunt impresionante i, cap ideea c doar femeile slabe practic, nu au niciun duman sunt frumoase, eu prefer s m care s la vneze, n afar de delectez cu o ngheat mpreun om. Ele sunt iubite, aprate i cu copiii mei, cu o cin bun, admirate de toat lumea. [...] sau cu o cafea i prjiturele mpreun cu prietenele mele. Cu timpul ctigm n greutate, pentru c acumulm multe cunotine i informaii i cnd nu mai au loc n cap sunt distribuite n restul corpului. Aa c nu suntem grase, suntem teribil de culte. De astzi, cnd o s m uit la funduleul meu n oglind, o s m gndesc: Dumnezeule, ce inteligent sunt...
n concluzie, indiferent de procentele din salariu, de studii sau de greutate, o modalitate de combatere a acestui tip de discriminare este promovarea persoanelor care sunt sincer bucuroase de felul n care arat, atitudinea lor fa de imaginile standard promovate i respingerea tiparelor ar trebui s ne reaminteasc, dac este cazul, c o femeie e mai mult dect un trup. Un bun exemplu este doamna al crei e-mail a fcut nconjurul lumii. Oare ea ct ctig?
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Pregnant Women
According to Law 202/2002 , with amendments and completions, motherhood is not ground for discrimination; at the same time, it is forbidden to request from a candidate a pregnancy test with a view to her employment. Pregnant women are entitled to an easier or modified work program, if the medical doctor issues a certificate that specifically requires so. The first thing a woman should do in this case is to send her manager written notification about being pregnant, in order to benefit from the rights provided under the Romanian Law. The manager is liable to maintain confidentiality and initiate the request for improved working conditions. A pregnant woman is entitled to a shorter work program or part-time program during pregnancy. The Law stipulates that motivated absence by medical certificate is paid in full by the employer. The employer is forbidden to dismiss a woman during her pregnancy, maternity leave, pre-natal leave or sick leave or during a time-span to be established by the national legislation, following to her returning from the leave, save for the cases which are not related to pregnancy, the birth of the child and its consequences and breastfeeding. The woman must have the guarantee that at the end of her maternity leave, when she starts to work again, she will come back to the same or a similar position, remunerated on the same level.1

A Target for Discrimination at Work

Law no. 202/2002 stipulates that the following issues are not considered to be cases of discrimination:
special provisions stipulated under the law for the protection of maternity, birth and breastfeeding; stimulative, temporary measures for the protection of certain categories of men and women; qualification requirements for activities where gender particularities represent a determinant factor due to the specificity of the conditions development of the activities in question.
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Femeile nsrcinate

o int a discriminrii la locul de munc


Conform Legii 202/20021, modificat i completat, maternitatea nu poate constitui un motiv de discriminare; de asemenea, este interzis a i se solicita unei candidate, n vederea angajrii, s prezinte un test de sarcin. Femeile nsrcinate au dreptul la un program de munc mai lejer, n cazul n care medicul elibereaz un certificat n care le solicit acest lucru. Primul lucru care trebuie s fie fcut este s anune superiorul, n scris, c este nsrcinat, pentru a putea beneficia de toate drepturile pe care le acord legea romneasc. El este obligat s pstreze confidenialitatea i s dea curs cererilor de mbuntire a condiiilor de munc. Pe timpul sarcinii, ea are dreptul la un program de lucru mai scurt. Legea prevede ca absenele motivate cu adeverin medical s fie pltite de ctre angajator. Se interzice unui angajator s concedieze o femeie pe perioada graviditii, a concediului de maternitate, prenatal sau de boal sau pe o perioad care va fi stabilit de legislaia naional, urmtoare ntoarcerii sale din concediu, cu excepia cazurilor care nu au legtur cu graviditatea, naterea copilului i consecinele acesteia i alptarea. Femeia trebuie s aib garania c, la sfritul concediului de maternitate, cnd i reia lucrul, se ntoarce pe acelai post sau pe un post echivalent, remunerat la acelai nivel. 2

Legea nr 202/2002 consemneaz c nu sunt considerate discriminri urmtoarele:


msurile speciale prevzute de lege pentru protecia maternitii, naterii i alptrii; msurile stimulative, temporare, pentru protecia anumitor categorii de femei sau brbai; cerinele de calificare pentru activiti n care particularitile de sex constituie un factor determinant datorit specificului condiiilor i modului de desfurare a activitilor respective.
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Domestic Violence. Another Form of Gender Discrimination

Aurora Popa, Psychologist


Family Mediator with Work Is Feminine Project

VIEWPOINT

Considered to be a form of gender discrimination, domestic violence, also known as domestic abuse or family violence, is, one must admit, a large scale, deeply-rooted, almost traditional - if we may say so - phenomenon in Romania. Its tradition goes way back, so that it has been and will probably be associated for quite some time with an attribute of normality, or a prerogative of married and family life. If we examine documents of past times, we learn from The Romanian Book of Learning written during the reign of Prince Vasile Lupu (1634-1653) that a "man can beat his woman in moderation for her faults, even though he has a deed to forbid her thrashing". So, nothing more than normal! And the aggressor was protected, he was untouchable as "neither the womans lamentations and screams from the house, nor her blackened eyes or swollen cheek, those will not be able to show the mans enmity..." He was the Pater familias who could exert, among others, the right to punish his wife. The continuation of such customs, at some point even protected under the law, made Romanians be too lenient towards domestic violence, and take the abuse and violent behaviors against women for normal behavior that can be passed on from
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one generation to another. This is the reason why, as a result of the natural evolution of society and joining the European approach related to the prevention and repression of domestic violence, Law no. 2171 was adopted in Romania in 2003 to offer the necessary framework for solving this issue. This is also a means to landmark the measures for the prevention and repression of domestic violence, through setting up control and supervisory authorities, centers for the victims assistance, authorizing certain activities and stipulated sanctions for those who commit domestic violence. In its Resolution of June 11, 1986, The European Parliament describes that "...observing the human rights must be part of the global education and human dignity, and all the aspects of domestic and mental violence against a human being represent a violation of the human rights". Domestic violence, a widely spread phenomenon as it is called by those who examine it, is an extremely critical community, social and public health issue, which mainly affects women. It may take various forms, either visible or hidden, such as physical, psychological, sexual, economic and social abuse. Physical abuse is physical

discriminarea forme i efecte

Violena n familie, o alt form de discriminare de gen

OPINIE

Psiholog Aurora Popa

Mediator familial n cadrul Proiectului Munca are genul feminin

Socotit ca form de discriminare de gen, violena domestic sau violena n familie este, trebuie s-o recunoatem, un fenomen de o amploare destul de mare n Romnia, cu rdcini adnci, cu tradiie, am putea spune. Att de tradiional nct a avut mult vreme (i s-ar putea s mai aib) atribut de normalitate, de apanaj al vieii conjugale i familiale. Dac cercetm documentele unor vremi mai ndeprtate, aflm c n Cartea Romneasc de nvtur, din timpul lui Vasile Lupu (16341653), se precizeaz c brbatul poate s-i bat muierea cu msur pentru vina ei, mcar de ar avea i zapis s nu o bat. Aadar, nimic mai normal! Iar agresorul era chiar protejat, era de neatins, cci nici vaetele muierii i ipetele ce se aud n cas, nici ochii ei de vor fi vinei sau obrazul de va fi umflat, acelea nu vor putea arta vrjmia brbatului El era Pater familias, care-i putea exercita, pe lng multe altele, i dreptul de corecie asupra nevestei. Perpetuarea n timp a obiceiurilor de acest fel, aprate la un moment dat chiar de lege, a fcut ca romnii s fie mult prea ngduitori fa de violena n familie, ducnd la considerarea comportamentului violent ndreptat mpotriva femeii ca un comportament normal, care se poate transmite de la o generaie

la alta. Tocmai de aceea, ca urmare i a evoluiilor fireti din societate i alturndu-se demersurilor de la nivel european cu privire la prevenirea i combaterea violenei n familie, n Romnia s-a adoptat n anul 2003 legea nr. 2171, care ofer cadrul necesar att pentru clarificarea acestei probleme, ct i pentru jalonarea msurilor de prevenire i combatere a violenei n familie, prin nfiinarea unor organisme care s controleze fenomenul, a unor centre destinate victimelor, prin autorizarea unor activiti i prin stipularea unor sanciuni fa de cei care svresc acte de violen n familie. Parlamentul European, prin Rezoluia din 11 iunie 1986, arat c (...) respectarea drepturilor omului trebuie s fac parte din educaia global i din demnitatea omului, iar toate aspectele violenei fizice sau mintale mpotriva persoanei umane constituie o violare a drepturilor sale. Violena n familie, un fenomen larg rspndit dup cum spun cei care se ocup de studierea lui, este o problem comunitar, social i de sntate public extrem de grav ce afecteaz n principal femeile. Ea poate s mbrace forme diverse, mai mult sau mai puin vizibile, precum violena fizic, psihologic, sexual, economic i social.
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According to Law no. 217/2003 for the Prevention and Repression of Domestic Violence, published in the Official Gazette, Part I, no. 367 of 29 May 2003, the definition of domestic violence is as follows: (1) Domestic violence represents any physical or verbal action intentionally inflicted by a member of the family against another member of the same family that causes physical, psychic, sexual suffering or material damage. (2) It is also considered domestic violence preventing of the woman to exercise her fundamental rights and freedoms.

contact intended to bodily harm or cause physical injury to the victim, including physical intimidation. It also refers to the destruction of goods belonging to the victim or victims family. This form of violence has manifold consequences on the victims physical and mental health, causing traumas that are difficult to overcome. Psychological abuse, also referred to as mental abuse or emotional abuse, is currently associated with physical abuse and includes emotional and verbal violence expressed through: insults, offence, threatening, intimidation, emotional blackmail, fear, continuous pressure, terror, deprivation of food or sleep, social harm. The consequences of emotional aggression, one of the most devastating forms of violence, with significant effects on self-pride and self-esteem, are mainly mental, harder to antagonize and expressed

in the long run. Sexual violence or sexual abuse refers to forcing of undesired sexual behavior by one person/partner upon another or any sexual intercourse without the partner being able to give express and valid consent. Though there may be physical effects, mental consequences are by far the most significant and difficult to bear. Lower self-esteem, helplessness, fear, horror, disgust, shame, isolation, refusal to live are feelings and frames of mind that victims of domestic sexual abuse (marital rape) have to live with. Economic abuse consists in the perpetrators control over the victim to induce the victims total financial dependence: control over the victims financial resources and access to other resources of income, protection or self-care; interdiction to get or keep a job; and restraint to get involved in decision-

Here are a few myths related to domestic violence:


Domestic violence is not so extensive or dramatic. Beating occurs when he has lost his temper. Domestic violence occurs in poor families or with uneducated people. Solving intra-family violence should be done within the family. Victims accept aggression. If violence were so dramatic, the woman would put an end to the relation with her partner. Alcohol is the cause of domestic violence. Women only are victims of domestic violence.

making related to managing the household budget. In this case, the consequences reside in harming the victims professional and economic life, impossibility to build up a career and risk of losing the job or lack of professional competitiveness, due to the stress and harassment the victim is subjected to by the perpetrator. Social violence consists in isolation of the victim from family or friends, or activities that result in interruption or failure of social relationships, as well as restricted access to information or protection, which inevitably leads to the victims failure to find a solution to this situation. Domestic violence has children as indirect victims, whose trauma is more intense and with deeper and longer consequences than the children who are direct victims of abuse and neglect by their parents (Catheline, Marcelli, 1999). In families where relationships are defined by abuse, the womans roles as a mother and wife are no longer entirely fulfilled, and the children will have to endure. They face psychological issues such as increased anxiety, guilt, and fear of abandonment, isolation, anger, lack of self-confidence, breakdown, and reference to the mates happier lives. All these issues will be apparent in a passive/aggressive behavior, family/school abandon, and diverse addictions. Quite often, one may witness a change of status, when children take over their fathers role who is somehow out of the picture to protect both the mother who is overwhelmed by the situation and the feeling of failure in her most important relationship, and the whole family. As a discriminatory phenomenon, violence against women is the occurrence of a powerbased relationship between men and women whose consequences are womens domination and discrimination by men and denial of their fulfillment. All these myths, like many

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Violena fizic const n atingeri sau contacte fizice dureroase, inclusiv intimidarea fizic a victimei. De asemenea, se refer i la distrugerea bunurilor care aparin victimei sau familiei. Consecinele acestui tip de violen pentru victim sunt att n planul sntii fizice ct, mai ales, n cel al sntii psihice, provocnd traume greu de depit. Violena psihologic sau psihic (abuzul emoional), care se asociaz aproape obligatoriu cu cea fizic, include violena emoional i cea verbal exprimate prin: insulte, jigniri, ameninri, intimidare, antaj emoional, inducerea fricii, presiune continu, teroare, privare de alimente sau de somn, discreditare social. Consecinele agresiunii emoionale, considerat ca fiind cea mai distructiv, (cu repercusiuni asupra mndriei personale i a ncrederii n sine), sunt mai ales de ordin psihic, mult mai greu de contracarat i cu manifestri de lung durat. Violena sexual (abuzul sexual) nseamn orice contact sexual nedorit de ctre partener sau cu privire la care partenerul nu poate s-i exprime consimmntul valabil format. Dei pot s existe consecine n planul sntii fizice a victimei, de departe cele din planul psihic sunt cele mai mari i mai greu de suportat: scderea stimei de sine, sentimentele de neputin, teama, oroarea, dezgustul, ruinea, izolarea, refuzul de a mai tri sunt sentimente i stri care nsoesc mult vreme victimele abuzului sexual n familie (violul marital). Violena economic const n crearea de ctre agresor a tuturor condiiilor pentru dependena total a victimei fa de el: control asupra resurselor financiare i a accesului acesteia la alte surse de existen i de protecie sau ngrijire de care ar putea beneficia, interdicia de angajare sau de pstrare a locului de munc i aceea de a se implica n vreun fel n deciziile legate de administrarea bugetului familiei. Consecinele n acest caz rezid n afectarea vieii profesionale i economice a vic-

Conform legii nr. 217/2003 pentru prevenirea i combaterea violenei n familie, publicat n Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 367 din 29 mai 2003, definiia pentru violena n familie este urmtoarea: (1) Violena n familie reprezint orice aciune fizic sau verbal svrit cu intenie de ctre un membru de familie mpotriva altui membru al aceleiai familii, care provoac o suferin fizic, psihic, sexual sau un prejudiciu material. (2) Constituie, de asemenea, violen n familie mpiedicarea femeii de a-i exercita drepturile i libertile fundamentale.

timei, n imposibilitatea afirmrii profesionale i construirii unei cariere prin pierderea locului de munc sau prin apariia dificultilor de concentrare i performan, datorit stresului i tracasrilor la care este supus victima de ctre agresor. Violena social const n izolarea victimei de familie sau de prieteni sau monitorizarea activitilor acesteia i care are drept rezultat ntreruperea sau insuficiena relaiilor sociale, precum i restrngerea accesului la informaie sau asisten, ceea ce duce, n mod inevitabil, la eecul eforturilor victimei de a gsi o ieire din aceast situaie. Violena domestic are drept victime indirecte copiii, a cror traum este mai intens i cu consecine mai profunde i mai de durat, dect n cazul copiilor care sunt victime directe ale abuzurilor i neglijrii din partea prinilor (Catheline, Marcelli, 1999). n familiile n care relaiile stau sub semnul

violenei, rolurile de soie i mam ale femeii nu mai pot fi ndeplinite n plenitudinea lor, iar copiii au de suferit. Ei se confrunt cu probleme de ordin psihic: anxietate mrit, sentimente de culpabilitate, frica de abandon, izolare, mnie, nencredere n sine, depresie, ra-portare la viaa mai fericit a colegilor, toate manifestndu-se n planul comportamental prin agresivitate/pasivitate, abandon colar/familial, adicii. De multe ori, asistm chiar la o schimbare de statut, cnd copiii preiau statutul tatlui, ieit oarecum din ecuaie, fiind nevoii s-i protejeze att mama, copleit de tot ce i se ntmpl, de sentimentul eecului n cea mai important relaie interpersonal, ct i ntreaga familie. Ca fenomen discriminatoriu, violena mpotriva femeilor constituie manifestarea unei relaii bazate pe for, dintre brbai i femei, care are drept consecin dominarea i discriminarea femeilor de ctre

Iat cteva dintre miturile referitoare la violena n familie:


Violena domestic nu este att de extins sau grav. Btaia survine ntr-un moment de pierdere a cumptului. Violena n familie apare numai n familiile din pturile srace ale societii i la persoane fr educaie. Rezolvarea violenelor intrafamiliale trebuie fcut n familie. Victimele accept agresiunea. Dac violena ar fi att de grav, femeia ar rupe relaia cu partenerul ei. Consumul de alcool este cauza violenei familiale. Numai femeile sunt victime ale violenei n familie.

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others, can be easily dismantled and are contradicted in daily life. Domestic violence is found in all walks of life, regardless of status, education, profession, type of family (legally constituted or not) and has the following causes (risk factors): low educational status; low occupational status (lack of job); material and financial difficulties, low income; abuse in the perpetrators childhood; aggressive past in the family of origin; womans low self-esteem; certain religious standards; chronic consumption of alcohol or harmful substances (drugs); the womans material and financial dependence on the husband; the womans tolerance towards violence;

tradition favoring the mans position; insufficient information of the woman-victim on existing alternatives and support; violence acceptance at society level; partners desire to hold authority and control over the family; jealousy and extramarital affairs; existence of the partners mental disorders. If taken separately, the above mentioned risk factors are no cause of domestic violence. Domestic violence occurs as a result of the cumulative correlation of several risk factors which may lead to conflict between partners. The studies that have been conducted on domestic violence show the presence of protective factors that may lead to decrease of the phenomenons incidence: support from the extended

family (human resources); lack of an aggressive parental model; good material situation (material/financial resources); high level of education; good ability to solve problems and put an end to crisis situations; communication skills between the partners; existence of social institutions to provide protection and assistance: introduction of norms and regulations for victims support and perpetrators punishment. In conclusion, we provide a sensitive and staggering statement of a woman (a possible victim of domestic violence) to another woman and an eloquent proof of female and human solidarity, an epitome and a mirror of the psychological consequences of abuse (of any type!) on a woman.

Letter to a victim of domestic violence2 My dear, I hesitated a long time before writing these words. I know you will scold me, that you will frown while reading them, and that you will raise your eyebrow disapprovingly, like you usually do when something doesnt please you. I know better than anyone else, you must admit it, and although you cant find the strength or the courage to open your heart to me, I know the nightmare you live in. I know the feelings and thoughts which torment you, bit by bit, moment by moment. I read them daily, easily, on your prematurely aged face, the eyes which already stopped trying to hide the despair, the forced smile which stopped kidding anyone for a long time. I can almost see you standing in your corner, away from curious and indiscreet eyes, how you continuously try to keep the others at an arms length because, of course, they wouldnt understand. Youve tried before to explain to them, to confess, to tell them what its like to live your life with the enemy. The irony is that the enemy is the exact person who was supposed to protect you, who more than anyone else, was supposed to spare you from bad things. Everything was so beautiful in the beginning! You were so happy! So many hopes, daring plans, they all vanished with the first slap in the face... How that must have hurt, such deep

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brbai i mpiedicarea dezvoltrii pe deplin a acestora. Toate aceste mituri, ca i altele, pot fi uor demontate i sunt contrazise de realitatea vieii de zi cu zi. Violena n familie se regsete n toate mediile sociale, indiferent de statutul, nivelul educaional, ocupaia partenerilor, tipul de familie (legal constituit sau nu) i are drept cauze (factori de risc): statut educaional sczut; status ocupaional sczut (lipsa unui loc de munc); dificulti materiale, financiare, venituri reduse; existena unor abuzuri n copilria agresorului; existena unui trecut agresiv n familia de origine; stima de sine sczut a femeii; unele norme religioase; consumul cronic de alcool sau substane nocive (droguri); dependena material a soiei de so; tolerana femeii fa de violen;

tradiia care favorizeaz poziia brbatului; insuficienta informare a femeiivictim cu privire la existena alternativelor i a posibilitilor de sprijin; acceptarea violenei la nivel societal; dorina partenerului de a deine autoritatea i controlul n familie; gelozia i existena unor relaii extraconjugale; existena unor afeciuni psihice ale partenerului. Factorii de risc enumerai mai sus, luai n mod separat, nu constituie, n sine, o cauz a violenei n familie. Ea apare n urma corelrii sau cumulrii mai multor factori de risc ducnd la declanarea conflictelor ntre parteneri. n studiile care s-au fcut pe tema violenei n familie s-a constatat i existena unor factori de protecie, care pot duce la scderea incidenei fenomenului: sprijin din partea familiei lrgite

(resurse umane); lipsa unui model parental agresiv; situaie material bun (resurse materiale/ financiare); nivel de educaie crescut; o bun capacitate de rezolvare a problemelor i de a iei din situaiile de criz; abiliti de comunicare ntre parteneri; existena unor instituii sociale care ofer protecie i suport; introducerea n legislaie a unor reglementri care sprijin victima i sancioneaz agresorul. ncheiem printr-un gnd i printr-o luare de poziie sensibil i cutremurtoare a unei femei (poate c a fost i ea victim a violenei n familie) ctre alt femeie, o dovad gritoare de solidaritate feminin i uman, o chintesen i o oglind a consecinelor de ordin psihic pe care le au abuzurile (de orice fel!) asupra unei femei:

Scrisoare ctre o victim a violenei domestice2 Draga mea, Am ezitat mult nainte s atern aceste rnduri pe hrtie. tiu c m vei certa, c te vei ncrunta citindu-le, ridicnd sprnceana dezaprobator, aa cum faci de obicei cnd ceva nu-i este pe plac. Te cunosc mai bine ca oricine, trebuie s recunoti asta, i, cu toate c nu gseti puterea sau poate curajul de a-i deschide sufletul n faa mea, eu tiu comarul pe care-l trieti. Cunosc sentimentele care te macin i gndurile care te consum, puin cte puin, n fiecare clip. Le citesc n fiecare zi, fr prea mult greutate, pe chipul tu mbtrnit nainte de vreme, n ochii care deja nu se mai obosesc s ascund disperarea, n zmbetul forat care demult nu mai pclete pe nimeni. Parc te vd cum stai n colul tu, departe de priviri iscoditoare i indiscrete, cum te strduieti nencetat s-i ii pe ceilali la distan pentru c, nu-i aa, ei sigur nu ar nelege. Ai mai ncercat s le explici, s te destinui, s le povesteti cum este s-i trieti viaa alturi de duman. Ironia face ca dumanul s fie tocmai persoana care trebuia s te protejeze, care, mai mult dect oricine, trebuia s te fereasc de tot ce-i ru. Ce frumos era totul la nceput! Ce fericit erai! Cte sperane, cte planuri ndrznee de viitor, toate spulberate de prima palm Ct trebuie s te fi durut acea prim lovitur, ce semne adnci trebuie s-i fi lsat
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marks it must have left on your face, but mostly in your soul. How those that followed the first one must have hurt, with a bigger and bigger frequency and intensity. What a hallucinating chaos must have taken over your mind and soul when you realized your dreams fell over like a castle built from a deck of cards. Just thinking about him, only saying his name in your mind and you can already feel your heart beating stronger, your temples exploding, your eyes are on fire, and your hands tremble. You toss and turn and you still cant understand how the wonderful man you fell in love with, who promised to love you forever, could become by night your own executioner, a monster with a human face, whose simple presence fills you with fear and uncertainty. I watch you sadly and think how horrendous such an existence might be. The thoughts that overwhelm you, always hidden, but so present, so shocking, so crippling... You struggle to repress them, but as usual, they are stronger and, helpless, you let them overcome you. So many sinister scenarios are formed in your mind and they steal your peace, your sleep and your zest for life. Where is your zest for life? Where is that conviction you had that you must conquer the world and that in the same time you hold the resources and the power to do it? Which is the moment in your life when you lost your will, your stubbornness even, to overcome these obstacles? Didnt you used to say that a life lived in fear is a life half lived? I suppose that somewhere along the way, between the punches and humiliations, you began to forget that life is short and beautiful and it deserves to be lived. I see you strive to find a salvaging solution to give you back your peace and freedom, how you search for a crumble of the mad courage you used to have and which could now save you from a life you stopped possessing long ago. I see the despair when you look for answers and a way to put to silence the inner voices which inquire you. Unfortunately, it only depends on you to reduce them to silence forever, you are the only one who can bring light in the darkness which surrounds you. You cant let fear dictate all your decisions, paralyze you and poison all your inner resorts. As a great American writer said, fear is the mind-killer. Fear is the little-death that brings total obliteration. You are worth too much to let yourself killed; you have come too far to let yourself destroyed as an individual. You still have many dreams to fulfil, many mountains to climb, too many tops to conquer. So fight, my dear, with the enemy who took over your life, who strives to occupy even the smallest corners in your being, which only you can chase away. But most of all fight yourself, fight the crippling fear, the deadly thoughts, the helplessness and frustration feelings. Fight! And stop only when you win, when you get back your freedom, when your wishes, neglected for so long, wont seem too impossible to achieve.
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pe chip, dar mai ales n suflet. Ct trebuie s te fi durut toate care i-au urmat, cu o frecven i intensitate din ce n ce mai mare. Ce haos halucinant trebuie s-i fi cuprins mintea i sufletul cnd i-ai dat seama c toate visurile tale s-au prbuit ca un castel din cri de joc. Numai gndindu-te la el, numai rostindu-i numele n gnd i deja simi cum inima i bate mai puternic, cum tmplele i pocnesc, ochii parc iau foc, iar minile i tremur. Ii frmni mintea, dar tot nu reueti s nelegi cum brbatul minunat de care te-ai ndrgostit i care a promis s te iubeasc venic s-a putut transforma peste noapte n propriul tu clu, ntr-un monstru cu chip de om, a crui simpl prezen te umple de team i nesiguran. Te privesc cu tristee i m gndesc ct de ngrozitoare trebuie s fie o asemenea existen. Cte gnduri te npdesc, mereu tinuite, bine ascunse, dar att de prezente, att de nucitoare, de paralizante... Te strduieti s le ii piept, dar, ca de obicei, sunt mai puternice i, neputincioas, le lai s pun stpnire pe tine. Cte scenarii sinistre prind contur nencetat n mintea ta i i fur linitea, i somnul, i pofta de via. Unde e pofta ta de via? Unde e acea convingere pe care o aveai c trebuie s cucereti lumea i c, totodat, deii resursele i puterea de a o face? n ce moment al vieii ai pierdut voina, ncpnarea chiar, de a depi toate obstacolele din cale? Oare nu spuneai chiar tu c o via trit cu team este o via trit pe jumtate? Presupun c undeva pe parcurs, ntre loviturile primite i umilinele ndurate, ai nceput s pierzi din vedere faptul c viaa e scurt i frumoas i merit trit din plin. Te vd cum te zbai n cutarea unei soluii salvatoare care s-i redea linitea i libertatea, cum caui o frm din curajul nebun pe care-l aveai altdat i care acum te-ar salva de la o via care a ncetat demult s-i mai aparin. Vd disperarea cu care caui rspunsuri i o modalitate de a reduce la tcere vocile interioare care te tot iscodesc. Din pcate, numai de tine depinde s le faci s tac pentru totdeauna, tu eti singura care poate face lumin n ntunericul care te-a cuprins. Nu poi lsa frica s-i dicteze toate deciziile, s te paralizeze i s-i nvenineze toate resorturile interioare. Dup cum spunea un mare scriitor american, frica ucide mintea, este o moarte mrunt, purttoarea desfiinrii totale. Valorezi prea mult ca s te lai ucis, ai ajuns prea departe ca s te lai desfiinat i anulat ca individ. Mai ai nc prea multe vise de ndeplinit, prea multe culmi de urcat, prea multe vrfuri de cucerit. Aa c lupt, draga mea, cu dumanul care a pus stpnire pe viaa ta, care se strduiete s ocupe pn i cele mai stinghere coluri ale fiinei tale i pe care numai tu l poi alunga. Dar, mai nti de toate, lupt cu tine nsi, cu frica paralizant, cu gndurile ucigtoare, cu sentimentul de neputin i frustrare. Lupt! i nu te opri dect atunci cnd vei iei nvingtoare, cnd i vei redobndi libertatea, cnd dorinele tale, de atta vreme neglijate, nu vor mai prea imposibil de materializat.
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Interview with Mr.

Asztalos Csaba Ferenc


A law graduate at the University of Oradea, Mr. Asztalos Csaba Ferenc has been the President, and State Secretary, to The National Council for Combating Discrimination (CNCD) since 2005. CNCD is the Romanian autonomous authority, under the control of the Parliament of Romania, that carries out its activity in the field of discrimination.

C4C Communication for Community Association: Every society has its prejudice and stereotypes. How can you describe prejudices in Romania and what are the most affected social categories by discrimination? Asztalos Csaba Ferenc: Biases and negative stereotypes do not show major differences in Romania, if compared to other countries in the region or the European Union. There are some minorities, though not all, who are facing prejudices, but this does not mean that Romania is a discriminating country, or that Romanians are racists or discriminating people. We are not ranking first and not last either, as regards discrimination. But we have our specific issues. There are four categories of individuals that are the most affected by prejudices and negative stereotypes. And we refer here to HIV/AIDS infected people, mentally disabled people, the Rroma people, and sexual minorities especially the gay community. There are obviously other vulnerable groups such as women of all ages and in different stages of life. Prejudice can be noticed in use of discriminatory language, hostile behavior and, later on, in the actions and deeds of these vulnerable groups in society, no matter to what field we may refer to: labor, access to education, dwelling, household, property, or workplace. But this requires a thorough examination on a case-tocase basis. C4C Communication for Community Association:
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The modern state advances, in addition to the other proposals, the concept of equal opportunities between women and men. Is this a noticeable process in Romania, and if so, what stage have we managed to reach? Asztalos Csaba Ferenc: I have to refer again to research carried out by international institutes, as there are more challenges when talking about women. In the labor market, for example, in Romania, the wage gap between women and men is only 10%, at the expense of women. If compared to other countries, this is the lowest percentage. However, when we refer to equal opportunities for women, or their professional involvement in different fields of activity, we have a problem and a very low percentage. Out of a total Romanian population where women are 51%, we have 12% female MPs. There is no female prefect in Romania, and there is only one female President of a County Council. On the other hand, the Rroma women, for instance, are subjected to multiple discrimination and endure more than the rest. Then when talking about women living in rural areas, more discrimination is added and a new issue occurs. With regard to equal opportunities for women, and the right to respect and dignity for women, we are facing a major issue if referring to family abuse, which ultimately means discrimination. In this case, we are facing legislative issues in the Parliament where three bills have been proposed for two years already and none has been winded up yet. There are many victims of

discriminarea forme i efecte

Interviu cu domnul

Asztalos Csaba Ferenc


Liceniat n drept la Oradea, domnul Asztalos Csaba Ferenc deine funcia de Preedinte, Secretar de Stat al Consiliul Naional pentru Combaterea Discriminrii (CNCD) din anul 2005 - autoritatea de stat autonom, sub control parlamentar, care i desfoar activitatea n domeniul discriminrii.

Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: n fiecare societate ntlnim prejudeci i stereotipuri. Cum se manifest ele n Romnia i care sunt cele mai afectate categorii sociale din punctul de vedere al discriminrii? Asztalos Csaba Ferenc: Manifestarea prejudecilor si stereotipurilor negative n Romnia nu prezint diferene majore fa de alte state din regiune sau fa de Uniunea European. Avem minoriti specifice fa de care se manifest prejudecile, n special, dar asta nu nseamn c Romnia ar fi un stat sau ar avea o populaie rasist sau discriminatorie. Nu suntem nici pe primul loc n Europa, nici pe ultimul loc, avem problemele noastre specifice. Exist patru categorii, ele fiind cele mai afectate de prejudeci i stereotipuri negative. Vorbim despre persoane infectate cu virusul HIV, persoanele cu dizabiliti mentale, rromii, minoritile sexuale, n special comunitatea homosexual i, evident, avem i alte grupuri care prezint vulnerabilitate, cum ar fi cazul femeilor, n diferite etape ale vieii. Prejudecata se manifest prin comportament i limbaj discriminatoriu, ostil i, ulterior, prin fapte fa de aceste grupuri vulnerabile din societate. Fie n domeniul muncii, fie n cel al accesului la educaie, la locuire, proprietate, la serviciu. Toate acestea necesit o analiz, de la caz la caz. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community:

Statul modern propune, pe lng altele, i conceptul de egalitate de anse ntre femei i brbai. Este vizibil n Romnia acest proces i dac da, n ce stadiu am reuit s ajungem? Asztalos Csaba Ferenc: Din nou trebuie s fac apel la cercetrile realizate de Institutele Internaionale; raportat la femei avem mai multe provocri. n domeniul muncii, de exemplu, n Romnia diferena de salarizare ntre femei i brbai este de doar 10%, n defavoarea femeilor. Raportat la alte state, avem procentul cel mai sczut. ns, n ceea ce reprezint egalitatea de anse a femeilor, prezena acestora n diferite domenii, avem o problem, avem un procentaj foarte sczut. La o populaie de 51% femei, noi avem 12% femei parlamentar. Nu avem nic un prefect femeie n ar, avem o singur femei preedinte de consiliu judeean. Pe de alt parte, de exemplu, femeile rrome sunt supuse unor discriminri multiple, sufer i mai mult. Dac vorbim despre femeile din zona rural, din nou deschidem alt subiect. n privina egalitii de anse a femeilor, a respectului demnitii, a respectului demnitii umane a femeilor, avem o problem major prin ceea ce reprezint violena n familie, care pn la urm ine de discriminare. n acest caz avem probleme de legislaie, exist n Parlament trei proiecte de lege de doi ani i nu se face nimic. Sunt foarte multe victime ale violenelor n familie, majoritatea femei, ceea ce afecteaz egalitatea de anse a femeii n munc, n societate, n accesul la educaie, n accesul la servicii. Pentru c o
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discrimination forms and effects

domestic violence, and most of them are women, and that Asztalos Csaba Ferenc: First of all, in public life and affects equal opportunities for women in the workplace, politics we detect that there is a need of women to assert in society, their access to education and services; because in this area. It is harder for women to be more visible and a woman who is the victim of domestic violence will have assertive in real competition and the other way round. a different status in the workplace, at school and so on. For example, in the judiciary, where examination To conclude, we are facing major challenges. However, I is fair, there are 78% female judges and 58% women think the implementation of public policies is a positive prosecutors. In the private environment, where quality process, though more needs to be done. and competence are important, there are 30 - 40% women For instance, the new Civil Code regulations on in management, even top-management positions, so there the institution of are multi-national marriage, divorce, companies that With regard to equal opportunities for women, and the right to cohabitation and are successfully respect and dignity for women, we are facing a major issue if so on brings subrun by women in stantial improveRomania. referring to family abuse, which ultimately means discrimination. ments in favor of In those fields women, from my where appointpoint of view. As ments are regards public discourse or the mass media, they mainly politicized - in governance, for example, let us be frank contain sexist messages, starting with the advertising -, and where competition and expertise are influenced, industry to TV or radio broadcasts that damage human women will endure as well. I also mean in this case dignity and have a negative impact on womens equality top positions in high office, not positions of the first or and their image in society. second rank. Access of women in the academic world could be another issue for examination. C4C Communication for Community Association: In the mass media, from my point of view, the What is CNCDs role in the equalization of womens status is extremely difficult. To become a opportunities between women and men? journalist, a woman is subjected to pressure, and this is the reason why I cannot notice equal opportunities in Asztalos Csaba Ferenc: We have two major this case. These are but a few examples from different responsibilities: prevention and control. Prevention areas where it is difficult for women to accede to, even if means conducting as many projects and programs they are well trained and skilled. in this area as possible; implementing information campaigns; developing training of various professional C4C Communication for Community Association: groups in society and, obviously, offering the needed What programs have CNCD implemented, what are expertise to those involved in this area. As regards the results so far and what are your expectations? control, CNCD investigates the facts and actions related to discrimination against women, solving the submitted Asztalos Csaba Ferenc: We have implemented diverse requests and petitions and, whenever appropriate, programs, but we have had to keep to our impaired applying sanctions and so on. budget resources that will be smaller in the future due At the same time, for those people directly applying to the economic crisis. Our strategy has mainly pursued to Court, this will subpoena the CNCD for an advisory professional training of those groups of a community or and binding viewpoint about the petition. I believe that, society, which constitute the key groups in determining due to our position, we have had an important impact the evolution of society as a whole. These groups may be on this process. I like to think that we have managed to magistrates, police, and teachers and so on. So, we have bring more awareness on the relevance of this issue. Its organized many training courses for these groups. obvious and we know that we have made some progress We believe the orders of the Court that have been in this respect, though there are still challenges for us in entered in recent years as regards discrimination cases the future. have evolved, and this means that one can notice a sense We should also keep in mind that we are going of motivation to apply the European legislation in this through an economic crisis, and the economic crisis area, in a positive way. And we like to think that we always means greater competition over resources. This have had our share in this. In many projects, or in our competition leads to a battle between those who partnership projects, we are able to provide manifold want to hold more power and here we can notice more expertise for civil society. And I trust these education incidents and tensions related to discrimination. projects and expertise have had a very important impact. Our having solved such requests with wide visibility and C4C Communication for Community Association: strong media impact has again had a positive educational What are the social positions where women find it effect on society and also brought forth issues for debate difficult to accede? that have been a taboo in Romania so far.
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discriminarea forme i efecte

femeie care este victim a violenei n familie are o femeilor de a se impune n acest domeniu. Femeile se condiie diferit la locul de munc, la coal i aa mai impun greu acolo unde concurena nu este real i departe. Deci aici avem probleme majore. Totui, cred c viceversa. De exemplu, n magistratur, unde examenul exist un proces pozitiv n aplicarea politicilor publice, este corect, avem 78% femei judectoare i 58% femei ceea ce nu nseamn c nu trebuie s facem mai mult. procuror. n mediul privat, unde calitatea i competena Noul Cod Civil, de exemplu, n reglementarea sunt importante, avem 30-40% femei n poziii de instituiei cstoriei, a divorului, concubinajului i management, chiar i top-management, deci avem aa mai departe aduce mbuntiri substaniale n societi comerciale multi-naionale care sunt conduse favoarea femeilor, de femei cu succes. din punctul meu Acolo unde nun privina egalitii de anse a femeilor, a respectului demnitii, de vedere. n ceea mirile - n adminisa respectului demnitii umane a femeilor, avem o problem ce privete discurtraia public, de sul public sau massexemplu - sunt polimajor prin ceea ce reprezint violena n familie, care pn la media, prepondetizate, ca s nu ne urm ine de discriminare. rent avem mesaje ascundem dup desexiste, ncepnd de get, sufer i comla industria publipetiia i compecitii pn la alte emisiuni care aduc atingeri demnitii tena i femeile sufer la fel. umane i au un efect negativ asupra egalitii i imaginii M gndesc i aici la poziii de top, nu la linia nti femeilor n societate. sau a doua. Accesul femeilor n mediul universitar poate s fie un alt subiect de analiz. n pres, din punctul Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: meu de vedere, situaia femeilor este extrem de dificil. Care este rolul CNCD-ului n acest proces de egalizare Pentru c, pentru a fi jurnalist, femeia este expus a anselor dintre femei i brbai? unor presiuni i, astfel, nu vd o egalitate de anse. Acestea sunt doar cteva exemple din diferite domenii Asztalos Csaba Ferenc: Noi avem dou atribuii majore: unde femeilor le este dificil s accead, chiar dac sunt de prevenie i de combatere. Prevenie nseamn s pregtite i au competene foarte bune. organizm ct mai multe proiecte i programe n acest domeniu, s organizm campanii de informare, s Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: organizm pregtirea diferitelor grupuri profesionale Ce programe a implementat CNCD-ul, care au din societate i, evident, s oferim expertiz celor ce fost rezultatele pn acum i ce ateptri avei n lucreaz n acest domeniu. n ceea ce privete partea continuare? de combatere, CNCD-ul investigheaz faptele de discriminare mpotriva femeilor, soluionarea petiiilor Asztalos Csaba Ferenc: Noi am implementat programe depuse i, dup caz, aplicarea sanciunilor i aa mai raportate la posibilitile bugetare care sunt mici i departe. au fost mici i vor fi mici, datorit crizei. Strategia De asemenea, cei ce se adreseaz direct instanei, noastr a urmrit n principal pregtirea acelor grupuri aceasta citeaz obligatoriu CNCD-ul i cere un punct profesionale dintr-o societate, care se constituie n de vedere consultativ cu privire la petiia naintat. grupuri-cheie n a determina evoluia societii. Aceste Eu cred c, prin poziia noastr, am avut o influen grupuri pot fi magistraii, poliitii, profesorii i aa mai asupra acestui proces. mi place s cred c am reuit s departe. Astfel, am avut foarte multe cursuri de formare contientizm importana subiectului. tim i vedem pentru aceste grupuri. c am fcut anumite progrese, dar, n continuare, avem Ne place s credem c hotrrile judectoreti multe provocri pentru viitor. care s-au luat n ultimii ani, cu privire la situaii de Nu trebuie s uitm c trecem printr-o perioad discriminare, au evoluat, n sensul de motivare de a de criz economic, iar criza economic ntotdeauna aplica legislaia european din acest domeniu, ntr-un nseamn o concuren crescut fa de resursele sens pozitiv i aici ne place s credem c am avut i noi o sczute. Aceast concuren determin o lupt ntre cei parte de contribuie. care doresc puterea, iar aici ntlnim mai multe incidente n nenumratele proiecte sau acolo unde noi suntem i tensiuni care in de partea de discriminare. parteneri, am oferit foarte multe expertize pentru societatea civil. Iar aceste expertize i proiecte pe Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: domeniul educaiei cred c au un efect i un impact Care sunt poziiile sociale unde femeilor le este dificil foarte important. Faptul c am soluionat petiii care au s accead? avut o vizibilitate foarte mare, cu un impact mediatic puternic, din nou are un efect de educare a societii i Asztalos Csaba Ferenc: n primul rnd, n viaa public, pune n discuie subiecte care au fost tabu n Romnia n viaa politic, constatm c exist o dificultate a pn n acest moment.
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Legislative Framework in the Field of Equal Opportunities between Women and Men in Romania
The Romanian Law defines the concept of equal opportunities for women and men as taking into account the different skills, needs and aspirations of female and male human beings, and their equal treatment.1 In the field of equal treatment, the national legislation is fully harmonized with the provisions of the international and European communities. Thus, as regards the European directives in the field of equal opportunities and treatment for women and men, each norm corresponds to one or more themes: equal pay for work of equal value2; equal treatment at work3; equal treatment regarding the social protection system4; equal treatment for freelance employees5; motherhood protection6; organizing the work schedule (the internationally accepted standards for working hours and rest period)7; parental leave (draft contract referring to the parental leave from which any of the parents can benefit of)8; upheaval of the purpose of evidence in the cases of gender discrimination (in these cases, the purpose of evidence rests upon the person against whom the court summons has been issued, who was supposed to prove that he/she did not commit any gender discrimination actions)9; non-discrimination of part-time workers (women are more likely to be found among the parttime workers than men)10.

The concept of equal opportunities for women and men is developed in the Romanian Law in the following fields:

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labour; access to education, health, culture and information; participation in decision-making; access to and provision of goods and services.
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discriminarea din perspectiva juridic

Cadrul legislativ n domeniul egalitii de anse ntre femei i brbai n Romnia


Legislaia romneasc definete conceptul de ,,egalitate de anse pentru femei i brbai ca fiind ,,luarea n considerare a capacitilor, nevoilor i aspiraiilor diferite ale persoanelor de sex masculin i respectiv feminin i tratamentul egal al acestora.1 n domeniul egalitii de tratament, legislaia naional este armonizat n totalitate cu prevederile internaionale i comunitare n domeniu. Astfel, n ceea ce privete directivele europene n domeniul egalitii de anse i de tratament pentru femei i brbai, fiecare directiv corespunde uneia sau mai multor teme: plat egal pentru munc de valoare egal2; tratament egal la locul de munc3; tratament egal cu privire la sistemul de securitate social4; tratament egal pentru angajai pe cont propriu5; protecia maternitii6; organizarea timpului de lucru7 (standardele acceptate pentru timpul de munc i cel de odihn); concediu parental8 (contractul cadru referitor la concediul parental de care poate beneficia oricare dintre prini); rsturnarea sarcinii probei n cazurile de discriminare pe baz de sex9 (n aceste cazuri sarcina probei revine persoanei mpotriva creia s-a formulat cererea de chemare n judecat, care trebuia s fac proba c nu a svrit aciuni de discriminare pe baz de sex); nediscriminarea lucrtorilor cu norm redus10 (mai degrab femeile dect brbaii sunt lucrtori cu norm redus).

Principiul egalitii de anse pentru femei i brbai este dezvoltat n legislaia romneasc n urmtoarele domenii:
al muncii; al educaiei, sntii, culturii i informrii; participrii la luarea deciziei; furnizrii i accesului la bunuri i servicii.
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judicial discrimination

Romanian Laws on Equal Opportunities between Women and Men


We may hereby refer to Law nr. 202/2002 on equal opportunities between women and men. This Law follows a series of regulations, some of them enforced before 1989, as the ratification by Romania through Decree no. 284/1973 of the International Labour Organization Convention no. 111 on discrimination in labor force market, employment and exercise of profession, which provided for the application of the principle of equal remuneration between employees, regardless of their gender1. In accordance with Article 6 (1), the law enforces the regulations concerning equal opportunities and treatment between women and men in their labor relationships.

How to Align the Romanian Laws to the European Union Norms and Regulations1
Lately, there have been extensive talks about the European Unions directives and the commitments that Romania must fulfill as a Member State of the European Union, with effect starting on January 1st, 2007. Currently, the law governing equal opportunities for women and men in the European Union includes a number of 12 directives. To these are added other numerous recommendations, decisions and viewpoints on issues such as participation in decision-making, prevention and control of domestic violence, prevention and control of trafficking of women, representation of women in the mass media and the advertising industry. Decisions are the legally applicable instruments in the Member States of the European Union through which the Community institutions implement administrative measures. These decisions are addressed either to a Member State of the European Union, or any physical or legal person in a Member State of the European Union.
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Recommendations are documents that express the position of the European Unions institutions and that also promote EUs initiatives and viewpoints on specific issues. Views of the European Unions institutions are documents that make public the position of these institutions where their opinion is requested as regards a given area. The most important normative act on equal opportunities for women and men is Law nr. 340/2006 altering and amending Law 202/2002 on equal opportunities between women and men, as published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 6, July 25, 2006. This law regulates the measures undertaken for promoting equal opportunities between women and men, in order to eliminate direct and indirect gender discrimination in all spheres of public life in Romania.

discriminarea din perspectiva juridic

Legile romne referitoare la egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai


Putem face unele referiri la legea nr. 202/2002 privind egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai. Aceast lege urmeaz unui ir de reglementri, unele de dinainte de 1989, cum a fost ratificarea de ctre Romnia prin Decretul nr. 284/1973 a Conveniei Organizaiei Internaionale a Muncii nr.111 privind discriminarea n domeniul forei de munc i exercitrii profesiei, care prevedea aplicarea principiului egalitii de remunerare ntre lucrtori, indiferent de apartenena la sex. 1 Conform art.6 alin.(1) legea stabilete reglementri privind egalitatea de anse i tratament ntre brbai i femei n relaiile de munc.

Cum se aliniaz legile din Romnia la normele Uniunii Europene1


n ultima vreme se discut intens despre directivele Uniunii Europene, despre angajamentele ce trebuie ndeplinite de Romnia n baza acestora, ca Stat Membru al Uniunii Europene, ncepnd cu 1 ianuarie 2007. n prezent, legislaia care reglementeaz egalitatea de anse pentru femei i brbai n Uniunea European cuprinde un numr de 12 directive. La acestea se adaug alte numeroase recomandri, decizii i opinii, pe teme ca: participarea la procesul de luare a deciziilor, prevenirea i combaterea violenei domestice, prevenirea i combaterea traficului de femei, reprezentarea femeilor n mass media i publicitate. Deciziile reprezint instrumentele legale direct aplicabile n statele membre prin care instituiile comunitare pun n practic msuri de ordin administrativ. Aceste decizii se adreseaz unui stat membru al Uniunii Europene, unei persoane fizice i juridice ntr-un stat membru al Uniunii Europene. Recomandrile reprezint acele documente de poziie prin care instituiile Uniunii Europene i fac cunoscut, din proprie iniiativ, punctul de vedere cu privire la problematica specific. Opiniile instituiilor Uniunii Europene sunt documente n care este fcut public poziia acestor instituii n situaia n care este cerut punctul lor de vedere ntr-un anumit domeniu. Cel mai important act normativ privind egalitatea de anse pentru femei i brbai este reprezentat de Legea nr. 340/2006 pentru modificarea i completarea Legii 202/ 2002 privind egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai, publicat n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 642, din 25 iulie 2006. Aceast lege reglementeaz msurile pentru promovarea egalitii de anse ntre femei i brbai, n vederea eliminrii discriminrii directe i indirecte dup criteriul de sex, n toate sferele vieii publice din Romnia.

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Interview with Mrs.

Irina Sorescu
A graduate of the Faculty of Journalism and Communication, The University of Bucharest, Mrs. Irina Sorescu has been active in the field of equal opportunities between women and men for over eight years. She advocates and supports the right of a person to be perceived exactly as he/she is and not in terms of what he/ she should be or do for the only reason of being born a man or a woman.

C4C Communication for Community Association: You hold an important top management position, and the projects conducted by the Center for Partnership and Equality have an impact on disadvantaged communities. You successfully advocate for equal opportunities between women and men, and your training and experience in this area are a tremendous advantage. Can you describe your professional growth and also share with us whats the secret of a successful career? Irina Sorescu: I first came into contact with the concept of equal opportunities between women and men in my last year at the University, during a training on feminist theories. It was the first time I learned about gender and the concept of gender that defines all social construction behind the words woman or man. I internalized the concept; and this was the first input for my personal experience. Ever since this first contact I have seriously pondered on the idea. Then, ten years later, I had the opportunity and was offered a management position with the Center for Partnership and Equality, which I wholeheartedly accepted. After a while, I took over the organizations management. As for success, in my opinion, this means first that what I am doing makes sense and gives me measurable satisfactions concerning what I specifically do for my peers. If you like, its a typically NGOs approach. C4C Communication for Community Association: What are in your opinion the social positions where women find it difficult to accede to? Irina Sorescu: They are first and obviously leadership positions, whether we consider the Parliament structure with a percentage of 15 16 women. The situation gets worse if we look at the Government structure and the
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positions of Ministers, Secretaries of State, Union leaders. For instance, there are industries where the vast majority of workers are women such as education or healthcare -, and whose Union leaders are nevertheless men. The same is true for most leading positions in the academic environment where top management is held by men. I think this is the area where women should be encouraged to express themselves more and dare accede to a leading position. Fostering women to participate in management obviously supported by men should be one part of these management structures. Extraordinary results have been reached in business; studies have shown that those companies run by women and who have women in managing positions, the Board of Directors, or in the top-management positions have inherently the best economic results. C4C Communication for Community Association: Have you experienced any discriminating situation along your career? Irina Sorescu: In my case, discrimination has not been so obvious, though I have gone through situations that made me give serious thought to the issue; in negotiations, for instance, I often felt the superiority of the partner facing me; by the end of the meeting I was usually told that I had been a very tough negotiator. Why was I told that? Because a womans image is more than often associated with frailty and gentleness, with private spaces, concern, caring and thoughtfulness for other human beings, on the one hand, while management positions are being associated with men and automatically associated with hardness, on the other hand. If comparing the two notions of woman and manager, one breaks barriers of thought. Therefore I am often told that I am a tough woman and women should not be tough!

discriminarea din perspectiva juridic

Interviu cu doamna

Irina Sorescu
Absolvent a facultii de Jurnalism i tiine ale Comunicrii, Universitatea Bucureti, doamna Irina Sorescu activeaz de 8 ani n domeniul egalitii de anse pentru femei i brbai. Militeaz pentru dreptul fiecrei persoane de a fi vzut exact aa cum este i nu prin prisma a ceea ce ar trebui s fie sau s fac pentru c s-a nscut femeie sau brbat.

Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Avei o poziie managerial important, iar proiectele derulate de Centrul Parteneriat pentru Egalitate au impact asupra comunitilor dezavantajate. Militai cu succes pentru egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai, datorit pregtirii i experienei dvs. n acest domeniu. Cum s-a desfurat parcursul dvs. profesional i care e secretul unei cariere de succes, din punctul dvs. de vedere? Irina Sorescu: Am luat contact cu conceptul de egalitate de anse ntre femei i brbai n ultimul an de facultate, cu ocazia unui curs de teorii feministe; a fost pentru prima oar cnd am aflat c exist gen, c exist conceptul de gen care definete toat construcia social din spatele cuvntului femeie sau brbat. Am neles-o pentru mine i a fost aportul pentru experiena mea personal, iar de atunci am continuat s m gndesc la asta. Apoi, dup 10 ani, am avut ocazia s mi se propun un post de management n cadrul Centrului Parteneriat pentru Egalitate - un post de management de program, pe care l-am acceptat cu drag inim. Dup ctva timp, am preluat toat conducerea organizaiei. Ct despre componenta de succes, din punctul meu de vedere, aceasta nseamn, n primul rnd, ca ceea ce fac s aib sens i s-mi ofere satisfacii care se msoar n ceea ce am fcut concret pentru cei din jurul meu. Este o abordare ONG-ista. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Care sunt, dup prerea dvs., poziiile sociale unde femeilor le este dificil s accead? Irina Sorescu: Sunt, n primul rnd i n mod evident, poziiile de conducere. Fie c ne gndim la structura Parlamentului n care vedem procentul de 15 % - 16

% femei. Situaia devine i mai grav dac ne uitm n structura guvernamental, n poziiile de minitri, de secretari de stat, continu la liderii de sindicat (ex.: exist industrii n care marea majoritate a lucrtorilor sunt femei - nvmnt sau sistem sanitar - i, cu toate astea, liderii de sindicat sunt brbai). La fel i n nvmntul superior, majoritatea poziiilor de conducere n universiti sunt deinute de brbai. Aici cred c mai e mult de lucrat n a ncuraja femeile s se exprime i s aib curajul de a accede inclusiv la o poziie de conducere. ncurajarea femeilor s participe, i, evident, sprijinite de brbai, s fie parte n aceste structuri de conducere. S-au obinut rezultate extraordinare n zonele de afaceri; studiile au demonstrat c acele companii care au femei n structura de conducere, n Consiliul de Administraie, pe posturile de top-management, au, implicit, rezultate economice mai bune. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Au existat situaii, pe parcursul carierei dvs., n care v-ai simit discriminat? Irina Sorescu: Discriminarea n cazul meu nu a mbrcat forme att de evidente ns, la rndul meu, m-am confruntat cu unele situaii care mi-au dat de gndit: n ntlnirile de negociere am simit adesea aerul de superioritate al partenerului din faa mea, dup care, la finalul conversaiei, de foarte multe ori, mi s-a spus c sunt foarte dur. De ce mi s-a spus asta? Pentru c imaginea femeii este asociat cu delicateea, cu un spaiu privat i grija fa de ceilali, pe de o parte, pe de cealalt parte, poziiile de management fiind asociate brbailor, automat sunt asociate cu duritatea. Cnd pui fa n fa femeia-manager, se sparg nite bariere de gndire. De aceea mi se spune deseori c sunt dur i c o femeie nu trebuie s fie aa!
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C4C Communication for Community Association: The modern state also advances, in addition to the other proposals, the concept of equal opportunities between women and men. Is this a visible process in Romania, and if so, what stage have we managed to reach? Irina Sorescu: If we relate to the situation prevailing a few years ago, the progress is apparent in many areas. On the one hand, we notice that there are now more young women who graduate higher education than young men; we also notice that although the employment rate of women is still lower than mens it has significantly increased. We see, however, business women who have taken over and run successful businesses and I think this is the most advanced area. Also, I notice a slight change of attitude and behavior, particularly in the work and life balance, and I see more fathers involved in their children care; and perhaps a small change in gender roles

way we can actually make a fundamental change and a difference is to start from family and school education. This is the area that we can penetrate the best. It is easier to shape than change. C4C Communication for Community Association: Do you think that school textbooks should be reconsidered? Irina Sorescu: I deem this is a long-term process. You need to start at some point. First, the teachers should be aware of these stereotypes that they carry over. I recall an interesting moment when we were implementing training programs for school teachers and taught them about gender notion and its dimension in education. At the end of the course, one of the women participants told me: Thats fantastic! Now I realize that there are but male personality portraits on the corridors walls.

I notice a slight change of attitude and behavior, particularly in the work and life balance, and I see more fathers involved in their children care; and perhaps a small change in gender roles distribution within families.

distribution within families. It is a more readily accepted truth than it used to be in the past that a woman can earn more money for the family or have a job. C4C Communication for Community Association: Work Is Feminine is a project implemented by C4C Communication for Community Association to support Romanian women in getting equal opportunities in the labor market. Do you think that such projects can have an impact on society and change beliefs and perceptions on these issues? Irina Sorescu: It is worth saying that education makes us capable persons. Your question obviously raises a two-way issue. On the one hand, it reinforces stereotypes that continue to be present in school textbooks i.e. the woman is shown rather attached to her domestic background; while, on the other hand, the father is more attached to the public arena and supports his family. Also, when referring to professions, the concept of ideal professions more suitable for boys or girls is further retained. It is more appropriate for boys to be physicians, and for girls to be nurses; likewise for boys to be college teachers, while for girls to be schoolmistresses. Their career is pretty much directed since the primary school. Girls are guided to embrace humanities, while boys are led to study exact sciences, such as mathematics, or computer sciences. But at the same time, the only
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We can certainly not endeavor to fundamentally and essentially change the whole society. I believe that each one of these projects and Work Is Feminine is one of them - can be considered to be successful if it targets and covers a specific area and has an impact on a group of people. Ultimately, the size of that group of people is irrelevant, as long as you can bring about change. I think this is the only way now to speed up things in Romania. C4C Communication for Community Association: A more delicate issue is domestic violence. What are the causes that lead to such abuse? Is it possible that a womans life and her career to influence the behavior of the violent spouse? Irina Sorescu: The root cause of domestic violence is gender inequity, unequal power distribution within the family, where the more powerful member feels the urge to put pressure on and deprive of freedom the weaker partner. This balance of power may actually take on and lead to divergent forms. As regards career, it is worth mentioning there is a form of violence here too, and this is called economic abuse, where the victim of domestic violence is forbidden to have a job and denied access to any form of economic resources, so as to become totally dependent on the partner. At the same time, the victims self-esteem is almost inexistent, which makes him/her easier to control.

discriminarea din perspectiva juridic

Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Statul modern propune, pe lng altele, i conceptul de egalitate de anse ntre femei i brbai. Este vizibil n Romnia acest proces i dac da, n ce stadiu am reuit s ajungem? Irina Sorescu: Dac ne raportm la acum civa ani, este vizibil n multe zone. Pe de o parte, vedem c acum avem mai multe fete absolvente de studii superioare dect biei, vedem c rata de ocupare, dei rmne mai mic dect a brbailor, a crescut semnificativ. Vedem c, totui, exist i n zona de afaceri femei care au preluat i conduc afaceri de succes, cam n aceast zon vd schimbri. De asemenea, vd o uoar schimbare de atitudine i de comportament, n special n zona work and life balance, vd din ce n ce mai muli tai preocupai de ngrijirea copiilor i, poate, o mic schimbare la nivelul de roluri ntre sexe n interiorul familiei. Este mai uor de

mare intrare. Este mai uor s modelezi dect s schimbi. Asociatia C4C Communication for Community: Credei c ar trebui regndite manualele colare? Irina Sorescu: Cred c este un proces de lung durat. Trebuie s ncepem de undeva. n primul rnd, ar trebui s contientizeze profesorii aceste stereotipuri pe care ei le duc mai departe. mi amintesc de un moment interesant, cnd implementam un program de formare pentru profesori, n care le-am vorbit despre dimensiunea de gen n educaie, iar la sfritul cursului una dintre participante mi-a spus: extraordinar, acum mi dau seama c pe pereii holurilor nu sunt dect portrete cu brbai. Sigur c nu ne putem propune s schimbm fundamental i n esen toat societatea. Cred c fiecare dintre aceste proiecte poate fi considerat un succes dac intervine pe o zon punctual i are impact asupra

Vd o uoar schimbare de atitudine i de comportament, n special n zona work and life balance, vd din ce n ce mai muli tai preocupai de ngrijirea copiilor i, poate, o mic schimbare la nivelul de roluri ntre sexe n interiorul familiei.

acceptat ca femeia s ctige mai muli bani n familie, s aib un loc de munc, comparativ cu perioade din trecut. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Munca are genul feminin este un proiect implementat de Asociaia C4C Communication for Community, care vine n sprijinul femeilor din Romnia pentru obinerea egalitii pe piaa muncii. Suntei de prere c aceste proiecte au puterea de a schimba concepiile societii asupra acestor probleme? Irina Sorescu: n primul rnd trebuie spus c educaia ne creeaz ca oameni. ntrebarea are, evident, dublu sens. Pe de o parte, aa cum e ea acum, ntrete stereotipurile i vedem c, n continuare, n manualele de coal, femeia este prezentat mai degrab ataat spaiului casnic; pe de alt parte, tatl este ataat sferei publice, ntreine familia. Inclusiv la nivel de meserii, este n continuare perpetuat ideea meseriilor potrivite pentru biei i a celor pentru fete. Pentru biei este potrivit s fie medici, pentru fete s fie asistente, pentru biei e potrivit s fie profesori, pentru fete s fie nvtoare. nc din coal, din clasele mici, cariera lor este destul de mult direcionat. Fetele sunt ndrumate spre zona umanist i bieii spre zon de real, matematic, informatic. Dar, n acelai timp, singurul mod prin care putem s facem o schimbare fundamental este s pornim de la educaie, din familie i din coal. Este zona n care avem cea mai

unui grup de oameni. Pn la urm, nu conteaz nici mcar mrimea acelui grup de oameni, important este s produc o schimbare. Cred c, n acest moment, n Romnia, este singura modalitate care s grbeasc lucrurile. Asociatia C4C Communication for Community: Un subiect mai delicat ar fi violena n familie. Care sunt factorii sau cauzele care duc la aceste violene domestice? E posibil ca viaa profesional a femeii, cariera acesteia s influeneze comportamentul violent al soului? Irina Sorescu: Cauza fundamental a violenei n familie este dat de inechitatea de gen, de raportul strmb de putere n cadrul familiei, n care cel care se consider puternic simte nevoia s pun presiune i s-l lipseasc de independen pe cel pe care-l consider slab. Pur i simplu un raport de putere, care, la un moment dat, ia forme deviante. n legtur cu zona de carier, e important de tiut c exist o anumit form de violen, numit violen economic, n care victima violenei n familie nu este lsat s mearg la lucru, i este tiat accesul la orice fel de resurse materiale, n aa fel nct s fie fcut complet dependent de partener. Totodat, stima ei de sine ajunge s fie aproape nul i, n felul acesta, este mai uor de controlat.
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At a Governmental Level
The National Council for Combating Discrimination (CNCD) is a public authority and an independent legal entity active in the area of discrimination that is under the Parliaments control; it is also a warrant of the observance and implementation of the principle of nondiscrimination. CNCD powers and responsibilities are: prevention and mediation of discriminating actions, their factfinding, assessment, remedy and monitoring; and also specialized assistance granted onto victims of discrimination, in explaining the law to the concerned people by the legal counsellors with CNCD. The County Councils and the City Council of Bucharest covering the field of Equal Opportunities between Women and Men (COJES) are made up of representatives of deconcentrated public services, trade unions, and employers
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associations, as well as representatives of local NGOs. The National Agency for Employment ensures observance of the principle of equal opportunities and treatment between women and men in implementing measures able to encourage and foster employment and the labor force, as well as in the field of social protection for unemployed persons. The National House of Pensions and Other Social Insurance Rights ensures implementation of the measures for the observance of equal opportunities and treatment between women and men in the field of administration and management of the public pension system and other social insurance rights. The Labor Inspectorate ensures implementation of measures to observe equal opportunities and treatment

instituii i programe care promoveaz principiul egalitii de anse

La nivel guvernamental
Consiliul Naional pentru Combaterea Discriminrii (CNCD) este autoritatea de stat n domeniul discriminrii, autonom, cu personalitate juridic, aflat sub control parlamentar i totodat garant al respectrii i aplicrii principiului nediscriminrii. Atribuiile CNCD-ului sunt: prevenirea i medierea faptelor de discriminare, investigarea, constatarea, sancionarea i monitorizarea acestora, dar i acordarea de asisten de specialitate victimelor discriminrii, prin explicarea legislaiei celor interesai, de ctre consilierii juridici ai CNCD. Comisia Municipiului Bucureti i Comisiile Judeene n domeniul Egalitii de anse ntre Femei i Brbai (COJES) sunt alctuite din reprezentani ai serviciilor publice deconcentrate, ai organizaiilor sindicale i ai asociaiilor patronale, precum i reprezentani ai ONG-urilor de la nivel local. Agenia Naional pentru Ocuparea Forei de Munc asigur respectarea principiului egalitii de anse i de tratament ntre femei i brbai n domeniul aplicrii msurilor pentru stimularea ocuprii forei de munc, precum i n domeniul proteciei sociale a persoanelor nencadrate n munc. Casa Naional de Pensii i alte Drepturi de Asigurri Sociale asigur aplicarea msurilor de respectare a egalitii de anse i tratament ntre femei i brbai n domeniul administrrii i gestionrii sistemului public de pensii i alte drepturi de asigurri sociale. Inspecia Muncii asigur controlul aplicrii msurilor de respectare a egalitii de anse i de tratament ntre
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between women and men, in its fields of competence. The National Council for Vocational Training of Adults is an autonomous administrative and advisory authority that ensures implementation of measures for the observance of equal opportunities and treatment between women and men in developing policies and strategies on adult training.

So here is a National Council for Competitiveness, a CoNaCo as we call it, which is coordinated by two women. Thus, within the CoNaCo we have over 34% share of women as rapporteurs, and one third are women too.
Andreea Paul (Vass)
The PM's State Adviser for economic issues

The National Agency for Family Protection ensures application of and compliance with equal opportunities and treatment between women and men related to prevention of domestic violence. The Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports, through its School Inspectorates, ensures inclusion in the education curriculum, as well as in the current business of the educational units, of proper measures of compliance with equal opportunities and treatment between women and men. The Ministry of Health, through its public county health departments, as well as the City of Bucharest and other similar structures of these departments, ensures implementation of proper measures of compliance with equal opportunities and treatment between women and men in health, in terms of access to health services and quality, and health at work. The National Statistics Institute supports the work of and cooperates with the Agency for the development of gender statistics and the implementation within

Romania of gender indicators promoted by the European Commission. ADVISORY INSTITUTIONS The Economic and Social Council (CES) is an independent tripartite body set up to achieve the social dialogue between Government, trade unions and employers. It has an advisory role in the establishment of social and economic policies. Within CES there operates the Commission for Equal Opportunities and Treatment that supports, in accordance with its prerogatives and responsibilities, the integration of equal opportunities and treatment between men and women into all regulations and acts that involve social and economic life. AUTONOMOUS PUBLIC AUTHORITIES The Ombudsman is an independent and autonomous public authority towards any other public authority. It cooperates with CNCD to solve complaints concerning equal opportunities and treatment between women and men in order to prevent gender discrimination.

At a Parliamentary Level
Each one of the Houses of Parliament (The Chamber of Deputies and The Senate) has a Commission for Gender Equality that is made up of 11 Deputies and 11 Senators, respectively, whose primary responsibility is to facilitate the enhancement of equal opportunities between women and men in the national legislation.
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femei i brbai, n domeniul su de competen. Consiliul Naional de Formare Profesional a Adulilor, autoritate administrativ autonom cu rol consultativ, asigur aplicarea msurilor de respectare a egalitii de anse i tratament ntre femei i brbai n elaborarea politicilor i strategiilor privind formarea profesional a adulilor.

Iat un CoNaCo, un Consiliul Naional pentru Competitivitate, coordonat de ctre dou doamne. Astfel, n cadrul CoNaCo avem un procentaj de peste 34% femei iar n rndul raportorilor, o treime sunt tot femei.
Andreea Paul (Vass)
Consilier de stat al primului-ministru

Agenia Naional pentru Protecia Familiei asigur aplicarea msurilor de respectare a egalitii de anse i de tratament ntre femei i brbai n domeniul combaterii violenei n familie. Ministerul Educaiei, Cercetrii, Tineretului i Sportului, prin inspectoratele colare teritoriale, asigur includerea n planurile de nvmnt, precum i n activitatea curent a unitilor de nvmnt, a msurilor de respectare a principiului egalitii de anse i de tratament ntre femei i brbai. Ministerul Sntii asigur, prin direciile de sntate public judeene i a municipiului Bucureti, respectiv structurile similare ale acestor direcii, aplicarea msurilor de respectare a egalitii de anse i de tratament ntre femei i brbai n domeniul sntii, n ceea ce privete accesul la serviciile medicale i calitatea acestora, precum i sntatea la locul de munc. Institutul Naional de Statistic sprijin activitatea i colaboreaz cu Agenia pentru dezvoltarea statisticii de gen i pentru implementarea n Romnia a indicatorilor

de gen promovai de Comisia European. INSTITUII CONSULTATIVE Consiliul Economic i Social (CES) este un organism independent cu structur tripartit, constituit n scopul realizrii dialogului social ntre guvern, sindicate i patronate i are un rol consultativ n stabilirea politicii economice i sociale. n cadrul CES funcioneaz Comisia pentru egalitatea de anse i tratament care sprijin, n conformitate cu atribuiile sale, integrarea principiului egalitii de anse i tratament ntre brbai i femei, n actele normative cu implicaii asupra vieii economicosociale. AUTORITI PUBLICE AUTONOME Avocatul Poporului este autoritate public autonom i independent fa de orice alt autoritate public. Colaboreaz cu CNCD pentru soluionarea plngerilor privind egalitatea de anse i tratament ntre femei i brbai pentru combaterea discriminrii pe baz de sex.

La nivel parlamentar
n ambele camere ale Parlamentului (Camera Deputailor i Senat) exist cte o Comisie pentru egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai, format din 11 deputai, respectiv 11 senatori, care au ca principal atribuie promovarea principiului egalitii de anse ntre femei i brbai n legislaia naional.
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At a European Level
The Foundation for an Open Society (Romania) is a nongovernmental, apolitical and non-profit organization that supports the values of democracy, individual freedom and observance of law, the human rights and minorities rights, fostering expression of minorities opinions and promoting social responsibility and equity, thus fulfilling its mission to support development of an open society within Romania. The Open Society Institute and Soros Foundations Network is a private foundation based in New York, which is also the center of the Soros Foundations Network, a group of autonomous foundations and organizations operating in more than 50 countries. OSI and its network implement a wide range of initiatives aimed at promoting the principles of the open society, contributing to the development of government policies and support for human rights and womens rights, as well as social, legal and economic reforms. European Womens Lobby is the largest body of nongovernmental womens organizations in the European Union, with over 3,000 associations in 15 Member States. The goal of this organization is to promote equal opportunities between women and men and to connect policy decision makers and women associations throughout the European Union. The European Institute for Gender Equality is a European Agency which supports the work of the Governments of the Member States and EU institutions (notably the European Commission) in the field of equal opportunities between women and men.

Let us not forget that the most important European economy is driven by a woman, Angela Merkel, or that three European States have female Presidents, and the public message is that it is possible. In Romania, the largest private company is led by a woman - and then, what drives us believe that women do not have their place in public decision-making?
Andreea Paul (Vass)
The PM's State Adviser for economic issues

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La nivel european
Fundaia pentru o Societate Deschis Romnia este o organizaie neguvernamental, apolitic i non-profit care susine valorile democraiei, libertii individuale i a respectului fa de lege, de drepturile omului i de minoriti, ncurajnd exprimarea opiniilor minoritare i promovnd responsabilitatea i echitatea social, ndeplinindu-i astfel misiunea de a sprijini dezvoltarea unei societi deschise n Romnia. Open Society Institute & Reeaua Fundaiilor Soros este o fundaie privat cu sediul n New York, care este i centrul Reelei de fundaii Soros, un grup de fundaii i organizaii autonome care i desfoar activitatea n peste 50 de ri. OSI i reeaua implementeaz o gam larg de iniiative care au ca scop promovarea principiilor societii deschise, contribuind la dezvoltarea politicilor guvernamentale i la sprijinirea drepturilor omului i ale femeilor, ca i a reformelor sociale, legislative i economice. European Women Lobby - este un organism vast de organizaii neguvernamentale de femei din Uniunea European, cu peste 3000 de asociaii din 15 state membre. Scopul acestui organism este de a promova principiul egalitii de anse ntre femei i brbai i de a face legtura ntre factorii de decizie politic i organizaiile de femei la nivelul Uniunii Europene. Institutul European pentru Egalitatea de anse ntre Femei i Brbai este o agenie European care sprijin activitatea guvernelor statelor membre i ale instituiilor UE (n special ale Comisiei Europene) n domeniu egalitii de anse ntre femei i brbai.

S ne amintim c cea mai mare economie european este condus de ctre o femeie, Angela Merkel, sau c trei state europene au preedini de gen feminin, iar mesajul public este c se poate. n Romnia, cea mai mare companie privat este condus de ctre o femeie - i atunci, ce ne face s credem c femeile nu i au locul n decizia public?
Andreea Paul (Vass)
Consilier de stat al primului-ministru

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Programming Options that Support Equal Opportunities1


The European Commission supports for the programming period 2007-2013 the links between the European Social Fund (ESF) and the policy framework: the European Employment Strategy and the employment objectives and targets of the Lisbon Strategy for economic growth and jobs. The policies for gender equity are crucial to achieve the objectives of integral employment, quality and work productivity, social cohesion and social inclusion. In this framework, the programming strategy of a Member State should include the integration of the gender perspective into every stage of the political process and should be applied as a transversal, horizontal private and family life, in providing real opportunities for female immigrants. Education/professional training, in particular with regard to professional expertise and skills, and lifelong learning, through encouraging and guiding young girls and boys to choose non-traditional educational sectors; prevention and combating gender stereotypes in the professional life; exchange and sharing of best practices among Member States in the field of IT&C through seminars, conferences, networking and other activities. Ensuring observance of womens rights, reconciliation between work and family life and full application of the EU legislation, supporting the balan-

Heres a communication problem, its a problem with message multipliers who are absent; and this is what we must build up. Message multipliers who are able to pass on to the remotest villages what are the peoples legal rights, how can legal rights be defended, what facilities they have to protect their right for decent living, working, entrepreneurship. These are things for which much public energy has been consumed in order to enforce laws. Before talking about the effectiveness of such initiatives, they should, first of all, be known. To refer to their effectiveness, we should first make them be known to the public.
Andreea Paul (Vass)
The PM's State Adviser for economic issues

principle, in encompassing gender dimension at all stages of programming, implementing and evaluation. In practice, this should mean the Operational Program or National Reference Strategic Framework will contain information on how gender equity is laid down in the priority axes of the Operational Programs (for example, the selection criteria of projects which take account of gender equity and mainstreaming). This means that Member States should be encouraged to adopt appropriate measures to ensure the improvement of gender equity through ESF activities. Gender equity may be incorporated in such areas as: Access to and participation in the labor market, at all levels. Removal of all differences in employment and promotion of economic independence of women and female entrepreneurship; increase women participation in science and technology, particularly in decisionmaking positions; the reconciliation between work,
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ced participation in decision-making, supporting research on gender inequities within the discriminated groups and promoting the sharing of best practices. Supporting the governing capacity, networking with NGOs, particularly those representing the interests of equal opportunities and treatment, training of members and so on. More and more research documents point out that what is called neutral reality towards gender cannot exist. Regarding the ESF funding period (2000-2006), the Commission2 stressed that any political decision that seems to be neutral from a genders perspective (...) may have a different impact upon women if compared to men, even if these differences are not intentional. Labeling priorities as neutral from the genders viewpoint would subsequently and obviously ignore the current political orientation if included in the National Reference Strategic Framework (CSNR) or Operational Programs (OPS).

instituii i programe care promoveaz principiul egalitii de anse

Opiuni de programare care sprijin egalitatea de anse1


Comisia European sprijin pentru perioada de programare 2007-2013 legturile dintre Fondul Social European (FSE) i politica cadru - Strategia European de Ocupare i obiectivele de ocupare, obiectivele Strategiei de la Lisabona pentru cretere economic i locuri de munc. Politicile privind egalitatea de gen sunt eseniale pentru a atinge obiectivele ocuprii integrale, calitate i productivitate la locul de munc, coeziune social i incluziune social. n acest cadru, strategia de programare a unui stat membru ar trebui s nglobeze integrarea perspectivei de gen n fiecare etap a procesului politic i ar decizionale, reconcilierea muncii, vieii private i de familie, oferirea unei anse reale femeilor imigrante. Educaie/formare profesional ndeosebi n ceea ce privete competenele profesionale i calificrile, nvare pe tot parcursul vieii, prin ncurajarea i orientarea fetelor i bieilor spre a alege sectoarele educaionale netradiionale, combaterea stereotipurilor de gen n profesii, schimbul de bune practici ntre statele membre n domeniul Tehnologiei Informaiei i a Comunicaiilor prin seminarii, conferine, crearea de reele i alte activiti. Asigurarea respectrii drepturilor femeilor, reconcilierea muncii cu viaa de familie i aplicarea

E o problem de comunicare, e o problem a multiplicatorilor de mesaj care sunt abseni, asta trebuie s construim. Multiplicatorii de mesaje care s transmit pn la talpa satului care sunt drepturile lor legale, cum i pot apra drepturile legale femeile, ce faciliti au pentru a-i apra dreptul la via decent, la munc, la antreprenoriat, sunt lucruri pentru care s-au consumat energii publice pentru legiferare. Ca s ajungem s vorbim despre eficiena acestor iniiative publice, ele trebuie, mai nti de toate, s fie cunoscute.
Andreea Paul (Vass)
Consilier de stat al primului-ministru

trebui aplicat ca un principiu transversal, orizontal, ncorpornd dimensiunea de gen n toate etapele de programare, implementare i n procesul de evaluare. n practic, aceasta ar trebui s nsemne c Programul Operaional sau Cadrul Strategic Naional de Referin vor conine informaii privind modul n care egalitatea de gen este prezentat n cadrul unei axe prioritare ale unor programe operaionale (de exemplu, criteriile de selectare a proiectelor care iau n considerare egalitatea de gen i abordarea integrat a genului). Aceasta nseamn c statele membre ar trebui s fie ncurajate s adopte msuri adecvate pentru a asigura mbuntirea egalitii de gen prin activitile FSE. Egalitatea de gen poate fi ncorporat n domenii precum: Accesul i participarea la toate nivelurile pe piaa forei de munc. Eliminarea tuturor diferenelor n ocuparea forei de munc i promovarea independenei economice a femeilor, promovarea spiritului antreprenorial feminin, creterea participrii femeilor n domeniul tiinei i tehnologiei, ndeosebi n poziiile

deplin a legislaiei UE sprijinind participarea echilibrat la procesul decizional, sprijinind cercetarea privind inegalitile de gen n cadrul grupurilor discriminate i promovnd schimbul de bune-practici. Sprijinirea capacitii administrative, crearea de reele cu ONG-urile, ndeosebi ONG-urile care reprezint interesele egalitii de anse, pentru instruirea membrilor etc. Tot mai multe documente de cercetare subliniaz c nu poate exista ceea ce se numete realitate neutr fa de dimensiunea de gen. Referindu-se la perioada de finanare FSE (2000-2006), Comisia2 a subliniat faptul c deciziile politice, care par a fi neutre din punctul de vedere al genului(...), pot avea un impact diferit asupra femeilor n comparaie cu brbaii, chiar dac aceste diferene nu sunt intenionate. Etichetarea prioritilor ca fiind neutre din punctul de vedere al genului, prin urmare, ar ignora n mod evident orientarea politic actual n cazul n care ar fi incluse n Cadrul Strategic Naional de Referin (CSNR) sau programele operaionale (PO).
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The European policy of economic and social cohesion operates with the concept of National Development Plan to provide a coherent and stable strategy on the development of the Member States of the European Union, transposed in development priorities, programs, and projects in accordance with the principle of the programming of structural funds. The National Development Plan 2007-2013 (NDP) represents the multiannual financial programming and strategic planning document as approved by the Government and developed into a general framework for a partnership approach, which promotes the social and economic development of Romania in accordance with the Cohesion Policy of the European Union. The NDP includes assessment of equal opportunities between women and men in terms of opportunities in the labor market, including the existing constraints within the chapter devoted to The Analysis of the Current Situation that describes the quantified social and economic status in terms of domestic disparities and the actual gaps in comparison to the European Union, but also its potential for development. Priority 1 Increase in economic competitiveness and development of a knowledge-based economy of the NDP states that special attention shall be granted to promoting equal opportunities for women and men, in response to the requirements laid down in the European Strategies for the creation of new jobs and social inclusion. Priority 2 Development and modernization of the transportation infrastructure states that equal opportunities for men and women is a major issue that affects the general development of economy and society. In the transportation sector, men are more privileged in finding a job. Thus, special attention will be directed to this matter and action shall be taken to maintain the principle of equity not just about men and women, but also in terms of equity for persons with disabilities,
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The National Development Plan 2007-2013


minorities and immigrants. Priority 3 - Protection and improvement of environmental quality states that environmental protection should comply with both national legislation and the acquis communautaire as regards equal opportunities, in ensuring that all citizens have the right to work, and shall equally benefit of special protection measures. Under the NDP 2007-2013, Romania will promote equal opportunities between women and men and for all social groups. Such services as education and health

instituii i programe care promoveaz principiul egalitii de anse

Planul Naional de Dezvoltare 2007-2013


Politica european de coeziune economic i social opereaz cu conceptul de Plan Naional de Dezvoltare, pentru a oferi o concepie coerent i stabil privind dezvoltarea statelor membre ale Uniunii Europene, transpus n prioriti de dezvoltare, programe, proiecte, n concordan cu principiul programrii fondurilor structurale. Planul Naional de Dezvoltare 2007-2013 (PND) reprezint documentul de planificare strategic i programare financiar multianual, aprobat de Guvern i elaborat ntr-un larg cadru

partenerial, care promoveaz dezvoltarea socio-economic a Romniei n conformitate cu Politica de Coeziune a Uniunii Europene. PND cuprinde o evaluare a situaiei privind egalitatea de anse dintre femei i brbai din perspectiva oportunitilor de pe piaa muncii, inclusiv a constrngerilor existente n cadrul capitolului destinat Analizei situaiei curente ce descrie cuantificat situaia socioeconomic actual privind disparitile interne i decalajele fa de Uniunea European, dar i potenialul de dezvoltare. n cadrul Prioritii 1 - Creterea competitivitii economice i dezvoltarea economiei bazate pe cunoatere a PND se menioneaz c se va acorda o atenie special promovrii principiului egalitii de anse pentru femei i brbai, rspunznd astfel cerinelor formulate n Strategiile Europene de creare de locuri de munc i incluziune social. n cadrul Prioritii 2 Dezvoltarea i modernizarea infrastructurii de transport se arat c oportunitile egale pentru brbai i femei reprezint o problem major care afecteaz dezvoltarea economiei i a societii, n general. n sectorul transporturilor, brbaii sunt avantajai n gsirea unui loc de munc. Astfel, o atenie deosebit va fi direcionat ctre acest aspect i se vor ntreprinde aciuni pentru meninerea principiului egalitii nu doar cu privire la brbai i femei, dar i n privina persoanelor cu handicap, a minoritilor i imigranilor. n cadrul Prioritii 3 - Protecia i mbuntirea calitii mediului se arat c sectorul proteciei mediului se conformeaz att cu legislaia naional, ct i cu acquisul comunitar n ceea ce privete egalitatea de anse, prin asigurarea c toi cetenii au dreptul la munc, precum i msuri de protecie speciale. Conform PND 2007-2013, Romnia va promova egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai i pentru toate
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It is just like in any family: two persons will make it work. In any family that is built on balanced grounds by Him and Her and with him and her, things are going much better. Monoparental families encounter great difficulties. And the Romanian political class seems to be a monoparental one, since it is led only by men.
Andreea Paul (Vass)
The PM's State Adviser for economic issues

shall be developed in order to ensure equal access and promotion opportunities for individuals and communities, and at a personal, social, and economic level. Priority 4 - Human resource development, promotion of employment and social inclusion and strengthening the administrative capacity states that the risk of social exclusion is more prevalent among women than men, at all stages of life, as an indication of their low participation in the labor market. This risk of poverty is particularly higher among older women and single parents with dependent children in their care, of whom the predominant group consists of women. The promotion of gender equity and combating social exclusion of women will lead to facilitating access of women in economic sectors that have been less available and increasing their well-being and welfare. This will determine a diminution of the wage gap and other current issues in the labor market between men and women and an improvement of the employment of women in economic sectors. This will be achieved by supporting women in their integration and reintegration in the labor market through such activities as: Facilitating access to vocational training, counseling, support for initiating a self-employed activity; Promoting modern forms of employment, especially through the use of new information technologies; Facilitating access to accompaniment services (e.g. care
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giving to dependent persons); Researching and surveying the situation of women in the labor market; Identification and elimination of prejudices concerning traditional division of specific jobs (specific to women versus men); Developing an information access system related to programs and activities dedicated to women, as well as the opportunity to participate in. Also, an increased participation of women in the labor market will be reached through reconciliation between their professional and family life, by promoting coresponsibility and equal division of parental duties and domestic chores between women and men, and facilitating access to childcare services. Increased participation of women in the labor market, fostering womens employment in predominantly masculine activity sectors, promoting work schedules for part-time jobs, womens access to management positions and leadership, reconciliation of both womens and mens professional life with their family life will lead to the removal of the disparities between women and men, including the pay level. All of these shall be supported by actions as regards preventing and sanctioning all forms of genderbased discrimination and sexual harassment at work, other forms of domestic or social violence against women, or trafficking and sexual exploitation. Under Priority 5 - Development

of rural economy and increasing productivity in the agricultural sector the following specific goals have been laid down: Improvement of rural infrastructure to be achieved by 2015 through building 2,000 kilometers of roads and modernization of 5,000 kilometers of municipal roads; drinking water supplies through the execution of construction works to reach a 9,000 kilometers network of pipelines; sewage works through construction of a 1,600 kilometers; pipeline; Increased investments in agriculture and forestry operation up to 5,000 investment projects that can generate 25,000 jobs in industry and processing activities by 2015; Reducing the share of aged rural population who are involved in agriculture from 67.3% to 50% by 2015; Increase of the average size of farms to 9 hectares by 2015; Increase of aquaculture production from approximately 8,700 tons per year in 2003 to 20,000 tons per year in 2015. Under Priority 6 Diminution of development disparities between the regions of the country all provided measures will pursue promotion of equal opportunities. This will be achieved both in the programming and implementation phase. In the field of regional development, the concept of equal opportunities between men and women shall be granted special attention to, mainly through: encouraging womens participation in social and economic activities and the created jobs; supporting businesses and the creation/rehabilitation of infrastructure and services which contribute to the reconciliation of family and professional life; as well as providing equal access to new technologies. In addition, equity would be one of the criteria for the selection of projects; while applicants seeking financial assistance will have to prove that their proposed projects correspond to the policy of equal opportunities for men and women.

instituii i programe care promoveaz principiul egalitii de anse

grupurile sociale. Serviciile precum educaia i sntatea vor fi dezvoltate n vederea asigurrii unui acces egal i al promovrii oportunitilor att la nivel individual ct i la nivelul comunitilor, n plan personal, social, dar i economic. n cadrul Prioritii 4 Dezvoltarea resurselor umane, promovarea ocuprii i incluziunii sociale i ntrirea capacitii administrative se arat c riscul excluziunii sociale se manifest mai pregnant n rndul femeilor dect al brbailor, n toate etapele vieii, ca o reflectare a participrii lor sczute pe piaa muncii. Acest risc de srcie este cu deosebire mai mare n rndul femeilor vrstnice i al prinilor singuri avnd copii n ntreinere, dintre acetia grupul predominant constituindu-l femeile. Promovarea egalitii de gen i combaterea excluziunii sociale a femeilor vor conduce la facilitarea accesului femeilor n sectoare economice care le erau mai puin accesibile i la creterea nivelului lor de bunstare. Aceasta va determina diminuarea diferenelor salariale i de alt natur existente pe piaa muncii ntre femei i brbai i mbuntirea structurii ocuprii femeilor pe sectoare economice. Aceasta se va realiza prin sprijinirea femeilor pentru integrarea i reintegrarea pe piaa muncii prin activiti de tipul: facilitarea accesului la formare profesional, consiliere, sprijin pentru iniierea unei activiti independente; promovarea formelor moderne de ocupare, n special prin utilizarea noilor tehnologii informaionale; facilitarea accesului la servicii de acompaniere (ex. servicii de ngrijire a persoanelor dependente); studii i analize privind situaia femeilor pe piaa muncii; identificarea i eliminarea prejudecilor privind mprirea tradiional a ocupaiilor (specifice femeilor, specific brbailor); dezvoltarea unui sistem de accesare a informaiilor privind programele i activitile destinate

Este exact ca ntr-o familie unde este nevoie de doi. n familia construit echilibrat, cu un El i o Ea, lucrurile merg mult mai bine. O familie monoparental este ntr-o mare dificultate. Clasa politic romneasc pare a fi monoparental, condus doar de brbai.
Andreea Paul (Vass)
Consilier de stat al primului-ministru

sprijinirii femeilor precum i posibilitatea de participare la acestea. De asemenea, creterea participrii femeilor pe piaa muncii se va realiza i prin activiti de reconciliere a vieii profesionale cu viaa de familie, prin promovarea coresponsabilitii i mprirea egal a sarcinilor domestice i parentale ntre femeie i brbat, facilitarea accesului la serviciile de ngrijire a copiilor. Creterea participrii femeilor pe piaa muncii, ncurajarea ocuprii femeilor n domenii de activitate preponderent masculine, promovarea programului de lucru cu timp parial, accesul femeilor n funcii de conducere, reconcilierea vieii profesionale a angajailor femei i brbai cu viaa de familie vor determina eliminarea disparitilor ntre femei i brbai, inclusiv n ceea ce privete nivelul de salarizare. Toate acestea vor fi susinute prin aciuni n ceea ce privete prevenirea i sancionarea tuturor formelor de discriminare pe baz de gen, precum i a situaiilor de hruire sexual la locul de munc, a formelor de violen n familie i societate mpotriva femeii, de trafic i exploatare sexual. n cadrul Prioritii 5 - Dezvoltarea economiei rurale i creterea productivitii n sectorul agricol - au fost stabilite ca obiective specifice urmtoarele : mbuntirea infrastructurii rurale, pn n 2015, prin construcia a 2.000 km de drum i modernizarea a 5.000 km de drumuri comunale, aprovizionarea cu ap potabil prin executarea de lucrri de construcie a 9.000 km reele de conducte,

efectuarea de lucrri de canalizare prin construcia a 1.600 km conducte de acest tip; Creterea investiiilor n exploataiile agricole i silvice, pn n 2015, la 5.000 de proiecte investiionale ce pot genera cca. 25.000 de locuri de munc n activiti de prelucrare i industrializare; Reducerea ponderii populaiei n vrst din mediul rural ocupat n agricultur, pn n 2015, de la 67,3% la 50%; Creterea la 9 ha a mrimii medii a fermelor, pn n 2015; Creterea produciei n acvacultur de la cca. 8.700 t/an n 2003 la 20.000t/an n anul 2015 n cadrul Prioritii 6 Diminuarea disparitilor de dezvoltare ntre regiunile rii - toate msurile prevzute vor urmri promovarea egalitii de anse. Aceasta se va realiza att n faza de programare, ct i n faza de implementare. n domeniul dezvoltrii regionale, egalitii de anse ntre brbai i femei i se va acorda o atenie deosebit, n principal prin ncurajarea participrii femeilor la activitile economico-sociale i la locurile de munc create, sprijinirea firmelor i crearea/reabilitarea infrastructurii i serviciilor care contribuie la reconcilierea vieii familiale i profesionale, precum i prin asigurarea unui acces egal la noi tehnologii. n plus, egalitatea de anse va fi unul dintre criteriile de selecie a proiectelor, iar aplicanii care solicit asisten financiar vor trebui s demonstreze faptul c proiectele propuse corespund politicii egalitii de anse ntre brbai i femei.
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National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013 (NSRF)


The NSRF is the national strategic document that establishes the intervention priorities for the Structural Instruments (the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund). The NSRF makes the connection between national development priorities, as determined in the National Development Plan 2007-2013, and the EU priorities the Community Strategic Orientations related to Cohesion 2007-2013 and the revised Lisbon Strategy. Starting from the current social and economic situation and the needs of long-term development of Romania, the NSRF aims to using the Structural Instruments in order to reduce disparities in economic and social development between Romania and the Member States of the European Union. The targeted priorities of the NSRF related to human capital aims at supporting prevention of social exclusion and promotion of social inclusion of vulnerable groups (women, ethnic minorities, disabled people) who are underprivileged categories of persons in the labor market, so that they can take advantage of new employment opportunities that are to be created.

The Sectoral Operational Programme. Human Resources Development. 2007-2013


The Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (POSDRU / SOP HRD) was elaborated in accordance with the revised Lisbon Agenda, the Community Strategic Orientations on Cohesion for the period 2007-2013, the European Employment Strategy, and the Integrated Guidelines for Growth and Jobs (2005-2008). In accordance with the Council Regulations no.1083/2006 and the Parliaments and Council Regulations no. 1081/2006, POSDRU ensures the observance of the horizontal themes regarding equal opportunities and sustainable development. Also, the development and use of IT&C, innovation, trans-national and interregional approaches, as well as active aging have been considered as horizontal objectives in establishing the indicative operations to be implemented in each DMI of the Priority Axis. The principles of equal opportunities, gender and nondiscrimination are integrated into the POSDRU in order to facilitate social inclusion and combating exclusion for both vulnerable groups and women in the labor market. Each Priority Axis has been drawn up taking into consideration these principles through setting specific goals and positive actions to be implemented in order to ensure the participation of these target groups in the activities funded by the ESF. POSDRU supports the integrated approach of the principle of equal opportunities in the Applicants Guide and in the subsequent documentation related to requests for projects proposals to ensure a high level of quality projects and activities addressed to vulnerable groups, namely women. Within POSDRU, equal opportunities appear as a horizontal theme. Each of the chapters that describe the priority axes contains a section dedicated to the contribution of the respective priority to the objective of equal opportunities.
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Cadrul Strategic Naional de Referin 2007-2013 (CSNR)


CSNR-ul reprezint documentul strategic naional prin care se stabilesc prioritile de intervenie ale Instrumentelor Structurale (Fondul European de Dezvoltare Regional, Fondul Social European i Fondul de Coeziune). CSNR face legtura ntre prioritile naionale de dezvoltare, stabilite n Planul Naional de Dezvoltare 2007- 2013, i prioritile la nivel european Orientrile Strategice Comunitare privind Coeziunea 2007-2013 i Strategia Lisabona revizuit. Pornind de la situaia socio-economic actual i de la nevoile de dezvoltare pe termen lung ale Romniei, CSNR are ca obiectiv general utilizarea Instrumentelor Structurale n scopul reducerii disparitilor de dezvoltare economic i social dintre Romnia i statele membre ale Uniunii Europene. Prioritile vizate de CSNR privind capitalul uman vizeaz sprijinirea aciunilor de combatere a excluziunii sociale i de promovare a incluziunii sociale a grupurilor vulnerabile (femeile, minoritile etnice, persoanele cu dizabiliti) care sunt categorii dezavantajate pe piaa forei de munc, astfel nct acestea s poat beneficia de noile oportuniti de angajare care vor fi create.

Programul Operaional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013


Programul Operaional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane (POSDRU) a fost elaborat n conformitate cu Agenda de la Lisabona revizuit, Orientrile Strategice Comunitare privind Coeziunea 2007-2013, Strategia European de Ocupare, Liniile Directoare Integrate pentru Cretere i Ocupare 2005-2008. n conformitate cu Regulamentul Consiliului nr. 1083/2006 i cu Regulamentul Parlamentului i Consiliului nr. 1081/2006, POSDRU asigur respectarea temelor orizontale privind egalitatea de anse i dezvoltarea durabil. De asemenea, dezvoltarea i utilizarea Tehnologiilor Informaiei i a Comunicaiilor, inovarea, abordarea trans-naional si interregional i mbtrnirea activ au fost avute n vedere ca obiective orizontale la stabilirea operaiunilor indicative care vor fi implementate n cadrul fiecrui DMI al Axelor Prioritare. Principiile egalitii de anse, de gen i nediscriminrii sunt integrate n POSDRU n scopul facilitrii incluziunii sociale i combaterii excluziunii, att a grupurilor vulnerabile, ct i a femeilor, pe piaa muncii. Fiecare Ax Prioritar a fost elaborat lundu-se n considerare aceste principii prin stabilirea unor obiective specifice i aciuni pozitive care trebuie implementate pentru a asigura participarea acestor grupuri int la activitile finanate prin FSE. POSDRU sprijin abordarea integrat a principiului egalitii de anse n Ghidul Solicitantului i n documentaia ulterioar privind cererile de propuneri de proiecte pentru a asigura un nivel ridicat al calitii proiectelor i a activitilor adresate grupurilor vulnerabile, respectiv a femeilor. n cadrul POSDRU, egalitatea de anse apare ca o tem orizontal. Fiecare dintre capitolele ce prezint axele prioritare cuprinde o seciune dedicat contribuiei respectivei prioriti la obiectivul egalitii de anse.
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Interview with Mrs.

Andreea Paul (Vass)


Economy, politics and sports are the three realms that give Mrs Andreea Paul (Vass) satisfaction and fulfillment. She loves numbers because people are hidden behind figures. She thinks that economy is downright fascinating. A Doctor of Economics, a devoted mother and wife, Mrs. Andreea Paul (Vass) believes that work and professionalism are the two advantages that have brought success throughout her career.

C4C Communication for Community Association: What is your new or last professional project? Andreea Paul (Vass): I would like to congratulate you first for the project that youve chosen to commit to. It is a very challenging, long-range project, so I am happy to discover long term partners in this hard political struggle we have to fight together, namely equity and equal opportunities. This action is fought in both political life and social and economic realms. To answer your question, I have developed a whole strategy accompanied by an action plan dedicated to women, but not per se, because the issue of women rights affects every one of us, regardless of our gender. To solve the problem of women or better: discrimination against women in a given society is a national issue. A nation that cannot honor their women is capable of comitting every injustice. And we have all witnessed what the Romanian political class can do during the first decades of the post-December 1989 period. Should I retrospect to one of the actions that have brought me much satisfaction and outcome effectiveness this would be The Political Strength of Women, a book that I conducted and that was recently launched. Under this project we managed to gather around the same table men and women from the wide political spectrum, regardless of their color, which I invited to answer the following questions: How do they perceive balancing the political class? Is action a must or is it not? At the launching event of the book we also launched a website dedicated to public debate (www.femeileinpolitica. ro) where all those acceeding the website shall be asked the same question regarding balancing the political class and women involvement in public life.
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C4C Communication for Community Association: Speaking of your latest project on the National Council for Competitiveness Romania 2020, what is womens share in its structure? Andreea Paul (Vass): I must say that as the initator of this program I am also the co-chairwoman acting on behalf of the public administration. Mrs. Irina Schrotter was appointed as another co-chair representing the private environment. So here is a National Council for Competitiveness, a CoNaCo as we call it, which is coordinated by two women. Thus, within the CoNaCo we have over 34% share of women as rapporteurs, and one third are women too. There was no need of action in this case, because the patronates, associations of all kinds, universities, and academies have assigned their own representatives they consider best fit to act on their behalf in the National Council for Competitiveness. This is a fine example that it can be done without strong action. This would not be a quota that we imposed from the start though unless we reached this balanced situation I would have shown my disappointment and asked the public associations to also appoint female representatives. In 2009, Mr. Jos Manuel Barroso, in his capacity of chief of the European Executive and having a personal commitment that at least one-third of the European Executive to be women, succeeded to honor it. He recommended the Member States that onethird of the 27 European Commisioners should be women. Obviously, the member states that had already appointed women commissioner were advantaged since women have greater flexibility in their choice of portfolios, and therefore hold a better strategic position

instituii i programe care promoveaz principiul egalitii de anse

Interviu cu doamna

Andreea Paul (Vass)


Economia, politica i sportul sunt cele 3 lucruri care i aduc doamnei Andreea Paul (Vass) satisfacie i mplinire. Iubete mult cifrele pentru c n spatele acestora se ascund oamenii, iar economia i se pare de-a dreptul fascinant. Doctor n economie, mam i soie devotat, doamna Andreea Paul (Vass) crede c munca i profesionalismul sunt cele 2 atuuri care i-au adus succes de-a lungul carierei.

Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Care este noul/ultimul dumneavoastr proiect profesional? Andreea Paul (Vass): V felicit, mai nainte de toate, pentru proiectul la care dumneavoastr v-ai angajat. Este unul extrem de dificil i, astfel, m bucur s gsesc parteneri de drum lung n cea mai grea btlie politic pe care o avem de dus, i anume cea a egalitii de anse. Aceast btlie se d att n viaa politic ct i n viaa social-economic. Revenind ns la ntrebarea dumneavoastr, am o ntreag strategie nsoit de un plan de aciune dedicat femeilor, dar nu neles per se, pentru c problema femeilor ne afecteaz pe fiecare dintre noi, indiferent de sexul pe care l avem. A rezolva problema femeilor sau, mai bine zis, a discriminrii femeilor ntr-o societate este o problem naional. O naiune care nu tie s-i respecte femeile este n stare de orice. i noi am vzut de ce este n stare clasa politic romneasc, n primele dou decenii post-decembriste. Dac este s m raportez la una dintre aciunile care mi-au adus foarte mult mulumire i o eficien a rezultatului, aceea ar fi volumul Fora politic a femeilor, carte pe care am coordonat-o de curnd. n cadrul acestui proiect am reuit s pun la aceeai mas doamne i domni din spectrul politic, indiferent de culoarea lor, pe care i-am invitat s rspund la ntrebarea: Cum vd ei echilibrarea clasei politice? E nevoie de o intervenie sau nu?. Odat cu cartea, s-a lansat i un site de dezbatere public (www. femeilenpolitic.ro), unde cei care acceseaz site-ul, au parte de aceeai ntrebare vis-a-vis de echilibrarea

clasei politice i implicarea femeilor n aceast sfer public. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Apropo de ultimul proiect legat de Consiliul Naional pentru Competitivitate 2020. Care este ponderea femeilor n structura sa? Andreea Paul (Vass): Trebuie s v spun c, fiind iniiatoarea acestui program, sunt co-preedinte din partea administraiei publice. Din partea zonei private a fost desemnat tot o doamn copreedinte, n persoana doamnei Irina Schrotter. Deci iat un CoNaCo, un Consiliul Naional pentru Competitivitate, coordonat de ctre dou doamne. Astfel, n cadrul CoNaCo avem un procentaj de peste 34% femei iar n rndul raportorilor, o treime sunt tot femei. Aici nu a fost nevoie de o intervenie, pentru c patronatele, asociaiile de orice natur, universitile, academiile i-au desemnat persoanele pe care dumnealor le-au considerat de cuviin s i reprezinte n Consiliul Naional pentru Competitivitate. Se poate i fr o intervenie brutal. Nu a fost o cot pe care s o impunem din start. Dar, n schimb, dac nu se ajungea la aceast stare de echilibru, mi-a fi manifestat dezamgirea i a fi solicitat patronatelor sau asociailor publice s-i desemneze i femei. La fel a procedat eful executivului European, Jos Manuel Barroso, care, n 2009, avnd un angajament personal ca cel puin o treime din executivul european s fie femei, a reuit s i-l onoreze. Astfel, el le-a spus statelor membre c o treime din cei 27 de comisari europeni trebuie s fie femei. Evident, au
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during negotiations. And now we have one-third of the European Executive represented by women. This is not a goal that falls into equity or gender balance, but rather a matter which pertains to economic reasons. Women and men standing side by in a loyal partnership, either in decision-making positions or in lower hierarchical levels will bring about wealth and a better quality of life. If we consider the states of the world that have successfully managed to solve the gender discrimination issue, such as, for instance, the Scandinavian countries, then it should not surprise us at all, indeed, that these countries have the highest index of economic development and the lowest corruption. Women have a greater propensity for social ethics. Women are more sensitive to certain issues than men. It is ridiculous to watch public policy makers talking about nurses, nurseries, kindergartens and other issues relating to children. These are areas where women are

family: two persons will make it work. In any family that is built on balanced grounds by Him and Her and with him and her, things are going much better. Monoparental families face great difficulties. And the Romanian political class seems to be a monoparental one, since it is led only by men. C4C Communication for Community Association: In your opinion, which are your advantages or qualities that have helped you most in building up your career?

Andreea Paul (Vass): I would quote only two: professionalism, because, before I stepped into politics, I completed my doctoral studies and I am the kind of person who strongly believes in the Handbook on a job well done. If you start on too many things at once, you cant perform well and effectively with all. But if you can focus your energies and efforts in each age span, then I trust one can get excellent Women have a greater propensity for social ethics. and sustainable results. So, first all, professionalism, which Women are more sensitive to certain issues than men. of helped me tremedously win It is ridiculous to watch public policy makers talking political battles againts those peers who did not read the about nurses, nurseries, kindergartens and other right books at the right time. Then, I think my second issues relating to children. advantage is work. To tell you the truth I work too much. I think this has turned into a disadvantage, because effort best and most comfortable positioned. But behold, management is an artful quality and I believe I still these very decisions are marginal in public decisionhave a lot to learn about it. My family keeps telling me making. After 22 years of democracy we have realized that Im in an advanced and premature state of physical that Romania does not have a law to regulate nursing exhaustion, which I still do not feel perhaps because it and baby-sitting nationally. Mrs Roberta Anastase is compensated by the satisfaction of a job well done. had to come last year with such a parliamentary initiative! Or, we found ourselves last year, during C4C Communication for Community Association: a media campaign on the malpraxis of baby-sitters Have you ever felt discriminated throughout your who abuse our children in our own homes! Or that career? How did you react? from 1989 until now the number of nurseries and kindergartens fell by 85%, I repeat, 85%! And in this Andreea Paul (Vass): The answer is yes and case, responsibility is shared between the Government unfortunately many times. The first media impact and the central public authorities because the reality of my presence in the political arena (although I was is that the latter have greater responsibility to build writing for 10 years already nobody paid attention nurseries and kindergartens. Here, these aspects have or laid importance on the issues that I debated) was shown the lack of interest of the present political class, my fair hair. The color of a womans hair is often and which is 90 percent dominated by men. These are much debated. Women are not discriminated; women results that can no longer be ignored. are strongly discriminated in politics and other fields Thus, the problem gets more complex when it comes of activity. to all areas where women have something important During a TV talk show, one of the members of the to say. Women bring in their own experience, their opposition - and I wont give his name - thought to give specific strengths that harmoniously blend with me his reply, in being unable to respond on the subject mens the so-called ontological benefit. Here we do matter, and accused me of being a woman and that not refer to replacing a person with someone else; we the Government had the unamanliness of having sent mean ongoing gender partnership. It is just like in any a woman to defend the upswing and out of recession
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fost avantajate statele membre ce au avut deja femei Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: comisari pentru c au avut o mai mare flexibilitate n Care credei c au fost atuu-rile dumneavoastr de-a a-i alege portofoliile. Deci, o poziie strategic mai lungul carierei sau ce atribute v-au ajutat cel mai bun n negociere. Iar acum, o treime din executivul mult? european sunt femei. Acesta nu este un obiectiv care ine numai de Andreea Paul (Vass): M-a rezuma la dou. egalitatea de anse sau de echilibru de gen, ci este, mai Profesionalismul, pentru c, nainte de a face pasul degrab, o chestiune care ine de raiuni economice. n politic, mi-am ncheiat studiile doctorale i sunt Femeile prezente alturi de brbai ntr-un parteneriat genul de om care crede foarte tare n Tratatul despre loial, fie n poziiile decidente, fie n cele poziionate lucrul bine fcut. Dac te apuci de prea multe lucruri mai jos ierarhic, aduc o bunstare, o calitate mai deodat nu ai cum s performezi n toate. Dar dac mare a vieii. Dac ne uitm la statele lumii care au tii s-i concentrezi energiile i eforturile la nivelul reuit s rezolve problema discriminrii de gen, cum fiecrei vrste, atunci cred c se pot obine rezultate este, de pild, cazul rilor nordice, atunci s nu v durabile. Deci, n primul rnd, profesionalismul, care surprind c, ntr-adevr, cel mai ridicat indice al m-a ajutat foarte mult n a ctiga btlii politice cu cei dezvoltrii economice se regsete n aceste ri i, fr care nu au tiut s ling crile la momentul potrivit. nicio surpriz, au cea mai mic corupie. nclinaia Al doilea atu cred c este munca. Realitatea este c doamnelor ctre etic social este mai ridicat. Sunt muncesc foarte mult. Cred c asta s-a transformat i probleme la care femeile vibreaz altfel dect brbaii. Este hilar s vedem decideni nclinaia doamnelor ctre etic social este mai publici masculini vorbind despre bone, cree, grdinie sau ridicat. Sunt probleme la care femeile vibreaz altfel alte probleme specifice copiilor. Acestea sunt zonele n dect brbaii. Este hilar s vedem decideni publici care o femeie se poziioneaz masculini vorbind despre bone, cree, grdinie sau foarte confortabil. Dar iat c, tocmai aceste decizii sunt alte probleme specifice copiilor. periferice n decizia public. Ne-am trezit, dup 22 de ani de democraie, c Romnia nu are o lege a bonelor. A trebuit s vin doamna Roberta Anastase, anul trecut, s ntr-un dezavantaj pentru c a gestiona corect efortul aib o astfel de iniiativ parlamentar! Sau, ne-am este o art, iar eu cred c aici mai am foarte mult de trezit, anul trecut, ntr-o plin campanie mediatic nvat. Familia mi spune c sunt ntr-un stadiu de cu privire la malpraxisul bonelor care ne maltrateaz epuizare fizic semnificativ, prematur, ca vrst copiii, n propriile noastre case! Sau c, din 89 pn biologic, ns nu o resimt, deoarece vine cu satisfacia n prezent, numrul creelor, grdinielor a sczut cu lucrului necesar i bine fcut. 85%, repet, cu 85%! i aici, sigur, responsabilitatea este mprit ntre guvern i autoritile publice centrale Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: pentru c realitatea este c cele din urm au marea V-ai simit vreodat discriminat de-a lungul responsabilitate de a construi cree i grdinie. Iat carierei? Cum ai reacionat? c aceste aspecte nu au prezentat interes clasei politice actuale, dominate n proporie de 90% de brbai. Andreea Paul (Vass): Da, din pcate, nu de puine Acestea sunt rezultate pe care nu le mai putem neglija. ori. Primul impact mediatic al prezenei mele pe scena Astfel, problema se complic mult atunci cnd vine politic (dei scriam de 10 ani economie, nimeni nu vorba de toate domeniile unde femeia are un cuvnt a dat importan fondului problemelor pe care le de spus. Ea vine cu experien, cu atuuri specifice care dezbteam), a fost prezena prului meu blond. Foarte trebuie s se mpleteasc armonios cu cele ale brbailor des dezbtut culoarea prului. Femeile nu sunt aa numitul beneficiu ontologic. Aici nu vorbim discriminate, femeile sunt foarte puternic discriminate de nlocuirea cuiva de ctre altcineva, vorbim de un n politic i nu numai. parteneriat de gen. Este exact ca ntr-o familie unde n cadrul unei emisiuni televizate, unul dintre este nevoie de doi. n familia construit echilibrat, cu membrii opoziiei, fr a-i specifica numele, s-a gndit un El i o Ea, lucrurile merg mult mai bine. O familie s-mi dea ca replic; nefiind capabil s-mi rspund pe monoparental este ntr-o mare dificultate. Clasa fond problemelor dezbtute, acuza c sunt femeie i c politic romneasc pare a fi monoparental, condus guvernul este la pentru c a trimis o femeie s se lupte doar de brbai. pentru aprarea msurilor de relansare economic i
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measures. Or, this viewpoint made me sick and gave me a feeling of high nausea; because I thought how scant can the mind of a man be who perceives things in such a manner. He is a person - and I believe that he is typical of many of the political class whom you can easily imagine living in the 16th 19th century. The truth is that in the 16th century, the men-philosophers, in other words the intelligentia of the times, wondered whether the woman was a human being and if she had a soul. Even in the 19th century the debate continued on this issue. In all truthfulness, it lasted over 2000 years after Christ for women to emancipate and empower, and it took about 20 years to Romanian women, in particular, to learn what democracy is. And now we have a very low participation of women in politics and their few occurrences in public are awfully being harassed. I dont think youll witness a feminine presence that men wont examine, in the first place, the height of her heels, the length of her skirt, the depth of her cleavage, and - as an absolute must the color of her hair. This is not right. Nobody even thinks to assess how suitable the quality of a mans outfit is, but when it comes to a woman, these seem to be the attributes that catch the attention, and not the subject matters that the respective woman aims to discuss. And as I dont want to refer to my own example, because it would seem egocentric, lets consider other women in politics.

Or, from this point of view, I think there is a lot of work to be done. We can also refer to the cases of Mrs. Elena Udrea or Elena Bsescu, or to Mrs. Roberta Anastase or Anca Boagiu; they are all important political figures in Romania and they are permanently exposed to media criticism and high-tech lynching. In other words, the efforts that these ladies who are present in the front line of politics must do are 10 times higher if they want to succeed than their male counterparts in politics. In fact, this is another definition to describe gender discrimination. Another definition of gender discrimination is given by those who answer the question: Is Romania ready for a woman President, Minister or Prime Minister, and when the answer is No or I dont know then it must be crystal clear this is the definition of discrimination. C4C Communication for Community Association: In Romania, there are still prejudices and stereotypes of thinking related to women, which lead to gender, age, social status discrimination. How can they be prevented?

Andreea Paul (Vass): Here I would refer first to children; those children who starting their first grade, when asked what they want to do when they grow old will equally choose the same type of professions, be they girls or boys. Then its weird that if you ask the same question to children who are In the 16th century, the men-philosophers, in other 15 years old, the share of young girls who are ready to take on words the intelligentia of the times, wondered whether a decision-making role in the or private arena, their the woman was a human being and if she had a soul. public share sharply decreases. If again Even in the 19th century the debate continued on this one asks the same questions to youth who are 25 years old, the issue. In all truthfulness, it lasted over 2000 years discrepancy becomes huge, after Christ for women to emancipate and empower, from an approximately 50% at age 7 years old to about 15% at and it took about 20 years to Romanian women, in age 25 years old. Or this gives us an image and the dimension particular, to learn what democracy is. of how we cultivate and foster values in our Romanian society. One of the values is equity and equal opportunities. But this Lets take the extreme case of Mrs. Ana Birchall is not a given fact. Such values as equal opportunities who was exposed to an extremely brutal and unfair must be nurtured; we need to wrestle for equity. You mediatic assault and lynching. What I found difficult cannot import them; its worthless to take international to understand was the total lack of involvement by the good practices from Sweden, from instance, and bring civil society who had completely turned away and had them to Romania; or pick them up from Spain and not responded at all to such an event. Where was the bring them into Romania. civil society then? Where were womens organizations Its sad that we fail to instil and foster this principle of political parties? Where were women, in general, of equal opportunity since childhood. Here, because when they saw another woman being torn apart and I have a daughter, I would say to mothers: let us stop shown in her intimate relationship with her partner? giving toy pots and dolls to our daughters, and rifles
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de ieire din recesiune. Ori, din acest punct de vedere, senzaia a fost de grea, de foarte mare grea, pentru c mi ddeam seama ct de mic poate s fie mintea unui om care percepe lucrurile de o asemenea manier. E o persoan - i m gndesc c este reprezentativ pentru foarte muli din clasa politic - care se poate cu lejeritate proiecta n secolele XVI XIX. Realitatea este c n secolul XVI, omul filosof, adic inteligenii vremurilor, i puneau ntrebarea dac femeia este om i dac are suflet. Chiar i n secolul XIX mai existau astfel de dezbateri. Realitatea este c a durat peste 2000 de ani, dup Hristos, ca femeile s se emancipeze, iar romncelor, n particular, le-au fost necesari vreo 20 de ani ca s nvee ce este democraia. Iat c avem o rat a implicrii femeilor foarte sczut n politic i puinele apariii sunt stranic hruite. Nu cred c vei asista la o prezen feminin creia s nu-i fie msurat, n primul rnd, nlimea tocului, lungimea fustei, adncimea decolteului i, obligatoriu s nu lipseasc, culoarea prului. Aceste lucruri nu sunt n regul. Nimeni nu-i pune problema evalurii calitii ndragilor dar, cnd vine vorba despre o femeie, acestea par a fi atributele care atrag cel mai mult atenia, nicidecum fondul problemelor pe care ea i propune s le dezbat. Iar ca s nu m raportez doar la exemplul meu personal,

la doamna Elena Bsescu, la fel de uor putem s ne raportm la doamnele Roberta Anastase sau Anca Boagiu, care sunt doamne ce au un cuvnt greu de spus n politica romneasc i care sunt linate mediatic permanent. n traducere liber, efortul pe care doamnele prezente n prima linie a politicii trebuie s-l fac este de 10 ori mai mare pentru a reui, dect partenerii lor de gen masculin din politic. Asta este, de fapt, o form de a defini discriminarea de gen. O alt definiie a discriminrii de gen o dau cei care rspund la ntrebarea: este Romnia pregtit pentru o femeie preedinte, ministru sau prim-ministru?, iar atunci cnd apare rspunsul nu sau nu tiu, atunci s fie foarte clar c aceea este definiia discriminrii. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: n Romnia sunt nc prejudeci i cliee de gndire la adresa femeilor, care duc la discriminare de gen, de vrst, de statut social. Cum credei c pot fi ele contracarate?

Andreea Paul (Vass): Aici m-a raporta mai nti la copii, la copiii care intr n clasa I, care, atunci cnd sunt ntrebai ce vor s se fac cnd sunt mari, vei vedea c fetele i bieii aleg n mod egal acelai gen de profesie. Straniu este c, dac pui aceeai ntrebare la vrsta de 15 ani, atunci ponderea n secolul XVI, omul filosof, adic inteligenii femeilor, tinerelor, pregtite s-i asume un rol de decizie, vremurilor, i puneau ntrebarea dac femeia este om fie n sfera public, fie n sfera scade vertiginos. Dac i dac are suflet. Chiar i n secolul XIX mai existau privat, pui aceeai ntrebare la 25 de astfel de dezbateri. Realitatea este c a durat peste ani, discrepana devine uria, de la un aproximativ 50% la 2000 de ani, dup Hristos, ca femeile s se emancipeze, 7 ani, la aproximativ 15% la iar romncelor, n particular, le-au fost necesari vreo 25 de ani. Ori, acest lucru ne d dimensiunea modului n 20 de ani ca s nvee ce este democraia. care noi cultivm valorile din societatea romneasc. Una dintre valori este egalitatea de anse. Ea nu e un bun dat, o valoare de genul egalitii pentru c a prea egocentrist, haidei s ne uitm la de anse trebuie cultivat, trebuie s luptm pentru celelalte femei din politic. egalitatea de anse. Nu poi importa, degeaba vei lua Cazul extrem al doamnei Ana Birchall, care a bunele practici internaionale, nu poi s o iei din fost expus unui linaj mediatic extrem de brutal i Suedia i s o aduci n Romnia, nu poi s o iei din de incorect. Ceea ce mi-a fost greu s neleg a fost Spania i s o aduci n Romnia. neimplicarea societii civile, care nu a reacionat E trist c nu reuim s cultivm acest principiu deloc corect la un astfel de eveniment. Unde a fost al egalitii de anse nc de mici. Aici, pentru c societatea civil? Unde au fost organizaiile de femei sunt mam de fat, le-a spune aa mamelor: s din cadrul partidelor politice? Unde au fost femeile, n mai ncetm a mai aduce oale i ppui fetielor i general, cnd au vzut cum este prezentat o femeie puti i maini de rzboi bieilor. Astfel se cultiv i o relaie dintr-un parteneriat n doi? Ori, din acest o discriminare de gen de la vrste foarte fragede. E punct de vedere, cred c mai este mult de lucrat. Putem inacceptabil cnd n parcul de copii vezi micui de 4 s ne raportm i la cazul doamnei Elena Udrea sau -7 ani c strig ctre partenerele lor de joac, fetie,
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and machine guns to our sons. This will cultivate gender discrimination in pour children at very young age. Its unacceptable to see 4 - 7 years old boys in a park crying out to their girl playmates You idiot! Their behavior must mimic what they see at home, as a child easily repeats names that would cling to a womans image. Men are smart, women are stupid, and here is a classic stereotype! This must stop! The world has changed a lot during these two decades. There is now an international race, a genuine female tsunami that, if neglected, will throw us into a backward society. We will be forced to commit to fostering this value and take upon ourselves this battle for conquering this value of modern society. C4C Communication for Community Association: The modern state also advances the concept of equal opportunities between women and men. What stage do you think we reached? Andreea Paul (Vass): It is in 2003, when the Constitution was amended, that the principle of equal opportunities occured. Finally a value set. At that time, the initiative was expressed by two gentlemen, Valeriu Stoica and Emil Boc. They have managed this remarkable success and introduced this principle in the Constitution of Romania. But what happened afterwards? We have a law of quasi-enforceable equal opportunities, but everyone disregards it. This law was supposed to trigger this value inserted in the Constitution. Unfortunately, reality looks differently and we will be needed. People like us I, yourselves and those who can hear us and would listen to our voice will be needed to actually win this real asset that is equal opportunities. C4C Communication for Community Association: What is the role of education, and specifically civic education, in eliminating traditional prejudices, stereotypes and biases and to what extent does it play any part in acceeding higher social and professional positions? Andreea Paul (Vass): It has exactly the same important role as the gift of giving life. If women have this gift, I can guarantee you that as they know how to deal with the quality of life of their own children, their feeding, nurturing and educating them, they will also know what to do in life so that those paramount fundamemntal principles should be handed down to the next generations. Education makes the difference, in fact, regarding the quality of human life, and from this point of view, parental education is obviously a must. I particularly refer to a balanced distribution of household tasks between women and men, because as funny and traditionally kept such grandmothers old chimes as chicken rolls and cakes to your man you
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bake are we must overcome these conceptual models where woman is born or dedicated to a particular work, most precisely dedicated to serve her husband. We need to understand that we live in a new, very modern society, where women are forced to enter the labour market in order to have the necessary resources to deal with a qualitatively superior life for their own children, I am referring to education, health and so on. So for a woman to be able and deal with a particular profession, regardless of its nature, family life and professional life must be reconciled. Its very interesting to note how flabbergasted certain women are when telling them: Yes, men can change diapers, do the washing up and do the cleaning. My husband does, and he runs an important company in Romania; and we are able to share these household tasks without feeling ashamed, on the contrary, there is deep respect and love between us. Why cant other men do it? Again, a value that needs education! Feminine misogyny bothers me tremendously and I find it hard to explain. There is another essential aspect, and here Romania is far behind. It comes to the quality of social services in local communities, the needs the children, the elderly have, namely those vulnerable persons whom the public authority must address to in absence of the traditional-patriarchal womens presence in the household. Women must have a job and work to the same extent as men do. Its interesting to find out that very few women are aware that they have the legal right to work two hours less without their wages being negatively affected during the first six weeks after giving birth to a child. Or that, at their own choice and if they so wish, they can go home for breast feeding, they can divide their 8 hours work in two parts and make this shifting at 4 hours. Heres a legal right of women in Romania that is unknown even to the core message conveyors at a central level. Well known journalists ridiculed one replica of mine when answering how I handled my baby daughter breastfeeding, because I resumed my activity after only 2 weeks. I gave them a straight and simple answer: I would go home every 4 hours to nurse her, because I am fortunate that my little girl works as precisely as a Swiss clock. It was subject to ridicule and irony; and they would hit that not all women in Romania could afford to do so and that this was a preferential advantage in my case. No way! Its a legal right for all women, but you must know it in order to exercise it. This is the kind of public debate that I would like to hold in rural areas, or in the Romanian cities. It is true that in urban areas the discourse is different and here the main message aims at getting involved in the local life, either as a voluntary worker, or in an NGO, or in political life. Women understand very quickly that in politics there is no void, that if they will not make this step, others will make it, unfortunately

instituii i programe care promoveaz principiul egalitii de anse

proast. Comportamentul nu este altceva dect o mim a ceea ce vede, probabil, n cas, acel copil care repet cu atta uurin apelative care se lipesc att de uor de imaginea femeii. Brbatul detept, femeia proast, clasicul stereotip! Nu mai merge aa! Lumea s-a schimbat foarte mult, n cele dou decenii. Exist acum o adevrat curs internaional, un adevrat tsunami feminin pe care, dac l vom neglija, nu vom face altceva dect s devenim o societate retrograd. Vom fi obligai s ne asumm cultivarea i btlia pentru aceast valoare a societii moderne. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Statul modern propune i conceptul de egalitate de anse ntre femei i brbai. n ce stadiu considerai c am reuit s ajungem? Andreea Paul (Vass): Abia n anul 2003, odat cu schimbarea Constituiei, apare principiul egalitii de anse. n sfrit o valoare enunat. La vremea aceea, iniiativa a fost formulat de doi domni, Valeriu Stoica i Emil Boc. Ei au reuit acest succes remarcabil de a introduce acest principiu n Constituia Romniei. Dar ce s-a ntmplat ulterior? Avem o lege a egalitii de anse cvasi-inaplicabil, nimeni nu ine cont de ea. Aceast lege trebuia s pun n micare aceast valoare inserat n Constituie. Din pcate, lucrurile arat cum arat i, astfel, va fi nevoie de noi. Va fi nevoie de mine, de dumneavoastr, de cei care ne ascult, pentru a ctiga n plan real acest bun, al egalitii de anse. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Ce rol considerai c are educaia i, mai ales, educaia civic n eliminarea prejudecilor i a stereotipurilor tradiionale i n ce msur ea joac un rol privind accesul la poziii sociale i profesionale superioare? Andreea Paul (Vass): Are exact acelai rol ca i importana harului de a da via. Dac femeile au acest har, v garantez c tiu i s se ocupe de calitatea vieii propriului copil, tiu cum s-l hrneasc, tiu cum s-l educe, tiu ce trebuie s fac n via ca principiile fundamental importante s fie transmise. Educaia face diferena, de fapt, ntre calitatea vieii umane, ori, din acest punct de vedere, e nevoie, evident, de educaia prinilor. M refer, n special, la distribuia echilibrat a sarcinilor n gospodrie ntre femei i brbai, pentru c lagrele bunicii: frigrui i cozonaci brbelului s-i faci rmn haioase, rmn o tradiie, dar trebuie s depim aceste modele conceptuale n care femeia era predestinat sau dedicat unei anumite munci, dedicat servituii brbatului. Trebuie s nelegem c trim ntr-o societate nou, foarte modern, n care femeia este obligat s intre pe piaa muncii tocmai pentru a avea resursele necesare ca s se ocupe n mod calitativ superior de viaa propriilor copii, m refer

la educaie, sntate i aa mai departe. Deci, pentru ca femeia s se poat ocupa de o anumit profesie, indiferent de natura ei, trebuie s existe aceast reconciliere ntre viaa de familie i viaa profesional. E foarte interesant s observm n discuii ocul pe care l triesc anumite femei n clipa n care le spui da, brbaii pot i ei s schimbe scutece, pot s spele i ei vasele, pot s fac i ei curenie. Brbatul meu o face, iar el conduce o companie puternic din Romnia; i reuim s mprim aceste sarcini fr s ne simim deloc ruinai, ba, dimpotriv, exist un respect i o iubire profund. De ce s nu poat i alii? Din nou, o valoare care se educ! Misoginismul feminin m deranjeaz i l gsesc inexplicabil. Mai apare un aspect esenial, i aici Romnia este mult n urm. E vorba de calitatea serviciilor sociale adresate, ntr-o comunitate local, nevoilor copiilor, ale vrstnicilor, adic ale acelor persoane vulnerabile pentru care autoritatea public trebuie s suplineasc tradiional-patriarhala absen a femeilor din gospodrie. Femeia este nevoit s se duc la munc n aceeai msur ca i brbatul. E interesant s afli c foarte puine cunosc c au dreptul legal de a lucra cu dou ore mai puin fr a-i fi lezat dreptul salarial pe perioada luziei. Sau c, la opiunea lor, dac doresc, pot s se deplaseze acas pentru a alpta, i pot mpri programul de 8 ore n dou, fcnd aceast deplasare la 4 ore. Iat c un drept legal pe care l au femeile din Romnia nu este cunoscut nici de ctre purttorii de mesaje la nivel central. Jurnaliti de marc au luat n derdere o replic de-a mea n care am rspuns la ntrebarea cum m descurc cu alptarea fetiei, pentru c eu mi-am reluat activitatea dup doar 2 sptmni. Eu le-am rspuns simplu, la fiecare 4 ore merg acas s alptez pentru c am norocul ca fetia mea s funcioneze ca un ceas elveian. A fost subiect de batjocur i de ironie cum c nu i-ar permite toate femeile din Romnia s fac acest lucru i c ar fi vorba de un avantaj preferenial n cazul meu. Nici vorb! Este un drept legal la care au acces toate femeile, dar trebuie s-l cunoasc pentru a-l putea exercita. Acesta este genul de dezbatere public pe care eu l doresc la nivelul satelor, la nivelul oraelor romneti. Sigur, n orae modul de dezbatere se schimb, iar aici mesajul principal merge pe implicarea n viaa local, fie n sistem voluntar, fie ntr-un ONG, fie n viaa politic. Femeile neleg foarte repede c n politic nu exist vid, c dac nu vor face ele acest pas, o vor face alii, din pcate mult mai slab pregtii dect ele. Chiar dac vei auzi foarte des afirmaia c politica este prea coroziv, prea murdar, atunci s fim sigure c, dac noi nu vom face pasul, l vor face alii, mult mai nepregtii i c cel mai pervers mod de a face politic este absena din politic, fie absena la vot, fie absena n deciziile locale i centrale. Este clasica discriminare a femeilor prin izolarea lor n gineceu, pentru a nu se
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people who are less skilled and prepared than they are. Even though we will hear very often some claim that politics is too acid and dirty be certain that if we do not step forward, others will make this step who are less trained and that the most perverted way of doing politics is the absence from political life, or absence from exercising ones voting right, or absence from the decision-making in local and central government. This is a classic example of discrimination against women who are secluded in their thalamus so as not to get contaminated by the wretchedness of public life; this was the way the ancient Patriarchate removed women from public life and turned it into an exclusive club for men. The annual report on gender discrimination places Romania on an inglorious 109 rank in the world in terms of the extent of women involvement in politics. On the other hand, in economics, education or health, Romanian women stand much better, which, as a whole and in an aggregate index, leads us to a mid-ranking of 67 in the world, out of 134 examined countries. Unfortunately, things have not improved from one year to another. In the Romanian Parliament, as a result of the so called glass ceiling for women that exists within political parties, only 10 percent are women, and the remaining 90 percent are men. The argument that resulted and was cut from another stereotype allegedly stating that women would not vote women is incorrect and is dear to our male partners. Actually, if we relate to the last elections from 2008, we shouldnt be surprised that women represented 10 percent of the total number of candidates and 10 percent of the elected officials were women. So the collective mind is more advanced than the political class and I strongly believe that I am right from this viewpoint. Then, there are various examples at an international, but also, national level. Let us not forget that the most important European economy is driven by a woman, Angela Merkel, or that three European States have female Presidents, and the public message is that it is possible. In Romania, the largest private company is led by a woman - and then, what drives us believe that women do not have their place in public decision-making? C4C Communication for Community Association: In the former regime, society facilitated formal equality between women and men. The effect of this situation, which we inherit, is that women have multiple social roles and tasks, a fact that, in a way, proves how strong they are. Do you think that this is an advantage or a handicap for the successful woman? Andreea Paul (Vass): If you try to replicate the successful path of either a woman or a man, you will find out that you cannot. Success is reinventing
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itself every time. That is why the answer is so hard to formulate, and I mean success as a general concept. If we revert to the last four decades, during the Communist era, when Elena Ceauescu was a very widely acclaimed and invoked comrade, we know that she had tried to impose that a third of the management of public institutions to be made up of women. All happened though at a formal level. Now, after the revolution, her name is often quoted and the attributes of Elena Ceauescu lead to the portrait of a wicked woman, to utmost evil. We often hear that Elena was the one that prompted Nicolae Ceauescu to take drastic measures. But lets be objective, she wasnt the one who dictated the measures; we must make this distinction very clearly, because we are used to put the blame solely on women, every time a social evil of such considerable magnitude as Communism occurs. The voting in the Romanian Parliament on the Pensions Act is hallucinating. No one tells the whole truth: the chamber had two male Executive Secretaries, one from the party in power and one from the opposition, who had the legal assignment of counting the votes. Do you know who they are? Does anyone know who they are? Then why should Ms Anastase solely bear this cross? Without trying to account for, please do not misunderstand me. It is a matter of banning someone and we usually stigmatize only women. But it is not so, there is a collective responsibility. Now referring to the Romanian Parliament, one of the first initiatives of Mrs. Roberta Anastase immediately after she returned from the European Parliament (where she saw what transparency in voting means and how to justify granting of a positive or a negative vote on a law, or how the absence from parliamentarian works is sanctioned), aiming to bring the European best practices in the Parliament of Romania, could not be implemented any longer, from lack of needed partners to back up such a proposal. It strikes me as an aggression to women status. And we revert to one of my previous statements: A nation that cannot honor their women is capable of comitting every injustice. C4C Communication for Community Association: Work Is Feminine is a project implemented by C4CCommunication for Community aiming to support women in Romania to achieve equal opportunities in the labor market. Do you think that such projects have the strength to produce a change of mentality? Andreea Paul (Vass): It largely depends on how convincing you are and your ability to transform your message into a metal ball to be thrown not into a viscous mass that cannot generate any waves, but in the water to generate waves of transformation of the Romanian society from top to bottom and from bottom to top. If you are able to build up a strong message, promote it through suitable channels to generate these

instituii i programe care promoveaz principiul egalitii de anse

contamina de mizeria vieii publice, modalitate prin care patriarhatul antic a nlturat femeile din viaa public i a transformat-o ntr-un club exclusiv masculin. Raportul discriminrii de gen publicat anual plaseaz Romnia pe un ruinos loc 109 n lume n privina gradului implicrii femeii n politic. Pe de alt parte, n economie, n educaie sau sntate romncele stau mult mai bine, ceea ce, n ansamblu, ntr-un indice agregat, ne duce la mijlocul clasamentului pe locul 67 n lume, din 134 de ri analizate. Din pcate, lucrurile nu se mbuntesc de la un an la altul. n Parlamentul Romniei, ca un rezultat al plafonului de sticl care exist n interiorul partidelor politice, doar 10% sunt femei, iar restul de 90% sunt brbai. Argumentul rezultat i decupat dintr-un alt stereotip, cum c femeile nu ar vota femei, este fals i este argumentul cel mai drag partenerilor notri de gen masculin. n realitate, dac este s ne raportm la ultimele alegeri, din 2008, s nu v surprind c, din totalul candidailor, 10% au fost candidate i, din totalul aleilor, 10% au fost alese. Deci mentalul colectiv este mult mai avansat dect mentalul clasei politice i, din acest punct de vedere, am convingerea c am dreptate. Apoi, avem deja exemple internaionale, dar i naionale. Haidei s ne amintim c cea mai mare economie european este condus de ctre o femeie, Angela Merkel, sau c trei state europene au preedini de gen feminin, iar mesajul public este c se poate. n Romnia, cea mai mare companie privat este condus de ctre o femeie - i atunci, ce ne face s credem c femeile nu i au locul n decizia public? Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: n regimul anterior, societatea a ncurajat formal egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai. Efectul acestei situaii, pe care-l motenim, este c femeia are mai multe roluri i sarcini sociale, ceea ce, ntrun fel, dovedete c este puternic. Considerai c acest lucru este un avantaj sau un handicap pentru femeia de succes? Andreea Paul (Vass): S tii c dac vei ncerca s reproducei traseul de succes, fie al unei femei, fie al unui brbat, vei constata c v este imposibil. Succesul se reinventeaz de fiecare dat. De aceea rspunsul este foarte greu de formulat, ca i concept general. Revenind la momentul ultimilor 4 decenii, n perioada comunist, cnd tovara Elena Ceauescu era foarte des aclamat i invocat, tim c aceasta a ncercat ca o treime din conducerea instituiilor publice s fie format din femei. Totul ns s-a ntmplat doar la nivel formal. Acum, dup revoluie, se invoc foarte des numele Elenei Ceauescu, iar atributele ei duc ctre o femeie rea, ctre rul suprem. De cte ori nu auzim c Elena a fost cea care l-a determinat pe Nicolae Ceauescu s ia msurile drastice pe care le-a luat. Dar

haidei s fim obiectivi, nu ea le-a luat ci el, trebuie s facem aceast distincie foarte clar pentru c prea tare ne-am obinuit ca, de fiecare dat cnd apare un ru de magnitudine social cum a fost comunismul, s punem vina exclusiv pe cocoaa femeilor. Cazul numrrii voturilor din Parlament pe legea pensiilor este halucinant. Nimeni nu spune adevrul pn la capt, c acea sal a avut 2 secretari executivi de gen masculin, unul de la putere i altul din opoziie, care aveau aceast sarcin legal de a numra voturile. i tii, i cunoatei? tie cineva cine sunt ei? De ce atunci trebuie s poarte aceast cruce exclusiv doamna Anastase? Fr a justifica, s nu m nelegei greit. Este o chestiune de a pune o anatem, de obicei nfiernd exclusiv femeile. Dar nu este aa, responsabilitatea este una colectiv. Vorbind de Parlamentul Romniei, una dintre primele iniiative ale doamnei Roberta Anastase, proaspt ntoars din Parlamentul European (unde a vzut ce nseamn transparena unui vot i modul n care se justific acordarea unui vot pozitiv sau negativ cu privire la o lege sau modul n care este sancionat absena parlamentarilor de la lucrri), dorind s aduc bunele practici europene n Parlamentul Romniei, nu a mai putut fi pus n aplicare, negsindu-se partenerii necesari pentru o astfel de propunere. Mi se pare o agresiune la ceea ce nseamn starea femeilor. i revenim la una din afirmaiile mele anterioare: o naiune care nu-i respect femeile este n stare de orice. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Munca are genul feminin este un proiect implementat de C4C Communication for Community care vine n sprijinul femeilor din Romnia, pentru obinerea egalitii de anse pe piaa muncii. Considerai c proiecte ca acesta au puterea de a produce o schimbare de mentalitate? Andreea Paul (Vass): Depinde foarte mult de ct de persuasivi vei fi i ct de mare va fi capacitatea de a transforma mesajul dumneavoastr ntr-o bil metalic pe care s nu o aruncai ntr-o mas vscoas care nu mai genereaz nicio und, ci n ap care s genereze undele necesare de transformare a societii romneti de sus pn jos i de jos pn sus. Dac vei reui s avei un mesaj de for, canalele de promovare potrivite de a genera aceste unde de transformare n bine a societii romneti, atunci cred c vei avea succes, dar, din nou, revin la succesul care trebuie reinventat. Nu exist o reet comun. Sper s reuii. Eu m bucur s vd c exist tot mai multe iniiative ale societii civile care se adreseaz egalitii de anse. Revenind acum la problema accesului femeilor la munc, aici trebuie s spunem c, din pcate, n Romnia, rata ocuprii femeilor este semnificativ mai mic dect n alte ri i aici, cu permisiunea dumneavoastr, am s v i ofer cifrele concrete. Doar
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benefic transformation waves within society, then I think you will be successful, but again, success is to be reinvented. There is no such thing as a general formula. I truly hope that you succeed. I am happy to see there are more and more initiatives and action of the civil society that aim at equal opportunities. To revert now to the issue of womens access to work, here we must say that, unfortunately, in Romania, the employment rate of women is significantly lower than in other countries. And here, with your permission, I will give some specific figures. Only 54%, so a little more than half of women in Romania, are actively involved on the labor market, unlike Sweden, where 77% of women have a job or Finland with 74%, Germany with 71%, France with 66% and so on. When we look up those states for their development we should keep in mind that their social development starts from work, education, innovation, tolerance, and all these values stem from equity. There are certainly many initiatives at international level aiming to promote womens economic inclusion. In the World Labour Report aimed to eliminating the barriers to social inclusion, it is clearly argued that equal opportunities is no longer related to equity in front of the law, which is a quasi-solved issue in the developed countries of the world, but the creation of equal opportunities on the labour market. There are at least two issues in this case: first, equal pay for equal work, or from this point of view, in Romania, the average salary of a woman in a similar professional position with a mans and benefitting of similar training is generally less than 10% of the salary of a man. The second issue at stake is related to equal opportunities and access to hierarchical positions. Here is another extremely interesting report released by McKinsey company that covers methods of changing perceptions of decision-makers, this time from private companies, so that they be prepared and comply with womens ascending. Reporting refers in this case to the United States, because the issue of equal opportunities is not solved yet in the world. In private North-American companies, although more than half of employees are women, they advance with difficulty to leadership positions. Thus, only 37% of middle-management positions and only 14% of top-management positions are held by women. The situation is significantly different at a global scale. In Germany, only 2% women are in the boards of directors, while in Sweden the percentage is of 17%. However, there are companies that have managed to balance their decision-making forums and which have an average higher rate of profit by 56%. Thus, one can notice how women positioned in leadership brought and added value but also added profit to their companies. From this point of view there are companies like Picnic Bouse that enter for advancement, at specific periods of time, into a specific list, at least 35% women and
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15% minorities for a balanced representation at firms level. They would subsequently enter into a mentorship program and rightfully those who prove their actual attributes for leadership have the best chances to be accepted into the decision-making forums. Shell company has established a long-term target, namely to have at least 20% women in leadership positions. Currently, they reached 15%, which is a significant improvment if compared to the 10% which it had in 2010. Another company, Time Warner, has introduced a diversity criterion in management, so that in each Department a succession plan is to be devised and an employee shall get a position that best fits him/her as based on his/her professional skills. There are just three examples to which I referred, but the basic message is that we have to manage two major issues: equal pay for equal work and access of women to top management positions. I will now add a third one, which refers to womens access on the labour market. The rural areas in Romania are the worst case. Lack of womens access to a safe monthly income does make them rather dependent on sources of income of men. Surprisingly, however, from this point of view, is that in Romania the unemployment rate is lower among women than among men. If we relate to the latest available official figures, unemployment among women is 6.9%, and 7.7% among men, which represents a significant difference. At European level the percentage is reversed and is significantly higher, with 9.7% unemployment among women if compared to 9.3% among men. The situation is not at all easy, and we have the problem of flexible working programme and the provision of social protection that would actually enable women their access to employment. I will now refer to a few things that cannot be overlooked. Its about domestic violence. Let us remember that in present Romania, a woman is physically abused every 3 seconds. As I speak, a woman is being abused. And then we shall wonder: what kind of equal opportunities are we talking about? How are we going to solve the issue of domestic violence? From my point of view harsh santions must be enacted and obeyed, also powerful institutions to defend womens right to live a civilized life. After that we can address access to education, work, although education is not exactly a problem. Female graduates who do manage to perform throughout their education process are a majority. If you look at those 65 10 marks obtained in the Bachelors this year, 80% are young women. So here are true advantages that we fail to capitalize. These are the problems. Let us not imagine that discrimination will go away just like that, in a second, if we snap our fingers. It takes a long term partnership and we need a lot of lanes of the longest imaginary highway, namely equal opportunities.

instituii i programe care promoveaz principiul egalitii de anse

54%, deci foarte puin peste jumtate din femeile de conducere. n prezent, au ajuns la performana din Romnia, particip activ pe piaa muncii, spre de 15% dar care e semnificativ mbuntit fa de deosebire de Suedia, unde 77% dintre femei lucreaz, cele 10% pe care le-au avut n 2010. O alt companie, de Finlanda - 74%, de Germania - 71%, de Frana - 66% Time Warner, a introdus un criteriu de diversitate n i aa mai departe. Cnd invidiem aceste state pentru conducere, astfel nct, la nivelul fiecrui departament, dezvoltarea lor trebuie s ne uitm c acea dezvoltare s fie realizat un plan de succesiune i, pe baza abilitii social pornete de la munc, de la educaie, de la fiecrei persoane, s primeasc o funcie care i se inovare, de la toleran, de la toate aceste valori care potrivete mai bine. se desprind din egalitatea de anse. Sigur c exist Sunt doar 3 exemple la care fac eu referire, dar mesajul multe iniiative la nivel internaional pentru a favoriza de baz rmne, c avem de gestionat dou probleme incluziunea economic n rndul femeilor. n Raportul majore, salarizare egal pentru munc egal i accesul Muncii Mondiale, care i propune s elimine barierele femeilor n poziii de top-management; i acum mai adaug din calea incluziunii sociale, se susine foarte clar c o a treia care se refer la accesul femeii pe piaa forei de egalitatea de anse nu mai ine de egalitatea n faa munc. Mediul rural n Romnia este cel mai viciat. Lipsa legii, care e o problem cvasirezolvat n rile dezvoltate ale lumii, ci de crearea de anse egale pe piaa muncii. Aici apar Trebuie s nelegem c trim ntr-o societate nou, cel puin dou probleme: n foarte modern, n care femeia este obligat s intre pe primul rnd plata egal pentru munc egal, ori, din acest piaa muncii tocmai pentru a avea resursele necesare punct de vedere, n Romnia, n medie, salariul unei femei, ca s se ocupe de viaa propriilor copii. aflat pe aceeai poziie i cu aceeai pregtire, este, n general, cu 10% mai mic fa de salariul unui brbat. accesului femeilor la un venit sigur lunar independent nu A doua problem care se ridic ine de egalitatea le face dect s devin dependente de sursele de venit ale de anse i anume de accesul la poziiile ierarhice de brbailor. Surprinztor ns, din acest punct de vedere, top. Aici apare un alt raport, extrem de interesant, al s tii c n Romnia rata omajului este mai mic n companiei McKinsey, care vorbete despre metodele de rndul femeilor dect n rndul brbailor. Raportndua modifica percepiile decidenilor, de data aceasta din ne la ultimele cifre disponibile oficial, omajul n rndul companiile private, pentru ca acetia s fie pregtii i femeilor este de 6,9%, iar n rndul brbailor de 7,7%, fa de ascensiunea femeilor. Aici raportarea se refer deci o diferen semnificativ. La nivel european se la Statele Unite, pentru c problema egalitii de anse ntorc procentele i sunt semnificativ mai mari, astfel nu e rezolvat nc nici n lume. n companiile private c omajul n rndul femeilor este de 9,7%, fa de 9,3% americane, cu toate c peste jumtate din angajai n rndul brbailor. Lucrurile nu sunt deloc uoare, iar sunt femei, acestea ajung cu dificultate n poziii de noi mai avem i problema flexibilizrii programului de conducere. Astfel, doar 37% n poziiile de middlemunc i al asigurrii serviciilor sociale necesare care management i abia 14% n top-management. Lucrurile s le permit, cu adevrat, femeilor accesul la un loc difer semnificativ la nivel global. n Germania, doar de munc. 2% sunt femei n comitetele de conducere, iar n Suedia Acum m mai raportez la cteva lucruri pe care procentul este de 17%. nu le putem neglija. Este vorba de violena domestic. Exist, totui, companii care au reuit s echilibreze S nu uitm c, n Romnia zilelor noastre, la fiecare forurile lor decidente i care au, n medie, rata 3 secunde, o femeie este agresat fizic. Deja spunnd profitului superioar cu 56%. Astfel, se poate observa aceste lucruri, nc o femeie a fost lovit. i o s ne cum femeile poziionate n funcii de conducere aduc o ntrebm: Despre ce egalitate de anse vorbim? Cum plus valoare dar i un plus profit companiilor. Din acest vom rezolva problema violenei domestice? Din punct de vedere sunt companii precum Picnic Bouse punctul meu de vedere se impun sanciuni foarte care, pentru o anumit perioad, introduce pentru dure, legiferate i respectate, instituii puternice care avansare, ntr-o anumit list, cel puin 35% femei i s apere dreptul femeii la o via civilizat. Dup care 15% minoriti pentru o reprezentare echilibrat la discutm i despre acces la educaie, la munc, dei nivelul firmei, urmnd ca ei s intre ntr-un program de la educaie nu ar fi tocmai o problem. Absolventele mentorat i, pe drept cuvnt, cei care probeaz atribute care reuesc s performeze pe tot parcursul educativ reale de conducere au ansa de a intra n forurile sunt majoritare. Dac v uitai la cele 65 de note de 10 decidente. Compania Shell a stabilit o int pe termen luate la bacalaureatul din acest an, 80% sunt fete. Deci lung, anume s aib cel puin 20% femei n poziiile sunt avantaje pe care, iat c, dei le avem, nu reuim
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C4C Communication for Community Association: Do you think that social policies for equal opportunities and non-discrimination applied in our country are known, are effective? Can they be an instrument in favour of changing the obsolete mindsets? Andreea Paul (Vass): Unfortunately they are unknown. At least, in the public debates that Ive achieved in 18 counties, until now, my conclusion is that they are completely unknown. Heres a communication problem, its a problem with message multipliers who are absent; and this is what we must build up. Message multipliers who are able to pass on to the remotest villages what are the peoples legal rights, how can legal rights be defended, what facilities they have to protect their right for decent living, working, entrepreneurship. These are things for which much public energy has been consumed in order to enforce laws. Before talking about the effectiveness of such initiatives, they should, first of all, be known. Therefore, I will not answer the question related to their effectiveness; we should first make them be known to the public. C4C Communication for Community Association: As a public figure with such visibility, do you believe that you can contribute in putting to use your experience and the power of example, to the gradual changing of mentality, through supporting a cause, proposing and promoting the change of the legislative framework or otherwise? Andreea Paul (Vass): I will answer to this with an assertion that I have been repeteadly told, in one form or another, by different heavyweights of the Romanian politics: Andreea, youve chosen the hardest way in politics. And I asked why. Because, came the answer, you plan to win a battle that no one has won in the history of Romania yet. And I said: No, I dont think so. I believe that I will succeed to generate a wave of balanced feminism, foster gender partnership and, as difficult a task this may be, I have climbed atop the surfboard and Ill stay on that crest, whether I fall or not. I have had this project in mind for a long time, long before I stepped into politics. I wrote about this subject long before going in for politics, it simply runs in my blood, this is how I feel. I have taken on this task with my head up and the imminent difficulties because, I repeat, it is very difficult, though I dont think they are right. Just as they are wrong when telling me: You are not suitable for public service because you are a far too creative person, with revolutionary ideas. I think they wouldnt realize that the problem was not with me; the problem is the public servants in Romania. They should be different and change their mindests; it is not I who has to adjust to the inertia and conservatism that
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vitiate public governance. I can make the difference, but in doing so I need many partnerships, ladies and gentlemen. Fortunately, inertia is not general. It is one battle that we shall win if we consistently cultivate this in the long run. I wont wait any longer, not one second we have been waiting enough for 2000 years. C4C Communication for Community Association: How do you manage to reconcile your professional, social and family life? Andreea Paul (Vass): I could give you a tactful answer: Very well, couldnt I? Well, the true answer is: Its very hard! Because I feel the fatigue of my three jobs; because, once safely home, I am already tired and cannot allow myself any minute to rest. I would play with Sandra, and shes a barrel of infinite energy. Though I manage somehow to get refreshed with her positive energy and go on. The joy that I am given by my dear family, my husband, my mother-in-law - and I am incredibly lucky to have such a wonderful mother-in-law -, my little girl shes a healthy child, a playful, lovely and lively child matters a lot. I dont know what I would have done if anyone of them had had any problems. Its hard for me to imagine how I could have managed such a situation. It is an old saying: Pray The Lord not to give as much as you can bear; and I wont find out how much I can bear. My profession brings me daily challenges and much satisfaction. But I almost forgot to mention my students. They are another source of energy for me. I am a reader at the university, this is my basic training, and communicating with young persons who are the most creative of all people is another source of energy that gives me strength to carry on. So its still difficult to give you an answer, because I want to perform well in everything I am doing; and my working day lasts only 24 hours. C4C Communication for Community Association: What advice would you give to young women who start their careers? Andreea Paul (Vass): Far be it from me that I could offer advice. I can nevertheless repeat what my grandmother would say, God rest her in peace. She used to tell me: If you want to be successful in life, you need to be so good in what you are doing that, even after everyone has betrayed you and stolen from you, you are still the best. One cannot deprive you of your moral and professional qualities. Otherwise, as far as hierarchical positions are concerned, it is life that decides in providing you opportunities, because it all depends on circumstances, but we have to trust and be certain, by the end of the day, that we have done our very best.

instituii i programe care promoveaz principiul egalitii de anse

s le valorificm. Acestea sunt problemele. S nu ne imaginm c discriminarea va disprea doar aa, pocnind din degete i ntr-o secund. Este nevoie de un parteneriat pe termen lung, este nevoie de foarte multe benzi ale celei mai mari autostrzi imaginare, anume cea a egalitii de anse. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Considerai c politicile sociale pentru egalitate de anse i nediscriminare aplicate n ara noastr sunt cunoscute, sunt eficiente? Pot ele fi un instrument n favoarea schimbrii vechilor mentaliti? Andreea Paul (Vass): Nu sunt cunoscute, din pcate. Cel puin, din dezbaterile publice pe care eu leam realizat n 18 judee, pn n prezent, concluzia mea personal este c sunt absolut necunoscute. Aici e o problem de comunicare, e o problem a multiplicatorilor de mesaj care sunt abseni, asta trebuie s construim. Multiplicatorii de mesaje care s transmit pn la talpa satului care sunt drepturile lor legale, cum i pot apra drepturile legale, ce faciliti au pentru a-i apra dreptul la via decent, la munc, la antreprenoriat, sunt lucruri pentru care s-au consumat energii publice pentru legiferare. Ca s ajungem s vorbim despre eficiena acestor iniiative publice, ele trebuie, mai nti de toate, s fie cunoscute. De aceea, la ntrebarea despre eficiena lor, nici nu m mai obosesc s rspund. Pentru c devine irelevant, pe acest fond de necunoatere grav. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Ca persoan public, cu vizibilitate, credei c putei contribui, folosindu-v de experiena dumneavoastr i de puterea exemplului personal, la schimbarea treptat de mentalitate, prin susinerea unei cauze, prin propunerea i promovarea schimbrii cadrului legislativ sau altceva? Andreea Paul (Vass): Aici am s v rspund printr-o afirmaie pe care mi-au repetat-o, ntr-o form sau alta, greii politicii romneti, Andreea, i-ai ales cel mai greu drum n politic i eu am ntrebat de ce. Pentru c vrei s ctigi o btlie pe care nu a ctigat-o nimeni n istoria Romniei, a fost rspunsul. i eu am spus: nu cred, nu cred asta, cred c voi reui s generez un val al feminismului echilibrat, al cultivrii parteneriatului de gen i, chiar dac este dificil, m-am urcat pe placa de surf i stau pe acel val, indiferent c voi pica sau nu. Mi-am propus acest proiect cu mult timp nainte de a face pasul n politic. Am scris despre aceast tem cu mult nainte de a face politic, mi curge prin vene, o simt. mi asum aceast sarcin cu fruntea sus i cu dificultile de rigoare pentru c, repet, este foarte dificil, dar nu cred c au dreptate. La fel cum nu au avut dreptate cnd mi-au spus: tu nu eti

potrivit ca funcionar public pentru c tu eti mult prea creativ, mult prea revoluionar. Cred c nu-i ddeau seama c problema nu era la mine, ci problema era funcionrimea public din Romnia, ea trebuie s fie altfel, nu eu s m acomodez la o inerie i la un conservatorism att de vicios al administraiei publice. Pot s fac o schimbare, dar am nevoie de foarte muli parteneri i de domni, i de doamne. Din fericire ineria nu este generalizat. Este o btlie pe care o vom ctiga dac o vom cultiva consistent i pe termen lung. Nu mai vreau s atept deloc, nici o secund, 2000 de ani de ateptare au fost de-ajuns. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Cum reuii s mpcai viaa profesional, social i cea familial? Andreea Paul (Vass): Rspunsul diplomatic ar trebui s fie: foarte bine, nu? Ei bine, rspunsul real este: foarte greu!. Pentru c resimt oboseala celor 3 locuri de munc, pentru c acas, odat ajuns, deja obosit, nu-mi permit luxul odihnei, trebuie s m joc cu Sandra, iar ea e un butoi de energie infinit, dar reuesc s m rencarc cu energia ei pozitiv n aa fel nct s merg mai departe. Bucuria pe care i-o dau cei din jur, soul, soacra, c am avut un noroc incredibil de o soacr minunat, fetia mea, care e un copil sntos, un copil minunat, e jucu, vioaie. Nu tiu ce m-a fi fcut dac unul dintre ei ar fi avut vreo problem. Mi-e imposibil s-mi imaginez cum a fi gestionat lucrurile. Este o vorb btrneasc s nu i dea Domnul ct poi duce, nu vreau s vd ct pot duce. Am o profesie care mi aduce zilnic provocri i satisfacie i, era s uit, nu am vorbit deloc despre studenii mei. i ei sunt o alt surs de energie. Meseria mea de baz este lector universitar, iar comunicarea cu tinerii, persoanele cele mai creative, este o alt surs de energie care mi d puterea de a merge mai departe. Rspunsul rmne totui dificil, pentru c vreau s le fac pe toate bine, iar ziua mea are tot 24 de ore. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Ce sfaturi le-ai da femeilor care sunt la nceput de carier? Andreea Paul (Vass): Departe de mine gndul c a putea s dau sfaturi. Dar pot s le zic i lor ce mi-a zis mie bunica mea, Dumnezeu s o odihneasc. Ea mi-a spus aa: In via, dac vrei s reueti, trebuie s ajungi att de priceput n ceea ce faci nct, i dup ce te fur toi, tot cel mai bun s rmi. Calitatea profesional i moral nu i-o poate lua nimeni. n rest, poziii ierarhice, alte cele, rmne de vzut cte anse i ofer viaa, pentru c este i o chestiune de conjunctur, dar noi trebuie s avem convingerea, atunci cnd am pus capul pe pern, c am fcut tot ceea ce a depins de noi.
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The Beginnings of Feminist Organizations


The French writer Olympe de Gouges formulated the Declaration of Rights of Woman and Female Citizen as a result of the fact that women fought alongside men during the French Revolution, but even so, they had not been granted the same proclaimed rights as men. The document is heavily inspired from The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen from 1789. Woman has the right to mount the scaffold; she must equally have the right to mount the rostrum. (Olympe de Gouges) In addition to this declaration, the writer also drafted a Social Contract between Men and Women (taking a leaf from Rousseaus Social Contract), which was aimed at replacing marriage with a contract based on equal rights and assigning special rights to women as mothers. In 1793, the National Assembly sentenced to death and executed Olympe de Gouges and banned womens clubs established after the Revolution, also prohibiting womens reunions. The feminist movement for the right to vote was set up in two organizations: the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and The American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) that were to merge later. In the United States, women were granted full voting rights in 1920, almost 50 years after the termination of their rights by amending the Constitution and the addition of the word male (man) which clearly excluded the participation of women in the electoral process. In Great Britain, the first reformation of the electoral law was advanced in 1832. This is how the relevant movement of the suffragettes occurred, which aimed at acquiring the right to vote for women through public action and petitioning. The right for passing active and passive votes was first acquired in the counties and at lower administrative levels in 1869. Afterwards, for the first time, women of the bourgeoisie defended the prostitutes rights. The women workers organized themselves in the Womens Trade Union Provident League and they would later embrace the principle of voting right for women. Thus the so-called suffragette movement became one of the largest political movements in Great Britain before World War I. The outbreak of World War I put an end to the feminist

In 1848, the first conference on womens discrimination was held in New York. The requirements were, among others: The right to own property and personal income; Access to educational and professional activities; The right to vote; Rights for divorced women to be given the custody of their children; Better legal and economic rights for divorced women.

movement aiming to acquiring the right to vote for women. In Germany, the feminist movement was carried out under the 1848 Revolution. Women were granted the right to participate in certain activities within associations, or to write articles for newspapers, but also to take part in political activities. Thanks to the liberalization starting in 1860, the first German women association called Das Allgemeine Deutsche Frauenverein (ADF) was set up in 1865 by Louise Otto-Peters. The right to vote was introduced in 1918, after the Social-Democrat Party had lost the war. In France, womens full right to vote was acknowledged as late as 1944, and all the discriminating articles provided under the Civil Code were removed in 1980. The French womens struggle was one of the toughest, since the restrictive policy continued under the reign of Napoleon I, as recorded in the Napoleonic Code (1804). Source: International UNESCO Education Server for Democracy, Peace and Human Rights Education, www.dadalos.org

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nceputurile organizaiilor feministe


Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), organizaii care, mai trziu, au fuzionat. n SUA, femeile au primit drept de vot deplin n anul 1920, la aproape 50 de ani de la cderea lor din drepturi prin modificarea Constituiei i adugarea cuvntului male (brbat), care excludea n mod clar participarea femeilor la procesul electoral. n Anglia, prima reformare a legii electorale a fost propus nc din anul 1832. Aa a aprut micarea influent a sufragetelor, care dorea s obin dreptul de vot pentru femei prin intermediul aciunilor publice i al petiiilor. Prima dat a fost obinut dreptul activ i pasiv de vot la nivelul comitatelor i al nivelelor administrative inferioare din 1869. Apoi, pentru ntia oar, femeile burgheze au aprat drepturile prostituatelor. Femeile proletare s-au organizat n Womens Trade Union Provident League. i ele au aderat mai trziu la principiul dreptului de vot pentru femei. Astfel, aa numita micare a sufragetelor a devenit una din cele mai mari micri politice din Anglia de dinaintea Primului Rzboi Mondial. Izbucnirea Primului Rzboi Mondial a pus ns punct micrii feministe pentru dobndirea dreptului de vot. n Germania, micarea feminist s-a desfurat din anul 1848, sub nsemnul Revoluiei. Femeile au primit drepturi de participare la activiti n cadrul unor societi sau de redactare a ziarelor, dar i la orice activitate politic. Datorit liberalizrii din 1860, n anul 1865 a fost nfiinat prima societate german a femeilor, Das Allgemeine Deutsche Frauenverein (ADF), de ctre Louise Otto-Peters. n 1918 a fost introdus dreptul de vot, n urma pierderii rzboiului de ctre Partidul Social-Democrat. n Frana, drepturile depline de vot au fost recunoscute femeii abia n anul 1944, iar n 1980 au fost nlturate toate articolele discriminatoare din dreptul civil. Lupta femeilor franceze a fost una dintre cele mai dure, ntruct politica restrictiv a continuat i n timpul domniei lui Napoleon I, fiind nregistrat i n Codul lui Napoleon (1804). Sursa: International UNESCO Education Server for Democracy, Peace and Human Rights Education, www.dadalos.org

Scriitoarea Olympe de Gouges, a formulat Declaraia drepturilor femeii i ale cetencei (1791), n urma faptului c femeile au luptat cot la cot cu brbaii n timpul Revoluiei Franceze, dar, chiar i aa, acestea au rmas n afara drepturilor proclamate. Documentul este inspirat puternic din Declaraia drepturilor omului i ale ceteanului, proclamat n anul 1789. Femeia are dreptul s urce pe eafod. La fel, ea trebuie s aib dreptul s se urce la tribun pentru a se adresa mulimii.(Olympe de Gouges) Pe lng aceast declaraie, scriitoarea a mai elaborat i un Contract social ntre brbat i femeie (analog textului lui Rousseau, Contractul Social), prin care se dorea nlocuirea cstoriei cu un contract bazat pe drepturi egale i atribuirea de drepturi speciale femeii ca mam. n anul 1793, Adunarea General a executat-o pe Olympe de Gouges i a scos n afar legii cluburile femeilor aprute dup Revoluie, interzicnd ntrunirea acestora. Micarea feminist pentru dreptul de vot s-a organizat n structuri proprii: National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) i American

n anul 1848, n New York, a avut loc o conferin al crei subiect a fost, pentru prima dat, discriminarea femeilor. Se cereau, printre altele: dreptul de a dispune de proprietatea i veniturile proprii; acces la educaie i la activiti profesionale; dreptul la vot; drepturi pentru femeile divorate de a primi custodia copiilor; drepturi legale i economice mai bune n cazul femeilor divorate.

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Feminist Organizations in Romania


,,Women cant achieve excellence at the same rate as men, because they dont have wives. Their husbands arent willing to be wives as well. Women are willing - as history proves - to earn a living for the family, to have a profession and achieve performance, but unfortunately they do not have wives.
Mihaela Miroiu - A Professor at NSPAS

The first non-governmental organization in Romania, Ana Society for Feminist Analyses (ASFA), was established and coordinated by Laura Grunberg in 1993. She founded the first school of feminism in Romania Bucharest together with Mihaela Miroiu and other feminist personalities to have introduced the gender dimension in the school curriculum. Without having a history of militant and suffragette movements, women woke up overnight enjoying full civic rights, whereas they hadnt even dreamt of gender equity. The case of France, a benchmark and standard for the European democracy, can represent a landmark in assessing the Romanian womens condition. Womens right to vote was introduced in Romania in 1946, but the inhabitants of Bucharest fully ridiculed the 20th feminism of Mia1, who dared to ride a bicycle in public. Women were forbidden to walk alongside men; they were not called by their names in certain locations; they were considered to be clumsy and their mind as long as their skirts were and they used to be called either mammy or woman or made moniker name of their husbands and fathers. Abortion was legalized in 1957
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and prohibited by Ceauescu in 1966, to be legalized again in 1990. The top of the years with the most abortions (performed in state clinics) between 1958 and 1966: 1962 - 967.000 1963 - 1.037.000 1964 - 1.100.000 1965 - 1.115.000 1990 - 992.265
(Source: Center for Health Statistics, Calculation and Documentation of the Ministry of Health). Because of illegal abortions, approximeately 15,000 women died in Romania between 1966 and 1990.

In Romania, the socialist speech on women was knocked out, for greater fear of man to be perceived or acquire feminine traits if sharing the domestic chores in private life, if compared to women being perceived as more masculine due to their working tasks in factories or driving tractors, for instance. Consequently, the party and state encouraged women to become involved in the public arena, break down their commitment to old kin relations, and place what used to be private matters, such as laundry or child care, into public hands... though gender difference was never taken into consideration.2

organizaile feministe instrumente sociale pentru combaterea discriminrii de anse i de gen

Organizaii feministe n Romnia


,,Femeile nu pot fi la fel de performante ca i brbaii pentru c nu au soii... nu au soii. Soii lor nu sunt dispui s fie i soii. Ele, dup cum se vede i n istorie, sunt dispuse s ctige pinea pentru familie, s aib profesie i s fac performan, din pcate nu au neveste
Mihaela Miroiu - Profesor universitar, SNSPA

n Romnia, prima organizaie neguvernamental, Societatea de Analize Feministe Ana (SAFA) a fost fondat n anul 1993 i coordonat de Laura Grunberg. mpreun cu Mihaela Miroiu i cu alte personaliti feministe a nfiinat prima coal de feminism n Romnia - Bucureti i au introdus dimensiunea de gen n curricula colar. Fr micri militante, fr micri de sufragete, femeile sau trezit, peste noapte, cu toate drepturile ceteneti, n condiiile n care ele nici nu visau la egalitatea de gen. Cazul Franei, un etalon al democraiei europene poate servi ca reper n evaluarea condiiei femeii din Romnia. Dreptul femeilor la vot a fost introdus n Romnia n anul 1946, dar bucuretenii ridiculizau n plin secol XX feminismul unei Mie1 care i-a permis, cu un extraordinar curaj, s mearg pe biciclet. Femeilor le era interzis s mearg n rnd cu brbatul, n anumite locuri nu erau strigate pe nume, erau considerate mpiedicate deopotriv de lungimea poalelor i de scurtimea minii i erau numite fie muic, fie prin apelativul monosilabic f al soului sau al tatlui. Avortul a fost legalizat n anul 1957 i interzis n anul 1966 de ctre Ceauescu, urmnd s fie relegalizat

n 1990. Topul anilor cu cele mai multe avorturi (efectuate n clinici de stat) din perioada 1958 - 1966: 1962 - 967.000 1963 - 1.037.000 1964 - 1.100.000 1965 - 1.115.000 1990 - 992.265
(Surs: Centrul de Calcul, Statistic Sanitar i Documentare al Ministerului Sntii). Din cauza avorturilor ilegale, n Romnia au murit, ntre 1966 i 1990, circa 15.000 de femei.

n Romnia, discursul socialist asupra femeii a fost obturat, teama feminizrii brbatului, mprind sarcinile din domeniul privat, a fost mai mare dect teama masculinizrii femeii, datorat lucrului la strung sau condusului tractoarelor. Prin urmare, partidul i statul au ncurajat femeia s se implice n sfera public, s rup barierele economice impuse de vechile relaii, s lase pe seama organizaiilor publice activiti din sfera privat ca: ngrijitul copiilor sau splatul rufelor... cu toate acestea nu s-a pus n discuie niciodat diferena dintre sexe2.
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Nicolae Ceauescu used to call women equal socialist workers, but he also focused on the womans two main roles: her productive role and her reproductive role. He endeavored to reconcile and provide support in the achievement of the double burden that was placed on womens shoulders: be a worker and mother. However, the truth that lay behind his words mirrored a harsh reality: the state expected women to have superpowers and their productive role to be different from the reproductive one. The outcome was that their front images displayed fragmented, fake visions of women and their lives. The woman would be described as an abstract ideal - a symbol of freedom, industry and peace -, and thus womens discrimination was dissimulated in the political, economic, social and reproductive spheres. These images, however, did not reflect reality, but a vision of how they should have been. The few women who were pulling together with men held lighter positions, and were less paid. Women in government positions were appointed to emphasize womens fundamental qualities; more precisely they held positions in health and education. And the state had absolute control over the womens bodies. The image of peasant women depicted in paintings stands for a particularly strong symbol: a symbol of fertility, devotion, sacrifice and patience, in a country where the role of rural culture played an important part in defining gender relationships. Thus peasant women are allegoric constructions, functioning not only for the purpose of convincing women about their social role, but especially to remind them about the traditional connection between suffering, sacrifice and the womans identity. However, the fact that womens position in the rural environment also had its benefits must be reminded, especially during the 1980s, when the increasingly controlled fertility had raised. For
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Feminism under the Communist Regime


A womans greatest honor is to give birth, create life and raise children. There is nothing more wothwhile for a woman than motherhood. Romania guarantees equal rights for men and women in all spheres of activity, as well as womens active participation in governing of the state and in the entire political and social life of the country.
Nicolae Ceauescu

organizaile feministe instrumente sociale pentru combaterea discriminrii de anse i de gen

Feminismul n perioada comunist


Cea mai mare onoare pentru femei este s nasc, s dea via i s creasc copii. Nu poate fi nimic mai scump pentru o femeie dect s fie mam. Romnia asigur drepturi egale femeilor cu cele ale brbailor n toate domeniile de activitate, participarea lor activ la conducerea statului i la toat viaa politic i social a rii.
Nicolae Ceauescu

Nicolae Ceauescu numea femeile muncitori socialiti egali, dar s-a axat foarte mult pe cele dou funcii ale femeii: cea reproductiv i cea productiv. Acesta ncerca s reconcilieze i s confere sprijin pentru ndeplinirea dublei poveri aezate pe umrul femeilor, aceea de mam i de muncitor. Realitatea din spatele cuvintelor era ns dur: statul se atepta ca femeile s aib superputeri, dorea ca rolul productiv al acestora s fie separat i rupt de cel reproductiv, iar ca rezultat, reprezentrile imagistice expuneau viziuni trunchiate i, n cele din urm, false ale femeilor i asupra vieii acestora. Femeia a fost prezentat ca ideal abstract-simbol al libertii, al industriei i al pcii i, astfel, s-a ascuns discriminarea femeilor n sferele politice, economice, sociale i reproductive. Aceste imagini nu artau realitatea aa cum era, ci cum ar fi trebuit s fie de fapt. Puinele

femei care lucrau cot la cot cu brbaii ocupau posturi mai uoare, deci mai prost pltite. n Guvern acestea ocupau posturi prin care se accentuau calitile lor eseniale, respectiv n sntate i educaie. Statul avea control absolut asupra corpului femeii. Imaginea rncii n tablouri prezint n mod particular un simbol puternic: un simbol al fertilitii, al devotamentului, al sacrificiului i al rbdrii, aici, unde cultura rneasc a jucat un rol folosit n definirea relaiilor de gen. Astfel, n aceste imagini, rncile sunt construcii alegorice, special destinate nu doar pentru a convinge femeia de rolul su social ci, mai ales, implicit, pentru a-i reaminti acesteia de legtura tradiional dintre suferin, sacrificiu i identitatea femeii. Totui, trebuie amintit faptul c poziia femeii din mediul rural oferea i beneficii, mai ales n perioada anilor 1980, perioada creterii controlate a fertilitii. De

exemplu, n comparaie cu o femeie de la ora, femeile din mediul rural puteau avea mai mult mncare i mai mult libertate n creterea copiilor. ntr-un discurs din 1966 - anul n care a fost adoptat decretul 770 Suzana Gdea, pe atunci preedinta Consiliului Naional al Femeilor, le atrgea atenia acestora asupra sacrificiului pe care l presupune ndeplinirea unei noi datorii civice - aceea de a nate. Ea ncearca s justifice aceste sacrificii prezentnd capacitatea istoric nnscut a romncei de a ndura i de a nu se da btut. Dragostea i respectul au fost ntotdeauna caracteristici culturale ale poporului nostru. Chiar cnd suferina, srcia i lipsurile erau mari, cnd era extrem de dificil pentru prini s le ofere copiilor strictul necesar, femeile au nfruntat cu stoicism greutile i au crescut familii cu muli copii, nconjurndu-i cu dragoste i devotament. Au
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feminist organizations social tools for combating gender discrimination and promoting equal opportunities Barbara Einhorn has drafted a more realistic description of socialist super womens daily frustrations:
The super woman was not only a joke, but an insult for the harassed working women who were striving to fulfil their work duties, to pick their children up from school or kindergarten, to go grocery shopping on their way home, to do the cooking and cleaning up, to do the washing up, to help their children with their homework and then tuck them into bed, to make notes for the meeting of the next day or the occupational course they applied for.
(Barbara Einhorn, Cinderella Goes to Market: Citizenship, Gender and Womens Movements in East Central Europe, London, Verso, 1993, p.19)

example, women in rural areas had more food and more freedom in raising their children if compared to women living in urban areas. In her official speech from 1966 the year when Decree 770 was enacted - Suzana Gdea, the president to the National Council of Women at the time, was drawing attention upon the sacrifice that this new civic duty implies: giving birth to children. She attempted to justify these sacrifices in describing the Romanian womans innate capacity to endure and never give up. Love and respect have always been cultural traits of our people. Even in times of great suffering, poverty and indigence, and when parents found it difficult to provide for their children, women have taken the bad with the good and endured the hardships and raised families with many children, surrounding them with love and devotion. They have raised fearless generations which have ensured the evolution and continuity of our people in the land of our ancestors. In most totalitarian countries, women are always asked to offer their productive and/or reproductive labor, though not simultaneously, while men are asked to participate in the achievement of the common cause through their labor and activities. The main purpose of political rhetoric is to create a community of anonymous and isolated individuals. In such societies, women and men, in exchange for a promise of a better future, are asked to sacrifice their personal wishes, ideals and even their identity for the well-being of socialism and the nation as a whole. This was not the case in Romania; women were asked to combine both types of work, as Ceauescus plan
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was designed and built up in such a way as to convincingly encourage women in both directions. A feeling that the economic and political gender equity is achieved was seemingly created through the fact that Romania had been jointly run by a man and a woman, that they were always seen arm in arm and took decisions together, and through Elena Ceauescus image as a woman who was neither anonymous nor invisible in Socialist Romania. In order to capture a truthful image of reality, woman was pictured as forced to go through gynecological exams at the factory, queuing for soy salami, stale bread, freezing in apartments with no electricity during cold winters and facing the illegal abortions nightmare. To conclude, womens employment in Ceauescus Romania was a way of highlighting gender inequities. This didnt necessarily result in the disappearance of the patriarchate, as most domestic activities remained a womans responsibility. However, with regard to the private life and gender relationships, neither the great leader, nor his esteemed companion were able to provide any suggestions on how could patriarchal values be converted and changed. Unfortunately, the inherited patriarchal relationships were not changed at all; moreover, the paternal structure of the socialist state was emphasized. Thus, however effective they may have seemed to be, none of these masks managed to dissimulate the realities in a womans life: the mandatory biannual gynecological exam, the fear of being fined or imprisoned, the fear of a psychological shock resulting from abortion, the complete loss of the

reproductive right once the fetus became the socialist property of the entire society. The truth about the so-called socialist progress was hidden behind the visual representations of equity: the actual physical oppression and psychological terror that resulted from the reproductive policies of Ceauescus. Whether pictured in a mosaic where she marches along her life partner, or in a beautiful sculpture symbolizing the independence, or the heroine worker on March 8th, or the idyllic peasant women working her land, the woman is never identified as an individual human being; instead she is an ideal, a myth or simply, a comrade. Womens anonymity in the aesthetics of Ceauescus Romania has dual and even contradicting consequences: they are the idealized symbol of the nation, but at the same time, the powerless victims of socialist policies. Thus, womans picture through Ceauescus vision as a simple, anonymous, although equal with her life partner under the socialist citizens status, actually hides the true inequity and helplessness in the political, economic, social and reproductive spheres. The womans obscurity seen under various forms of art reflects the real anonymity of the woman in the Romanian society, and makes of it one of the only areas of propaganda where the difference between ideology and reality is insignificant. The Romanian woman has become what Lenin feared the most when he created the new woman under the socialist ideology: she was rather an idealized visual replica, than a true anonymous individual with a real and equal political influence.

organizaile feministe instrumente sociale pentru combaterea discriminrii de anse i de gen

Barbara Einhorn a realizat o descriere mai realist a frustrrilor zilnice ale superfemeilor socialiste:
Pentru mamele-muncitoare hruite, chinuindu-se s-i ndeplineasc sarcinile la serviciu, s ia copiii de la coal sau grdini i s fac i cumprturile n drum spre cas, s gteasc, s fac curenie, s spele, s-i ajute copiii la lecii i s-i duc la culcare, s-i fac notie pentru edina de a doua zi sau temele pentru cursul de calificare la care erau nscrise, super-femeia nu era doar o glum, ci chiar o insult
(Barbara Einhorn, Cinderella Goes to Market: Citizenship, Gender and Womens Movements in East Central Europe, London, Verso, 1993, p.19)

crescut generaii inimoase care au garantat evoluia i continuitatea poporului nostru pe pmnturile strmoeti ale patriei noastre 1. n majoritatea statelor totalitare, n timp ce brbailor li se cere s participe la realizarea cauzei comune prin munca pe care o depun, femeilor li se cere s-i ofere munc productiv i/sau reproductiv, dei nu necesar n mod simultan. Scopul principal al retoricii politice este crearea unei comuniti de indivizi anonimi i izolai. n astfel de societi, femeilor i brbailor, n schimbul promisiunii unui viitor mai bun, li se cere s-i sacrifice dorinele personale, idealurile i chiar identitatea pentru binele socialismului i al naiunii. Dar, nu i n Romnia, unde femeilor li se cerea s mpleteasc ambele tipuri de munci, iar planul lui Ceauescu era gndit i conceput n aa fel nct s conving i s ncurajeze femeile n ambele sensuri. Prin faptul c Romnia era condus deopotriv de un brbat i de o femeie, prin faptul c acetia apreau ntotdeauna la bra i luau decizii mpreun, prin imaginea Elenei Ceauescu ca femeie care nu era nici anonim i nici invizibil n Romnia socialist, s-a creat sentimentul c egalitatea economic i politic ntre sexe s-a realizat. Pentru a surprinde o imagine veridic a realitii, trebuia prezentat o femeie care este forat s treac prin examene ginecologice la fabric, stnd la coad la salam cu soia, pine veche, suferind de frig n iernile geroase n apartamente

fr lumin i confruntndu-se cu comarul avorturilor ilegale. n concluzie, n Romnia lui Ceauescu, angajarea femeii a reprezentat nc un mod de a evidenia inegalitile de gen. Nu s-a ajuns la dispariia patriarhatului. Activitile domestice au rmas, n cea mai mare parte, n slujba femeii. n ceea ce privete sfera privat i relaiile dintre sexe, nici marele conductor i nici mult prea stimata sa companioan nu au oferit nicio sugestie pentru modul n care ar putea fi transformate valorile patriarhale. Din pcate, motenirea relaiilor patriarhale nu a fost nici pe departe transformat, ci, mai mult, a fost exacerbat de structura paternalist a statului socialist. Astfel, niciuna dintre aceste mti, orict de penetrante au fost, nu a reuit s ascund realitile din viaa femeii: controlul ginecologic obligatoriu, bianual, teama de a nu fi amendat, nchis, sau teama de un oc psihologic n urma unui avort, pierderea complet a dreptului reproductiv odat ce fetusul a devenit proprietatea socialist a ntregii societi.

mozaic n care mrluiete alturi de partenerul ei de via, o frumoas sculptur simboliznd independena, muncitoarea eroin de la 8 Martie sau ranca idilic pe ogorul su, femeia nu e identificat niciodat ca individ, doar ca ideal, mit sau, simplu, tovar.2
Anonimitatea femeii n estetica Romniei ceauiste are consecine duale i chiar contradictorii: ea este simbolul idealizat al naiunii, dar, n acelai timp, este victima neputincioas a politicilor socialiste. Astfel, prezentarea femeii prin prisma lui Ceauescu drept o simpl anonim, dei egal cu partenerul su de via prin statutul de ceteni socialiti, n realitate ascunde adevrata inegalitate i neputin n sfera politic, dar i economic, social i reproductiv. Vzut n aceast lumin, anonimitatea femeii n diferite forme de art, reflect anonimitatea real a femeii n societatea romneasc, n general, fcnd din aceasta una dintre singurele arii de propagand n care diferena ntre ideologie i realitate este neglijabil. Romnca a devenit ceea ce Lenin s-a temut cnd a conceptualizat noua femeie n socialism: mai degrab o replic vizual idealizat dect un adevrat individ anonim cu influen politic real i egal. 3
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n spatele reprezentrilor vizuale ale egalitii se ascundea adevrul despre aa-numitul progres socialist: opresiunea fizic i teroarea psihologic nscute de politicile reproductive ale lui Ceauescu. Fie ea ca

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Feminism after December 1989


After the downfall and death of the Ceauescus, a new issue has occurred in the Romanian labor market: unemployment. Before that time, to be unemployed was unthinkable under the Communist regime. However, this problem emerged and turned out to be a rather serious one after the fall of Communism. Loss of employment is a serious issue especially for women over 40, for women with higher education and for single mothers. Also, long-term unemployment affects women more than men; because the latter know that they can more easily find jobs that require physical strength. In 1995, the Government decided to create, for the first time, a real and effective system for the attainment of equal opportunities between women and men in all the fields of public life. It was also after 1990, discriminating clichs are to be amplified in the Romanian movies, which perpetuates certain distorted patterns of women and men. Romanian movies are invaded by images that convey and reinforce certain stereotypes of feminity: the woman as a sex symbol, a frivolous human being, concerned only with her aesthetic looks, the woman as a beautiful, but limited being. The image of successful women with a career is not found in the models that dominate the Romanian movies, the audio and visual media in general, and even in the general public arena. For example, in Filantropica of director Nae Caranfil, three categories of women can be identified. The first one is the old mother, a retired woman and a good housewife, a tired and pacificator woman; she is the one who negotiates the domestic conflicts between the decrepit husband and the son who is an average teacher and a failed writer. The idea is strongly suggested that the woman is the one who should manage the family resources, perform the domestic chores - considered to be petty and easy (shopping, cooking, washing up, ironing, cleaning up) -, watch and take care of children and elders alike, all these being added to her professional duties at work. The second category - the supermodel woman - is usually a fairhaired, appealing dancer, always up to the fashion, who is generally cast in commercials. She is the decoy woman, the one the main character falls in love with (the average teacher and failed writer) for whose sake he will make a series of sacrifices, from begging in luxury 4 and 5 stars restaurants, to marrying her as set up by the mobster bosses. Actually, the entire plot revolves around this fair-haired and pretty woman; she is the main cause for the average teachers playing cheap acts in bars or restaurants, through which he would cheat on the audience, maybe, just maybe there will be a rich person there to offer pay for his bill. It is the same woman who, at the earliest opportunity, will unblushingly take the heros money, run away and abandon him. The third category is represented by the woman who is seemingly a nice person, but who unscrupulously follows her goals. She is a master swindler and she initiates the main character in the art of diddling and cheating.
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When the free market economy does not regulate wages, their level is determined by the state policy. In this case too, what is important and to be well paid is established, as well as what isnt well paid, more precisely poorly paid. And when it comes to education, health, public administration, i.e. fields of activity where women are mostly employed, I dont understand why, but the wage grids are null in comparison to those from the secret services and the army. Mihaela Miroiu
A Professor at NSPAS

organizaile feministe instrumente sociale pentru combaterea discriminrii de anse i de gen

Feminismul n perioada post-decembrist


Dup cderea i moartea Ceauetilor, pe piaa forei de munc din Romnia a aprut o nou problem: omajul. nainte de aceast dat, n timpul regimului comunist, nici nu se punea problema ca cineva s nu aib loc de munc. Ei bine, aceast problem a aprut i chiar s-a dovedit a fi una destul de serioas dup cderea comunismului. Pierderea locului de munc este o problem n special pentru femeile de peste 40 de ani, pentru femeile cu studii superioare i pentru mamele singure. De asemenea, omajul pe termen lung afecteaz mai degrab femeile dect brbaii deoarece acetia i pot gsi mai uor slujbe care solicit for fizic. Abia n anul 1995, Guvernul i-a propus, pentru prima dat, crearea unui sistem real i eficient de realizare a egalitii de anse ntre femei i brbai, n toate domeniile vieii publice. Tot dup 1990, n filmele romneti se amplific apelul la clieele discriminatorii, fapt ce perpetueaz unele modele deformate ale femeilor i brbailor. Filmele romneti sunt invadate de imagini care transmit i consolideaz anumite modele stereotip de feminitate: femeia ca obiect sexual, ca fiin frivol, preocupat doar de aspectul sau estetic, femeia ca fiin frumoas, dar limitat. Imaginea femeilor de succes, ca profesioniste, nu este regsit n modelele ce domin filmele romneti, media audiovizual, n general, i chiar n spaiul public mediatic n ansamblu. De exemplu, n filmul Filantropica, al lui Nae Caranfil, identificm trei categorii de femei. Prima este cea de vrstnic, mam i pensionar, bun gospodin, obosit i mpciuitoare, ea este cea care negociaz conflictele n cas ntre soul ramolit i biatul care este profesor mediocru i scriitor ratat. Se sugereaz ideea c femeia este cea care trebuie s administreze resursele familiei, s ndeplineasc treburile casnice, considerate mrunte i uoare (aprovizionare, gtit, splat, clcat, curenie), s supravegheze i s ngrijeasc copiii i vrstnicii, toate aceste adugndu-se la ndeplinirea sarcinilor profesionale la locul de munc. A doua categorie, cea de femeie-fotomodel, e, de obicei, blond, atrgtoare, dansatoare, la mod, joac n clipuri publicitare. Este femeia-capcan, de care se ndrgostete personajul principal (profesorul mediocru i scriitor ratat), pentru care va face o serie de sacrificii, de la ceretoria de lux n restaurante de 4 i 5 stele, pn la csnicia impus de efii mafioi. De fapt, ntreaga intrig se nvrte n jurul acestei femei blonde i frumoase; ea este cauza fundamental pentru care profesorul mediocru va juca teatru ieftin n bodegi, terase sau restaurante, prin care va nela asistena, doar-doar careva dintre chefliii plini de bani se va gsi s i achite consumaia. Este aceeai femeie care, cu prima ocazie, i ia banii i fuge, abandonndu-l cu cinism pe eroul principal. A treia categorie este reprezentat de femeia doar n aparen cumsecade, care i urmrete fr scrupule interesul. Aceasta este o artist n arlatanii i mecherii i l iniiaz pe eroul principal n tainele trasului pe sfoar. 1
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Cnd nu e vorba de economia de pia, nivelul unui salariu este stabilit prin politic de stat. i aici se stabilete ce e important i nu ce e bine pltit, respectiv prost pltit. Iar cnd e vorba de educaie, sntate, administraie public, adic domenii puternic feminizate, nu tiu cum, grilele de salarizare sunt la pmnt fa de cele din servicii secrete i din armat. Mihaela Miroiu
Profesor universitar, SNSPA

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When Feminism is Misunderstood


Teodora Sarchiz
Project Assistant within Work is Feminine Project

VIEWPOINT

To start with, a clarification of the term feminism is needed. According to the Oxford Dictionary of Sociology, feminism represents a social movement based in the 18th century of Great Britain, the purpose of which being the achievement of gender equity through the extension of womens rights. In the 90s of the 20th century, the term referred mainly to the men and women who fought for womens right to vote and the right to access education and employment. After being granted the right to vote (1920 in the USA and 1928 in Great Britain), a longterm tension appeared within the feminist movement between the goal to obtain equal rights for women and men in the public sphere, on one hand, and the acknowledgment of differences between women and men for the purpose of strengthening their position in the private sphere of the family, on the other hand. (G. Marshall Edition, 2003, 238) Feminist persons, both women and men, deem that full gender equity has not been achieved yet, and they are right. In many aspects, women still lack fundamental rights, as for instance the right to physical integrity (female genital mutilation). This type of practice which dates back to the pharaohs days still exists in some regions of Africa, the Middle East, the Near East and the South-East of Asia.
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An issue just as troublesome is rape, where most of the victims are women. The purpose of the march that was organized in Romania at the beginning of October 2011 was to draw the public attention upon the potential victims. It all began on January 24th, 2011 in Canada when a Police representative stated that women should avoid dressing like sluts to avoid being victimized. The statement resulted in waves of negative reactions mainly from women, who consider that the sexuality their way of dressing shows should not become an invitation to any kind of aggression. On April 3rd, 2011, when the first SlutWalk took place, the organizers asked the participants to dress normally, as they do on a daily basis, but most of the women who participated were wearing provocative clothes, emphasizing the message they wanted to send. Other cities in the world followed, and 200 people participated to the SlutWalk in Bucharest, men and women, drawing attention more on their clothes or banners, and less upon the main message. Being a phenomenon which was born and intensified through the Internet, the most painful critics came back on the same way. Although it began with a loud and intriguing brand name for those who did not know what this was

about, the SlutWalk in Bucharest represented an unsuccessful attempt to bring together in the street the supporters of feminism. A media show with a minimum impact for those who were watching them! At an international scale, however, it has been the largest and most important feminist movement in the past 20 years. And who knows, perhaps next year us, Romanians, will understand the true meaning of the contemporary feminist movement too.

organizaile feministe instrumente sociale pentru combaterea discriminrii de anse i de gen

Cnd feminismul este greit neles


OPINIE Teodora Sarchiz sexualitatea pe care o afieaz prin vestimentaie nu ar trebui s devin o invitaie la agresiune, de orice fel. Pe 3 aprilie 2011, cnd n Toronto a avut loc primul Mar al Panaramelor (SlutWalk), organizatorii au solicitat iniial ca persoanele participante s se mbrace normal, ca s reprezinte situaia de zi cu zi, ns majoritatea femeilor au venit la mar n haine provocatoare, subliniind i mai mult mesajul pe care doreau s-l transmit. Au urmat i alte orae din toat lumea, iar la Marul Panaramelor din Bucureti au participat 200 de persoane, femei i brbai, atrgnd ns mai mult atenia asupra modului n care au venit mbrcai sau a lozincilor, i mai puin a mesajului principal. Pentru c, de la nceput, a fost un fenomen care a luat natere i s-a intensificat prin intermediul internetului, criticile cele mai dureroase au venit pe aceeai cale. Dei a nceput cu un nume, un brand, rsuntor i intrigant pentru cei care nu tiau despre ce este vorba, Marul Panaramalor de la Bucureti a fost o tentativ nereuit de a aduce n strad susintorii feminismului. Un spectacol media cu un impact minim pentru cei care priveau! Totui, la nivel mondial a fost cea mai masiv micare feminist din ultimii 20 de ani. Cine tie, poate anul viitor vom nelege i noi, romnii, adevratul sens al micrii feministe contemporane.
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Secretar Solicitant n cadrul Proiectului Munca are genul feminin

Pentru nceput este nevoie de o clarificare a termenului feminism. Conform Dicionarului de Sociologie Oxford, feminismul reprezint o micare social cu originile n Anglia secolului al XVIII-lea care urmrete obinerea egalitii ntre sexe prin extinderea drepturilor femeilor. n anii 90 ai secolului trecut, termenul se referea ndeosebi la femeile i brbaii care militau pentru dreptul de vot al femeilor i pentru dreptul de acces la educaie i profesiuni. Dup dobndirea

dreptului de vot (n 1920 n Statele Unite i n 1928 n Marea Britanie), n interiorul feminismului a aprut o tensiune de durat ntre obiectivul obinerii drepturilor egale cu ale brbailor n sfera public, pe de o parte, i recunoaterea deosebirii femeilor fa de brbai n scopul ntririi poziiei lor n sfera privat a familiei, pe de alt parte. (edt. G. Marshall, 2003, 238) Persoanele feministe, reprezentate att de femei, ct i de brbai, consider c egalitatea deplin ntre cele dou genuri nu a fost nc atins. i au dreptate. n multe privine, femeilor le lipsesc drepturi fundamentale, cum ar fi dreptul la integritatea fizic (mutilarea genital feminin). Acest tip de practic regsit chiar i n vremea faraonilor exist i azi n regiuni din Africa, Orientul Mijlociu, Orientul Apropiat i Sud-Estul Asiei. O problem la fel de tulburtoare este violul, unde majoritatea victimelor sunt femei. Marul organizat i n Romnia, la nceputul lunii octombrie 2011, a avut ca scop atragerea ateniei publice asupra posibilelor victime. Totul a nceput pe 24 ianuarie 2011, n Canada, cnd un reprezentant al poliiei a declarat c femeile n-ar mai trebui s se mbrace ca nite panarame ca s evite s devin victime. Afirmaia a creeat valuri de reacii negative, mai ales n rndul femeilor care consider c

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Were Different. So what?


VIEWPOINT Cristina Gaachiu Writer Im going to start on a rough note. Quite rough. It will sound badly and youre not going to like it. Why is it that a woman who has relationships with many men is a slut (or that much uglier word we all know, but would rather not express in writing), while a man in the same situation is smart and resourceful? Why is it that a woman who advances in her career is thought to have undoubtedly visited some mans bed, while a man is just skilled and hardworking? The answer is simple: because we allow it. Weve been bragging for years about how politically correct we are, but we still tip the cuter waitress because shes prettier, we still offer a seat on the bus to a young lady (although until she showed up, there were enough older persons who would have deserved it), we still help a nice woman lift the buggy on the sidewalk, although it appears she can do it herself very well. Do not get me wrong, these polite actions of civility must be done in order to avoid the numbness in this cold world. And, lets face it, women cant do everything men do (they can neither lift heavy furniture and climb it up the stairs, nor can they master avoiding the bowl of crackers), but that doesnt mean they should be trampled over (although men who can perfectly iron a shirt or those who wont mix whites with coloured clothes when they have do to the washing up are extremely rare). However, I dont want to have a thoroughly negative attitude, but something seems to be moving into the right direction. Every day, we see career women with their laptop bags hanging on one shoulder and their purses filled with make up on the other, we see single mothers who stopped considering themselves socially dead, we see women who dont order a beer in a whisper anymore, like its nitro-glycerine, along with other women who buy condoms as serenely as if they were buying bread. We can see them daily, they are among us, and they are part of our world. So then, why is an unwaxed woman considered to be dirty, but an unshaven man just a bit dishevelled (poor him, he hasnt had the time! he may have had to cook three main courses, clean the entire house, wash two huge piles of clothes and iron another pile bigger than him?) Because certain prejudices have been deeply rooted in us since birth and we will not get rid of them; because they only disappear with us,
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but its our responsibility to not pass them to those who still dont have them. Lets be serious for a moment here, no one is born a misogynist (or a misandrist, according to case), but they may become one when they first hear daddy saying that mommy is stupid for not being able to do a perfect side parking from her first attempt (or mommy saying that daddy would choke to death around the garbage gathered in the home). So let us continue the process of standardization of this perpetual gender war. Men are different from women, no one denies that, but must women really go in the streets and burn their bras to demand the independence they need and a unique standardization, not a double standard, as the Americans would say? Also, lets just stop being mean to those who are different, be they Hungarian, gypsies, homosexuals, black or street sweepers. I would like to believe we are above such low actions. If we manage to remove all these, there is only one thing left: all in all, money makes the world go round...

Suntem diferii. i ce dac?


OPINIE Cristina Gaachiu Scriitoare O s ncep dur. Foarte dur. O s sune urt i nu o s v plac. De ce o femeie care are relaii cu mai muli brbai este o stricat (sau cuvntul acela mult mai urt pe care l tim cu toii, dar preferm s nu-l exprimm n scris), dar un brbat care este n aceeai situaie este descurcre i detept? De ce o femeie care avanseaz n carier sigur a trecut prin patul cuiva, iar un brbat este doar talentat i muncitor? Rspunsul este foarte simplu: pentru c permitem asta. De ani buni ne batem cu pumnii n piept c suntem politically correct, ns tot dm baci mai mare osptriei mai drgue, tot ne ridicm de pe scaun n tramvai n faa unei domnioare (dei pn s apar ea erau destule persoane n vrst care ar fi meritat respectivul loc), tot ajutm o femeie plcut s urce cruciorul pe trotuar, dei pare c se descurc foarte bine i singur prin puterea obinuinei. S nu m ntelegei greit, aceste acte de politee trebuie fcute pentru a nu ne mpietri cu totul n lumea rece n care ne aflm. i s recunoatem, femeile nu pot face tot ce fac brbaii (nu pot s urce mobil grea pe scri i nici s evite castronul de coji de semine cu atta miestrie), dar asta nu nseamn c trebuie clcate n picioare (dei rari sunt brbaii care pot face o dung perfect unei cmi sau care nu vor amesteca rufele albe cu cele colorate cnd vor fi nevoii s bage singuri la splat). Totui, ca s nu fiu negativist pn la capt, ceva tot se pare c s-ar mica n sensul potrivit. Vedem femei de carier n fiecare zi, cu genile pentru laptop agate de un umr i cu poete imense pline de farduri pe cellalt, vedem mame singure care nu se mai consider moarte din punct de vedere social, vedem femei care nu mai comand o bere folosind un glas optit, de parc ar cumpra nitroglicerin, alturi de alte femei care cumpr prezervative cu aceeai senintate cu care ar cumpra o pine. Le vedem n fiecare zi, sunt printre noi, fac parte din lumea n care ne micm cu toii. Atunci, de ce o femeie neepilat este mizerabil i un brbat nebrbierit este doar puin nengrijit (n-a avut timp sracul! o fi avut de gtit trei feluri de mncare, de fcut curenie n toat casa, de pus la splat dou couri de rufe i de clcat un teanc de haine mai mare dect el)? Pentru c ne-au fost insuflate din fa diverse prejudeci i nu vom scpa de ele. Pentru c ele dispar doar o dat cu noi, ns ine de noi s nu le predm mai departe celor care nc nu le-au preluat. S fim serioi, nimeni nu se nate misogin (sau misandr, dup caz), ci devine cnd l aude pe tticul spunnd c mmica e proast c nu face parcarea lateral din prima sau pe mmica spunnd c, fr ea, tticul ar muri de sufocare n gunoaiele adunate n cas. Ca atare, haidei s continum procesul deja nceput de normalizare a acestui perpetuu rzboi al sexelor. Brbaii sunt diferii de femei, nu contest nimeni asta, dar chiar trebuie s ias femeile n strad i s dea foc sutienelor ca s cear independena de care au nevoie i o strandardizare unic, nu double standard, cum ar spune americanul? i, mai ales, haidei, pur i simplu, s nu mai fim ri cu cei care nu sunt ca noi, fie ei unguri, igani, homosexuali, negri sau mturtori pe strad. Vreau s cred c suntem totui mai presus de astfel de josnicii. Dac reuim s le eliminm pe acestea, mai rmne doar una: all in all, tot banii fac Pmntul s se nvrt...
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The Magistrate (excerpt)


by Magda Isanos1
I wouldnt want people to say Im practicing feminism. Feminism, as I see it, isnt practiced, its a natural phenomenon that happens around us, to which we unknowingly contribute. A woman gets on a plane and crosses the Atlantic, another one writes a book or discovers a new chemical element, others, more and more fill the universities. They all practice feminism, just a bit more. Each man who respects his wife as his friend, each teacher who explains to his students is practicing feminism, where culture means justice, each person who reads a book practices feminism. Well, in this manner, I do it too. [...] Magistrates (always men) are judging, for example, an infanticide, an
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abortion and a rape, and yet they cant even imagine the feelings of a girl who throws her child in a well, a woman who induces (to herself or to someone else) an abortion, or a raped woman. Yet they must apply some dead laws (just as alien to them, as those actions which are now happening on another planet). It so happened that a few men have understood the drama of a feminine soul. Remember Tolstoy, Flaubert, Balzac or others. But no one will pretend that our present or future magistrates are all Balzac and Flaubert. and And, without practicing feminism, I told myself that many things must be judged by women. A man doesnt give birth. Why should he pretend to understand and feel like a mother? It is just as childish as when a woman wants to feel like an army member.

organizaile feministe instrumente sociale pentru combaterea discriminrii de anse i de gen

Magistrata (fragment)
de Magda Isanos1
N-a vrea s se spun c fac feminism. Feminismul, aa cum l vd eu, nu se face, e un fenomen natural, care se ntmpl pe deasupra noastr i la care contribuim fr s tim. O femeie se urc n avion i trece Atlanticul, alta scrie o carte sau descoper un nou element chimic, altele, din ce n ce mai multe, umplu universitile. Toate fac feminism. Ceva mai mult. Fiecare brbat care-i respect ca pe un tovar soia, fiecare profesor care explic studentelor lui, face feminism, i-n msura n care cultura nseamn dreptate, fiecare om care citete o carte face feminism. i, n felul acesta, l fac i eu. [...] Magistraii (totdeauna brbai) judec, de-o pild, crima de pruncucidere, de avort i viol, i totui ei nici n nchipuire nu pot simi ca o fat care-i arunc n fntn copilul, ca o femeie care-i provoac sau provoac un avort sau ca una care este violat. Totui, ei trebuie s aplice niste texte moarte de lege (fapte pentru ei tot aa de strine, ca acelea care se petrec n clipa asta n alt planet). S-a ntmplat ca vreo civa brbai s nteleag dramele unui suflet feminin. Amintii-v de Tolstoi, Flaubert, Balzac etc. Dar, nimeni nu va pretinde c viitorii i prezenii notri magistrai sunt Balzaci i Flauberi. i, fr s fac feminism, mi-am zis c multe lucruri trebuiesc judecate de femei. Un brbat nu nate. De ce s aib pretenia de a simi i a nelege o mam? E tot aa de copilresc ca i atunci cnd o femeie ar vrea s simt militrete.
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Interview with Mrs.

Mihaela Miroiu
A Professor with the National School for Political and Administrative Studies in Bucharest (NSPAS), Mrs. Mihaela Miroiu is an upright woman, a good friend, a writer and the creator of the school for feminist thinking and gender applied studies in Romania.

C4C Communication for Community Association: The modern state suggests, among other things, the concept of equal opportunities for men and women. Is this process visible in Romania and if so, what stage have we achieved? Mihaela Miroiu: The process is visible here because there is a lawPeriod. For now, there is a law which isnt applied in any of the fields it regards. There is only equity of obligation and equity of labor. Regarding equity of opportunities in accessing public resources, for example, the situation is disastrous for equity of decisions, as we are on the 106th place in the world regarding gender equal opportunities. Consequently, there is no connection between a Constitution which consecrates this principle and a law that only details equity. To sum up, we are very close to Arab countries regarding gender equity. C4C Communication for Community Association: What is your opinion on the issue regarding equal opportunities for men and women? Mihaela Miroiu: When you talk about equal opportunities, you need to separate things a bit. In a competition, equal opportunities principle is the type of policy whose role is to correct a competition with an unfair start. Why do we say the beginning is unfair with regard to women? Its unfair because we have experienced long centuries of patriarchal organization and misogynous thinking where women have been deprived of their civil and political rights and mostly of
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their right to education. We can talk about a beginning in force, so to speak, of equal opportunities in education starting only in the sixth decade of the 20th century. As far as political equity is concerned, the first genuine, free and correctly organized elections that Romanian women participated in took place in 1990. They have been performing their political citizenship for only 21 years now. However, we have got the farthest in the field of public resources distribution. There is public money taken from our taxes. There is also a democratic principle that says: no taxation without representation. So, if you take money from me I should be represented, one way or another, when it comes to its distribution. When we think of distribution of money and distribution of laws, e.g. enacting a law, the situation is completely different. Think that in Romania the laws regarding abortion, prostitution and maternity are drafted by men up to 90%. On the one hand, women arent there to stand for their interests. Im sure that if the Parliament had at least 40% women, the allotted ratio for nurseries and kindergartens would be much higher. Women would consider that it is very important that the state support raising the children. If women were there, I am sure there would be a special budget dedicated to the victims of domestic violence. Why? Because every year 100 times more women die in the domestic field, than do men in the Afghanistan battlefield. But the budget for the defense of the victims in the domestic field is inexistent. To sum up, if women are not present where laws are devised, and the public budget is divided at a central and local level, it means that their interests and their

organizaile feministe instrumente sociale pentru combaterea discriminrii de anse i de gen

Interviu cu doamna

Mihaela Miroiu
Profesor universitar n cadrul colii Naionale de Studii Politice i Administrative din Bucureti (SNSPA), doamna Mihaela Miroiu este o femeie ntreag, prieten de vocaie, scriitoare i creatoarea colii de gndire feminist din Romnia - un simbol pentru tot ceea ce nseamn gndire feminist i studii aplicate de gen n Romnia.

Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Statul modern propune, pe lng altele, i conceptul de egalitate de anse ntre femei i brbai. Este vizibil n Romnia acest proces i dac da, n ce stadiu am reuit s ajungem? Mihaela Miroiu: La noi, procesul este vizibil n sensul c exist o lege... i att. Decamdat avem o lege care nu se aplic n niciun domeniu vizat de ea. Exist doar egalitate de obligaie i egalitate de munc. n ceea ce privete, de exemplu, egalitatea de anse n accesul la resurse publice, n accesul la decizie, situaia este dezastruoas, respectiv ne aflm pe locul 106 n lume ca egalitate de gen. Prin urmare, ntre o Constituie ce consacr acest principiu i o lege ce doar detaliaz egalitatea, nu exist nici o legtur. Pe scurt, ne aflm foarte aproape de rile arabe ca egalitate de gen. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Care este poziia dvs. vis-a-vis de problematica egalitii de anse ntre femei i brbai? Mihaela Miroiu: Cnd vorbim de egalitatea de anse, trebuie s punem o virgul. n competiie, egalitatea de anse este tipul de politic al crui rol este acela de a corecta o competiie cu start complet nedrept. De ce spunem c startul este nedrept n privina femeilor? Este nedrept din pricina faptului c noi cunoatem, pur i simplu, secole ntregi de organizare patriarhal, de gndire misogin n care femeile au fost private i de drepturi civile i de drepturi politice i, mai ales, de dreptul la educaie. Doar din deceniul 6 al secolului XX

putem s vorbim de un debut n for al egalitii de anse n educaie. n ceea ce privete egalitatea politic, primele alegeri reale, organizate corect, liber, la care au participat femeile din Romnia, au fost n 1990. Doar de 21 de ani ele i exercit cetenia politic. Totui, cel mai departe suntem n domeniul distribuirii resurselor publice. Exist bani publici care se iau din impozitele noastre, ale tuturor. Totodat, exist un principiu democratic care spune: nicio taxare fr reprezentare. Deci, dac mi iei bani, ar trebui, ntr-un fel sau altul, s fiu reprezentat cnd este vorba de distribuirea lor. Cnd ne gandim la distribuirea banilor ca i la distribuirea legilor, de exemplu, la facerea legilor, lucrurile stau diferit. Gandii-v c, n Romnia, legile despre avort, legile despre prostituie, legile despre maternitate sunt facute de brbai n proporie de 90%. Pe de-o parte, femeile nu sunt acolo s-i reprezinte interesele. Sunt sigur c dac Parlamentul ar avea mcar 40% femei, cota alocat pentru cree i grdinie ar fi incomparabil mai mare. Femeile ar socoti c este foarte important ca statul s sprijine creterea copiilor. Dac acolo ar fi femei, sunt sigur c ar exista un buget special dedicat victimelor violenei n familie. De ce? Pentru c n fiecare an mor de 100 de ori mai multe femei pe frontul de acas dect brbai pe frontul din Afganistan. Dar bugetul pentru aprarea victimelor de pe frontul de acas este inexistent. Pe scurt, dac ele nu sunt acolo unde se fac legile, acolo unde se mparte bugetul public la nivel central i la nivel local, interesele lor, modul lor de a gndi i de a-i aranja prioritile n termeni financiari nu
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way of thinking and prioritizing in financial terms are inexistent. Basically, they dont exist, thats what were talking about! Theres no equity for women in terms of opportunities to perform their citizenship. Women are electorate, period. The exceptions are very vague, and they are not related to state politics, but to the fact that men accept and promote them. This is the reason why I dislike the term to promote. Its not about promotion, its about representation. In a democracy, no one has to promote me, but I must be chosen to represent. But this is a different topic. C4C Communication for Community Association: The political arena seems to be the forbidden field for women. Is it true? Mihaela Miroiu: Its true; and its also obvious. Its very visible. They represent 30% in education, over 70% in health and 9% in politics. So it is very clear, both at central and local level. Only 3% women are mayors and 5% are in local councils. Imagine you lived in a world where women represented 95% in the local councils, 97% mayors and 90% in the Parliament. How would you feel if you were a man? How would you feel that such a big number of women decide what is best for you, how the state can or cannot intervene in your life, if you have a pension or not; and the ratio, what your salary should be if you worked in a budgetary field, where the money from defense should go, for example, or if nurseries or highways are priorities and so on. C4C Communication for Community Association: Work is Feminine is a project implemented by C4C Communication for Community Association, which supports women in Romania in achieving equal opportunities in the labor market. Do you think such projects have the strength to change our outlook on these issues? Mihaela Miroiu: As a rule, very little is known about these projects as they are not publicized enough. I have experience in working with projects and nongovernmental organizations in this field since 1991. So, for 20 years. Yet the other day, a senator said there are no organizations for womens rights in Romania and that women dont actually want political representation. Of course, I was very upset thinking: But what have we been doing for the past two decades and they dont know? Who? Not an average Joe, but a senator of Romania. So you need explanations, and he explained me that such organizations arent visible. So, any project has an impact which is directly proportional to several things: the peoples faith in this project, the publicity the project beneficiaries are passing on to other future beneficiaries and the belief that a project which is not advertised as it should be isnt a serious project; in other words, one that has an
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extremely small influence or area of actions. C4C Communication for Community Association: In your opinion, which is the role of education in eliminating gender prejudices? Mihaela Miroiu: For now, education in Romania plays a very important role in strengthening prejudices. This is obvious. In many literary texts - even the texts for children in the 1st grade -, the roles are cast as if women are going to become a huge mass of housewives, which has never been true in Romania. This is the surface. At the same time, fathers would be the ones who actually put the bread on the table, which is false. So, on the one hand, these texts dont reflect the truth at all. For example, while at home, the domestic work is done by women and men are fixing something or flying somewhere, this is how they are described in these texts. Moreover, and I find this tragic, I notice there is no intention for the private life education either in the general Law, or in the education policies. We exit school practically illiterate when it comes to what will happen to us in our real life, as friends, neighbors, husbands, wives, grandparents; we know nothing about that. We dont know what will happen to us if we get sick, we dont know how to manage the family budget, what a marriage represents and what we should do in such or such situation. We are not taught these at school. And if we learn anything from literary models, they are things which are not related to gender equity, where women are depicted in Camil Petrescus style - cute little things, relatively stupid and with slightly low moral standards - with the well known exceptions of Vitoria Lipan and Mara. C4C Communication for Community Association: Which are the factors and causes that lead to low access of women on the labor market in Romania? Mihaela Miroiu: I think that Romanian women work relatively as much as men. Women dont have a lower access to the labor market, but more likely a lower access to important positions and money. However, women face here many impediments. The double working day is a gravitational constant in Romanian womens lives. This means they have to work at home and they have to work at their job. It seems that no one wants to take over their work, and no one craves for it. For example, if they work in so-called feminized fields, like education, health or public administration, one can be sure that their wages will be smaller than of those who work in male dominated fields, such as the army and secret services. When the free market economy does not regulate wages, their level is determined by the state policy. In this case too, what is important and to be well paid is established, as well as what isnt well paid, more

organizaile feministe instrumente sociale pentru combaterea discriminrii de anse i de gen

exist. Practic, nu exist, despre asta vorbim! Femeile nu au niciun fel de egalitate de anse n exercitarea ceteniei. Femeile sunt electorat, punct. Excepiile sunt foarte vagi, iar acestea nu sunt legate de politica de stat, ci de faptul c brbaii le accept i le promoveaz. Acesta este motivul pentru care eu detest termenul a promova. Deci, nu e vorba de a promova, ci de a reperezenta. ntr-o democraie, pe mine nu trebuie s m promoveze nimeni, ci trebuie s fiu aleas s reprezint. i aici ncepe o alt discuie. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Se pare c domeniul politic este acel domeniu interzis pentru femei. Este adevrat? Mihaela Miroiu: Este adevrat i vizibil. Super vizibil. n business sunt 30%, n educaie i sntate sunt peste 70%, iar n politic sunt 9%. Deci, este foarte clar, att la nivel central, ct i local. Sunt doar 3% primari i 5% n consiliile locale. Imaginai-v c ai tri ntr-o lume n care femeile ar fi n proporie de 95% n consiliile locale,

facem noi de dou decenii ncoace... i nu tie, cine? Nu nea Cais din Dolhasca, ci un senator al Romniei la ora actual. Aa c ai nevoie de explicaii, iar explicaia pe care mi-a dat-o el a fost c organizaiile nu se vd. Aa c, orice proiect are un impact care e direct proporional cu mai multe lucruri. Cu credina oamenilor n acest proiect, cu publicitatea pe care beneficiarii proiectului o fac mai departe altor viitori beneficiari i, fr discuie, cu convingerea c un proiect nemediatizat serios este un proiect necunoscut. Respectiv, unul care are o influen extrem de mic, ori o raz mic de aciune. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Ce rol credei c are educaia n eliminarea prejudecilor dintre sexe? Mihaela Miroiu: Deocamdat, educaia din Romnia are un rol foarte important n ntrirea prejudecilor. Deci, asta este clar. Multe dintre textele din literatur, chiar i din textele pentru copiii mici din clasa I, rolurile sunt distribuite de parc femeile ar urma s devin o

Deocamdat, educaia din Romnia are un rol foarte important n ntrirea prejudecilor. Deci, asta este clar. Multe dintre textele din literatur, chiar i din textele pentru copiii mici din clasa I, rolurile sunt distribuite de parc femeile ar urma s devin o mas imens de casnice, ceea ce n Romnia nu a fost adevrat niciodat.
97% primari i 90% parlamentari. Cum v-ai simi ca brbat? Cum v-ai simi c un numr att de mare de femei hotrte ce e bine pentru dvs., cum trebuie s intervin sau nu statul n viaa dvs., dac avei pensie sau nu avei i n ce cuantum, care s v fie salariul dac lucrai ntr-un domeniu bugetar, pe ce s se duc banii, de exemplu, de la aprare, dac sunt prioritare creele sau autostrzile i aa mai departe. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Munca are genul feminin este un proiect implementat de C4C Communication for Community, care vine n spijinul femeilor din Romnia pentru obinerea egalitii pe piaa muncii. Suntei de prere c aceste proiecte au puterea de a schimba concepiile noastre asupra acestor probleme? Mihaela Miroiu: Proiectele acestea, de regul, sunt extrem de puin mediatizate. Eu am experiena lucratului n proiecte i organizaii neguvernamentale pe aceast zon din 1991. Deci, 20 de ani. i totui, m trezesc cu un senator care spunea, acum 10 zile, c nu exist n Romnia organizaii pentru drepturile femeilor i c femeile nu vor de fapt reprezentare politic. Sigur c n sufletul meu m-am suprat foarte tare: domnule dar ce mas imens de casnice, ceea ce n Romnia nu a fost adevrat niciodat. Aparena asta este. Totodat, taii ar urma s fie ctigtorii pinii, ceea ce este fals. Deci, pe de-o parte, aceste texte nu reflect deloc adevrul. De exemplu, n cas, muncile casnice sunt fcute de femei, iar brbaii meteresc sau zboar pe undeva, aa sunt prezentai ei n aceste texte. n plus, i asta mi se pare tragic, observ c nu exist intenie, n legile educaiei i nici n politicile educaiei, n ce privete educaia pentru viaa privat. Noi ieim din coal relativ analfabei despre ceea ce o s se ntmple cu noi n calitate de prieteni, vecini, soi, soii, bunici, nu tim. Nu tim ce se va ntmpla cu noi dac ne mbolnvim, nu tim cum se gospodrete un buget de familie, nu tim ce e aia o cstorie i ce ar trebui s facem n ea. Toate povetile astea nu le nvm la coal. n cazul n care le nvm prin modele literale, nvm lucruri care nu au nicio legtur cu egalitatea de gen i n care femeile sunt, cu excepia notorie a Vitoriei Lipan i Marei, caracterizate, portretizate pe stilul Camil Petrescu, adic nite drglenii relativ prostue i uor dubioase moral. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Care sunt factorii i cauzele care duc la accesul sczut
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precisely poorly paid. And when it comes to education, health, public administration, i.e. fields of activity where women are mostly employed, I dont understand why, but the wage grids are null in comparison to those from the secret services and the army. Why so? For example, I understand that when someone is in a risk situation (we may assume the time span when the soldier is on the battlefield), they can have certain benefits for risking their lives, but in most cases military risk their pens or infecting their computers with viruses. In my opinion, the direct responsibility a schoolmaster, a teacher, a family doctor or even a nurse, a physician is incomparably more direct and the risk is greater than the computer simulated battles. So, ultimately the issue is how you get to say that a doctors work or a teachers work is worth five times more than an officers work. Another issue that arises in this situation is feminine discrimination and I mean discrimination of jobs more

people must be taken care of their body, i.e. taking into consideration what they eat, how they dress, how they care for their children, the environment, gardening, relaxation. Thus, there must be someone to manage their cares, including their own children. In few cases it comes to very rich people who can afford to hire people specialized in taking over all these tasks. As a rule, this part has been played by wives. Some of them even achieved the performance of being much stronger when their men of excellence fall into wretched situations - take the case of Hilary Clinton here. The problem is how many men you know who actually perform such services for their wives. How many of them say: My dear, its your turn! So, how many hours do you need to manage a business or a career? 12 hours a day. When you come home, youre dead tired, in the meantime I will organize your program,

For now, education in Romania plays a very important role in strengthening prejudices. This is obvious. In many literary texts - even the texts for children in the 1st grade, the roles are cast as if women are going to become a huge mass of housewives, which has never been true in Romania.
related to women. For example, caring can be a lower skilled and qualified job (for instance domestic work and basic body care) or a highly qualified one (caring in post-surgery and everything related to healthcare or nursing and protection). Or when you accept the notion that such activities as people caring, raising, nursing, educating are more feminine and less paid, then training to murder or spy people will consequently be more important aspects, hence better paid. And this logic thread doesnt work only in connection with women, in the physical sense of the word, but also men employed in the feminized fields or associated with feminine traits are equally discriminated as women themselves. C4C Communication for Community Association: One frequently used assertion is that behind every strong man there is a strong woman. In your opinion, how much truth is there in these words? Mihaela Miroiu: Lets take it step by step. We are talking here about strong persons, in several ways. Persons reaching a certain professional level of competence will consequently become prominent and achieve excellence in such field as politics, finances or arts, so theyll have an excellence standard. For someone to achieve that kind of excellence, they must be carefree. So, in order to dedicate themselves to, say, scientific research or a sophisticated profession or political career, such
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including your hairdressers appointment, as youre a public figure and you must look well. I will choose your outfit, blouses and pantyhose. When you come home, our child will be tucked in bed, but not asleep so that you can kiss him goodnight. I will do the PR tasks and always look fresh, nice and handsome by your side and look happy for being married to you. I must accept the fact that Im on the 10th level in comparison to your job. I must accept that youre so tired when you climb to bed beside me that you arent in the mood to pay any attention to me and, in the meantime, I must be proud Im your husband? So this is the scenario, this is what we are referring to, not abstract things, we refer to such situations. Throughout my life, I have met no such case and Ive met many people and many of them are beautiful and non-misogynous men. But such cases simply dont exist. And then, many of the successful women in this world (and Im talking here about long-term careers) are single. Shortly, we are not talking about the fact that such women had no support, but they cant afford the luxury and the joy of a family. These are facts of life and they offer the answer to why women do not achieve excellence at the same rate as men they simply cant. The answer is: Women cant achieve excellence as the same rate as men because they dont have wives. Their husbands arent willing to be wives as well. Women are willing - as history proves - to earn a living for the family, have a profession and achieve performance, but unfortunately they do not have wives.

organizaile feministe instrumente sociale pentru combaterea discriminrii de anse i de gen

pe piaa muncii a femeilor n Romnia? Mihaela Miroiu: Eu cred c n Romnia munca este fcut n proporii relativ egale i de femei i de brbai. Femeile nu au un acces mai sczut pe piaa muncii, ci, mai degrab, un acces mai sczut la funcii i la bani. Totui, femeile ntlnesc aici multe piedici. Dubla zi de munc este o constant gravitaional n viaa femeilor din Romnia. Respectiv, s munceasc i la serviciu i s munceasc i acas. Se pare c munca nu le-o ia nimeni, nu rvnete nimeni la ea. De exemplu, dac lucreaz n domenii feminizate, cum ar fi educaia, sntatea sau administraia public, poi s fii foarte sigur c salariile lor vor fi mai mici dect a acelora care lucreaz n domenii masculinizate, armata, serviciile secrete. Cnd nu e vorba de economia de pia, nivelul unui salariu este stabilit prin politic de stat. i aici se stabilete ce e important i nu ce e bine pltit, respectiv prost pltit. Iar cnd e vorba de educaie, sntate, administraie public, adic domenii puternic feminizate, nu tiu cum, grilele de salarizare sunt la pmnt fa de cele din servicii secrete i din armat. De ce? Eu neleg, de exemplu, c atunci cnd cineva se afl ntr-o situaie de risc (presupunem, n perioada cnd este soldat pe cmpul de lupt), poate s ia sporuri enorme pentru ci risc viaa, dar n cele mai multe cazuri cei din armat i risc pixul sau risc s-i viruseze calculatorul. Dup prerea mea, responsabilitatea direct pe care o are o nvtoare, profesoar sau o doctori de familie sau chiar o asistent medical, un medic, este incomparabil mai direct, iar riscul este mai mare dect btliile simulate pe calculator. Deci, n final, problema este cum ajungi s spui c o munc de doctor sau o munc de profesor valoreaz de 4-5 ori mai puin dect munca unui ofier. O alt problem care se ridic n aceast situaie este aceea a discriminrii femininului. Adic discriminarea ocupaiilor ce in de feminin. ngrijirea, de pild, poate fi una inferior calificat (s zicem munca de menaj i ngrijirea corporal strict), sau nalt calificat (munca de ngrijire care este de tipul chirurgiei i a tot ce nseamn ngrijire pentru sntate sau cretere i ocrotire). Dar, n momentul n care se merge pe ideea c ceea ce faci tu este s te ocupi de oameni, s-i creti, s-i ngrijeti, s-i educi, aceste chestii sunt cam feminine i mai prost pltite, ori a te pregti s omori oameni sau s spionezi oameni sunt lucruri mult mai importante, deci mai bine pltite. Iar logica nu funcioneaz doar legat de femei, n sensul fizic al cuvntului, brbaii care lucreaz n domeniile feminizate i asociate cu trsturile feminine sunt la fel de discriminai ca i ele. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: O sintagm des ntlnit n societatea de azi spune c n spatele unui brbat puternic se afl o femeie puternic. Ct adevr reiese, dup prerea dumneavoastr,

din aceste cuvinte? Mihaela Miroiu: Haidei s o lum sistematic. Vorbim aici de persoan puternic n mai multe sensuri. Persoana care ajunge la un anumit nivel, devine proeminent, respectiv face excelen n domeniul politic, financiar sau artistic, este o persoan care are un standard de excelen. Pentru ca cineva s ajung la un tip de excelen, acea persoan trebuie s fie eliberat de alte griji. Deci, ca s se poat devota, de exemplu, cercetrii tiinifice sau unei profesii foarte sofisticate sau unei cariere politice, cineva trebuie s-i preia propriul corp, respectiv s aib grij de la ce mnnc, la cum se mbrac, cum se ngrijete de proprii copii, la ambient, grdin, relaxare. Deci, cineva trebuie s-i administreze grijile, inclusiv proprii copii. n foarte puine cazuri e vorba de oamenii foarte bogai care i permit s angajeze persoane specializate n preluarea tuturor acestor griji. De regul, acest rol l-au jucat soiile. Unele dintre ele ajungnd la performana de a fi mult mai tari cnd brbaii lor de excelen pic n situaii mizerabile, lum cazul lui Hillary Clinton. Problema e, ci brbai ntlneti care s poat i, realmente s fac, s presteze asemenea servicii pentru soiile lor? Ci dintre ei spun: Draga mea, e rndul tu! n consecin, de cte ore ai tu nevoie s te ocupi, de exemplu, de un business sau de o carier politic? 12 ore pe zi. Cnd vii acas eti fcut praf, ntre timp eu trebuie s-i organizez inclusiv programul de la coafor pentru c eti persoan public i trebuie s ari ntrun fel. Trebuie s m duc s-i fac selecie de bluze i de ciorapi. Trebuie ca, atunci cnd vii acas, copilul s fie deja bgat n pat la somn, dar nu foarte adormit ca s poi s-l pupi i s-i zici noapte bun. Trebuie s fac PR-ul i trebuie s apar tot timpul lng tine proaspt, frumos i foarte mulumit c sunt nsurat cu tine. Trebuie s accept c m lai pe planul 10 n raport cu profesia ta. Trebuie s accept c te vri lng mine n pat i c eti rupt de oboseal i nu mai ai chef s-mi mai dai nici un fel de atenie i, ntre timp, s mai fiu i mndru c sunt soul tu?. Deci, acesta este scenariul, la el ne referim, nu la abstracii, ne referim la astfel de situaii. De-a lungul vieii mele, nu am ntlnit nici un astfel de caz i chiar am ntlnit muli oameni. Muli admirabili i nemisogini. Dar asemenea cazuri nu sunt. i atunci, multe dintre femeile de succes de pe lumea asta (vorbesc de carier de lung durat) sunt singure. Adic, pe scurt, nu c nu au avut sprijin, ci ele nu i pot permite luxul unei familii i bucuria unei familii. Acestea sunt faptele de via care i dau rspunsul la ntrebarea i de ce nu sunt i ele la fel de performante..., de ce nu pot fi la fel de performante. Rspunsul este: ,,Femeile nu pot fi la fel de performante ca i brbaii pentru c nu au soii... nu au soii. Soii lor nu sunt dispui s fie i soii. Ele, dup cum se vede i n istorie, sunt dispuse s ctige pinea pentru familie, s aib profesie i s fac performan, din pcate nu au neveste.
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lines of action to promote equal opportunities in organizations

Lines of Action to Promote Equal Opportunities in Organizations


Source: Guide for promoting equal opportunities for men and women in the labor market - ANOFM

A balanced participation of both men and women in all the fields of the social, political and economic life is more than necessary to achieve sustainable development and competitiveness, as well as attaining and building genuine democracy. In spite of the progress, mainly in education and employment, women still face many obstacles in achieving real equity, including that regarding reconciliation between work and their private life. To achieve actual equity, there is urgent need not only for an improved legislation on the integration of the principle of equity, but especially in changing mindsets and behaviors, lifestyles and social structures which prevent women from freely developing their personality and actively participating in all the fields of life: economy, culture, politics and so on. In showing the potential sources of inequity in the employment process, employers can develop three clear lines of action1 in order to promote equal opportunities for men and women: Avoiding discrimination during staff selection; Developing an organizational culture that can add value to equity; Training people in important leading positions to promote equity culture. How to Avoid Discrimination during Staff Selection The selection process is crucial in achieving a high women-to-men ratio in employment, since it implies the most accessible barrier which prevents a woman from being employed in a given job. The key fields of action in staff selection that describe some of the best selection practices for the achievement of equal opportunities for men and women at the workplace are as follows: Broaden and diversify the recruitment methods: using a larger network to identify women candidates for a job; presenting employment offers in a variety of nontraditional forms which combine written offers with personal contact. Cooperate with organizations that foster womens promotion at the workplace: these organizations can be
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an additional source of expending the labor market with female qualified personnel. Partnerships with education centers and universities can also be concluded to identify female skills and talent. For example, one telecommunications company has created a program called One day with the dean that enables the companys representatives to spend a day within the university, promoting their companys actual employment opportunities for women. Another means to identify female talent is participation in labor fairs organized by academic institutions. Most business schools organize labor fairs where companies can identify highly qualified female staff. Non-discrimination in assessing candidates: considering female applicants for a certain position as an opportunity to promote diversity. Stereotypes on women can generate prejudice in the selection process. The fact that a candidate is a woman must not lead to the assumption that she will have difficulties in adjusting to the working environment; or that she will have less availability to travel or assume responsibilities which imply higher compromise. The person in question should be allowed to make his/her own decision which concerns him/her. It is important that the members of the selection board make sure their decisions are not affected by these stereotypes or biases. Consequently, women must also be part of the recruitment and selection team. Evaluation of candidates according to definite and objective criteria: stereotypes and cognitive deviations at the time of assessing female candidates are much more frequent in the moment where the criteria of evaluation are not clear enough. To avoid such kind of prejudice, it is important that the selection process to be based upon objective and professional criteria. Each person must be evaluated according to the conditions established for the working environment, regardless of how he/she achieved her/his professional training. For example, a woman who has worked part-time while raising her young children must benefit from equal access to the labor market, without being penalized.

Linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii

Linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii


Sursa: Ghid pentru promovarea egalitii ntre femei i brbai pe piaa muncii - ANOFM Participarea echilibrat a femeilor i brbailor n toate domeniile vieii sociale, politice i economice este mai mult dect necesar pentru a atinge o competitivitate i o dezvoltare durabil, precum i pentru a obine i consolida o democraie real. n pofida progreselor nregistrate, n special n domeniul educaiei i al ocuprii, femeile nc mai ntmpin multe obstacole n atingerea unei egaliti reale, inclusiv n ceea ce privete concilierea vieii de familie cu viaa profesional. Pentru ca egalitatea real s fie un fapt mplinit, este nevoie nu numai de o mbuntire a legislaiei n sensul integrrii principiului egalitii, ci i mai ales, de o schimbare a atitudinilor i comportamentelor, a stilurilor de via i a structurilor sociale care le mpiedic pe femei s-i dezvolte n mod liber personalitatea i participarea activ n toate domeniile vieii: economie, cultur, politic etc. Artnd potenialele surse de inegalitate n angajare, angajatorii pot dezvolta trei linii de aciune foarte clare pentru a promova egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai: Evitarea discriminrii n selectarea personalului Dezvoltarea unei culturi organizaionale care valorific egalitatea Formarea persoanelor din funciile de conducere pentru a promova cultura egalitii Evitarea discriminrii n selectarea personalului Procesul de selecie este decisiv pentru a atinge un nivel ridicat de paritate ntre femei i brbai n ocuparea unui loc de munc, ntruct implic bariera cea mai accesibil n calea ocuprii de ctre o femeie a unui loc de munc. Domeniile cheie de aciune n procesele de selecie i care descriu unele dintre cele mai bune practici de selecie pentru realizarea egalitii de anse ntre femei i brbai n ocuparea unui loc de munc sunt: Lrgirea i varierea metodelor de recrutare: utilizarea unei reele mai largi pentru identificarea candidailor femei pentru un loc de munc, prezentarea ofertelor de munc ntr-o varietate de forme netradiionale care s combine oferta scris cu contactul personal. Colaborarea cu organizaiile care promoveaz progresul femeii la locul de munc: aceste organizaii pot fi o surs suplimentar de extindere a pieei muncii cu personal calificat de sex feminin. De asemenea, pot fi ncheiate parteneriate cu centre educaionale i universiti pentru identificarea talentului feminin. De exemplu, o companie de telecomunicaii a creat un program intitulat O zi cu decanul, prin care reprezentani ai companiei petreceau o zi n cadrul Universitii, fcnd cunoscute oportunitile de angajare a femeilor existente n companie. O alt modalitate de identificare a talentului feminin o constituie participarea la trgurile de locuri de munc a unor instituii academice. Cele mai multe coli de afaceri organizeaz trguri de locuri de munc n cadrul crora companiile pot accesa personal feminin de o nalt calificare. Nediscriminarea n evaluarea candidailor: considerarea candidailor femei care aplic pentru o anumit poziie ca pe o oportunitate de a promova diversitatea. Stereotipurile despre femei pot ocaziona prejudeci n cadrul proceselor de selecie. Faptul c o candidat este femeie nu trebuie s duc la presupunerea c aceasta va avea mai multe dificulti de adaptare la mediul de lucru sau va fi mai puin disponibil s cltoreasc sau s i asume obligaii care implic un grad mare de compromis. Trebuie s i se permit persoanei n cauz s ia deciziile care o privesc. Este important ca membrii comisiei de selecie s se asigure c deciziile lor nu sunt afectate de aceste stereotipuri sau idei preconcepute. Prin urmare, este necesar s fac parte i femei din echipa de recrutare i selecie. Evaluarea candidailor pe baza unor criterii clare i obiective: stereotipurile i deviaiile cognitive n momentul evalurii candidailor de gen feminin sunt mult mai frecvente n momentul n care criteriile de evaluare nu sunt clare. Pentru a evita aceste prejudeci este important ca procesul de selecie s se bazeze pe criterii obiective i profesionale. Fiecare persoan trebuie evaluat conform criteriilor stabilite la locul de munc, indiferent de modul n care a ajuns la formarea sa profesional. De exemplu, o femeie care a lucrat cu timp parial n perioada n care a avut copii mici trebuie s se bucure de un acces egal la piaa forei de munc, fr s i se aplice vreo penalizare.
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Building-up an Organizational Culture that Develops Equity

t is crucial to create a culture to acknowledge and support women recruitment. Setting up policies meant to promote womens access to the labor market largely depends on the existence of an organizational culture to support gender equity and acknowledgement of the added value that diversity fosters. Attracting and maintaining female skills must be understood as a competitive advantage for any organization. In order to stimulate this culture, all the members of the organization, from managers to employees, should benefit from dedicated training on equal opportunities. 1. Awareness programs: the organizations managers must be aware of the benefits generated by managing female human resources at the workplace. Those persons who hold important positions should start being aware of their own values, stereotypes and management styles. Introspection is a relevant element so that change can actually take place naturally, as a personal development process.
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2. Dissemination of benefits implied by gender equity: many research articles show that promoting equal opportunities and diversity in organizations attract various benefits with positive effects in 5 fields: Cost reduction diminution of the level of absenteeism and rotation within the company involve a considerable reduction of costs. Companies that are known to create a suitable environment for keeping female talent will have an advantage over those who cant properly respond to the new market demands. Selection and maintenance of talents: since women are a large share of the talent on the labor market, companies that are best advertised with regards their flexibility policies have the best chance to draw and maintain these talents. Marketing: Women have increasingly greater purchasing power. The presence of women in a company enables it to better respond to a wider and more diversified market. Innovation: several studies have shown that organizations with

similar shares of men and women are more innovative. Some companies strategically organize mixed teams to promote creativity and identify new solutions to old issues. Flexibility: it is very likely that flexibility of personnel policies to increase the organizations flexibility in its adjusting to the market changes. A company that implements more flexible and less standardized methods will encourage its male and female employees to be more flexible with its clients.

linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii

Dezvoltarea unei culturi organizaionale care valorific egalitatea

ste important s se creeze o cultur care accept i sprijin recrutarea femeilor. Stabilirea unor politici care s promoveze accesul femeilor la un loc de munc depinde de existena unei culturi organizaionale de sprijinire a egalitii de gen i de recunoatere a plusului de valoare pe care l aduce diversitatea. Atragerea i meninerea talentelor de gen feminin trebuie neleas ca un avantaj competitiv pentru orice organizaie. Pentru a stimula aceast cultur, toi membrii organizaiei, ncepnd cu managerii

i terminnd cu angajaii, ar trebui s beneficieze de o formare specific pe teme privind egalitatea de anse. 1. Programe de sensibilizare: managerii organizaiilor trebuie s fie contieni de beneficiile pe care le poate genera gestionarea resurselor umane de gen feminin la locul de munc. Persoanele care dein funcii de conducere trebuie s nceap s-i cunoasc propriile valori stereotipuri i stiluri de management. Introspecia este un element important pentru ca schimbarea s aib loc de la sine, ca un proces de dezvoltare personal. 2. Diseminarea beneficiilor pe care le implic egalitatea de gen: numeroase articole de cercetare arat c promovarea egalitii de anse i a diversitii n organizaii atrag numeroase beneficii cu efect pozitiv n cinci domenii: Reducerea costurilor diminuarea nivelului de absenteism i de rotaie n cadrul companiei presupune o reducere considerabil a costurilor. Companiile care tiu s creeze un mediu adecvat pentru reinerea talentelor feminine vor avea un avantaj asupra celor care nu rspund adecvat la noile cerine ale pieei.

Selectarea i meninerea talentelor: din moment ce femeile reprezint o mare parte din talentul existent pe piaa forei de munc, companiile cu cea mai bun publicitate cu privire la politicile sale de flexibilitate, au cea mai mare ans de atragere i meninere a acestor talente. Marketing: Femeile dein, tot mai mult, o mai mare putere de cumprare. Prezena femeilor ntr-o companie permite acesteia s rspund mai bine unei piee mai vaste i mai variate. Inovare: mai multe studii efectuate au artat c organizaiile cu procentaje asemntoare de femei i brbai sunt mai inovatoare. Unele companii organizeaz n mod strategic echipe mixte pentru a promova creativitatea i a identifica soluii noi la probleme vechi. Flexibilitate: este foarte probabil ca flexibilitatea politicilor de personal s creasc flexibilitatea organizaiei n procesul de adaptare la schimbrile de pe pia. O companie care pune n aplicare metode flexibile i mai puin standardizate i ncurajeaz n acelai timp angajaii i angajatele s fie mai flexibile cu clienii si.
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An organization can advance women recruitment if it has an explicit and definite communication on its equal opportunities policies. These can be conveyed through multiple channels and in various forms, from an in-house magazine for its employees to web advertisements on the companys website or as part of its business mission. Concrete actions to communicate equal opportunities policy in the organization include: Presentation of companys vision on the principle of equity: this implies inclusion of equal opportunities in the formally written mission of the organization. Thus, a company that promotes equal opportunities should include in its mission a phrase like: Our Companys mission consists of creating an environment of justice and equity to include the role of all employees and make the company more competitive. Such a vision articulates the objectives of the organization in such a manner that will direct them not only to the future of the organization but also to the role of each employee. This vision is conceived as the desire to create a better future for everyone and all. Announcement of the appointment of the membership of the Board of Directors that supports equity policies: these persons will serve as an example of clear and precise transmission of the organizational philosophy and will introduce a message of legitimacy and inclusion in the organization as well. It is important to reveal the idea that equal opportunities are seen as a decision criterion and represent a competitive advantage for the company. Establishment of measurable objectives: regular communication on the share of positions dedicated to women will allow the accurate evaluation of the progress and induce confidence in its effectiveness. Information collecting about the number of contracts among men and women and the abandonment rate is needed. For example, a company can conduct evaluations quaeterly to identify the issues which require immediate attention. Another organization can establish focusgroups to identify the problematic areas and record the achievements. In Romania, Law 202/2002 stipulates that fostering equal opportunities for men and women is mandatory also with public cultural institutions and other structures and organizations promoting culture under any form. They must ensure the non-discriminatory conditions required for displaying and capitalizing personal skills, regardless of gender, as well as peoples equal treatment in the field of cultural creativity.
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Concrete Steps to Communicate Equal Opportunities Policy in Organizations

Linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii

Aciuni concrete de comunicare a politicii de egalitate de anse n organizaii

O organizaie poate promova recrutarea femeilor dac are o comunicare explicit i clar privind politicile de egalitate. Acestea pot fi transmise prin canale multiple i n forme variate, de la revista intern, destinat angajailor, pn la anunuri pe pagina web a companiei sau ca parte a misiunii de afaceri. Aciunile concrete de a comunica politica de egalitate de anse la nivelul ntregii organizaii includ: Prezentarea principiului egalitii n viziunea companiei: aceasta presupune includerea principiului egalitii n misiunea organizaiei redactat n mod formal. Astfel, o companie care promoveaz egalitatea de anse ar trebui s includ n misiunea sa o fraz precum: misiunea companiei const n crearea unei atmosfere de justiie i egalitate care s includ toi angajaii i care s fac compania mai competitiv. O astfel de viziune articuleaz obiectivele organizaiei de o manier n care acestea vor fi orientate nu numai ctre viitorul organizaiei ci i ctre rolul pe care l au angajaii n cadrul ei. Aceast viziune este conceput ca o dorin de a crea un viitor mai bun pentru toi. Anunarea numirii membrilor Consiliului de administraie care sprijin politicile de egalitate: aceste persoane servesc ca exemplu de transmitere ntr-un mod clar i precis a filozofiei organizaionale i, n plus, pentru a introduce n organizaie un mesaj de legitimitate i incluziune. Este important s se divulge ideea c egalitatea privit ca un criteriu de decizie reprezint un avantaj competitiv pentru companie. Stabilirea unor obiective cuantificabile: comunicarea regulat cu privire la procentajul locurilor de munc destinate femeilor permite evaluarea progresului i crearea ncrederii c aceasta funcioneaz. Este necesar colectarea de ctre conducere a informaiilor privind numrul de contracte i rata de abandon n rndul femeilor i al brbailor. De exemplu, o companie poate realiza anchete trimestriale pentru identificarea problemelor care necesit o atenie imediat. O alt organizaie poate crea focus-grupuri pentru a identifica zonele cu probleme i pentru a constata progresul care s-a realizat. n Romnia, Legea 202/2002 prevede c obligativitatea promovrii egalitii ntre femei i brbai revine i instituiilor publice de cultur i altor structuri i formaiuni care promoveaz cultura sub orice form. Acestea trebuie s asigure n mod nediscriminatoriu condiiile necesare de manifestare i de valorificare a aptitudinilor persoanelor, indiferent de sex, precum i tratamentul egal al acestora n domeniul creaiei culturale.
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THE UNIONS
The Unions can act so that the salary system is perceived as a fair system by the employees and the principle of equal payment for equal work is applied in organizations/businesses/companies. These actions are as follows: To include a chapter regarding equity in the annual negotiation and to devise, together with the employers and management, measures to diminish the gender differences at wage level; To monitor practices regarding payment and to perform research, analyses and action plans in order to have equal pay for equal value of work; To identify - through questionnaires, individual meetings or any other ways - the employees needs regarding their wages and the salary system; To develop procedures for the collection and solution of complaints of employees regarding potential discrimination in payment, promotion, evaluation; To draft information materials for employers and managers regarding means to build and assess a correct salary system; To draft information materials for employees regarding their rights related to wages and other benefits; To support editing and publication of an audit regarding the organizations salary system, that should integrate gender indices; To support the integration of certain objectives and concrete steps in raising the correctness of the salary
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Mediators between Employees and Employers1


system in the organizations annual development plans; To negotiate with the employers/management the evaluation of the positions (through analytical methods), so that in the end each position is correctly classified in a salary group; To bring the misevaluated and wrongly remunerated positions to the managements attention; To present the management and employees those factors that make the pay differences between men and women within the organization; To get involved in salary adjustment to inflation and the organizations productivity growth; To bring to the attention of the employers those newly integrated aspects in the law on waging, work standardization, equal opportunities; To train its Union leaders on such issues as: job assessment; research on employees opinions on the salaries and equity of treatment; in-house research of the organization to use indices that are relevant for mens and womens situation; equal reward systems for employees; payment in accordance with the employees performance; To suggest to the management / employers building-up a working team to analyze the current salary system from the perspective of the principle of equal pay for equal work.

linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii

SINDICATELE
Sindicatele pot face urmtoarele aciuni pentru ca sistemul de salarizare s fie perceput ca fiind corect de ctre angajai i pentru ca principiul plii egale pentru munc de valoare egal s se aplice n organizaii / firme / companii: S includ n negocierea anual privind salariile un capitol privind egalitatea i s gseasc, mpreun cu patronatul i managementul, msuri pentru a diminua diferenele de gen privind salariile; S monitorizeze practicile privind plata i s realizeze cercetri, analize i planuri de aciune pentru plata egal pentru munc de valoare egal; S identifice, prin chestionare, ntlniri individuale sau alte modaliti, opiniile angajailor despre salarii i sistemul de salarizare; S dezvolte proceduri de colectare i soluionare a plngerilor venite din partea angajailor privind eventuale discriminri n plat, promovare, evaluare; S conceap materiale de informare a angajatorilor i a managerilor privind modaliti de construire i evaluare a unui sistem de salarizare corect; S conceap materiale de informare a angajailor privind drepturile lor legate de salarii i alte beneficii; S sprijine realizarea i publicarea unui audit privind sistemul de salarizare al organizaiei, audit n care se fie integrai indicatori de gen; S susin integrarea unor obiective i pai concrei pentru creterea corectitudinii sistemului de

mediatori ntre angajai i angajatori1


salarizare n planurile anuale de dezvoltare a organizaiei; S negocieze cu patronatul/managementul evaluarea posturilor (prin metode analitice), astfel nct, la final, fiecare post s fie introdus corect ntr-o grup de salarizare; S aduc n atenia managementului posturile greit evaluate i remunerate; S prezinte managementului i angajailor factori care genereaz diferenele ntre plata femeilor i cea a brbailor din cadrul organizaiei; S se implice n ajustarea salariilor la inflaie i n creterea productivitii organizaiei; S aduc n atenia patronatului aspectele integrate recent n legislaie privind salarizarea, normarea muncii, egalitatea; S i formeze liderii de sindicat pe teme privind: evaluarea posturilor; cercetri privind opiniile angajailor despre salarii i echitatea tratamentului; cercetri interne organizaiei n care se utilizeaz i analizeaz indicatori cu relevan pentru situaia femeilor i cea a brbailor; sisteme de recompensare egal a angajailor; plata n acord cu performana angajailor; S propun managementului/patronatului dezvol-tarea unei echipe de lucru care s analizeze sistemul de salarizare existent din perspectiva principiului plii egale pentru munc de valoare egal.
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Why is Equal and Fair Pay of Male and Female Employees Important
Employees create their own perception on their payment, which is considered to be either equitable, or inequitable. They consider correct payment to be represented by a reward equal to the value of the performed work. Organizations must develop policies able to ensure both an inner and outer equity due to the effects this perception might have on the employees motivation to work: Reward policies are internally equitable when employees believe their payment level is up to their position. There is a perception on external equity when the salaries paid by the organization are relatively equal to those received by other employees for similar types of work. Arguments that Union leaders can bring forward to the management/employers in order to convince them of the usefulness of certain measures which should lead towards equal pay for equal work are as follows: The best employees are drawn and maintained; thus the labor force will be worthwhile and effective; Recruitment costs are reduced in keeping employees for longer time-spans; The employees motivation and productivity are improved; The organizations reputation and positive image are strengthened; Financial costs, as well as time and image management costs due to potential discriminating pay complaints are avoided.

What is Fair and Equal Pay?


Fair pay occurs when an employer correctly pays, ensures the same payment and the same conditions for his employees whose work requires similar effort, abilities, knowledge and responsibilities. Equal pay The Constitution of Romania1, The Labour Code2, Law 202/20023 regarding equal opportunities for men and women and Law no. 48/20024 which approves GO no. 137/20005, the unique Collective Labour Agreement on a national level for 2007-2011 contains provisions regarding gender nondiscrimination in wage payment. The most comprehensive and closest definition to the content required by the Community acquis (European guidelines) is the one under Law no. 202/2002, where by work of equal value it is understood the paid activity that, as a result of the comparison with other activity, on the basis of the same indicators and the same measurement units, reflects the use of similar or equal knowledge and professional skills and performing a similar or equal
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quantity of intellectual and/or physical effort. Any employer who complies with the principle of equal pay ensures the same payment conditions for the men and women whose work is: Identical or generally similar; Rated as equivalent according to a position evaluation scheme; Of equal value in terms of effort, abilities, knowledge and required responsibilities. To ensure equal pay also means that employees should know how their payment is structured. Thus, for example, if bonuses are given, employees must know what they have to do in order to earn these bonuses, as well as how they are calculated. The principle of equal pay applies to both part time and full time employees. If a part time employee performs equal work with his/her full time employed colleague, she/he must receive the same payment per hour.

linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii

De ce este important plata corect i plata egal a angajailor, femei i brbai?


Angajatul i construiete o percepie privind plata sa, pe care o consider fie echitabil, fie inechitabil. Consider c a beneficiat de o plat corect cnd crede c recompensa primit este egal cu valoarea muncii realizate. Pentru c aceast percepie are efecte asupra motivaiei angajatului de a munci, organizaiile trebuie s dezvolte politici care asigur o echitabilitate intern i una extern, i anume: Politicile de recompensare sunt echitabile intern cnd angajaii cred c nivelul salariului este adecvat valorii postului. Percepia asupra echitabilitii externe exist atunci cnd salariile pltite de organizaie sunt relativ egale cu cele cu care sunt pltii ali angajai pentru tipuri similare de munc. Argumente pe care liderii de sindicat le pot prezenta managementului/patronatului pentru a-i convinge de utilitatea unor msuri care s conduc spre plat egal pentru munci de valoare egal: Se atrag i se rein cei mai buni angajai; n acest fel fora de munc va fi una valoroas i eficient; Se reduc costurile de recrutare prin reinerea angajailor pentru perioade ndelungate de timp; Se mbuntete motivaia i productivitatea angajailor; Se ntrete imaginea pozitiv i reputaia organizaiei; Se evit costurile financiare, de timp i de imagine datorate unei plngeri de plat discriminatorie.

Ce este plata corect i plata egal?


Plata corect este atunci cnd un angajator care pltete corect asigur aceeai plat i aceleai condiii pentru angajaii a cror munc necesit nivele similare de efort, abiliti, cunotine i responsabiliti. Plata egal. Constituia Romniei1, Codul Muncii2, Legea 202/20023 privind egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai i Legea nr. 48/20024 care aprob OG nr. 137/20005, Contractul colectiv de munc unic la nivel naional pe anii 2007-2011 cuprind prevederi referitoare la nediscriminarea pe criteriul de sex n ceea ce privete salarizarea. Definiia cea mai cuprinztoare i mai apropiat de coninutul cerut de acquis-ul comunitar (directivele europene) este cea din Legea nr. 202/2002, n care, prin munc de valoare egal se nelege activitatea remunerat care, n urma comparrii, pe baza acelorai indicatori i a acelorai uniti de msur cu o alt activitate, reflect: folosirea de cunotine i deprinderi profesionale similare sau egale; depunerea unei cantiti egale ori similare de efort intelectual i/ sau fizic. Un angajator care respect principiul plii egale asigur aceleai condiii de plat pentru brbaii i femeile a cror munc este: aceeai sau, n general, similar; este cotat ca fiind echivalent conform unei scheme de evaluare a posturilor; este de valoare egal n termeni de efort, abiliti, cunotine i responsabiliti necesare. Asigurarea plii egale nseamn i c angajaii ar trebui s cunoasc modul n care li se constituie salarizarea. Astfel nct, de exemplu, dac se acord bonusuri, angajaii trebuie s tie ce au de fcut pentru a ctiga aceste bonusuri, precum i modul n care sunt calculate. Principiul plii egale se aplic att angajailor cu norm redus ct i celor cu norm ntreag. Dac un/o angajat/ cu norm redus face munc egal cu un/o angajat/ cu norm ntreag, trebuie s primeasc aceeai plat/or.
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Promoting and Rewarding Excellence


Studies have shown that women are less promoted than men, and when they are, they are often rewarded less than the men holding equal positions. Salary raise due to promotion is often based on the current salary, so that if there have been any problems with the initial wage, then these may be transferred onto the salary raise upon promotion, especially if this raise is calculated as a percentage growth. In order to avoid such differences, organizations should have a system of salary raises generated by promotions, which should go up to fixed/standard points on a scale. Performance related rewarding bonus systems are used by employers to reward employees for their individual or team performance. It is often used in both the private and public sector and it is perceived as a means to stimulate those who are positioned on top of the salary scale or as a means of progression in the salary system. Wage increases are closely related to the individual or team performance measured according to objective criteria or the achieved targets. Performance related pay systems are intended to rewarding individual employers who carry out the same work. Consequently, payment inequities are part of the system. The difference between this system and automatic progression is that, in the case of the rewarded person or team, there is an important element of confidentiality/ discretion and subjectivity, and thus a greater risk of generating discriminating inequities. One can realize whether there are problems in the organization in looking through the amounts paid as excellence and performance pay for men and women during the past year. If you discover that there is a trend that favors persons in one team if compared to employers in another team, then you should check out why this is happening. Performance related rewarding systems have resulted in certain disparities in salary systems, which prove to generally disadvantage women, persons with disabilities and ethnical groups. The confidentiality/discretion applied by the management in addressing these issues allows occurrence of subjective or arbitrary judgment, based on prejudices or stereotypes. If a performance related rewarding system is used, this should be an open and objective system according to the evaluation of performance (a performance efficient evaluation system is also required). Men and women should be granted equal access to opportunities for improvement and development of their skills. The established performance targets should be equally accessible to men and women, to full time and part time employees. Criteria related to the presence and flexibility of employees can be often indirectly discriminating. The performance evaluation system should be transparent, so that employees can easily understand how they are assessed in accordance with the performance criteria. There should also be an organizational procedure to solve the potential complaints.
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linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii

Promovarea i recompensarea performanelor


Studiile arat c femeile sunt promovate mai puin dect brbaii i c, atunci cnd sunt promovate, adesea sunt pltite mai puin dect brbaii cu poziii egale. Adesea, creterea salarial datorat promovrii se bazeaz pe salariul curent, aa nct, dac au fost probleme cu salariul de pornire, atunci ele se pot transfera i asupra creterii salariale datorate promovrii, mai ales dac aceast cretere este calculat sub form de cretere procentual. Pentru a evita aceste diferene, organizaiile ar trebui s aib un sistem de creteri salariale generate de promovare, care s urce la puncte fixe/standard pe o scal. Sistemul de bonusuri pentru rspltirea performanei1 este folosit de angajatori pentru recompensarea angajailor pe baze individuale sau de echip. Este folosit mai ales n sectorul privat, dar i n sectorul public i este perceput drept modalitate de stimulare a celor aflai la captul superior al scrii de salarizare sau ca mijloc de progresie n sistemul de salarizare. Creterile salariale sunt strns legate de performana individual sau de echip, msurat dup criterii obiective sau intele atinse. Sistemele de rspltire a performanei sunt destinate recompensrii diferite pentru persoane care realizeaz aceeai munc. Prin urmare, inegalitile de plat fac parte din sistem. Diferena dintre acest sistem i progresia automat este aceea c, n cazul persoanei sau echipei recompensate, exist un element important de confidenialitate/ discreie i subiectivitate i, deci, un risc mai mare de a produce inegaliti discriminatorii. V putei da seama dac exist probleme n organizaie uitnduv la sumele pltite ca recompense pentru performan, pentru femei i brbai, n decursul ultimului an. Dac descoperii c exist o tendin ca persoanele dintr-un anumit grup s fie favorizate comparativ cu altele, atunci ar trebui s vedei de ce se ntmpl acest lucru. Sistemele de recompensare a performanei au avut drept rezultat anumite dispariti n sistemele de salarizare, care s-au dovedit a defavoriza, n general, femeile, persoanele cu dizabiliti i grupurile etnice. Confidenialitatea/ discreia cu care managementul trateaz aceste chestiuni permite apariia unor judeci subiective sau arbitrare, bazate pe prejudeci sau stereotipuri. Dac se folosete un sistem de bonusuri de recompensare a performanei, acesta ar trebui s fie deschis i obiectiv, n conformitate cu evaluarea performanei (este necesar i un sistem eficient de evaluare a performanei). Femeile i brbaii ar trebui s aib acces egal la oportunitile de dezvoltare i de cretere a competenelor. intele de performan stabilite ar trebui s fie accesibile n mod egal brbailor i femeilor, angajailor cu norm ntreag i redus. Criteriile legate de prezen i flexibilitate pot fi adesea indirect discriminatorii. Sistemul de evaluare a performanei ar trebui s fie transparent, astfel nct angajailor s le fie uor s neleag cum sunt evaluai i punctai n relaie cu criteriile de performan. De asemenea, ar trebui s existe o procedur organizaional de soluionare a eventualelor contestaii.
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Part-time and Temporary Employees


Part-time employees are generally women who are especially employed in less paid positions. Part-time and temporary employees can often be excluded from wage increases generated by bonuses and the payment of extra working hours. The basic salary per hour should be the same as that of full-time employees. Parttime employees should benefit from equal opportunities in order to access all the components included in the rewarding, training and development systems. Women are those who break their career more often than men, particularly in order to take care of their children or other family members. This results in a negative impact upon salary raises which they may expect when being re-integrated in the labor market. In order to avoid such situations, the mechanisms involved in the functioning of the salary policy should be assessed from the perspective of the potential unfavorable effects regarding terms and conditions, social status, work experience, granting various benefits and performance rewarding bonus schemes.

Equal Reward Systems for Men and Women


Women tend to spend shorter time spans on the labour market and interrupt work more often than men. It is not fair that salary policy are based on the employees duration of work experience, but rather on their required abilities and experience for the position in question. The purpose of payment should be to reward skills and experience, and not the capacity of uninterrupted resilience on the labour market. Another means of rewarding work would be to adjust benefit systems such as: annual leave longer than the statutory leave; company car for personal use; private medical insurance; indemnities/facilities for children upbringing and so on. The above-mentioned and any other similar benefits must be granted for reasons that are objectively justified, and men and women should be granted benefits on equal grounds.
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linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii

Angajaii cu norm redus i angajaii temporar


Angajaii cu norm redus sunt, n general, femei i sunt concentrate mai ales n posturi cu salarizare mai slab. Adesea, angajaii part-time i temporar pot fi exclui de la creteri salariale generate de bonusuri i plata orelor suplimentare. Salariul de baz/or ar trebui s fie acelai cu cel al angajailor cu norm ntreag. Angajaii cu norm redus ar trebui s beneficieze de anse egale pentru accesarea tuturor elementelor componente ale sistemului de recompensare, training i dezvoltare. Femeile sunt cele care i ntrerup cariera mai des dect brbaii, n special pentru a avea grij de copii sau alte persoane din familie. Acest lucru are un impact negativ asupra ctigurilor salariale la care se pot atepta atunci cnd reintr pe piaa muncii. Pentru evitarea acestor situaii, diversele mecanisme implicate n funcionarea politicii de salarizare ar trebui evaluate din perspectiva posibilelor efecte defavorizante n ceea ce privete termenii i condiiile, statutul, experiena n munc, acordarea diverselor beneficii i schemele de bonusuri pentru recompensarea performanei.

Sisteme de recompens egale pentru femei i brbai


Femeile tind s aib perioade mai scurte petrecute pe piaa muncii i i ntrerup serviciul mai des dect brbaii. Nu este corect ca politica salarial s se bazeze pe durata experienei de munc a angajailor, ci, mai degrab, pe abilitile i experiena efectiv necesare pentru postul respectiv. Scopul salarizrii ar trebui s fie recompensarea competenelor i a experienei i nu recompensarea capacitii de rezisten nentrerupt pe piaa muncii. O alt modalitate de recompensare a muncii ar fi adaptarea unui sistem de beneficii, precum: concediu anual mai mare dect cel statutar, maina companiei pentru folosin personal, asigurare medical privat, indemnizaii/faciliti pentru creterea copiilor etc. Acestea i orice alte beneficii similare trebuie acordate pentru motive care pot fi justificate obiectiv, iar femeile i brbaii ar trebui s primeasc asemenea beneficii pe baze egale.
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Women versus Men as Managers


VIEWPOINT Alexandru Antonache
Editor

en and women alike have always aspired to managing positions. Can we shape ourselves for such a job, or do we need innate managerial skills to this purpose? Experts tend to think that both aspects are worthwhile. But, we cant help wondering: Who is more efficient: a woman manager or a man manager? There are obvious physiological and mental differences between genders that become manifest in connection to managerial skills and abilities. According to a study conducted by the University of Pennsylvania in the United States, the female brain is richer in neurons thus offering a greater ability of association and combination of diverse information. Also the two brain hemispheres are mobilized when women are communicating. The predicament is that women are twice as much more likely to suffer from depression than men, because of their good affective memory and their more accentuated tendency to relive painful memories. Instead, the male brain enjoys the benefits of greater amounts of spinal fluids and long nerve cells (axons), which help men have a better sense
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of direction. Although it has a different structure, the male brain is identical to the female brain in terms of intellectual or mental capacity. Many argue that a males style of management is just as effective as a females, though there are differences of content. For instance, men in managerial positions tend to manipulate more in order to get ahead and atop and get along with others, while women holding the same positions are prone to be more demanding and harder to please. They also tend to be less consistent in how they use their energy and emotions. Over time, attempts have been made to identify the values that women and men in managerial positions cherish most. In the case of female managers, they tend to become involved in helping others, caring about their employees personal issues and engaging in actions that improve society. Women are loyal, respect authority and tend to rely on their common sense and intuition in decision-making. On the other hand, male managers tend to value and foster more business opportunities, money and profit.

linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii

Femeia manager versus brbatul manager


OPINIE

Alexandru Antonache
Redactor

ctivitatea de conducere a fost mereu una dintre funciile dorite att de brbai, ct i de femei. Oare ne putem modela pentru un astfel de post sau trebuie s ne natem cu abiliti manageriale? Specialitii tind s cread c sunt valabile amndou. Totodat, ne ntrebm: Cine este mai eficient, femeia manager sau brbatul manager? ntre cele dou sexe exist distincii clare, chiar de ordin fiziologic, la nivelul creierului, care se manifest i n privina abilitilor manageriale. Potrivit unui studiu realizat de Universitatea Pennsylvania din SUA, creierul feminin este mai bogat n neuroni, oferind acestora o mai bun aptitudine de asociere i combinare a informaiilor diverse. Iar cele dou emisfere se mobilizeaz cnd femeile comunic. Partea neplcut este c sunt de dou ori mai afectate de depresie dect brbaii, pentru c au o bun memorie emoional i o mai mare nclinaie de retrire a amintirilor dureroase. n schimb, creierul masculin se bucur de avantajele unei cantiti mai mari de lichid cefalorahidian i de celule nervoase lungi (axoni), care i ajut s se orienteze mai bine

n spaiu. Dei creierul difer ca structur, n termeni de capaciti intelectuale este identic cu cel feminin. Muli susin c stilul de conducere masculin este la fel de eficient ca i cel feminin, ns exist i diferene legate de coninut. De exemplu, brbaii din poziiile de conducere tind s manipuleze mai mult pentru a ajunge n fa i pentru a se nelege cu ceilali, n schimb, femeile din poziiile de conducere sunt mai predispuse s fie mai exigente i sunt greu de mulumit. Ele tind s fie mai puin constante n modul n care i folosesc energia i emoiile. De-a lungul timpului, s-a ncercat s se identifice valorile spre care tind femeile i brbaii din poziii de conducere. n cazul femeilormanager, acestea tind s se implice n sprijinirea celorlali, s le pese de problemele personale ale angajailor i s se implice n aciuni care mbuntesc societatea. Femeile sunt loiale, respect autoritatea i tind s i bazeze deciziile mai mult pe sim i intuiie. n cazul brbailor-manager, acetia tind s preuiasc mai mult oportunitile de afaceri, banii i profitul.
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What does a female manager want?


1. To be treated with respect 2. To supervise 3. Income and benefits 4. Challenging work 5. Self-fulfilment Daniel Golemans recent studies show that managers and employees affective intelligence is increasingly recognized as a key to success factor. Women take more account of the emotional environment in the organization, the quality of relationships among employees and between employees and management. Women have a very fine and special sense that can immediately detect when the organizations emotional climate is affected and they can take action towards improving it, which will have a direct impact on productivity. Men need tangible and measurable evidence in this direction and are more result-oriented. In terms of academic training of genders, at the EU level, 58 per cent of the university graduates are women. Nevertheless, many women with higher education are lost on the road and do not achieve a successful career. Thus, in Europe women hold only 3 per cent of board directorships in listed companies in the stock market, and they hold no key position as central bank governors. At the same time, less than 5 per cent hold CEO positions, with a higher score in Romania that reaches 11 per cent. An area in which women have started to be visible in our country is the insurance industry, with over 30 per cent women managers. The list of the European countries with a low rate of women representation in leadership includes Italy, Poland and Malta. In politics, there were 16 per cent women at European level in 1997, 24 per cent in 2008 and their number reached 30 in 2010.1
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What does a male manager want?


1. Income and benefits 2. Challenging work 3. Opportunity for advancement 4. Authority in decision-making 5. Self-fulfilment In terms of decision-making style, women seem to take on a more democratic or more involved style than men do. One explanation would be that women are more concerned with interpersonal relationships than men and they are more aware that offering the employees an opportunity to participate in decision-making is beneficial to maintain good relationships with all. Another option would be that women are more skilled for interpersonal relations, such as making it easier for them to adopt a give in a bit to win a bit more somewhere else approach, which involves participation of subordinates. Women base their decisions on how this will affect the emotional state of the others, shall be guided by moral values and shall struggle to make such decisions as to meet or earn approval of the other people involved. In terms of negotiating skills, each gender has advantages and disadvantages. Women, for instance, are more intuitive and their instinct is a decisive factor. Another advantage women have in negotiation is networking, as they are more willing to foster and maintain a relationship, which is beneficial to a business in the long run. Men also have their advantages in negotiating. First, they are more detached from their issues, they dont take it personal, and that allows them to look for and find alternatives to the respective issues. They know better than women that the issues which arent solved today will be solved tomorrow. Among the countries that are facing the disparity between male and female employee

is Canada. Here it was shown that the Public Services create a less hospitable environment for women than for men. This is especially true for women managers who experience organizational climate in different ways than their fellow men. In this respect, a survey was conducted by the Canadian Centre for Management Development to study and supervise the experiences of men and women managers in two departments of a central government agency. The objective was to identify the differences between the two groups regarding job aspirations, experience in organizational climate, personal project approach and contributing factors to job satisfaction. Thus, one first aspect that was identified is that women managers are not supported in their projects by their teammates, superiors or the organizational culture. At the same time, another interesting result was that men and women experience the organizational work climate at different levels, but not in different ways. The results are unconventional; the organizational climate is discouraging, distant or obviously hostile to women. In spite of the fact that women represent 47.4 per cent of the overall Canadian Public Services employees, it is worth noting they only hold 19 per cent of senior managing positions; hence the issue of women managers dissatisfaction in the life of this organization. The main factors which cause this type of discrimination do not refer to the lack of interest as regards career or other personal issues, but mainly the organizational factors, such as inhospitable corporatist cultures, the policies and attitudes of male teammates which reflect and strengthen stereotypes. And yet, who is the perfect manager: Woman or Man manager? We believe the quality of being a good manager isnt characteristic of one gender or the other (man or woman), but it largely depends on the training, skills, values and verticality of the person holding this position.

linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii

Studiile recente ale lui Daniel Goleman arat c inteligena emoional a managerilor i angajailor este tot mai mult un factor de succes esenial. Femeile iau mai mult n considerare atmosfera emoional a companiei, calitatea relaiilor dintre angajai i dintre angajai i conducere. Ele au un ,,radar foarte fin, simt imediat cnd atmosfera emoional a companiei este afectat i pot aciona n direcia ameliorrii climatului afectiv, cu efecte directe asupra productivitii. Brbaii au nevoie de dovezi palpabile i msurabile n aceast direcie i se orienteaz mai mult spre rezultate. n ceea ce privete pregtirea universitar a sexelor, la nivelul Uniunii Europene, 58% din absolvenii de universitate sunt femei. Cu toate acestea, multe femei cu studii superioare se pierd pe drumul ctre o carier de succes. Astfel, n Europa, n boardurile companiilor listate la burs, se regsesc doar 3% femei i nu exist nicio doamn guvernator-ef al unei bnci centrale. n acelai timp, sub 5% dein poziii de CEO (Preedintele companiei), n Romnia nregistrnduse ns un scor mai mare, de 11%. Un domeniu n care femeile au nceput s se remarce la noi este cel al asigurrilor - peste 30% din manageri sunt doamne. Pe lista rilor europene, cu un scor mic n privina reprezentrii femeilor n funcii de conducere, se afl Italia, Polonia i Malta. n politic, n 1997 erau 16% femei, la nivel european, n 2008, 24%, iar n anul 2010 numrul acestora a ajuns la 30%1. n ceea ce privete stilul de luare a deciziilor, femeile par s adopte un stil mai democratic sau participativ dect brbaii. O explicaie ar fi faptul c femeile sunt mai preocupate dect brbaii de relaiile interpersonale i realizeaz c oferirea posibilitii subordonailor de a participa la decizii, este un mod de a menine relaii bune cu ei. O alt posibilitate ar fi faptul c femeile au abiliti mai nalte n relaiile interpersonale,

Ce vrea femeia manager?


1. s fie tratat cu respect 2. s supervizeze 3. venituri i beneficii 4. o munc provocatoare 5. sentimentul de mplinire aceast calitate fcndu-le mai uoar adoptarea unei abordri de tipul a ceda ceva pentru a ctiga altceva, pe care o presupune participarea subordonailor. Femeile i bazeaz deciziile pe modul cum vor afecta acestea starea emoional a celorlali, se ghideaz dup valori morale i se lupt s ia decizii care s ntruneasc sau s ctige aprobarea celorlalte persoane implicate. n ceea ce privete stilurile de negociere, fiecare sex are avantaje i dezavantaje. Femeile, de exemplu, sunt mult mai intuitive, iar instinctul este elementul determinant. Un alt avantaj n negociere al femeilor este relaionarea, fiind mult mai dispuse s cultive i s ntrein o relaie, ceea ce, pe termen lung, este benefic unei afaceri. Dar i brbaii au avantajele lor n negociere. n primul rnd, sunt mai detaai de probleme, nu le pun la suflet, iar acest lucru le permite s caute i s gseasc alternative la problemele pe care le au. Ei tiu mai bine dect femeile c, ce nu se rezolv azi, i va gsi soluie mine. Printre rile care se confrunt cu discrepana dintre angajatul brbat i angajatul femeie se numr i Canada. Aici, s-a demonstrat c Serviciul Public creeaz un mediu mai puin ospitalier pentru femei dect pentru brbai. Aceast realitate este, n special, valabil pentru femeile manager care experimenteaz climatul organizaional n moduri diferite fa de colegii lor brbai. n acest sens, un studiu a fost realizat de Centrul Canadian pentru Dezvoltare Managerial, care a urmrit experienele femeilor i brbailor manageri n dou departamente dintr-o agenie central

Ce vrea brbatul manager?


1. venituri i beneficii 2. o munc provocatoare 3. oportunitatea de avansare 4. autoritatea de a lua decizii 5. sentimentul de mplinire a guvernului. Scopul urmrit a fost acela de a identifica diferenele dintre aceste dou grupuri n ceea ce privete aspiraiile jobului, experiena climatului organizaional, abordarea proiectelor personale i factorii care contribuie la satisfacia jobului. Astfel, un prim aspect ce a fost identificat ar fi acela c femeile manager nu se simt susinute n proiectele lor de ctre colegii lor, de superiori sau de cultura organizaional. Totodat, un rezultat interesant a fost acela c femeile i brbaii experimenteaz climatul organizaional n care lucreaz la niveluri diferite, dac nu i n moduri diferite. Rezultatele sunt unele neconvenionale, climatul organizaional fiind descurajator, distant sau evident ostil femeilor. De menionat este faptul c dei femeile reprezint 47,4% din ntregul Serviciu Public canadian, ele ocup doar 19% din poziiile de senior din management. De aici i problema insatisfaciei femeilor manager n viaa acestei organizaii. Factorii primordiali care cauzeaz acest tip de discriminare nu se refer la lipsa de interes n ceea ce privete cariera sau alte caracteristici personale, ci, n primul rnd, la factorii organizaionali, cum ar fi culturile corporatiste neospitaliere, politicile i atitudinile colegilor brbai, care reflect i ntresc stereotipurile. i totui, cine e managerul perfect? Femeia sau Brbatul? Dup prerea noastr, calitatea de a fi un bun manager nu este caracteristic unui gen sau altul (brbat sau femeie), ci depinde de pregtirea, abilitile, valorile i verticalitatea celui care i asum aceast funcie.
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Importance of a Balanced Professional and Personal Life for Organizations and Employees
Work is ever present and seemingly tends to be more and more grounded in our lives to the disadvantage of our spare time. Worklife balance can be achieved in finding and maintaining the right pace and balance between work and non-work responsibilities in order to manage the competing demands of work and life outside the work and avoid detrimental situations in one field or the other. Achieving work-life balance can bring multiple benefits to an organization, and also to its employees. For example, the benefits for organizations may be as follows: Increased productivity, responsibility and individual commitment; Improved teamwork and team communication; A more relaxed climate within the organization; Increased performance due to more accountability and dedication of both employees and managers; Improved organizational health due to reduced stress and illnesses; Effective management of activities; Improved organization image; Increased employee involvement and loyalty to the corporation; A better recruitment of employees and selection of experiences and attracting talents; Retention of valued employees and reduction of employee turnover; Decreased costs of the organization generated by employee health problems The benefits for employees are as follows: More added value, more control and balance in everyday life, both in work and non-work activities; Increased involvement opportunities in community life; Increased productivity and higher job satisfaction; Good relationships at work and outside the work; A better physical and mental condition; Reduced stress and less negative transfer of issues from work to home and the other way round; A better quality of life; Increased opportunities for professional training; Higher incomes and associated benefits.
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linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii

Echilibrul dintre viaa profesional i personal beneficii pentru companii i angajai


Munca, este mereu prezent n viaa noastr, tinde, parc din ce n ce mai mult, s ctige teren n defavoarea timpului nostru liber. Echilibrul dintre viaa profesional i familie (work-life balance) poate fi atins prin gsirea i meninerea unui ritm optim ntre responsabilitile carierei i cele personale, pentru a evita situaiile n care poi avea succes pe unul dintre planuri, prin sacrificarea celuilalt. Atingerea unui echilibru poate aduce multiple beneficii pentru companie, dar i pentru angajaii acesteia. De exemplu, pentru companie, beneficiile ar fi urmtoarele: Creterea productivitii, responsabilitii i angajamentului individual; Munca i comunicarea n echip, mbuntite; O atmosfer destins n cadrul organizaiei; Creterea performanei datorat unor angajai i manageri mai responsabili i dedicai; mbuntirea sntii organizaionale, prin reducerea mbolnvirilor i a stresului; Gestionarea eficient a activitilor; mbuntirea imaginii companiei; Creterea implicrii i fidelitii angajailor fa de companie; O mai bun recrutare a angajailor i selectarea unor experiene diverse i atragerea de talente; Retenia angajailor valoroi i reducerea fluctuaiei de personal; Costuri sczute ale organizaiei generate de problemele de sntate ale angajailor. Pentru angajai, printre beneficii ar fi urmtoarele: Mai mult valoare, mai mult control i echilibru n viaa de zi cu zi, att la nivel profesional, ct i personal; Oportunitate crescut de implicare n viaa comunitar; Productivitate crescut i o satisfacie mai mare n munc; Relaii bune la locul de munc i n afara lui; O mai bun stare de sntate fizic i mental; Stres redus i mai puin transfer negativ al problemelor de la serviciu-acas i invers; O calitate mai bun a vieii; Oportuniti crescute de formare profesional; Venituri mai mari i beneficii asociate acestora.
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Not Afraid to be Happy!

ur ancestors were wives and mothers who dedicated themselves to their families, but they also wanted to be able to work and to benefit from the same rights as men. And so they fought for their emancipation and the parity between genders. Gender equity today isnt definite not even in the developed countries, but women have a chance to achieve their dreams and build up a career. And yet, modern women want both to have a career and family for a complete state of bliss. What todays women wish for is not only professional performance, but also be devoted wives and loving mothers. And the wonderful piece of news is: They can! But can a woman manage to maintain a healthy balance between her options? Our Latin ancestors would say: In medio stat virtus (virtue stands in the middle). And they would be perfectly right. The balance between our personal and professional life is not a general notion. Each of us has an inner balance and its crucial to not forget this when we make our choices. Rule number one in establishing your inner balance is that there are no rules. A woman must take into consideration her own priorities and listen to her body. When something goes wrong, the body gives the first signals of physical and mental discomfort. Insomnia, anxiety, depressive conditions are the result of interior unbalance. No matter what a woman might choose, she must be aware of her actions and the fact that this particular choice is her priority. We dedicate ourselves to our career, not because its trendy, or because our female friend did it and she is
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VIEWPOINT Olga Gorceag | Social worker, Milan, Italy now a successful woman. We devote ourselves to our families not because this is what our husband wishes or because we need to please him. Or we try to put the two together, because many women can do it so why couldnt I?! In choosing the right track for us and attaining our inner self balance, we would only listen to and respect ourselves, our wishes and our needs. Otherwise, we run the risk of becoming sweet wives and loving mothers who have put away their lifes dream in a secret drawer; or we can get ahead and on top in our careers with loneliness our only companion in the late evenings and at the weekends; or we can be unhappy that we have neither the career we wanted, nor did we dedicate enough time to our families. There are no good and bad choices. Any option is good, if it completely belongs to us and is exactly what we want it to be. A mirror can help us a lot. If when looking in the mirror, we can see a good looking woman who smiles, is elegant and romantic, that means we are on the right track. If you cant recognize yourself and the woman looking back at you from the mirror looks like an unhappy, sad and distressed woman, it means it is high time for a change; it is time to try and please her and cheer her up. The main ingredients in personal accomplishment are work (career) and a family. But let us not forget that there are many secondary ingredients which bring color into our lives and fulfill our dreams: our passions, friendships, lifes small pleasures and so on. The work-personal life balance can be achieved and we can be truly happy if we do not neglect our biological and social nature. So lets not be afraid to be happy!

linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii

S nu ne fie fric s fim fericite!

trmoaele noastre au fost soii i mame, s-au dedicat familiei, dar au dorit s poat munci i s aib aceleai drepturi ca i brbaii. i au luptat pentru emanciparea lor

OPINIE Olga Gorceag | Asistent Social, Milano, Italia i paritatea ntre sexe. Astzi, egalitatea ntre sexe nu este definitiv nici n statele bine dezvoltate, ns femeia are ansa de a-i realiza visele i de a face carier. i totui, femeia modern, pentru deplina sa fericire, le vrea pe ambele: munca (cariera) i familia. Femeia de azi nu vrea s fie realizat doar profesional, ci s fie i o soie devotat i o mam iubitoare. Minunat n toat aceast afacere este c Ea poate! Dar reuete, oare, femeia s menin un echilibru sntos ntre opiunile sale? Strmoii notri latini ar spune n aceast situaie: In medio stat virtus (virtutea este la mijloc) i ar avea perfect dreptate. Echilibrul ntre viaa profesional i cea personal nu este o noiune general. Fiecare dintre noi are un echilibru personal i este fundamental s nu uitm acest lucru atunci cnd facem o alegere. Regula numrul unu, n stabilirea propriului echilibru, este c nu exist reguli. Femeia trebuie s in cont de prioritile sale i s tie s-i asculte corpul. Atunci cnd ceva nu merge bine, corpul d primele semnale de disconfort fizic i psihic. Insomnia, anxietatea, strile depresive sunt rezultatele dezechilibrului interior. Orice ar alege femeia, ea trebuie s fie contient de ceea ce face i de faptul c aceast alegere este prioritatea ei. Ne dedicm carierei, nu pentru c este la mod, sau pentru c prietena noastr a fcut-o i este o femeie de succes. Ne dedicm familiei nu pentru c asta este dorina soului i vrem s-l mulumim pe cel de alturi. Sau ncercm s le mbinm, pentru c multe femei reuesc asta i eu de ce nu a putea?! n alegerea drumului bun i a echilibrului propriu trebuie s inem cont doar de noi nine i de dorinele i necesitile noastre. Altfel, riscm s devenim soii dulci i mame iubitoare, dar care toat viaa i-au ascuns visul vieii ntrun sertar secret. Sau putem ajunge departe n carier, sus de tot, iar n serile trzii i sfriturile de sptmn, singurtatea s ne in companie. Ori s fim nemulumite c nici carier nu am fcut cum am fi vrut i nici familiei nu i-am dedicat destul timp. Nu exist unele alegeri mai bune i altele mai puin bune. Orice opiune este bun, dac ne aparine n totalitate i este ceea ce vrem noi s fie. Oglinda ne poate ajuta. Atunci cnd ne privim i vedem o femeie care ne surde, care arat bine, este elegant i siropoas, nseamn c suntem pe drumul cel bun. Dac nu ne recunoatem, iar cea care ne privete din oglind ne pare o fiin nemulumit de sine, cam trist i abtut, nseamn c a sosit momentul s schimbm ceva, s ncercm s o mulumim i s o nveselim. Ingredientele principale n realizarea personal ar fi munca (cariera) plus familia. Dar s nu uitm c exist multe ingrediente secundare care ne coloreaz viaa i ne mplinesc fericirea: pasiunile, prieteniile, micile plceri ale vieii etc. Dac nu neglijm natura noastr biologic i social, echilibrul ntre munc i viaa privat poate fi stabilit i putem fi fericite. Deci, s nu ne fie fric s fim fericite!
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The Woman Who Works with Children

ach expert has his/her own style which includes both professional and individual components. All people working with children must be trained professionals, pursue the childs best interest, offer quality services, love children and love their job. Statistics show that 79 per cent of the positions in education, health and social assistance are held by women. Traditionally, the persons working in these areas of activity are women, and a large share of them is involved in direct activities with children. What do women working with children look like? Which are their traits? What defines their work? What makes them different from female lawyers, female chefs or female politicians? What about women as mothers or friends? Feminine energies are activated and released when working with children, and the emotional element is much more involved in this case caring, empathy, intuition are female attributes that professional skills and competences are built upon. This is why women who work with children do not suffer discrimination or unfair competition. They have chosen this job themselves and the job has chosen them. These are giving women first and they receive afterwards. In order to be able and work with children, a woman must be flexible, spontaneous, and inquisitive; such a woman must be alive, feel, keep her innocence and playful spirit unspoiled. She must activate her inner child so that she can understand the child she is working with, talk to him without looking like a child, play with him
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VIEWPOINT Simona Danciu | Speech therapist without being infantile... Because games and playing are a childs most important activity. At the same time it is important not to generate role confusion. She can be a childs teacher, babysitter, social worker, physician or psychotherapist, but without transferring herself into the mothers role. And yet, what is a woman who works with children? Is she a VIP? Is she a star? Is she a heroine? She experiences her joy and sorrow, routine and disappointment, love and failures exactly like the rest of us. She is mother and daughter, wife and friend. And her profession is... childcare. Her duty is to create, above all, a safe and secure environment for children to grow and develop. Where do we come across such a woman? In maternity wards, in schools or in kindergartens, in physicians and psychologists offices, in foster homes, in our own homes taking care of our children... Such a woman is in everyones life. Smile to her, trust her, tell her when shes wrong and always treat her with dignity and respect.

linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii

Femeia care lucreaz cu copii

iecare specialist are un anumit stil de munc, care include att componenta profesional, ct i pe cea individual. Toi cei care lucreaz cu copii trebuie s fie profesioniti, s urmreasc interesul superior al copilului, s ofere servicii de calitate, s iubeasc copiii, s-i iubeasc meseria. Statisticile arat c 79% dintre posturile din nvmnt, din sntate i asisten social sunt ocupate de femei. n mod tradiional, n aceste domenii de activitate lucreaz, n majoritate, personal feminin. O mare parte dintre acestea sunt implicate n activiti

OPINIE Simona Danciu | Logoped directe cu copiii. Cine este femeia care lucreaz cu copii? Ce caracteristici are? Ce-i definete munca? Cu ce se difereniaz de femeia avocat, de femeia buctar sau de femeia politician? De femeia mam sau de femeia prieten? n lucrul cu copiii se activeaz energiile feminine. i atunci este mult mai implicat componenta emoional - grija, empatia, intuiia sunt atribute feminine pe care se sprijin i se cldesc competenele profesionale. De aceea, femeia care lucreaz cu copii nu sufer de discriminare sau de concuren neloial. Ea i-a ales meseria i meseria a ales-o pe ea. Ea druiete, nainte de a primi. Pentru a putea lucra cu copiii, trebuie s fie flexibil, spontan, curioas, s triasc, s simt, s-i pstreze spiritul ludic i inocena. S-i activeze copilul interior, ca astfel s poat nelege copilul cu care lucreaz, s-i vorbeasc fr a se copilri, s se joace cu el fr a fi infantil... Pentru c cea mai important activitate a copilului este jocul. n acelai timp este important s nu fac confuzie de rol. Poate fi educatoare, babysitter, asistent social, medic sau psihoterapeut al unui copil, dar fr a se produce transferul ntr-un rol de mam. i totui, ce este femeia care lucreaz cu copiii? O personalitate? O div? O eroin? i triete bucuriile i tristeea, rutina i dezamgirea, dragostea i nemplinirile la fel ca noi, toate celelalte. Este mam i fiic, soie i prieten. Iar profesia ei este... copilul. Datoria ei este de a crea, nainte de toate, un mediu sigur i protejat n care acesta s creasc i s se dezvolte. Unde ntlnim o astfel de femeie? n saloanele pentru nounscui, n coal sau n grdini, n cabinete medicale i psihologice, n apartamentele de tip social, n propriile case ngrijindu-ne copiii... n viaa fiecruia dintre noi. Zmbii-i, acordai-i ncredere, spunei-i cnd greete i tratai-o, ntotdeauna, cu demnitate.
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The Concrete and Glass Jungle

VIEWPOINT Anca Preotu | Team Leader can hear the phone alarm ringing as if it were a dream. I hit the snooze button. At the second alarm, Ive already started to organize my daily agenda and I try to remember what meetings Im going to attend today. Yes, attend, and this is but one of the effects of the corporatist environment which has invaded my life. At 8:05 I say hello to my colleagues who got there bright and early and I turn on my laptop with my eyes half-closed on my way to the kitchen ... for coffee. 8:15 a.m. I open my e-mail and start making phone calls ... although I dont want to... I am completely awake and ready for work. The meetings begin, so do the video conferences, the archives search and the thousands of e-mails of which the bosses receive copies. I chose my clothes carefully for the morning: a silk blouse with a romantic flower pattern and the brown little suit. The shoes are obviously sky-high, because heels make me believe I can overcome anything. My hair is rounded with discrete curling pins. My accessories are even more discreet and my perfume is barely noticeable. Although my age doesnt help much, I manage to assert myself in the corporate jungle. You inevitably transform yourself and the change is noticeable when you no longer act in the familiar background and you can hear yourself uttering such expressions as it makes sense, it was assigned, or attend meeting was scheduled, which do not exist in the Romanian language as such and you dont quite get it why the rest of the world stares back at you open-eyed. Luckily phones and e-mails exist, otherwise I wouldnt have made it in the jungle you can imagine your interlocutor is a frightened child which you can dominate quoting from Guideline X or Internal Regulation Y, self assured and carrying a discreet smile in the corner of your lips on which you applied lipstick. However, in the meetings, where handshakes are inevitable, the battle is already lost. Men dominate women, even if they dont do it visibly or verbally... they do dominate us. And it is obvious from the very first contact: a handshake. At least at my job, where the industry is almost entirely masculine, men almost feel a sadistic pleasure in shaking womens hands up to almost crushing them in order to demonstrate their virility and supremacy.
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Nevertheless they are diplomatic and they at least try to see you as one of them. But if your skirt is too tight and your heels too high, they wont even grant you this right. It is hard staying a WOMAN in a corporate jungle because you will always have to make a choice: either play by the mens game and dissimulate your femininity and romanticism specific to your gender, or choose to emphasize your femininity, but then you risk to remain a nice trinket that doesnt even deserve to be promoted on the scale of professional evolution. Finding the balance between the two extremes is easier than it seems at a first sight: one must find the right outfit (I like to call this style the happy corporate womanwarm colours, discreet shades, fluid fabrics, perfectly cut), a firm, unspoilt voice, light accessories, of good taste, and the most important the perfume, the more subtle it is, the more professional you will look like - and not otherwise - in mens eyes. 17:59... I stayed overtime again and three emails are still waiting to be solved. I lower my eyes and I notice the flower pattern on my blouse... and Im telling myself in a loud voice: you CAN overcome anything! You are a woman!

linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii

Cnd jungla este de beton i sticl

OPINIE Anca Preotu | Team Leader ud alarma telefonului ca prin vis. Dau snooze. La a doua alarm deja ncep s mi organizez agenda zilnic i s ncerc s-mi amintesc la ce meeting-uri am dat attend pentru azi. Attend, da, este doar unul dintre efectele mediului corporatist care mi-a invadat viaa. mtase cu floricele romantice i costumaul maro. Pantofii desigur nali, simt c pe tocuri pot nvinge orice. Prul e prins discret. Accesoriile i mai discrete, iar parfumul spre inexistent. Dei nu m ajut vrst, reuesc s m impun n jungla corporatist. Debutnd n cmpul muncii ntr-un astfel de mediu, inevitabil te transformi, iar schimbarea o observi doar cnd nu mai eti n mediul familiar i te auzi zicnd detaat face sens, a fost asignat sau i-am dat attend la meeting i nu nelegi de ce restul lumii te privete cu ochi mari. Noroc c exist telefoane i mail-uri, altfel nu a fi rezistat n jungl... i poi imagina c interlocutorul tu este un puti speriat i pe care l poi domina citnd din Directiva X sau Reglementarea Intern Y, sigur pe tine i cu un zmbet discret n colul rujat al gurii. n schimb, la edine, acolo unde, inevitabil, au loc strngeri de mn, btlia este deja pierdut. Brbaii domin femeile, chiar dac nu o fac vizibil sau vocal...ne domin. i e evident de la primul contact: strngerea de mn. Cel puin la locul meu de munc, ntr-o industrie aproape n totalitate masculin, brbaii parc au o plcere sadic s strng mna femeilor foarte tare pentru a-i demonstra virilitatea i supremaia. Cu toate astea, sunt diplomai i ncearc mcar s te priveasc ca pe unul de-al lor. Dar dac fusta i-e prea strmt i tocurile prea nalte, nu i vor acorda nici mcar acest drept. Este greu s rmi FEMEIE ntr-o jungl corporatist pentru c mereu va trebui s alegi: ori le faci jocul brbailor i i maschezi feminitatea i romantismul specifice genului, ori alegi s i pui n evidena feminitatea, dar atunci riti s rmi doar un bibelou frumos care nu merit urcat pe scara evoluiei profesionale. Gsirea echilibrului dintre cele dou extreme este mai simpl dect poate prea la o prim imagine: trebuie doar s gseti inuta potrivit (prefer s numesc stilul corporatista vesel culori calde, dar tonuri discrete, materiale fluide, dar n croieli perfecte) vocea ferm i nu alintat, iar accesoriile discrete i de bun-gust i cel mai important parfumul, cu ct este mai discret, cu att brbaii te vor privi cu ochi profesioniti i nu altfel. 17:59...iar am stat peste program i trei mail-uri nc ateapt s fie rezolvate. mi cobor privirea i vd floricelele discrete de pe bluz...i mi spun tare: POI nvinge orice! Eti femeie!
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La 8:05 salut colegii mai matinali dect mine i deschid laptopul n timp ce plec cu ochii semi-nchii spre buctriespre cafea. 8:15 deschid mail-ul i ncep telefoanele ... dei nu vreau ... sunt complet treaz i apt de munc. ncep edintele, discuiile, video-conferinele, cutatul prin arhive i miile de mail-uri cu CC la efi. Dimineaa mi-am ales cu grij inuta: o bluz de

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Interview with Mrs.

Theodora Bertzi
A physician by profession, Theodora Bertzi was also a coordinator of the Department for Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities with the Ministry of Labour, among other important positions. She has advocated for the observance of equal opportunities and she believes that this principle is based on ensuring everyone total participation in the economic and social life, regardless of the ethnic origins, gender, religion, age, disabilities or sexual orientation.

C4C Communication for Community Association: We meet prejudices and stereotypes in each society. How do these manifest in Romania and which are the most affected social categories from a discrimination point of view? Theodora Bertzi: That is an interesting question and a difficult one to answer, because there is a certain discrimination in many aspects and it touches many people. If we were to talk about children, perhaps children with disabilities; they are the most discriminated because children with physical disabilities, but with good mental development, cannot go to normal schools. This is where parents meet most of the difficulties, starting with teachers mindsets and ending with the education area adaptability to those children. There are gender discriminations, there are racial discriminations, and here we have current examples. The Rroma claim they feel discriminated, and we assert that we have done a lot for them. I think the truth is somewhere in the middle. There are, of course, many discriminated categories, and this type of mentality starts with the education process. C4C Communication for Community Association: The modern state suggests, among others, the concept
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of equal opportunities for men and women. Is this process visible in Romania too, and if so, which is the stage we have reached? Theodora Bertzi: Yes, it is true that certain tasks in solving the issue of equal opportunities for men and women have been given to Romania before our admission in the European Union. These are not easy steps. From what we talk about to real life and putting these issues into practice there is a long way. Steps have been made - its true -, but they werent big and visible steps. In the Romanian society there are women doctors, teachers and other professional categories, but they work in execution areas. They are hard working women, they do well their job, they fulfill their duties and while these activities are good, they can also be looked upon differently. Thus, we see very few women in management positions, both at local and central levels. Usually, womens bosses are men so there is still much to be done. There are also pay differences and disparities in work experience and pensions. I think women should not accept these things. In my opinion, organizations who deal with the issue of discrimination should be the first to notice it. We must induce a different mentality on leaders and performers in order to achieve equal opportunities for men and women.

linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii

Interviu cu doamna

Theodora Bertzi
Medic de profesie, Theodora Bertzi, pe lng alte funcii importante, a fost i coordonator al Departamentului Afaceri Sociale i Egalitate de anse din Ministerul Muncii, Familiei i Egalitii de anse. A militat i militeaz pentru respectarea egalitii de anse i crede c acest principiu are la baz asigurarea participrii depline a fiecrei persoane la viaa economic i social, fr deosebire de origine etnic, sex, religie, vrst, dizabiliti sau orientare sexual.

Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: n fiecare societate ntlnim prejudeci i stereotipuri. Cum se manifest acestea n Romnia i care sunt cele mai afectate categorii sociale din punct de vedere al discriminrii? Theodora Bertzi: Da, interesant ntrebare i greu de rspuns, pentru c o oarecare discriminare exist n foarte multe direcii i atinge foarte muli oameni. Poate, dac ar fi s vorbim de copii, m gndesc aici la copiii cu dizabiliti. Ei sunt cei mai discriminai, deoarece copiii cu dizabiliti fizice, care au o dezvoltare mental bun, n cele mai frecvente cazuri, nu au cum s frecventeze cursurile unei coli normale. Aici prinii ntmpin foarte multe dificulti, pornind de la mentalitile pe care le au cadrele didactice pn la adaptabilitatea zonei pentru acei copii. Exsit discriminri n zona genului, exist discriminri ntre rase, iar acum avem exemple la ordinea zilei. Rromii declar c se simt discriminai, iar noi spunem c am fcut foarte multe pentru ei. Cred c adevrul este undeva la mijloc. Exist, ntr-adevr, multe categorii discriminate, iar aceste tipuri de mentalitii pornesc de la educaie. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Statul modern propune, pe lng altele, i conceptul

de egalitate de anse ntre femei i brbaii. Este vizibil n Romnia acest proces i dac da, n ce stadiu am reuit s ajungem? Theodora Bertzi: Da, este adevrat c, nc nainte ca Romnia s fie integrat n Uniunea European, au fost date rii noastre anumite teme pentru a rezolva problema egalitii de anse ntre femei i brbai. Paii nu sunt uori. De la lucrurile spuse, la realitile din via i pn a le pune pe acestea n practic, e drum lung. ntr-adevr, pot s spun c s-au fcut pai, dar acetia nu au fost foarte mari i vizibili. n societatea romneasc sunt femei medici, profesori i alte categorii, dar care lucreaz n zona de execuie. Aceste femei sunt srguincioase, i fac treaba, se ocup s duc la ndeplinire o aciune, o tem pe care o au n lucru i se pare c aceste activiti sunt bune, dar pot fi privite totodat i diferit. Astfel, n posturile de conducere, vedem foarte puine femei i asta att la nivel local, ct i central. De obicei, femeile au un ef brbat - aa c mai avem de lucru. Exist i diferenieri legate de salariu, vechime i pensii. Eu cred c femeile nu ar trebui s accepte aceste lucruri. Eu cred c organizaiile care se ocup de problema discriminrii ar trebui s fie primele care s se sesizeze. Ca s ajungi la o egalitate ntre femei i barbai trebuie s existe o mentalitate diferit, i asta
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C4C Communication for Community Association: Which is the role of the Department for Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities in this process? What have this department achieved so far and which is the future vision or plan?

C4C Communication for Community Association: We know that your basic profession is medicine. What categories of women are discriminated in terms of access to healthcare?

Theodora Bertzi: Unfortunately, women with poor Theodora Bertzi: You can sense my inner sighing here. financial situation and poor education are discriminated I hold this position between 2007 and the end of 2008. because they dont have a voice; they dont know what I must say that I noticed that the organization of this they want and how to express it, so they are consequently ministry doesnt eventually allow you to do what you discriminated. People are not patient with them. On the wish to do. This issue was under my attributions; there other hand, we have the Rroma women and children. was also a distinct agency, a legal entity, which was We have had the possibility to develop a project within also handling equal opportunities. In order to be able a community, a family childrens care home dedicated to people suffering from the HIV/AIDS virus. There have been negative Life and experience have taught me I shouldnt wait to reactions from the City be esteemed or promoted, but that I have to demand Hall, physicians, the my rights, to be recognized for what I believe in and community, reactions know I can do. against building this home and developing this project within and do something, this issue should be included in the their community. It was at that point that we realized strategy of the ministry; there must be centralization. we were neither ready, nor educated as we should be Thus, a special strategy should be formulated in in order to deal with non-discrimination the way we education, in long-life training and others. To sum up, want to. Among women, education emerges from I am not satisfied on this issue, as I havent reached the recognition of personal qualities, the existence of my goals during my office. I believe I could have done self-esteem, of knowledge to promote and represent more. There are a lot of things that must be changed in themselves. this social area which largely depends on the Ministry of Labour. C4C Communication for Community Association: One frequently used saying tells that there is a strong C4C Communication for Community Association: woman behind every strong man. In your opinion, Have there ever been any moments in your how true are these words? professional career when you felt discriminated? Theodora Bertzi: I think this is true. From my point of Theodora Bertzi: Discriminated may not be the right view, this means that women have the needed strength, word, but I felt rather underestimated; and I mean the intuition and the vision, but unfortunately they need political arena, and not necessarily my professional a man to put all these into practice and express them. life. Indeed, there have been situations when I knew I And why all these? Because, women dont unfortunately could perform better, or I had more qualities, or that have the strength to speak out their mind. They would I was better prepared than a man, yet a man took that not need any intermediary who, in this case, is their position before me. The solution is to be assertive, to husband, the man. come out and be more visible with what you know, Women play a balancing role in families, between show what you are able to achieve, and thus stand for children, grandparents, parents and so on. A woman what you believe in. Life and experience have taught me is the one who maintains the balance within her I shouldnt wait to be esteemed or promoted, but that I family. However, by playing this part, a woman learns have to demand my rights, to be recognized for what I to induce certain ideas to her husband and then he believe in and know I can do. A woman must have the makes the decisions. It would be ideal to overcome strength to represent herself and thus achieve the goals this aspect that a strong woman should be behind and she aims at. support herself.
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deopotriv a celor care conduc, ct i a celor care execut. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Care este rolul Departamentului Afaceri Sociale i Egalitate de anse n acest proces? Ce realizri are acest departament i care este viziunea sau planul pentru viitor?

de femei sunt discriminate din punct de vedere al accesului la sntate? Theodora Bertzi: Din pcate, femeile care au o situaie financiar foarte slab, o educaie slab, sunt discriminate pentru c nu tiu s se exprime, nu tiu ce vor i atunci sunt discriminate. Oamenii nu au rbdare cu ele. Pe de alt parte, sunt femeile rrome i copiii. Am avut posibilitatea s dezvoltm un proiect ntr-o comunitate, o cas de tip familial dedicat persoanelor afectate de virusul HIV/SIDA. Au existat reacii negative din partea Primriei, a medicilor, a oamenilor din zon, reacii mpotriva construirii acestei case i

Theodora Bertzi: Aici m vedei c am i oftat. Eu am ocupat aceast funcie ntre 2007 i sfritul anului 2008. Trebuie s v spun c am constatat c organizarea acestui minister nu-i permite, pn la urm, s faci ceea ce i doreti. Aceast tem se afla n atribuiile mele, exista ns i o agenie separat care se ocupa tot de egalitatea Viaa i experiena m-au nvat c nu trebuie s atept s de anse, o agenie cu o fiu apreciat sau s fiu promovat,ci c trebuie s cer eu personalitate juridic. ceea ce consider c mi se cuvine, ceeea ce cred i tiu eu Ca s se poat face ceva, c pot face. aceast tem ar trebui s fie nglobat n strategia ministerului. S existe o centralizare. Astfel, ar trebui formulat o strategie special n nvmnt, implementrii acestui proiect n comunitatea lor. Atunci n formarea continu i n altele. ntr-un cuvnt, ne-am dat seama c nu suntem pregtii i nici educai am nempliniri viznd aceast tem, n perioada pentru a privi non-discriminarea aa cum ne-am dori. mandatului meu. Cred c puteam s fac mai mult. n Educaia ine, n rndul femeilor, de recunoaterea domeniul acesta social, care ine de Ministerul Muncii, calitilor personale, de existena respectului de sine, multe lucruri trebuie schimbate. de tiina de a se promova i reprezinta. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Au existat situaii pe parcursul carierei dvs. n care v-ai simit discriminat? Theodora Bertzi: Nu a putea s spun neaprat discriminat, ci mai degrab neapreciat. Pornind mai ales din zona politic, nu neaprat cea profesional. ntr-adevr, au existat momente cnd tiam c pot face un lucru mai bine sau c am mai multe caliti, sau c sunt mai bine pregtit dect un brbat i, totui, brbatul a ocupat poziia naintea mea. Soluia ar fi s te afirmi, s spui ceea ce tii, s ari ceea ce eti capabil s faci, i, astfel, s-i susii punctul de vedere. Viaa i experiena m-au nvat c nu trebuie s atept s fiu apreciat sau s fiu promovat, ci c trebuie s cer eu ceea ce consider c mi se cuvine, ceeea ce cred i tiu eu c pot face. Femeia trebuie s aib fora s se reprezinte i, astfel, s accead acolo unde i dorete. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: tim c la baz suntei medic, de profesie. Ce categorii

Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: O sintagm des ntlnit n societatea de azi spune c n spatele unui brbat puternic se afl o femeie puternic. Ct adevr reiese, dup prerea dumneavoastr, din aceste cuvinte? Theodora Bertzi: Da, aa este. Din punctul meu de vedere acest lucru nseamn c femeile au fora, au intuiia, au viziunea dar, din pcate, au nevoie de un brbat care s pun aceste lucruri n practic, s le exprime. i de ce toate acestea? Pentru c, din nefericire, femeile nu au puterea s exprime ce gndesc. Ele nu ar trebui s mai aib nevoie de intermediarul care este, n cazul acesta, soul, brbatul. n familie, femeia joac acest rol de balan, ntre copii, bunici, prini i aa mai departe. Femeia este cea care ine n echilibru familia. Totui, jucnd acest rol, femeia se nva s induc anumite idei soului i atunci el ia deciziile. Bine ar fi s depim acest aspect, iar femeia s existe n spatele ei, n spatele unei femei puternice s existe chiar ea.
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Women and Men Health Differences


Physiologically, a womans body differs from a mans body. Womens capacity to give birth to life is undoubtedly the most obvious sign of this difference, but not the only feature that makes the biological gender difference. For example, heart disease symptoms are not the same in the two sexes. Furthermore, women differently react to certain drugs. There are 10 differences1 between men and women regarding their health, namely: 1. After having drunk the same amount of alcohol, women had a higher alcohol content in their blood than men, even if taking the weight differences into account; 2. Women who smoke are 20% up to 70% more likely to get ill from lung cancer than men who smoke the same amount of cigarettes; 3. Women tend to wake up much more quickly than men after an anesthetic: on average 7 minutes in women and 11 minutes in men; 4. Some analgesics are more effective to remove pain in women than in men; 5. Women are more likely than men to suffer a second heart attack during the year following the first attack; 6. The same drug can cause different reactions and side effects in men and women, even though they are the most popular drugs like antihistamines and antibiotics; 7. Even though women have a strong immune system to protect them from disease, they are more likely to suffer autoimmune diseases (diseases where the body is attacked by its own tissues). An example of such disease is multiple sclerosis; 8. When a woman has unprotected sexual relations with an infected partner, her chances to contract a sexually transmitted disease are twice as high and she is 10 times more likely to contract AIDS than a man; 9. The incidence of depression is thrice higher in women than in men, mostly because the feminine brain produces less serotonin; 10. After menopause, a woman loses more bone mass than a man, which explains the fact that 80% of people affected by osteoporosis are women.

Treatment based on Symptoms


In recent years, more and more scientific studies show significant differences between men and women diseases. From heart failure to lung disease, this is how therapies differ (or should differ), depending on the sex of the patient. Physicians can learn how to recognize that social roles may influence health. If a woman always complains that she is tired, the doctor should try to figure out if her indisposition is stressrelated or represents an overload with tasks from work and guide her to a counseling group rather than prescribe her tranquilizers or antidepressants.
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Another solution would be encouraging patients to do physical exercise in order to alleviate menopause symptoms and to extend life hopes, instead of being considered too fragile and be prescribed drugs that would harm them. Also, physicians should recognize the symptoms and signs of heart failures in women and understand that they are as important as those of men, and doctors / social workers involved in care services to women who are victims of domestic violence should guide them to safe locations where they can talk openly about their suffered trauma/abuse.

sntatea femeilor i a brbailor

Femei i brbai diferene privitoare la starea sntii


Din punct de vedere fiziologic, corpul femeii este diferit de cel al brbatului. Posibilitatea femeii de a da natere este, fr ndoial, manifestarea cea mai evident a acestei diferene, dar nu este singura caracteristic care i distinge biologic. De exemplu, simptomele bolilor de inim nu sunt la fel la ambele sexe. Mai mult, femeile reacioneaz diferit la unele medicamente.1 Exist 10 diferene dintre brbai i femei privitoare la starea sntii acestora, i anume: 1. Dup ce au consumat aceeai cantitate de alcool, femeile au un grad mai ridicat de alcoolemie dect brbaii, chiar dac se ine cont de diferena de greutate; 2. Femeile care fumeaz prezint cu 20% pn la 70% mai multe riscuri de a se mbolnvi de cancer de plmni, dect brbaii care fumeaz aceeai cantitate de igri; 3. Femeile au tendina de a se trezi mult mai repede dup o anestezie dect brbaii: n medie 7 minute la femei i 11 la brbai; 4. Anumite analgezice sunt mult mai eficiente pentru a nltura durerea la femei dect la brbai; 5. Femeile sunt mai predispuse ca brbaii s sufere o a doua criz cardiac n cursul anului care urmeaz dup prima criza; 6. Acelai medicament poate provoca reacii i efecte secundare diferite la brbai i la femei, chiar dac ele sunt medicamentele cele mai cunoscute, ca antihistaminicele i antibioticele; 7. Chiar dac femeile au un sistem imunitar mai puternic pentru a le proteja de boli, ele prezint un risc mai mare de a suferi boli autoimune (boli unde corpul este atacat de propriile esuturi). Un exemplu de astfel de boal este scleroza n plci; 8. Atunci cnd o femeie are raporturi sexuale neprotejate cu un partener infectat, ansele ei sunt de dou ori mai mari pentru a contracta o boal transmisibil sexual i de 10 ori mai mari de a contracta SIDA dect un brbat; 9. Incidena depresiei este de trei ori mai ridicat la femei dect la brbai, n mare parte din cauza producerii a mai puin serotonin de ctre creierul feminin; 10. Dup instalarea menopauzei, o femeie pierde mai mult mas osoas dect un brbat, ceea ce explic c 80 % din numrul persoanelor afectate de osteoporoz sunt femei.

Tratament n funcie de simptomele fiecruia


n ultimii ani, tot mai multe studii tiinifice arat c bolile brbailor i cele ale femeilor sunt diferite. De la infarct la bolile de plmni, iat cum se schimb (sau ar trebui s-o fac) i terapiile, n funcie de sexul pacientului. Medicii pot nva s recunoasc influena rolurilor sociale. Atunci cnd o femeie se plnge mereu c este obosit, medicul ar trebui s ncerce s-i dea seama dac indispoziia ei este legat de stres sau de suprancrcare cu sarcini de la serviciu i s-o ndrume ctre un grup de consiliere, mai degrab dect s-i prescrie tranchilizante sau antidepresive. O alt soluie ar fi s ncurajeze pacientele s fac exerciii pentru a atenua simptomele menopauzei i si prelungeasc speranele de via, n loc s fie considerate prea fragile i s le fie prescrise medicamente care s le duneze. De asemenea, medicii ar trebui s recunoasc simptomele i semnele care nsoesc crizele cardiace la femei i s neleag c ele sunt la fel de importante ca i cele ale brbailor, iar medicii/asistenii sociali care au n grij femeile care sunt victime ale violenei conjugale, s le ndrume ctre un spaiu sigur, unde s poat vorbi deschis despre traumele/abuzurile suferite.
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Interview with Mrs.

Simona Oprescu
About Simona Oprescu one can righteously say that she is three times a woman! First because she is a prosperous business woman; secondly because she is the youngest Vice President in the history of Arge County Council; and last but not least because she is a wife and mother. She has all these qualities and she is only 31 years old! A successful woman, who managed quite quickly to assert herself in a world generally dominated by men. Since 1999, she is a founding member of the Protin Foundation that supports young people and since 2006 she has been a member of Arge Businessmen Association.

C4C - Communication for Community Association: Throughout your professional career you have managed to hold offices where it is generally assumed that women find it difficult to access. What is, however, the secret of success for such a career? Simona Oprescu: People who are generally considered to be successful, be they men or women have made sacrifices in order to reach their goals. Unfortunately, ideals require sacrifices, and I believe that each one of us - apart from well defined goals, very hard work, good professional training and education and, last but not least, our qualities as people that are required from us -, in addition to all these sometimes needs to make sacrifices for what we want. C4C - Communication for Community Association: What are the social positions that women find it difficult to acceed to? Simona Oprescu: There are indeed areas where men usually perform. In general, as shown, the decisionmaking in both public and administrative life is a mens attribute. There are, however, areas where you will find brilliant women, usually in education, health,
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in such area where greater sensitivity is required. But, fortunately, in recent years and in absolutely all areas of activity - from the defense industry to women in the outer space such areas that were once considered strictly masculine - we have good examples of successful careers with ladies. There are women in power in such offices as the State Secretary for Defense its the case of Condoleezza Rice in the United States of America. So, fortunately, there are women models that have proved through their professional excellence that all is possible. I avail this opportunity to say that we need normality and that, regardless of the domain we (the ladies) will choose, we should try to naturally assert ourselves with no exaggerating - as it unfortunately sometimes happens, mainly in public life. And I mainly mean in this case politics and administration. C4C - Communication for Community Association: What is your position on the issue of equal opportunities between women and men? Simona Oprescu: I am not aware if my viewpoint is any closer to your projects philosophy, but I have an original vision about equal opportunities. From my point of view, any type of discrimination, whether positive or

sntatea femeilor i a brbailor

Interviu cu doamna

Simona Oprescu
Despre Simona Oprescu se poate spune, pe bun dreptate, c este de trei ori femeie! n primul rnd pentru c este o prosper femeie de afaceri, n al doilea rnd pentru c este cel mai tnr vicepreedinte din istoria Consiliului Judeean Arge i, nu n ultimul rnd, pentru c este o soie i mam. Toate aceste caliti le demonstreaz la doar 31 de ani! O femeie de succes, care a reuit destul de rapid s se impun ntr-o lume dominat, n general, de brbai. Din 1999 este Membru fondator al fundaiei pentru sprijinirea tinerilor Protin, iar din 2006 este membru al Asociaei Oamenilor de Afaceri Arge.

Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: De-a lungul activitii dvs. profesionale ai reuit s v aflai n anumite poziii sociale unde se presupune c femeilor le este dificil s accead. Care este, totui, succesul unui astfel de parcurs profesional? Simona Oprescu: Cei care sunt, n general, considerai oameni de succes, indiferent c sunt brbai sau femei, sunt acei oameni care au sacrificat ceva pentru a obine ce-i doresc. Din pcate, idealul cere sacrificiu, i cred c, pentru fiecare dintre noi, pe lng un scop bine definit, foarte mult munc, tenacitate, o bun pregtire profesional i, nu n ultimul rnd, calitile noastre ca i oameni; pe lng toate acestea, uneori suntem nevoii s facem sacrificii pentru ceea ce ne dorim. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Care sunt poziiile sociale unde femeilor le este dificil s accead? Simona Oprescu: Exist, ntr-adevr, domenii unde activeaz cu predilecie brbai. n general, dup cum se vede, decizia att n viaa public, ct i n cea administrativ, aparine brbailor. Exist, totui, i domenii n care femeile fac excelen; de obicei n

domeniul nvmntului, sntii, n domenile ce presupun o mai mare sensibilitate. Dar, din fericire, n ultimii ani, n absolut toate domeniile, dac vorbim de la industria aprrii pn la femeile cosmonaut i n domenii care cndva erau considerate strict brbteti, avem exemple de reuite prin doamne. Exist femei aflate la putere, chiar n postura de secretar de stat pe aprare, Condoleezza Rice, n cazul Statelor Unite ale Americii. Deci, din fericire, exist modele de doamne ce au demonstrat c se poate, prin competena lor profesional. Folosesc acest ocazie pentru a spune c avem nevoie de normalitate i c, indiferent de domeniul pe care (ca doamne) l vom alege, s ncercm s ne afirmm firesc i nu exagernd, cum se ntmpl uneori, din pcate, mai ales n viaa public i m refer aici la politic i administraie. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Care este poziia dvs. vis-a-vis de problematica egalitii de anse ntre femei i brbai? Simona Oprescu: Nu tiu dac punctul meu de vedere se apropie de filosofia proiectului, ns eu am o viziune original n legtur cu egalitatea de anse. Din punctul meu de vedere, orice tip de discriminare, fie ea pozitiv,
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negative is still discrimination. In being a woman, I do not wish to have better conditions than men; I do not wish that, at some point, be promoted because I am a woman, or because there is a quota system that allots jobs for women in a given organization. As far as public life is concerned, each one of us, in our capacity of project promoters, must assert ourselves as individual systems of values; and also prove our professional expertise and excellence. In one word, we must put to best use our most valued asset: our mind. I believe that through training and tenacity in a certain area,

Work Is Feminine is a project implemented by C4C - Communication for Community to support Romanian women achieve equity on the labor market. Do you think that such projects have the strength to change our views on these issues? Simona Oprescu: Yes, I strongly believe that each one of these projects is an opportunity for sharing examples of good practice. Such projects offer us a chance to broaden our horizon and improve our training. At the same time, I believe that the most important factor in society is education. In my opinion, this could tenacity in a be a starting point. can get at least In terms of gender education, I think that women performing in public life should miss no chance to explain to other women who listen to our voice and also to men - that we, all and every woman, have a strong argument which we seldom turn to. The argument is that every man has a mother, who is a woman, and that it is us, women, who educate men. But I do not think we should resort to gender education. I think that men should be educated or trained to behave the same manner in their family and in relation with other women, no matter who they are. I believe that it has been womens fault to have sometimes thought about ourselves that we are not acknowledged by a misogynistic society. We should think it over and use this primary advantage that nature has endowed us with: we educate both men and women for society. Another issue could be feminine empathy that women develop in their relationships with the environment. It is more difficult for a woman candidate to convince another woman elector, than a man elector, because women do not empathize with each other. This is a situation which men turn to their advantage quite often. Because, regretfully, where there are valuable women, we need a third teammate, a man, to lead them and help them understand each other. I think that in this case too we, educated women, who see beyond our pride, must acknowledge this vulnerability and manage to find a common language, a common cultural code and the same right tone, so that our statement should be heard.

I believe that through training and certain area, at a certain time, a woman comparable results to those of a man.

at a certain time, a woman can get at least comparable results to those of a man. During my career, I have worked with teams of men, teams of women and mixed teams. In my opinion, women are more rigorous, more ambitious, and more tenacious; and they sometimes bring out a part of their sensitivity, warmth and empathy that Mother Nature has endowed us with, thereby often generating more extra and added value which brings about better results in certain areas of activity. C4C - Communication for Community Association: A common phrase in todays society is that behind a strong man there is a strong woman. How true do you think this is? Simona Oprescu: I think this phrase is very well mirrored by todays society, as many male models or men considered to be successful at some point have been supported by their mothers, women of strong character, who gave them a good education. And behind their success stands certainly a wife who knows how to be both a partner and friend all at once, so as to have a balanced family life and a healthy and peaceful life as a couple. I believe this is a correct statement and I also think it is important both for women and men in public life. C4C - Communication for Community Association:
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fie ea negativ, este tot o discriminare. Eu, fiind femeie, nu mi doresc s am condiii mai bune dect ale brbailor, nu-mi doresc ca, la un moment dat, s fiu promovat pentru faptul c sunt femeie sau pentru faptul c avem un sistem de cot ce rezerv femeilor locuri ntr-o instituie. n ceeea ce privete viaa public, fiecare dintre noi trebuie s ne afirmm ca sistem de valori, ca promotori ai unor proiecte, ca i competen profesional. ntr-un cuvnt, trebuie s ne folosim ceea ce avem cel mai de pre, i anume, creierul. Cred c prin pregtire i tenacitate ntr-un anumit domeniu,

implementat de Asociaia C4C Communication for Community, care vine n spijinul femeilor din Romnia pentru obinerea egalitii pe piaa muncii. Suntei de prere c aceste proiecte au puterea de a schimba concepiile noastre asupra acestor probleme?

Simona Oprescu: Da, consider c fiecare dintre aceste proiecte reprezint o posibilitate de a face schimb de exemple de bune practici. Este o posibilitate de a ne lrgi instruirea i orizontul i, n acelai timp, consider c, n orice societate, cel mai important factor este educaia. Cred c de aici ar trebui s plecm, iar, n ceea ce Cred c prin pregtire i tenacitate ntr-un anumit privete educaia de gen, domeniu, la un moment dat, o femeie poate s obin cred c noi, doamnele rezultate cel puin comparabile cu ale unui brbat. din viaa public, nu trebuie s pierdem nici la un moment dat, o femeie poate s obin rezultate un moment pentru a le explica celorlalte doamne care cel puin comparabile cu ale unui brbat. De-a lungul ne ascult i, nu n ultimul rnd i domnilor, c noi, timpului am lucrat cu echipe de brbai, cu echipe de femeile, avem un argument forte pe care, din pcate, femei, cu echipe mixte. Din punctul meu de vedere, foarte rar l folosim. Acest argument este c fiecare doamnele sunt mai riguroase, mai ambiioase, mai brbat are o mam, femeie i c noi, femeile, suntem cele tenace, i, uneori, aduc ceva din sensibilitatea, cldura care facem educaia brbailor. Prin urmare, nu cred c i empatia cu care ne-a dotat mama natur, n felul ar trebui s facem aceast educaie difereniat. Eu cred acesta, de multe ori, producnd plus valoare i avnd n c ar trebui sa fie educai pentru a se comporta la fel n unele domenii rezultate mult mai bune. relaia cu familia i n relaia cu celelalte femei, oricare ar fi acestea. Cred c noi, ca femei, considerm c, Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: uneori, nu am fost suficient recunoscute de societatea O sintagm des ntlnit n societatea de azi spune pe care noi o numim misogin. Ar trebui s ne gndim c n spatele unui brbat puternic se afl o femeie c avem acest avantaj primordial pe care natura ni-l d puternic. Ct adevr reiese, dup prerea dvs., din s-i educm att pe brbai, ct i pe femei. aceste cuvinte? Un alt subiect ar putea fi acela al empatiei pe care noi femeile o dezvoltm n relaiile cu cei care Simona Oprescu: Cred c este o sintagm care se ne nconjoar. reflect foarte bine i n societatea contemporan; Pentru un candidat femeie este mult mai greu s-i multe exemple masculine, considerate de succes, la un conving un elector femeie, dect un elector brbat, din moment dat, au avut, n spatele lor, mame puternice cauz c femeile nu empatizeaz ntre ele. Aceasta este care le-au dat o educaie bun. Iar n spatele succesului o situaie pe care, de foarte multe ori, brbaii o folosesc prezentului exist, cu siguran, o soie care tie s-i foarte bine n favoarea lor, fiindc, din pcate, acolo fie i partener i suport, de aa manier nct acas s unde avem femei valoroase, avem nevoie de un al treilea aib o via de familie echilibrat i o via de cuplu coechipier, brbat, care s le conduc i care s le fac s sntoas i linitit. Cred c este corect afirmaia i se neleag ntre ele. Cred c i aici noi, femeile educate, cred c este important, att n cazul femeilor din viaa care reuim s vedem mai departe de lungul nasului, public, ct i n cazul brbailor. trebuie s ne contientizm aceast vulnerabilitate i s reuim s gsim un limbaj comun, un cod cultural Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: comun i aceeai tonalitate, de aa manier nct s nu Munca are genul feminin este un proiect mai facem dialogul surzilor.
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Women in Mass Media

he media is imbued with traditional and sexist stereotypes where women play a controversial part and are seen in multiple roles - from housewives to sex objects - says a media survey report conducted under the national ALTFEM project (http://www. altfem.ro/). ALTFEM is a campaign aiming to change womens image and perception in society. The report indicates that only one third of women recorded by journalists are shown as professionals or experts, while in all the other cases they are presented as social actors who acquire their status due to their association with a powerful man or their own physical and sexual abilities. Most media coverage reveals the general perception that women are fit for household work and care and skilled to educating and upbringing children; while suitable work for men is related to power, decisionmaking, technical skills and physical strength. Men are considered to be better managers than women, on the premise that they make fast decisions, take risks and are less amenable and more rational. Women in leadership are harshly judged when associated with failure or incompetence. The survey also points that more men than women appear in TV broadcasts (12% women versus 88% men). This disparity is mainly owing to talk-shows, where professional life is strongly emphasized and in which women are rarely invited to participate in. On the other hand, the prestigious professions are practiced by men. Women invited in TV broadcasts mostly originate from such areas of activity as showbiz, entertainment or modeling. However, women and men are equally invited in entertainment
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broadcasts that emphasize the guests or third parties personal lives. During the examined period, there have been almost 300 identified cases where TV-show guests or hosts have delivered stereotypebased judgments on women or men. The most frequent stereotype is related to women being perceived as housewives or subordinated to men. In the advertising industry, the actions of the characters that appear in commercials differ depending on their gender. Most actions performed by female characters are domestic, in the line of daily activities that help their family or husbands feel good. Another type of action in ads that women are associated with refers to body care. Male characters are cast to impersonate people waiting to be cared for, but also keen on sports or performing outdoor activities. In the news media, the male

versus female imparity is higher than in TV shows, because men are shown as main characters in articles, sometimes three times more than women. Women appear more frequently in tabloids than in mainstream newspapers. The survey undertaken by ALTFEM was carried out during 15 February and 15 May, 2011, and monitored 6 TV stations and 4 daily newspapers. In 2010, Romania was ranked number 67 out of 134 in the Global Gender Gap top, on the issue of women discrimination in education, economy, professional field, healthcare and politics. The countries where women were least discriminated in 2010 are Iceland, Norway, Finland, Sweden and New Zealand. The countries with the highest women discrimination rate are Yemen, Chad, Pakistan and Mali.

femeia n societate. percepii i contribuii

Femeia n mass-media

paiul media este impregnat cu stereotipuri tradiionaliste i sexiste, n care femeia are un rol controversat, de la gospodin la obiect sexual, potrivit raportului de analiz media al proiectului naional ALTFEM (http://www.altfem.ro/), o campanie pentru schimbarea imaginii femeii n societate. Raportul arat c doar o treime din femeile invocate de jurnaliti sunt prezentate n calitate de profesioniti sau experi, n restul cazurilor acestea sunt prezentate ca actori sociali care i dobndesc statutul datorit asocierii cu un brbat puternic sau datorit calitilor fizice i sexuale. n majoritatea relatrilor media, a reieit c muncile considerate potrivite pentru femei presupun ngrijire i organizare a cminului i abiliti de a educa i de a crete copii, iar cele potrivite pentru brbai sunt relaionate cu puterea de a lua

decizii, abiliti tehnice i for fizic. Brbaii sunt considerai mai buni manageri dect femeile, plecndu-se de la premisa c iau decizii rapide, i asum riscuri i sunt mai puin influenabili i mai raionali. Femeile n poziii de conducere sunt aspru judecate atunci cnd sunt asociate cu eecul sau incompetena. Studiul mai arat c brbaii sunt mai numeroi n apariiile TV dect femeile, disproporia fiind dat de emisiunile talk-show, n care accentul cade pe viaa profesional i n care femeile apar foarte rar (12% apariii femei, 88% apariii brbai). Pe de alt parte, meseriile de prestigiu sunt practicate de brbai. Femeile invitate la emisiuni televizate provin mai ales din domenii de activitate precum showbiz, divertisment sau modeling. Totui, femeile i brbaii apar n egal msur n emisiunile de

divertisment, n care accentul cade pe viaa personal a invitailor sau a unor tere pri. n perioada analizat au fost identificate aproape 300 de cazuri, n care invitaii sau gazdele emisiunilor TV au emis judeci despre femei sau brbai la baza crora se afl un stereotip, cele mai dese fiind legate de statutul de gospodin al femeii i subordonarea ei fa de brbat. n publicitate, aciunile personajelor din reclame sunt foarte diferite, n funcie de sex. Cele mai multe aciuni ale femeilor sunt de natur casnic, activiti zilnice n care ajut brbatul sau familia, n general, s se simt mai bine. O alt aciune cu care sunt asociate femeile, n reclame, se refer la ngrijirea corporal. Brbaii apar mai curnd ca persoane care ateapt s fie ngrijite, dar i n ipostaza de joc sau n timpul unor activiti n aer liber. n presa scris, disproporia apariiilor este mult mai mare dect n emisiunile TV, pentru c brbaii apar ca personaje principale n articole, uneori i de trei ori mai mult dect femeile. Femeile apar mult mai mult n tabloide dect n ziarele generaliste. Studiul ALTFEM s-a desfurat n perioada 15 februarie-15 mai 2011, timp n care au fost monitorizate 6 televiziuni i 4 cotidiene. n 2010, Romnia s-a clasat pe locul 67 din 134 n clasamentul Global Gender Gap, privind discriminarea femeii n domeniul educaiei, economiei, profesional, al sntii i n politic. rile n care femeile au fost discriminate cel mai puin n 2010 sunt Islanda, Norvegia, Finlanda, Suedia i Noua Zeeland. Cele n care femeile sunt discriminate cel mai mult sunt Yemen, Ciad, Pakistan i Mali.
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Women in Literature

VIEWPOINT Ivan urcan | A student at the History and Philosophy Faculty, Moldova State University oman. A name we so often hear in society and so common in literature. The woman gives birth to the world, ... nothing is made without her and everything is for her (Anatole France), the world lives by women (Jules Michelet). The woman! Shes perhaps the only creature on this earth that is honored in all forms of art and culture. The woman! Shes the matter that has made its presence felt everywhere, in all times, in all stages and hypostases. She has been praised in poetry, sung in odes, pictured in paintings and sculptures; she has hallmarked history. She is depicted in every stage of life: daughter, lass, mistress, wife, mother and grandmother. Her strengths and weaknesses, her qualities and flaws have all been recalled, perhaps because nothing can replace the woman, and thats why shes so highly spoken of (Victor Du). The woman is the cell of creation and lifes real or imaginary scenarios revolve around it. Many writers have expressed their ideas about women. Some have seen woman as a good element of society, others, on the contrary, considered her the root of all-evil, perhaps because a woman is always changeable and capricious (Virgil) and she is the root of all sins (Liviu Rebreanu). Womans physical and spiritual beauty has been highly debated. A woman conquers a city with a smile and a kingdom with another (Chinese proverb) There is no greater sin for a woman than not to be born beautiful (Anatole France), which opens, most times, all the doors for her. The first impression is important, and if a woman is not pleasing to the eye, in most cases she doesnt have the opportunity to demonstrate that she is a good person, or that she is extremely clever. The advantage of our time is that women have more options to hide or conceal natures mistakes, they are more open to information and because a womans mind works differently than a mans (James Clavel) women have learned that One is not born a woman, one becomes one (Simone de Beauvoir). Women have offered men sublime moments or food for reflection, or they made them exclaim: Frailty, thy name is woman (William Shakespeare). A woman has always invited men to see her as she wanted to be seen (Mircea Eliade), she would never allow to be seen but how she wants to be seen; she has often behaved about men as she wanted men to behave about her, as to her
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behavior she depended on the man she loves (Andre Maurois). All these patterns of behavior have not been always understood or approved by men, but let us not forget that a woman got Adam out of Paradise (Victor Du) which proves that she has strong will and authority over man, that she is gifted in making him happy and, without realizing it, because of her impossible temper, she can destroy everything (Alberto Moravia). Behind every great man there have stood a special woman who was able to contribute to the best interest of her family, her husbands and the people about her. There are many women who have influenced mens decisions, such as Josephine for Napoleon; so as men do not want peace out the window when woman enters the door (Romain Rolland) they have learned from their own or others experience to marry a suitable wife (Quintilian) and not forget that A bag of fleas is easier to keep watch over than a woman (Romanian proverb). Womens company is the element in which social distinction is developed (J.W. Goethe) and two world powers are greater than all: God in heaven and mother on earth; A man is as God made him and what he is raised by his mother who gave birth to him (G.G. Lovinescu), because education depends on the mother (Aristotle). And since God cannot be everywhere, He made mothers (Arabian proverb), who became the name of God in the heart and on the lips of young children (WM Thackeray). The woman! The muse lost and found! The woman! She was, is and will always be regarded as a compass that guides the society, because all civilized nations have respected the woman (J.J. Rousseau).

femeia n societate. percepii i contribuii

Femeia n literatur

OPINIE Ivan urcan | student n cadrul Facultii de Istorie i Filosofie, Universitatea de Stat din Moldova emeia, cuvnt auzit att des n societate i att de des ntlnit n literatur. Femeia face lumea, ...nimic nu se face dect prin ea i pentru ea (A. France), lumea triete prin femei (Jules Michelet). Femeia! Poate singura fiin de pe acest pmnt omagiat n toate formele de art i cultur. Femeia! Elementul ce s-a tiut face simit oriunde, oricnd i n toate ipostazele i feele ei. A fost slvit n poezie, cntat n ode, reprodus n picturi i sculpturi, i-a pus, de multe ori, amprenta asupra istoriei. A fost amintit n fiecare etap a vieii sale: copil, iubit, amant, soie, mam i bunic. I s-au prezentat calitile i defectele, punctele tari i punctele slabe, poate i pentru c nimic nu ine loc de femeie, de aceea au un pre att de mare (Victor Du). Femeia este celula fiecrei creaii, n jurul ei se nvrtesc scenariile vieii, reale sau nchipuite. Foarte muli scriitori i-au spus punctul de vedere n privina femeii. Unii au vzut n ea un element bun al societii, alii, dimpotriv, au considerat-o cauza tuturor relelor, poate i pentru c femeia e mereu schimbtoare i nestatornic (Vergiliu) i este nceputul tuturor pcatelor (Liviu Rebreanu). Extrem de discutat a fost i este frumuseea femeii, att cea fizic, ct i cea interioar. Cu un surs femeia cucerete un ora i cu nc unul un regat (proverb chinezesc). Nu exist pcat mai mare pentru o femeie, dect s nu se nasc frumoas (Anatole France), fapt ce i deschide, de cele mai multe ori, toate uile. Prima impresie este important, iar dac femeia nu este plcut ochiului, n cele mai multe cazuri nu mai are posibilitatea s demonstreze c are un suflet bun sau c deine o inteligen deosebit. Avantajul timpurilor noastre este c femeile au mai multe posibiliti s ascund sau s corecteze greelile naturii, au o deschidere mai mare spre informaie i, pentru c mintea unei femei lucreaz altfel dect aceea a unui brbat (James Clavel), au nvat c femeie nu te nati, ci devii (Simone de Beauvoir). Le-au oferit brbailor momente sublime sau subiecte de gndire, ori i-au fcut s exclame: Slbiciune, numele tu este femeie! (William Shakespeare). Femeia a invitat ntotdeauna brbaii s o priveasc aa cum vrea ea (Mircea Eliade), nu a artat niciodat ceea ce nu a vrut s se vad, s-a comportat n preajma brbailor de multe ori aa cum i dorea ea ca brbaii s se poarte, a depins n ceea ce privete moravurile ei de acel pe care l iubete (Andr Maurois). Toate aceste comportamente nu au fost nelese sau agreate ntotdeauna de ctre brbai, dar, s nu uitm c femeia l-a scos pe Adam din Rai (Victor Du), dovedind faptul c are o voin pronunat i demonstrat, dar i o putere foarte mare asupra brbatului, c are darul de a-l face fericit i, fr s-i dea seama, prin caracterul ei imposibil, reuete s distrug totul (Alberto Moravia). n spatele fiecrui om mare s-a gsit o femeie deosebit, ce a tiut s i aduc aportul la binele familiei, al brbatului su i al celor din jur. Au fost multe femei ce i-au influenat brbaii n luarea deciziilor, aa cum a fost, de exemplu, Josefina pentru Napoleon i, dac nu vor s ias linitea pe fereastr, cnd intr femeia pe u (Romain Rolland), brbaii au nvat, din experiena lor sau a altora, s-i ia o soie potrivit (Quintilian) i s nu uite c se poate pzi un sac cu purici, o turm de iepuri, dar o femeie nu (proverb romnesc). Societatea femeilor este elementul n care se dezvolt distincia social (J. W. Goethe) i dou puteri sunt n lume mai mari dect toate: Dumnezeu n cer i mama pe pmnt. Un om este aa cum vrea Dumnezeu i cum l crete mama care l-a fcut (G. G. Lovinescu), pentru c toat educaia depinde de mam (Aristotel). i pentru c Dumnezeu nu poate fi peste tot, El le-a fcut pe mame (proverb arab), care au devenit numele lui Dumnezeu din sufletul i de pe buzele copiilor mici (W. M. Thackeray). Femeia! Muza pierdut i regsit! Femeia! A fost, este i va fi privit ntotdeauna ca o busol dup care se ghideaz societatea, pentru c toate popoarele civilizate au respectat femeia (J. J. Rousseau).
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Gender Differences in Rock Culture


VIEWPOINT Ph.D. Student, Engineer Rare Terec | Cluj-Napoca Technical University, Technical Engineering Faculty Music is one of the most important areas in relaxation and personal need. And just like any other field, it is equally drawn by both male and female presence, from the standpoint of both those who produce it and who consume it. A rock singer is quite easy to identify. Long hair or sometimes clean shaved head, sometimes a punk haircut, predominating dark clothes, metal accessories on the belt or clothes, symbols with different meanings, here are just a few of the immediately visible things when it comes to this musical segment. But even with rock music, men and women dispute their differences both related to their fans and the addressed topics. If rock singers often sing about male images, fights, wars, chaos, philosophical or abstract themes, women often choose more sentimental songs as they are more prone for nature or emotions. Remarkable as they are in extreme styles, the approaches of masculine singers emanate energy and an intense drive to masculinity, an ardent fan trying to emulate his idol singer. The message is less relevant. How it reaches the audience and what state it transfers is more important as it often conveys typical male instincts (depending on the vocal approach). At the other extreme, women singers tend toward romantic songs, less intense in terms of energy, but more strongly inclined to the message sent. Although not focusing on a physical drive, the message is also meant to inspire a state, but rather one of empathy, appreciation, harmony. The man in rock music is considered a kind of god, if he has enough fans. He lives a hectic life, does whatever he wants and he is a symbol of rebellion against rules imposed by society. Although he touches various themes, including honor or rise to higher levels of existence, he is a powerful representative of personal freedom taken to extremes. Moreover, some singers become sex symbols, their image breaking patterns considered to be universal and even looking like women. The woman in rock music is considered a diva, and does not promote the same self-destructive image like the man. She is defined by much more personal balance and a high degree of maturity. Although there are singers that address styles previously considered exclusive for men (death and
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black would be good examples in this area), they somewhat retain their feminine features, which may denote a greater acceptance of self-image; or a stronger appraisal. There is no competition between genders when it comes to singing. On the contrary, there is a great number of bands in which both a man and a woman play, and are equally appreciated. Things take an even more homogeneous turn if we talk about the fans. There is a certain resemblance between the styles of the two genders, so that men predominantly focus on physical traits - such as long hair, beard, leather or dark clothes - and women display the same clothing style, bright or subtle makeup, but necessarily on a darker line, on darkest backgrounds, on a so-called gothic line. We may notice the use of unusual colors for dyeing the hair, black eye-liner around the eyes, which becomes a leit-motif, and what is again surprising is that even some men color their nails. Clothing differences are almost inexistent, leaving visible only the proportions of each person. Long shirts, dark jeans or hooded and printed flannels, they all become symbols of appreciation of favorite bands. Rings with animal heads or macabre themes, sometimes chains hanging from pants, long nails are elements of similarity between the two genders. Continuing the predilections of each, there is a universal appreciation for motorcycles and many currents are based on the bikers lifestyle. In fact, the inspiration comes also from the favorite bands, who took over different desires of freedom promoted as a form of protest to rules and have turned this event into ways of manifestation of life and its principles. Therefore, a much better structure of the relations between the sexes can be notices. There are not so many prejudices, there is a nearly exclusive favor of the opposite gender in terms of partners, and tastes that could be classified as obscure or sometimes unfit seem to operate as a strong binder in this case. So, despite the strangeness of this phenomenon that is rock, the interaction between the genders does take place in a much more pleasant and more open background, which can only lead to the conclusion that even the unusual can eliminate the unwanted barriers of sexism.

femeia n societate. percepii i contribuii

Diferenele de gen n cultura rock


OPINIE drd. ing. Rare Terec | Universitatea Tehnic din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Inginerie Tehnic Muzica este unul din domeniile cele mai importante n materie de relaxare i necesitate personal. i, la fel ca orice alt domeniu, este n egal msur trasat de prezena masculin ct i de cea feminin, att din punctul de vedere al celor care o produc, ct i din punctul de vedere al celor care o consum Cntreul de muzic rock este destul de uor de identificat. Prul mai lung sau, uneori, complet ras n cap, alteori creast punk, hainele predominant nchise, accesorii de metal la curea sau pe haine, simboluri cu diverse semnificaii sunt doar cteva din lucrurile imediat vizibile cnd ne referim la acest segment musical. Dar chiar i n cadrul lui, femeia i brbatul i disput diferenele att asupra fanilor, ct i asupra temelor abordate. Dac solitii rock vor cnta adesea despre imagini masculine, lupte, rzboi, haos, teme filozofice sau abstracte, femeile au adesea piese de natur sentimental, cu predispoziie spre natur sau emoii. Remarcabile n genurile extreme, abordrile solitilor de genul masculin eman energie intens i o antrenare spre masculinizare, un fan nfocat ncercnd s-i emuleze idolul cntre. Mesajul e mai puin relevant dect felul n care acesta atinge asculttorul i ce anume i transmite ca stare, adesea fiind vorba de instincte tipic masculine (depinznd de abordarea vocal). La extrema cealalt, solistele de genul feminin tind spre piese romantice, mai puin intense din punct de vedere energic, dar mai puternic nclinate spre mesajul trimis. Dei nu se axeaz pe o antrenare fizic, mesajul este tot menit s inspire o stare, ns mai degrab una de empatie, de apreciere, de armonie. Brbatul n muzica rock este considerat un fel de zeu, dac are suficieni fani. Are o via haotic, face orice i dorete i este un simbol al rebeliunii mpotriva regulilor impuse de societate. Dei atinge teme variate, incluznd i onoarea sau ascensiunea spre nivele mai nalte de existen, este un puternic reprezentant al libertii personale dus la extrem. Mai mult, unii soliti devin sex-simboluri, imaginea lor trecnd peste anumite tipare considerate universale i ajungnd chiar la asemnri cu femeile. Femeia n muzica rock este considerat div, i nu promoveaz aceeai imagine auto-distructiv precum brbatul. Este definit de mult mai mult echilibru personal i un grad ridicat de maturitate. Dei exist soliste care abordeaz genuri, n trecut considerate exclusiv brbailor (genul death i black ar fi bune exemple n acest domeniu), ele i rein oarecum trsturile feminine, ceea ce poate s denote o mai bun acceptare a propriei imagini. Sau o mai ferm apreciere a acesteia. Nu exist concuren ntre cele dou sexe cnd vine vorba de cntat. Dimpotriv, sunt un numr foarte ridicat de trupe n care cnt att un brbat, ct i o femeie, i sunt deopotriv apreciai. Dac facem referiri la fani, lucrurile iau o turnur i mai omogen. Apare o oarecare asemnare ntre stilurile celor 2 sexe, astfel c brbaii pun accent predominant pe trsturi fizice precum prul lung, barba, hainele de piele sau nchise la culoare, iar femeile prezint acelai stil vestimentar, machiaje fie stridente, fie discrete, dar neaprat pe o linie mai nchis, pe fundaluri mai negre, pe o aa zis linie gothic. Se remarc folosirea culorilor neobinuite pentru vopsirea prului, eye-linerului negru n jurul ochilor, care devine un laitmotiv, i ceea ce este iari surprinztor e c pn i unii brbai i coloreaz unghiile. Diferenele vestimentare devin aproape nule, rmnnd vizibile doar proporiile fiecruia. Tricourile lungi, blugii nchii la culoare sau flanelele cu glug i imprimeu, toate devin simboluri de apreciere ale formaiilor favorite. Inelele cu capete de animale sau tematici macabre, uneori lanuri agate la pantaloni, unghii mai lungi sunt elemente de asemnare dintre cele 2 sexe. Continund predileciile fiecruia, se constat o apreciere universal a motocicletelor i multe curente au la baz lifestyle-ul de biker. De altfel, inspiraia vine tot de la formaiile favorite, care au preluat diverse dorine de libertate promovate ca form de protest asupra regulilor i au transformat acest lucru n moduri de manifestare a vieii i a principiilor acesteia. Se poate observa deci, o mult mai bun structurare a relaiilor dintre sexe. Nu exist att de multe prejudeci, este o favorizare aproape exclusivist a sexului opus n materie de parteneri, iar gusturile care ar putea fi catalogate drept obscure sau nepotrivite uneori, par s funcioneze ca i un liant puternic n acest caz. Deci, n toat ciudenia acestui fenomen care este rock-ul, interaciunea dintre sexe are loc pe un fundal mult mai plcut i mai deschis, ceea ce nu poate dect s duc la concluzia c pn i neobinuitul poate elimina barierele neplcute ale sexismului.
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WOMEN
in the Bible
VIEWPOINT by Alexandru Antonache | Editor The role of women in society is undoubtedly one of the most important topics. Just because he is more physically strong, the man has imposed abominable rights onto the woman, disparagingly treating her as a slave and having the right to life and death over her. The kickback came promptly. The feminist movement succeeded to a great extent to overthrow the traditional clichs, reaching the extreme, so that it no longer recognized the natural differences between men and women. However, how should we grasp the biblical values of this divine institution the family - and how does woman become relevant in the Church and society? Theology is very reluctant when it comes to talking about the woman to the modern world. Confronted with suffragettes and feminists, with womens emancipation and willingness to match and even outrun men, theology seems rather abusive, for example when woman is denied priesthood, when she is silenced in church or told that man is the head of the woman. These and many other sensitive issues are consuming the modern womans relationship with the Church and are the cause of rebellion, especially among young women. Many Christians claim that their religion has raised women from a
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level of abasement to a higher level of equity. There is not a shred of truth in that. Throughout its history, Christianity has denied women their right to be equally treated as human beings. Today, the Catholic Church, the Mormons and other Christian fundamentalist religions prohibit women to hold office in the male church hierarchy. These churches are against the law for equal rights, womens right to have a career outside the home, freedom of choice over their own bodies. Why so? The inferior status endured by women under Judaism and, later, during Christianity, is a consequential outcome, an effect of the sexist attitude of the Bible towards women. Going through the Bible, one can note an obvious inequity between men and women. Men are considered more important, useful, valuable and smarter than women. The womans role is to be silent, to obey her husband, to bear and give birth to as many children as possible. Women are not allowed to have any authority over men. The biblical ideal is always an obedient woman. These biblical attitudes reflect the ideas of the primeval society and the period when the Bible was written. Undoubtedly, the need to justify this unbalanced attitude against women has led to the invention of the Eve myth. In her frailty, Eve

femeia n societate. percepii i contribuii

FEMEIA
OPINIE Alexandru Antonache | Redactor Rolul femeii n societate este, indiscutabil, unul dintre cele mai importante subiecte. Doar pentru c ar fi avut mai mult for fizic, brbatul i-a impus drepturi odioase asupra femeii, desconsidernd-o pn la nivelul la care s o trateze ca pe o roab i a avea drept de via i de moarte asupra ei. Reculul nu s-a lsat ateptat. Micarea feminist a reuit ntr-o mare msur s rstoarne clieele tradiionale, ajungnd la extrema de a nu mai recunoate diferenele naturale ntre brbai i femei. Totui, cum trebuie s nelegem biblic valorile acestei instituii divine, familia, dar i modul n care femeia devine relevant n biseric i societate? Teologia are multe reineri atunci cnd trebuie s vorbeasc lumii moderne despre femeie. n faa sufragetelor i a feministelor, n faa emanciprii femeii i a dorinei acesteia de a-l egala i chiar de a-l ntrece pe brbat, teologia apare mai degrab ca ofensatoare, de pild atunci cnd i refuz femeii preoia, i cere s tac n biseric sau i spune c brbatul este capul ei. Acestea i multe alte subiecte sensibile macin relaia femeii moderne cu Biserica i constituie tot attea pricini de revolt, mai ales printre tinere. Muli cretini pretind c religia lor a ridicat femeile de la un nivel al degradrii, la un nivel mai ridicat

din perspectiva biblic

al egalitii. Nimic nu poate fi mai departe de adevr. De-a lungul istoriei sale, religia cretin a interzis femeilor dreptul lor la a fi tratate ca i fiine umane egale. n zilele noastre, biserica catolic, a Mormonilor i alte religii cretin-fundamentaliste interzic femeilor s ocupe vreun loc n ierarhiile bisericeti alturi de brbai. Aceste biserici se opun legislaiei pentru drepturi egale, dreptul femeii la a avea o carier n afara casei, libertate de alegere asupra propriilor lor trupuri. De ce? Statutul inferior al femeii n timpul iudaismului i, mai trziu, n timpul cretinismului, este un rezultat logic, un rezultat al atitudinii sexiste a Bibliei fa de femei. Parcurgnd Biblia putem observa o inegalitate evident ntre brbai i femei. Brbaii sunt considerai mai importani, mai utili, mai valoroi i mai detepi dect femeile. Rolul femeii este s tac, s asculte de soul ei, s poarte i s dea natere la ct mai muli copii. Femeilor nu le este permis s aib vreo autoritate asupra brbailor. Idealul biblic este ntotdeauna femeia supus. Aceste atitudini biblice reflect ideile societii primitive din perioada n care a fost scris Biblia. Fr ndoial, nevoia de a justifica aceast atitudine dezechilibrat fa de femei a condus la inventarea
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has eaten the forbidden fruit and consequently marred humankind forever. This unique story gave a rational reason for the hatred against women. A few women were glorified in the story of Ruth and the Song of Solomon, but they were praised only for their obedience and their fighting spirit. These books are evidence of positive attitudes of the Bible towards women! New translations and revisions of the Scriptures may have changed a few words, but the traditional misogyny is still there. Elizabeth Cady Stanton wrote in The Womans Bible: Whatever the

As long as a woman regards the Bible as the charter of her rights, she will be the slave of man
Robert G. Ingersoll

Bible may be made to do in Hebrew or Greek, in plain English it does not exalt and dignify woman. Quoting the biblical texts that refer to the role that woman deserves, theologians, priests and spouses have succeeded to convince themselves and women that womens inferiority is given by God and that is why women have suffered for centuries. Saint Thomas DAquino, the great Catholic theologian and philosopher, said: With regard to the individual nature, woman is inferior, because the generative power of the male seed tends to create a perfect resemblance in accordance with the masculine sex. The birth of woman is defective of generative power; or a consequence of material ailments or even of external influences such as the south wind, which is wet, as Aristotle noted . (Elizabeth A. Clark, Women and Religion)
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Things have not changed for the better when Martin Luther emerged. He wrote: God created Adam lord of all creatures, but Eve spoiled it all. Women should stay at home, sit still, keep house, and bear children. If a woman grows weary and dies of childbirth, it does not matter. Let her die bearing children; that is all she is here for (Barbara Walker, The Womans Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets). St. Augustine said: Any woman who does not give birth to as many children as she is capable of, she is guilty of murder. Today, Reverend Jerry Falwell (USA), the leader of the Moral Majority vigorously opposes the legislation for equal rights because it defies the law saying that the husband is the head of the woman, just as Christ is the head of the church. Falwell also says: Furthermore, I believe that the movement for womens liberation is based on a core group of women who grew bored at a time with their life, whose problems are of spiritual order. These women have never accepted the roles that were given to them by God. Southern Baptists, the largest U.S. Protestant Church, voted against the acceptance of women preachers at the 1984 Convention, arguing that: they must keep a submission that God requires. The resolution quotes the Bible which says that women should not be allowed in Church hierarchy over men, otherwise confusion will reign. Pope John Paul II used to tour all over the world, already overpopulated, and he would state that women are forbidden to resort to contraception or abortion even in cases of rape or incest. He would also advise them to revert to their traditional roles as obedient companions and servers

to their husbands. Also he would not admit audience to anyone who supported the idea that women should enter the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church. Nowadays, just as in the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church has as main argument against anointing women for ministry that if a priestess should be menstruating while serving Mass, it would pollute. The Catholic Encyclopedia still argues that women are inferior to men both in terms of body and soul. Josephine Henry, a 19th century advocate for the womens right to vote, accused the Churches for their sexist attitudes over the centuries. Has the church ever said that women should have equal rights with men to religious and civil laws? No institution in the modern world is as tyrannical and unjust to women as the Christian Church. The Church demands for everything and gives them nothing in return. The Churchs history does not contain any single suggestion on equality of women. Only tyranny and lies enables Christianity to keep women obedient.(Barbara Walker, The Womans Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets) However, there are different opinions in the same Christian Church, arising from an important representative of the Romanian Orthodox Church, father Arsenie Papacioc: the woman is ...a wonderful creation of God. Do you realize what power a woman has to get you out of a heartsick condition? When a man knows that he has perfect love at home, that makes him work, win wars, solve his problems. You should know that the woman does not think in a simple manner. Even if she is not taught, she has great insight power and she is more practical than a man. She has, even today, a feeling for tomorrow. We discuss, we rationalize certain things, but there is nothing rational about love.

femeia n societate. percepii i contribuii

mitului Evei. Eva, n slbiciunea ei, a mncat fructul interzis i, n consecin, a nenorocit omenirea pe vecie. Aceast singur poveste a dat un motiv raional pentru ura mpotriva femeilor. Cteva femei au fost glorificate n povestea lui Ruth i cntecul lui Solomon, dar ele au fost ludate doar pentru obediena lor i pentru spiritul lor de lupt. Aceste cri sunt, uneori, dovezi ale unor atitudini pozitive ale Bibliei fa de femei! Noile traduceri i revizuiri ale Scripturii or fi schimbnd ele unele cuvinte, dar misoginismul tradiional rmne. Dup cum a scris Elizabeth Cady Stanton n Biblia femeii: indiferent care a fost scopul Bibliei n ebraic sau n greac, n englez nici nu ridic n slvi femeia, nici nu este un lucru demn pentru femei . Citnd textele biblice ce se refer la rolul ce se cuvine femeii, teologi, preoi i soi au reuit s se conving pe ei i pe femei c inferioritatea femeii a fost lsat de la Dumnezeu i c femeile au suferit din aceast pricin secole ntregi. Sfntul Thomas D`Aquino, marele teolog i filozof catolic afirma: n ceea ce privete natura individual, femeia este inferioar; deoarece puterea activ din smna masculin tinde ctre crearea unei asemnri perfecte n conformitate cu sexul masculin. Naterea femeilor survine n urma unor defecte n puterea activ; sau n urma unei indispoziii materiale, sau chiar a unor influene externe, cum ar fi cea a vntului de sud, care este umed, dup cum filozoful Aristotel a observat . (Elisabeth A. Clark, Women and Religion) Lucrurile nu s-au schimbat n bine cnd a aprut Marthin Luther. Acesta a scris: Dumnezeu l-a creat pe Adam stpn al tuturor vieuitoarelor, dar Eva a stricat totul. Femeile ar trebui s stea acas, s aib grij de cas i s dea natere la copii. i dac o femeie obosete i, ntr-un final, moare din cauza naterilor, nu conteaz. Din pricina naterii s moar, pentru lucrul acesta exist. (Barbara Walker, The womans encyclopedia of myths and

secrets). Sfntul Augustin spunea: Orice femeie care nu d natere la atia copii ct este capabil, se face vinovat de multe crime. Astzi, reverendul Jerry Falwell (USA), capul Majoritii Morale, se opune energic unei legislaii pentru drepturi egale deoarece sfideaz legea care spune c brbatul este capul femeii, la fel cum Hristos este capul bisericii . Falwell mai afirma: Mai mult, eu cred c la baza micrii pentru eliberarea femeilor exist un nucleu de femei care au fost plictisite la un moment dat cu viaa lor, ale cror probleme sunt de ordin spiritual. Aceste femei nu au acceptat niciodat rolurile care le-au fost lsate de la Dumnezeu. Southern Baptists, cea mai mare biseric protestant din USA, a votat la Convenia din 1984 mpotriva acceptrii femeilor n rndul predicatorilor, declarnd c trebuie s pstreze o supunere pe care Dumnezeu o cere. Rezoluia citeaz Biblia care spune c femeile nu trebuie lsate n ierarhii bisericeti deasupra brbailor, altfel confuzia va domni . Papa Ioan Paul al II-lea fcea turnee prin toat lumea, i aa suprapopulat, spunnd femeilor c le este interzis s foloseasc mijloace de contracepie sau s fac avort chiar i n caz de viol sau incest. El le sftuiete s se ntoarc la rolurile lor tradiionale ca tovare obediente i servante ale soilor lor. De asemenea, refuza s acorde audiene oricui susinea ideea de a introduce femei n rndul preoilor Bisericii Catolice. n zilele noastre, la fel ca n Evul Mediu, Biserica Catolic are, ca principal argument mpotriva numirii de femei ca preoi, motivul c o preoteas cu menstruaie ar murdri. Enciclopedia catolic nc susine c femeile sunt inferioare sexului

Atta timp ct femeile vor privi Biblia ca pe carta drepturilor lor, ele vor fi sclavele brbailor.
Robert G. Ingersoll

masculin att n ceea ce privete trupul, ct i sufletul . Josephine Henry, o lupttoare, din secolul 19, pentru dreptul femeilor la vot, a acuzat bisericile pentru atitudinile lor sexiste de-a lungul secolelor. A spus vreodat biserica, c femeile trebuie s aib drepturi egale cu brbaii n faa legilor religioase i civile? Nicio instituie din lumea modern nu este att de tiranic i nedreapt cu femeile cum este Biserica Cretin. Le cere totul i nu le ofer nimic n schimb. Istoria Bisericii nu conine vreo singur sugestie asupra egalitii femeilor. Doar prin intermediul tiraniei i minciunii este cretinismul n stare s in femeile supuse. (Barbara Walker, The womans encyclopedia of myths and secrets) Cu toate acestea, exist i preri diferite, n cadrul aceleai Bisericii Cretine, din partea unui reprezenant de seam al Bisericii Ortodoxe Romne, printele Arsenie Papacioc: femeia este ...o creaie extraordinar a lui Dumnezeu. V dai seama ce putere are o femeie s te scoat dintr-o stare amrt. Faptul c un brbat tie c acas are parte de o iubire desvrit l face s munceasc, s ctige rzboaiele, s-i rezolve problemele. S tii c femeia nu gndete simplu. Chiar dac nu e nvat, ea are o putere de ptrundere deosebit i e mult mai realist dect un brbat. Ea are, nc de astzi, un sentiment pentru ziua de mine. ns noi discutm, raionalizm nite lucruri, dar n iubire nu este nimic raional .
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VIEWPOINT

Ph.D. Student Raluca Rdescu Beneficiary of Doctoral Scholarships for developing a knowledge-based society, a project co-financed by the European Union through the European Social Fund, the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013

The Feminine Elite of the Romanian Society


Few are aware what cultural, social and political inheritance such exceptional women as Queen Mary, Elena Vcrescu, Martha Bibescu or Alexandrina Cantacuzino left to Romania. Whether they were directly involved in politics, or they did charity work, or they established community services for social and medical assistance, these great Ladies of Romania represent, unwittingly or perhaps not, the vanguard of the movement for the affirmation of human dignity, regardless of race, ethnicity, religion, class or gender. The attention these women gave to the disadvantaged (persons) - the sick, injured, abandoned children, artists seeking for affirmation , the relief that many of them brought to soldiers in wars and their promoting our countrys interests above their own - as physicians, lawyers, artists, politicians wives - are imprinted in the DNA of this country. We can see their influence and strength when visiting one of the hospitals in Bucharest that was built by the Colea or the Cantacuzino family; or when going to Balcic to admire the peaceful and calm place for creation of many Romanian artists; or when visiting the Enescu Museum in Sinaia, built by Queen Mary in order to host the great composer and give him proper space for creation. At a time in history when referring to human actually meant man, sometimes by the year 1882, Titu Maiorescu said: How could we really entrust the fate of nations in the hands of beings whose brain capacity is ten percent smaller? Today most developed brains barely get to lead a nation towards progress and material prosperity ... From 1000 weighted heads it has
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resulted 1410 grams average weight with men and only 1250 with women. In this context, such emancipated great ladies as Ella Negruzzi (1876-1949) believed that women should be granted the right to vote because women work, pay taxes, and because it is unfair that in a democratic country, where all citizens take part in electing their government, women would not exercise their voting right. In addition to her professional duties, Ella Negruzzi established the Womens Empowerment Society through which she specifically struggled for equity for women in public life. She understood womens empowerment in terms of their affirmation in all areas and holding positions directly related to their education and skills. Advocating reassessment of womens status in the Romanian society, she also turned her attention and efforts towards women in rural areas, trying to acquaint them with the new trends for an efficient work organization in households or childrens education. Politically, she was a member of the National Peasant Party and served as town councilor for the capital city of Bucharest. Ella Negruzzi also gained distinction in writing feminist articles for various legal publications. Queen Mary (1875-1938), the second queen of Romania (1914-1927), came to the country in 1893 to marry Prince Ferdinand, the nephew of King Charles I and the heir to the throne. The Princess, later to become the Queen of Romania, was more popular than her husband Ferdinand, due to her personal qualities and strong involvement in the social and political life. Over the years, she gained the attention and affection

femeia n societate. percepii i contribuii

drd. Raluca Rdescu Beneficiar a proiectului Burse doctorale pentru dezvoltarea societii bazate pe cunoatere, proiect cofinanat de Uniunea European prin Fondul Social European, Programul Operaional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013

Elita feminin a societii romneti


Puini cunosc motenirea cultural, politic i social pe care femei precum Regina Maria, Elena Vcrescu, Martha Bibescu sau Alexandrina Cantacuzino au lsat-o Romniei. Fie c s-au implicat direct n sfera politic sau au fcut acte caritabile i nfiinat servicii comunitare de asisten social i medical, aceste mari Doamne ale Romniei, au constituit, involuntar sau nu, o avangard a micrii de afirmare a demnitii umane, indiferent de ras, etnie, religie, cast social sau gen. Prin atenia acestor femei pentru persoanele defavorizate bolnavi, rnii, copii abandonai, artiti n cutarea afirmrii - prin alinarea pe care multe dintre ele au adus-o soldailor n timpul rzboiului i prin promovarea intereselor rii mai presus de cele proprii, n calitate de medici, avocai, artiste, soii de oameni politici, doamnele de mai sus i-au lsat amprenta n ADN-ul acestei ri. Le vedem influena i puterea atunci cnd vizitm unul din spitalele din Bucureti construite la decizia Familiei Colea sau Cantacuzino, sau mergem la Balcic i vedem oaza de linite i creaie a multor artiti romni sau cnd vizitm Muzeul Enescu din Sinaia, construit de Regina Maria pentru a-l gzdui pe marele compozitor i a-i oferi un spaiu propice creaiei. ntr-o perioad n care istoria fcea referiri la om, dar prin aceasta se nelegea de fapt brbat, cndva, n jurul anului 1882, Titu Maiorescu afirma: Cum am putea ntr-adevr s ncredinm soarta popoarelor pe mna unor fiine a cror capacitate cranian este cu zece la sut mai mic? Abia ajung astzi creierii cei mai dezvoltai pentru a putea conduce o naiune pe calea progresului i prosperitii materiale... Din 1.000 de cpni msurate a rezultat 1.410 grame greutate mijlocie la brbat i numai 1.250 la femei . n acest context, doamne emancipate precum Ella Negruzzi (1876-1949), considerau c femeile trebuie s primeasc drept de vot pentru c femeile muncesc, pentru c pltesc impozitele, pentru c este nedrept ca ntr-o ar democratic, unde toi cetenii iau parte la alegerea guvernului, femeile s nu exercite acest drept . Pe lng activitile profesionale, Ella Negruzzi fondeaz societatea Emanciparea femeii, prin intermediul creia a cerut, expres, echitate n viaa public pentru femei. Vedea emanciparea acestora prin prisma afirmrii lor n toate domeniile i ocuparea de funcii n raport cu pregtirea i capacitatea fiecreia. Militnd pentru reevaluarea statutului femeii n societatea romneasc, i-a ndreptat eforturile i ctre femeile de la sat, ncercnd s le familiarizeze cu noile tendine n organizarea eficient a muncii n gospodrie sau n educaia copiilor. Pe plan politic, a fost membr a Partidului Naional rnesc i a avut funcia de consilier municipal al capitalei. Ella Negruzzi s-a remarcat i prin articolele feministe scrise pentru diverse publicaii juridice. Regina Maria, (1875-1938), cea de-a doua regin a Romniei (1914-1927), a venit n ar n 1893, prin cstoria cu principele Ferdinand, nepotul de frate al regelui Carol I i motenitorul tronului. Principesa motenitoare, regina de mai trziu, a fost mult mai popular dect soul ei, Ferdinand, datorit calitilor sale personale i a implicrii puternice n viaa sociopolitic. De-a lungul anilor, a ctigat atenia i
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OPINIE

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of Romanians for her directness, beauty, remarkable character, openness and determination. Among the most important things she has achieved are her contributions to the war effort and diverse acts of charity. Politically, she was the personal advisor to King Ferdinand and an ambassador of the Romanian diplomatic cause, after World War I. In her private life, finesse and an exquisite taste for arts turned her over the years into a true protector of arts. She awarded scholarships to and supported the new generation of Romanian artists, painters, poets and musicians. Martha Bibescu (1889-1973) is one of most the brilliant examples that illustrates the role of the feminine elite in the Romanian society, as important as the masculine part. Martha Bibescu showed that the public arena in its social and cultural dimension may also include women, who gracefully conquered their place through their wits and determination. Through her marriage to Prince George Valentin Bibescu, nephew by his fathers side of George Bibescu, the Prince who gave up the throne in 1848, the writer becomes Princess Martha Bibescu and enters a princely family. By marriage, she was kin to Ana-Elisabeta Brncoveanu, Countess Anne de Noailles and Elena

[...] we have the very duty to strengthen the family life, give the woman grander concerns, ask her to share all responsibilities; we should give up the doll woman, the luxury-item woman, the eternal-child woman, who believes she can only live through her husbands work, and the lesser woman who does not realize what real needs of life are . Alexandrina Cantacuzino
Vcrescu, but also in direct lineage to the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. She was a writer, philanthropist and politician. She took on the pen name Lucile Decaux and became a famous writer, covering many styles. Some of her works were awarded literary prizes by the French Academy. During World War I, Martha Bibescu conducted a hospital for the wounded; she played a crucial diplomatic part during the war in supporting the entry of Romania as an ally of Great Britain and France. Maria Rosetti (1819-1893) continues the line of remarkable Romanian women. She was the first Romanian journalist and set up together with her husband, C.A. Rosetti, the newspaper The Romanian.
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It is said about Maria Rosetti that she was an inspired writer and that she wrote with romantic enthusiasm. She also stood out in relief for her involvement in organizing and conducting charities and campaigns for starvation eradication and fundraising. Mama Rose, as she used to be called by Sabina Cantacuzino, was not only a successful editor, but also the publisher of Mother and Child, a weekly literary magazine that published articles and translations about child tuition. In this publication, Maria Rosetti held a small section devoted to the correspondence to young readers, where they would receive tips to solve their diverse problems. Alexandrina Cantacuzino (1877-1944) was among the first feminists in Romania. She advocated the intellectual, political and legal emancipation of women. In 1929 she founded the first political party exclusively dedicated to woman membership: the National Association of Romanian Women. This was an innovative group whose ideas supported the separation of powers in the state, independence of legislative acts and a new status for women. Alexandrina Cantacuzino said: [...] we have the very duty to strengthen the family life, give the woman grander concerns, ask her to share all responsibilities; we should give up the doll woman, the luxury-item woman, the eternal-child woman, who believes she can only live through husbands work, and the lesser woman who does not realize what real needs of life are. Florica Bagdasar (1901-1978) graduated in 1925 the Faculty of Medicine in Bucharest and afterwards distinguished herself in the pioneering work for the treatment of malaria. In 1946, she was the only woman member of the Romanian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference. In the same year she established the Center for Mental Hygiene and initiated, for the first time in Romania, the treatment programs for retarded children or children with behavior issues. Florica Bagdasar became, in 1946, the first woman minister of Health of Romania, an office that she was suddenly taken away from in 1948. A memorial plate on the building at 13 Sperantei Street, in Bucharest, reminds us that Dr. Dumitru Bagdasar and Dr. Florica Bagdasar had lived here. Women who have written our history Our history conceals remarkable women, although they are rarely talked about or not included in such classifications as Great Romanians. However, exceptional Romanian women brought honor to our people through their courage and determination and they deserve to be acknowledged. Hariclea Darcle (1860-1939) is one of the most important personalities in Romania and an internationally appraised soprano. Hariclea Darcle charmed audiences and became the favorite of many

femeia n societate. percepii i contribuii

dragostea romnilor prin spontaneitatea, frumuseea, distincia i caracterul ei deschis i hotrt. Printre cele mai importante lucruri pe care le-a realizat se numr contribuia pe care a adus-o la efortul de rzboi i alte activiti caritabile. n plan politic, a fost consilierul personal al Regelui Ferdinand i ambasador al cauzei diplomatice romneti, dup primul rzboi mondial. n plan personal, rafinamentul i gustul pentru art au transformat-o peste ani ntr-o adevrat patroan a artelor, susinnd, prin burse, noua generaie de artiti romni, pictori, poei i muzicieni. Martha Bibescu (1889-1973) reprezint unul din strlucitele exemple ce ilustreaz rolul elitei feminine n societatea romneasc, unul la fel de important ca al

[...] avem datoria nsi, pentru ntrirea acestei viei familiale, s dm femeii preocupri mai nalte, s o chemm s mpart toate rspunderile, s renunm la femeia ppu, la femeia obiect de lux, la femeia eternul copil, care crede c poate tri numai din munca brbatului, la femeia minor care nu-i d seama de nevoile reale ale vieii. Alexandrina Cantacuzino
celei masculine. Martha Bibescu a demonstrat c sfera public, neleas mai ales n dimensiunea sa social i cultural, le poate cuprinde i pe femei, care i-au cucerit locul nu numai prin inteligen i hotrre, dar i cu mult graie. Prin cstoria cu prinul George Valentin Bibescu, nepot de frate al lui George Bibescu, domnitorul abdicat n 1848, scriitoarea devine astfel prinesa Martha Bibescu, intrnd ntr-o familie princiar, din care mai fac parte Ana-Elisabeta Brncoveanu, contesa Ana de Noailles i Elena Vcrescu, dar i cu rude franceze n genealogie direct cu familia mpratului Napoleon Bonaparte. A fost scriitoare, filantroap i om politic. Sub pseudonimul de Lucile Decaux, a ajuns o scriitoare faimoas, abordnd mai multe stiluri, unele lucrri fiind premiate chiar de Academia Francez. n timpul primului rzboi mondial, Martha Bibescu a condus un spital pentru cei rnii n rzboi, jucnd un rol diplomatic crucial pe perioada rzboiului, prin susinerea intrrii Romniei n rzboi, de partea Angliei i a Franei. Maria Rosetti (1819-1893) continu irul femeilor remarcabile ale Romniei. A fost prima ziarist din

Romnia, nfiinnd, alturi de soul ei, C.A. Rosetti, ziarul Romnul. Despre Maria Rosetti se spune c scria bine, cu nsufleire romantic, fcndu-se remarcat prin implicarea n organizarea de aciuni de caritate, campanii de eradicare a foametei, strngerea de fonduri. Mama Rose, cum era denumit de ctre Sabina Cantacuzino, a fost nu doar un redactor de succes, ci i editoarea publicaiei Mama i copilul, revist literar sptmnal n care se publicau articole i traduceri despre educarea copiilor. n cadrul acestei publicaii, Maria Rosetti deinea i o rubric dedicat corespondenei cu micii cititori, n care acetia primeau sfaturi pentru diverse probleme. Alexandrina Cantacuzino (1877-1944) a fost printre primele feministe din Romnia. Ea a susinut i a luptat pentru emanciparea intelectual, politic i legal a femeilor i astfel a fondat n 1929 primul partid politic exclusiv feminin - Gruparea Naional a Femeilor Romne, o grupare cu idei inovatoare pentru separarea puterilor n stat, autonomia actului legislativ i un alt statut al femeii. Alexandrina Cantacuzino spunea: [...] avem datoria nsi, pentru ntrirea acestei viei familiale, s dm femeii preocupri mai nalte, s o chemm s mpart toate rspunderile, s renunm la femeia ppu, la femeia obiect de lux, la femeia eternul copil, care crede c poate tri numai din munca brbatului, la femeia minor care nu-i d seama de nevoile reale ale vieii . Florica Bagdasar (1901-1978) a absolvit n 1925 Facultatea de Medicin din Bucureti i, dup aceea, s-a remarcat n activitatea de pionierat n tratamentul malariei. n anul 1946 a fost singura femeie din delegaia Romniei la Conferina de Pace de la Paris, iar n acelai an a fondat Centrul pentru Igien Mintal i a iniiat, pentru prima oar n Romnia, programe pentru tratamentul copiilor retardai sau cu probleme de comportament. Florica Bagdasar a devenit, n 1946, prima femeie Ministru al Sntii din Romnia, funcie care i-a fost luat brusc, n 1948. O plac memorial situat pe imobilul din Strada Speranei nr. 13, Bucureti, Sectorul 2, reamintete c aici au locuit dr. Dumitru Bagdasar i dr. Florica Bagdasar. Femei care ne-au scris istoria Istoria noastr ascunde femei extraordinare, dei rareori se vorbete despre acestea i nici nu sunt incluse n clasificri de tipul Mari Romni. Cu toate acestea, romnce de excepie au adus onoare poporului nostru prin curajul i determinarea lor iar noi merit s le cunoatem. Hariclea Darcle (1860-1939) este una din personalitile cele mai importante ale Romniei i sopran de renume internaional. Hariclea Darcle a cucerit publicul devenind preferata multor compozitori. Astfel, Giacomo Puccini compune pentru vocea ei Tosca,
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composers. Thus, Giacomo Puccini composed for her voice Tosca. Pietro Mascagni composed Iris and Alfredo Catalani La Wally. Hariclea Darcle emerged as prima donna in the great opera houses of Paris,

Smaranda Brescu was the first woman pilot in Romania, the first licensed woman jumper in Romania, a European parachutist champion and a world champion in 1932, with a 7,200 meters record at Sacramento, USA. She was one of the few military women trainers in parachuting.
Berlin, Florence, Milan, Rome, Buenos Aires, Lisbon, Barcelona, Madrid, Monte Carlo, Moscow and St. Petersburg. Today, in the memory of this great artist, soprano Mariana Nicolesco established in Braila the Hariclea Darclee International Singing Festival. Sarmiza Bilcescu (1867-1935) was the first Romanian lawyer, the first woman in Europe to obtain a law degree at the University of Paris, and the first woman in the world to become Doctor of Laws. In those days, womens access to such areas was almost inconceivable, but the young Romanian managed to break the barriers of prejudice and sexism and joined the Faculty of Law in Paris. In 1891, she completed her scientific training and was admitted to the Ilfov Bar which, at that time, included also Bucharest. This bar was then led by Take Ionescu1, and the admission of a woman in the Bar was a first in its history. Elisa Leonida Zamfirescu (1887-1973) was the first woman engineer in Europe and worldwide. She graduated the Polytechnic Faculty in Charlottenburg, Germany in 1912 and became the first woman to receive the engineer diploma at the famous academic institution. Between 1920 and 1963, she worked as a chemical engineer in the Geological Institute of Bucharest. In her long activity, she developed original methods for liquids, minerals, oil and gas, coal, solid bitumen and rock construction analysis. Her contribution to the research of Romanias mineral wealth ensures her a place of honor in the gallery of great figures of national, European and world sciences. Ana Aslan (1897-1988) is considered to be the scholar who defeated aging. Born in Braila in 1897, Ana Aslan enrolls the Faculty of Medicine of Bucharest in 1915, to become a pioneer in the study of gerontology. She began her career in this field in 1949, and in 1951 she became the director of the Institute of Gerontology of Bucharest, the first of the kind in the world. In this institute, Ana Aslan developed medicines with curative effects on aging and age-related diseases;
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for example, Gerovital H3, the first drug designed to slow the aging process, was developed between 1946 and 1956, by Prof. Dr. Ana Aslan and her school, after numerous clinical and experimental research. The treatment methods and medicines patented by the scientist brought Romania a profit of $ 17 million per year. The World Health Organization granted her the Leon Bernard award for social medicine. Her successes in prevention and treatment of old age and aging have had a huge impact on the medical world and the international public opinion. Virginia Andreescu Haret (1894 - 1962) was the first woman architect in the world, after she entered on the first place the Superior School of Architecture in Bucharest, at age 18. She simultaneously studied at the Academy of Fine Arts. Her numerous watercolors are part of the Romanian Academy Library collection, and the list of her architectural projects is a long and impressive contribution (e.g.: the Building of Dimitrie Cantemir College of Bucharest, the Bucharest Medical Institute, Gheorge Sincai College of Bucharest, the administrative wing of Baneasa Airport, Ghencea Orthodox Church etc.). Virginia Andreescu Haret was the first woman who attained the title of General Inspector in architecture. Between the two world wars, she represented Romania at international architecture congresses in Rome, Paris, Moscow and Brussels. Smaranda Brescu (1897-1948) was the first woman pilot in Romania, the first licensed woman jumper in Romania, a European parachutist champion and a world champion in 1932, with a 7,200 meters record at Sacramento, USA. She was one of the few military women trainers in parachuting. Sofia Ionescu (Ogrezeanu) (1920-2008). Contrary to her fathers statement that the mission of girls is to be good housewives, graduate a housekeeping school, learn to play a musical instrument, learn foreign languages, and acquire a solid general education, she managed to become the first woman neurosurgeon in the world. On October 15, 1943 she carried out a hospital training in Neurosurgery Service of the No. 9 Hospital of Bucharest and was admitted in the first neurosurgeon team the golden team as it used to be called - led by Professor Dimitri Bagdasar, founder of the Romanian neurosurgery, alongside physicians Ionel Constantin Arseni and Ionel Ionesco (who became, in 1945, Miss Sofia Ogrezeanus husband) and who, at that time, were secondary doctors in the specialty. She performed her first brain surgery in 1944. A finger pyosis deterred doctor Bagdasar from operating a boy brought in a coma to the hospital. Sofia Ogrezeanu, the only one available to perform the surgical intervention at that moment, accepted the challenge and performed her first brain surgery at the age of 24. She was a neurosurgeon for 47 years at the No. 9 Hospital in Bucharest.

femeia n societate. percepii i contribuii

Pietro Mascagni compune Iris, iar Alfredo Catalani La Wally. Hariclea Darcle s-a impus ca primadon n marile teatre de oper din Paris, Berlin, Florena, Milano, Roma, Buenos Aires, Lisabona, Barcelona, Madrid, Monte Carlo, Moscova i Sankt Petersburg. n prezent, n memoria marii artiste, soprana Mariana Nicolesco a nfiinat, la Brila, Festivalul Internaional de Canto Hariclea Darclee. Sarmiza Bilcescu (1867-1935) a fost prima romnc avocat, prima femeie din Europa care a obinut licena n drept la Universitatea din Paris i prima femeie din lume Doctor n drept. n acele vremuri, accesul femeilor n astfel de domenii era aproape de neconceput, ns tnra romnc a reuit s sparg barierele prejudecilor i ale sexismului i s se nscrie la Facultatea de Drept din Paris. n 1891 termin pregtirea tiinific i este admis n Baroul Ilfov care, n acea perioad, includea i Bucuretiul. Acest barou era condus atunci de Take Ionescu1, iar admiterea unei femei n barou a constituit o premier n istoria avocaturii. Elisa Leonida Zamfirescu (1887-1973) este prima femeie inginer din Europa i din lume. A absolvit Politehnica de la Charlottenburg, Germania, n 1912, devenind prima femeie care a primit diploma de inginer la celebra instituie academic. ntre 1920 i 1963 a activat, ca inginer chimist, n cadrul Institutului Geologic din Bucureti. n lunga sa activitate, a elaborat metode originale de analiz pentru lichide,

Smaranda Brescu a fost prima femeie pilot din Romnia, prima femeie parautist cu brevet din Romnia, campioan european la parautism i campioan mondial n 1932, cu recordul de 7.200 m, la Sacramento, SUA. A fost una dintre puinii instructori de parautism militar.
minerale, petrol i gaze, crbuni, bitumuri solide i roci de construcie. Contribuia sa la cercetarea bogiilor minerale ale Romniei i asigur un loc de cinste n galeria marilor figuri ale tiinei naionale, europene i mondiale. Ana Aslan (1897-1988) este considerat a fi Savanta care a nvins btrneea. Nscut la Brila n anul 1897, Ana Aslan se nscrie la Facultatea de Medicin din Bucureti n anul 1915, pentru ca, mai apoi, s devin o pionier n studiul gerontologiei. n anul 1949 i-a nceput cariera n acest domeniu, iar n anul 1951 ea a devenit directorul primului Institut de Gerontologie din lume. n cadrul acestui institut, Ana Aslan a elaborat medicamente cu efecte curative asupra mbtrnirii

i a bolilor legate de vrst; de exemplu, Gerovital H3, primul medicament creat s ntrzie procesul de mbtrnire, a fost elaborat ntre anii 1946 i 1956, de Prof. Dr. Ana Aslan i coala sa, dup numeroase cercetri clinice i experimentale. Metodele de tratament i medicamentele brevetate de savant aduceau statului romn un profit de 17 milioane de dolari pe an. Organizaia Mondial a Sntii i-a oferit Premiul Leon Bernard pentru medicin social. Succesele sale n profilaxia i terapia btrneii au avut un mare impact asupra lumii medicale i a opiniei publice internaionale. Virginia Andreescu Hare (1894 - 1962) a devenit prima femeie arhitect din lume dup ce, la vrsta de 18 ani, a intrat prima la coala Superioar de Arhitectur din Bucureti. Concomitent, a studiat i la Academia de Arte Frumoase. Numeroasele ei acuarele au devenit parte din colecia Bibliotecii Academiei Romne, iar lista proiectelor sale arhitecturale este lung i impresionant (de ex.: Cldirea Colegiului Dimitrie Cantemir - Bucureti, Institutul Medical Bucureti, Colegiul Gheorghe incai, Latura administrativ a Aeroportului Bneasa, Biserica Ortodox Ghencea etc.). Virginia Andreescu Hare a fost prima femeie care a atins gradul de inspector general n arhitectur. ntre cele dou rzboaie mondiale, a reprezentat Romnia la congresele internaionale de arhitectur de la Roma, Paris, Moscova i Bruxelles. Smaranda Brescu (1897-1948) a fost prima femeie pilot din Romnia, prima femeie parautist cu brevet din Romnia, campioan european la parautism i campioan mondial n 1932, cu recordul de 7.200 m, la Sacramento, SUA. A fost una dintre puinii instructori de parautism militar. Sofia Ionescu (Ogrezeanu) (1920 2008), contrar afirmaiei tatlui ei cum c Menirea fetelor este s fie bune gospodine, s fac o coal de menaj, s nvee un instrument muzical, s nvee limbi strine, si fac o cultur general solid, a reuit s devin prima femeie neurochirurg din lume. La 15 octombrie 1943 efectueaz un stagiu de internat n Serviciul de Neurochirurgie din Spitalul nr. 9 din Bucureti, intrnd n prima echip neurchirurgical, considerat echipa de aur, alturi de Prof. Dr. Dimitrie Bagdasar, ntemeietorul neurochirurgiei romneti i doctorii Constantin Arseni i Ionel Ionescu (devenit, din 1945, soul domnioarei doctor Sofia Ogrezeanu) care, la acea dat, erau medici secundari n cadrul specialitii. Prima operaie pe creier avea s o realizeze n 1944. O supuraie la deget l mpiedic pe doctorul Bagdasar s opereze un bieel adus n com la spital. Sofia Ogrezeanu, singura care ar fi putut s opereze n acel moment, a acceptat provocarea de a face prima sa intervenie chirurgical pe creier, la vrsta de 24 de ani. A fost medic neurochirurg, vreme de 47 de ani, la Spitalul nr. 9 Bucureti.
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From the Opposite Angle


VIEWPOINT Ph.D. Student, Engineer Rare Terec | Cluj-Napoca Technical University, Technical Engineering Faculty

f men have always been considered to be the strong sex, which is taken literally because of their biological constitution, women have proved that they have power on similar levels as men. Of course, you could say that there are women physically similar to men, but this is a small niche of women who either want to prove something (to themselves or to others), or believe that this is the most appropriate road for them. There are many men who do not stand competition, and this is easy to understand. The man often considers himself better than the woman, because history strengthens this view. History tells him that the most famous personalities of the past were men; that important women are fewer in number, that their achievements are obscure, that the king always has the authority, even over the queen. But what makes men better? Are they actually better? Well, in some respects, yes. Biologically, many differences have been noticed between men and women, which result in different specializations. The man has become the kind that protects, hunts, deals with the external integrity of the family, brings food and protects against malevolent people. The woman, however, endowed with affective abilities far beyond those of mans, has become the pillar for the internal integrity of the family, dealing in particular with the growth and formation of children, and also her husbands satisfaction. But these are well-known things, in other words: nothing is new. And it is absolutely normal that prejudice arise from these differences. Always a well spread pattern will give rise to similar reactions, and once merged they will bring about a conjunct line of thought. And the general mindset is that women cannot do all that men can. What is often left unmentioned, but equally valid, is the reverse: men cannot do everything women can. If we refer to the current era, you can easily find a
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homogenization of both sexes activities, which makes the above-mentioned argument obsolete. But this only states that, statistically, women are increasingly more accepted in jobs that were exclusively meant for men in the past. Lets not forget that just like in the case of the voting rights, women have worked hard to acquire similar

rights with mens, which gives them a superior status. This means that men are born with those rights, while women have earned them, which ranks them higher on an appraisal scale! Its easy to be a man. It really is. He who dares to contradict this is not aware of his manhood - , no

femeia n societate. percepii i contribuii

Din cellalt unghi


OPINIE drd. ing. Rare Terec | Universitatea Tehnic din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Inginerie Tehnic Dac brbaii au fost dintotdeauna considerai sexul puternic, lucru luat ad-literam datorit constituiei lor biologice, femeile au demonstrat la rndul lor c dispun de putere pe planuri similare brbailor. Sigur, s-ar putea spune c exist femei cu fizic asemntor brbailor, dar acest lucru apare pe o ni redus de femei care fie vor s demonstreze ceva (lor sau altora), sunt puine la numr, c sunt de o realizare obscur, c regele este ntotdeauna autoritatea, chiar i peste regin. Dar ce anume i face pe brbai s fie mai buni? Sunt ei mai buni, de fapt? Ei bine, n unele privine, da. Biologic, s-au constatat multe diferene ntre brbai i femei, lucru care a dus la diferite specializri. Brbatul a devenit genul care apr, vneaz, care se ocup de integritatea exterioar a familiei, aducnd hrana i protejnd de ruvoitori. Femeia, n schimb, nzestrat cu abiliti afective mult peste cele ale brbatului, a devenit stlpul de rezisten pentru integritatea interioar a familiei, ocupndu-se, n special, de creterea i formarea copiilor, precum i de mulumirea brbatului. Dar acestea sunt lucruri arhicunoscute, altfel spus, nimic nou. i este absolut natural ca din aceste diferene s apar prejudecile. ntotdeauna un tipar bine propagat va da natere la reacii similare, care, contopite, vor duce la formarea unei mentaliti. i mentalitatea general este c femeia nu poate face tot ce poate face brbatul. Ce nu se atinge frecvent, ns este la fel de valabil reciproca, cum c nici brbatul nu poate face tot ce poate femeia. Dac ne raportm la era actual, se poate constata cu uurin o omogenizare a activitilor ambelor sexe, ceea ce face tot mai nvechit gndirea menionat anterior. Dar asta nu spune dect c, statistic, femeia devine tot mai acceptat n posturi destinate n trecut exclusiv brbailor. S nu uitm c la fel ca i votul, femeile au muncit mult pn s obin drepturi similare brbailor, ceea ce le confer un statut superior. Adic brbaii s-au nscut cu acele drepturi, femeile le-au ctigat, situndu-le pe
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fie consider c e drumul cel mai potrivi pentru ele. C muli brbai nu suport concurena, este un motiv de asemenea uor de neles. Brbatul se consider adesea mai bun dect femeia, pentru c istoria i ntrete aceast prere. Istoria i spune c cele mai numeroase personaliti marcante ale trecutului au fost brbai. C femeile importante

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reference to his physical features; and more, he is not aware that the world still favors him over woman in many instances. This mindset may no longer be as prevalent as before, but it was and there are still many reminiscences. That would do for surface differences. Now lets get to the essence. It is common knowledge that the woman is more prone to communication, to diplomacy, to things that require a certain affinity and imagination. At the same time, a woman is more sensitive than a man. Things have another projection for her, and although her argument can often be reduced to I feel so, it has been found out that women actually process events much faster and that they are often right in making a certain decision, even though they cannot explain it as logically as men can. A series of books have been written on how external factors may influence both men and women. Predominantly, the man will act defensively, and try to settle or reject these intrusions, while the woman will be more aware, and her emotional balance will be affected by the exchange of states between her and these factors. Of course, this is a statement with sexist potential, but it is an overall discussion. To return, this approach leads to an obvious increase in the womans empathy, while the man will consider the emotional approaches as trivial. The truth is that women have a much better emotional management, and understanding this innate mechanism, they will use both the social mimetic protection and the associative or joint behavior. Of course, this is to mens disadvantage, although they find it hard to realize that a woman rounds a man in everything he does. However, the woman is often characterized by a smaller ego than the mans, who makes of any battle a personal goal of winning. The urge for power and domination is native with men, women being more abiding by and even ending up to adore the place at the drivers right. Men are often like children, and women know that. They are easy to handle as long as they have the toys they are looking for. And the woman can always use her sensitive nature as a factor of submission. But she does not do this out of sheer pleasure, except for pathological cases, but in order to obtain favorable results to both of them.
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The mans line of logic and scientific knowledge is generally very well developed, and that makes him a creature in constant search for strong, clear, understandable answers. A womans is not. A woman will rarely want to understand everything, although she will seek to know everything. The difference in tone however is represented by the selectivity of this information, which takes place through a rapid and efficient filtration. What may seem insufficient or even insignificant details for a man, for a woman is often something that translates a hidden or an unnoticeable fact. Returning to the emotional nature, a womans outbursts are numerically superior to a mans. She suffers more frequently because of depression factors; she cries out to calm her nerves and can feel the outside conditions that influence her. Men consider this a flaw, but the truth is that a woman has much more strength in these areas, which makes her more effective in relating with others. As long as you do not show interest, empathy and openness to communication to your interlocutor, you will never have a happy relationship. But also, in some cases, this generates emotional imbalances with women, and strong display of feelings and emotions. At the antipode, the man can better face emotional failures, but he is also less capable in some respects. He is more distant, he displays less liveliness, but these seem to be traits of power, therefore derivates from his essence. This can often be a drawback that he would not acknowledge. If all these things fall under the cynical and even misogyny area, there is a chapter in which women undeniably excel men. Women value little things, they know to offer personalized attention; they know how to enjoy events with more pathos, and this again makes them wanted by men. Because yes, the man is fully aware that although the woman may be a continuous source of misunderstanding and paradoxical questions, everything she brings in their relationship is fundamental and helps increase its quality. It is said that if the man is the head, then the woman is the neck. And although there are many antinomies with women that men cannot understand, the true victory comes from their acceptance exactly as they are, because without women, men would make no sense!

femeia n societate. percepii i contribuii

o scar a aprecierii deasupra brbailor! E uor s fii brbat. Chiar este. Cine contrazice asta nu este contient de brbia sa, fr referire la nzestrrile fizice i, mai mult, nu e contient c lumea nc l favorizeaz deasupra femeilor n multe posturi. Poate nu mai este la fel de rspndit aceast mentalitate, dar a existat i nc are multe reminiscene. Cam att despre diferenele de suprafa. Acum s trecem la cele de esen. Se tie c femeia este mult mai predispus spre comunicare, spre diplomaie, spre lucruri care necesit o oarecare afinitate i imaginaie. Totodat, femeia este mult mai sensibil dect brbatul. Lucrurile au o alt proiecie pentru ea i, dei adesea rspunsul pentru argumentare poate fi redus la un aa simt eu, s-a constatat c, de fapt, femeia proceseaz mult mai repede evenimentele i c, adesea, are dreptate prin acea decizie, dar nu o poate explica la fel de logic precum un brbat. S-au scris diverse cri i tratate despre cum influeneaz factorii externi att brbatul ct i femeia. Predominant, brbatul i va asuma rolul defensiv i va ncerca s aplaneze sau chiar s resping aceste intruziuni, pe cnd femeia va fi mai sensibilizat, iar echilibrul ei emoional va fi afectat de schimbul de stri dintre ea i aceti factori. Desigur c este o afirmaie cu potenial sexist, dar este o discuie per ansamblu. Revenind, aceasta abordare duce la o evident cretere a empatiei femeii, pe cnd brbatul va considera triviale abordrile emoionale. Adevrul este c femeia are un mult mai bun management afectiv; nelegnd acest mecanism i fiindu-i nativ, va putea utiliza att mimetismul social, ct i comportamentul asociativ sau solidar. Desigur, acesta este un dezavantaj al lui, dei este greu s contientizeze c femeia l completeaz n tot ce face. Totodat, femeia este adesea caracterizat de un ego mai redus dect cel al brbatului, care face din orice lupt un scop personal de ctig. Dorina de putere i dominare este nativ brbatului, femeia mulumindu-se i chiar ajungnd s adore locul din dreapta. Brbaii sunt adesea ca i copiii, i femeia tie asta. Sunt uor de manipulat ct timp au jucriile pe care le caut. i femeia poate folosi oricnd natura ei sensibil ca i factor de supunere. Dar nu o face din pur plcere,

exceptnd cazurile patologice, ci pentru a obine rezultatele favorabile amndurora. Brbatul are structura logicii i a tiinelor, n general, foarte bine dezvoltat, i asta l face o creatur care caut constant rspunsuri ferme, clare, inteligibile. Femeia nu. Rar o femeie va dori s neleag totul, dei va cuta s tie totul. Diferena de nuan st ns n selectivitatea acestor informaii, lucru care are loc printr-o filtrare rapid i eficient. Ceea ce pentru brbat poate prea insuficient, sau chiar un detaliu insignifiant, pentru femeie este adesea un lucru care traduce un fapt ascuns sau greu de observat. Revenind la natura emoional, izbucnirile femeii sunt numeric superioare brbatului. Sufer mai des de factori depresivi, plnge pentru a se calma i simte strile care i sunt insuflate din exterior. Brbatul consider acest lucru o vulnerabilitate, dar adevrul este c femeia dispune de mult mai mult for n aceste domenii, ceea ce o face mai eficient n relaionare. Ct timp nu transmii interlocutorului interes, empatie i deschidere spre comunicare, nu va duce niciodat la o relaionare fericit. Totodat ns, n anumite situaii, se ajunge la dezechilibre emoionale pentru femeie i la puternice manifestri ale sentimentelor i tririlor. La pol opus, brbatul suport mai bine eecurile emoionale, dar este i mai puin capabil din anumite puncte de vedere. Este mai distant, se manifest mai puin vioi, dar acestea par a fi trsturi de putere, deci derivate din esena lui. Poate fi, adesea, un handicap pe care nu l-ar recunoate. Dac toate aceste lucruri intr n sfera cinicului i poate chiar a misoginismului, exist un capitol la care femeile exceleaz fr discuie n faa brbailor. Femeile tiu s aprecieze lucrurile mici, tiu s dea atenie personalizat, tiu s se bucure de evenimente cu mai mult patos, i asta le face din nou dorite de brbat. Pentru c da, brbatul este perfect contient c, dei femeia poate fi o surs continu de nenelegeri i ntrebri paradoxale, tot ceea ce ea aduce n cadrul relaiei este fundamental i ajut la creterea calitii acesteia. Se vehiculeaz ideea c brbatul este capul, atunci femeia este gtul. i dei exist multe paradoxuri pe care brbaii nu le pot nelege la femei, adevrata victorie vine din acceptarea lor aa cum sunt, pentru c, fr ele, brbaii nu mai au sens!
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Confessions from Italy


VIEWPOINT Psychologist Elena Popa (Mella) | Pordenone, Italia Its late at night and the TV news is broadcast. A piece of news, accompanied by significant images draws my attention: today we celebrate the family employees day. The day of all those who, accepted in wealthy Italian homes, deal with cleaning, cooking, elder care. 98% are women; most of them emigrated from various countries, especially from Eastern Europe. Beyond statistics, beyond the rhetorical voices of authorities praising the important contribution of this social category, they live the real life. Thousands of individual destinies united by common challenges: being away from their family, their country, the need to adjust to a new social reality. In a small town like ours, if you want to get a closer look at the life of caretakers (badante), it is enough to take a walk through the central park. In groups created based on the nation of origin, women of different ages live the joy of the day off and share the latest news. Romanian women, noisy and excited that they can speak their mothers tongue, willingly share something from their work experience. And so I have learned that all that glitters is not gold ... Maricica comes from a village in Moldavia. For the last three years she has been living with an old woman and she is treated with respect by both the old woman and her children. It is true that she gives her best, she does not complain even if it is pretty hard to be available for your patron day and night. But she has no choice, she is a widow and her two daughters are at home, at college. Simona, a young woman from Galati, left home two young children in the care of her husband and parents and came to Italy, attracted by the mirage of a consistent earning. She got a whimsical old woman and she feels that her life has turned into a nightmare. The old womans cruel avarice imposes her rules almost impossible to meet: she is allowed to wash only once a week, she must eat only as much and what her employer wants her to, she is forced to wash clothes by hand. With tears in her eyes, she asks her fellow citizens to find her another job. If she doesnt succeed to find anything soon, she will return home, even if the money she earns now is as necessary as breathing air or drinking water. The same applies for Geta, Florentina, Anca, each with her destiny, more or less indulgent. They are bound by the satisfaction of being able to send home the 600700 Euros, at the end of the month... Before we separate, I am invited to the Arcadian
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celebration organized by the Romanian community with the support and consent of the local municipality. At the specified date and time, I am there, curious to see how such a celebration takes place. About 200-300 persons are gathered there. The alluring flavors of mici (Romanian sausage) and sarmale (stuffed cabbage) float in the air. The celebration starts with a show of Romanian folk music and dances presented by a group of young people dressed in national costumes. The atmosphere is electrifying; they are long and heartily applauded. After the show, the organizers invite the people to dance. Young and less young, chained in a nearly unbroken string of hore (specific Romanian round dance) and srbe (specific Romanian vivid dance), they give lose up to midnight. In a liberating gesture, dozens of feet fiercely hit the ground, as if there, under the soles of their shoes, all suffering, all the frustrations, all longing for their native places and loved ones would have gathered. The red and sweaty faces are lit by the joy of being together, by the satisfaction of being able to express their own traditions, by the illusion that, even for a few hours, you can feel at... HOME.

femeia n societate. percepii i contribuii

Mrturii ... din Italia


OPINIE Psiholog Elena Popa (Mella) | Pordenone, Italia E sear i la televizor se transmite telejurnalul. O tire, nsoit de imagini semnificative, mi atrage atenia: azi se srbtorete ziua colaboratorilor familiali. Ziua tuturor celor care, admii n casele italienilor nstrii, se ocup de curenie, de gtit, de ngrijirea btrnilor. 98% sunt femei, cele mai multe emigrate din diverse ri, n special din Europa de Est. Dincolo de statistici, de vocile retorice ale autoritilor care elogiaz contribuia important a acestei categorii sociale, se triete viaa real. Mii de destine singulare unite de dificulti comune: deprtarea de familie, de ar, necesitatea de a se adapta la un context social nou. ntr-un ora mic ca al nostru, dac vrei s cunoti mai amnunit viaa badantelor (ngrijitoarelor) este suficient s faci o plimbare prin parcul central. n grupuri formate pe criteriul naiunii de provenien, femei de vrste diverse triesc bucuria zilei libere mprtindu-i reciproc ultimele nouti. Romncele, glgioase i entuziasmate c se pot exprima n limba matern, se arat dispuse s povesteasc cte ceva din experiena muncii lor. i aa am aflat c nu tot ceea ce strlucete este aur... Maricica vine dintr-un sat din Moldova. De vreo 3 ani st cu o btrn de treab i e tratat cu respect att de btrn, ct i de copiii ei. E drept c i ea i d toat silina; nu se plnge chiar dac i este destul de greu s stea la dispoziia patroanei zi i noapte. Dar n-are ncotro, este vduv i cele dou fete ale ei sunt n ar, la facultate. Simona, o gleanc tnr i-a lsat acas 2 copii mici, n grija soului i a prinilor ei i a venit n Italia, atras de mirajul unui cig consistent. A nimerit la o btrn capricioas i simte c viaa ei s-a transformat ntr-un calvar. Avariia crunt a btrnei i impune reguli aproape imposibil de respectat: nu are voie s se spele dect o dat pe sptmn, trebuie s mnnce doar ct i ce vrea patroana, este constrns s spele rufele de mn. Cu lacrimi n ochi, le roag pe concetenele ei s-i caute un alt loc de munc. Dac nu va reui n scurt timp s-i gseasc altceva, se va ntoarce n ar, chiar dac banii pe care i ctig acum i sunt necesari ca aerul de respirat sau ca apa de but. i la fel Geta, Florentina, Anca, fiecare cu destinul ei, mai mult sau mai puin indulgent. Le leag pe toate satisfacia de a putea trimite, la sfritul lunii, cei 6-700 de euro pentru cei de acas... nainte de a ne despri, m-au invitat la serbarea cmpeneasc organizat de comunitatea romn, cu sprijinul i acordul primriei din localitate. La data i ora precizate, m prezint, curioas s vd cum se desfoar o astfel de srbtoare. Sunt adunate acolo vreo 2-300 de persoane. n aer plutesc miresme mbietoare de mici i sarmale. Se ncepe cu un spectacol de muzic i dansuri populare romneti prezentate de un grup de tineri mbrcai n costume naionale. Atmosfera este electrizant, se aplaud ndelung i din toat inima. Dup spectacol, organizatorii invit lumea s danseze. Tineri i mai puin tineri, nlnuii ntr-un ir aproape nentrerupt de hore i srbe, se dezlnuie pn ctre miezul nopii. ntr-un gest liberator, zeci de picioare bat ndrjit pmntul, de parc acolo, sub tlpile pantofilor, s-ar fi adunat toate suferinele, toate frustrrile, tot dorul de cei dragi i de locurile natale. Feele roii i transpirate sunt luminate de bucuria de a fi mpreun, de satisfacia de a putea exprima propriile tradiii, de iluzia c, mcar pentru cteva ore, te poi simi ... ACAS.
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Happiness Is Feminine
VIEWPOINT Ph.D. student Alexandra Jugureanu | Brunel University, London On a scale from 1 to 10, how happy were you yesterday? How happy were you last week? How happy have you been during this past year? Recent surveys (Stevenson & Wolfers, 2009; Plagnol & Easterlin, 2008) warn that todays women have reached the maximum unhappiness threshold in the last 40 years. A natural question arises: Why so? What can be done about it? If we asked a group of women about their lives in general, some would probably reply they are stressed or depressed. Others would say they have problems in their marriage; or they face financial difficulties or resent being pressed at their workplace. This group is not an isolated case. We all have friends, co-workers, mothers and sisters who are unhappy or feel overloaded with and overwhelmed by their day-to-day tasks. ONGOING SITUATION. Justin Wolfers and Betsey Stevenson - fellows at the University of Pennsylvania, as well as a couple in real life have examined data on subjective well-being of Europeans and Americans since 1972. They have ascertained the reported levels of women happiness gradually and steadily decreased, and if 40 years ago women were considered to be happier than men, at present the situation is reversed. To understand the phenomenon, the two researchers have examined the seemingly correlated factors with unhappiness in women, such as marital status, number of children, education or income, though neither could explain the reversed situation over the years. Its a complete mystery, Wolfers says. We do not know whats actually happening and it seems that our results cannot be explained by a mere social phenomenon, he also adds. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL EXPECTATIONS. Looking for a verdict, an acceptable explanation of this phenomenon might be caused by social and cultural norms. Stephanie Coontz a teacher of History and Family Studies at the Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington - considers that the decline in levels of women happiness reflects a much subtler situation. Though todays women work more hours than women in the 1970s, it is not merely how much they work, but also the pressure placed on them to maintain strong social connections both at the workplace and at home that ultimately generates a feeling of unhappiness. In socializing, women are taught to believe they are responsible for their emotional bonds, Coontz says, and when they cannot meet such expectations, they become depressed. DEPRESSION IN TEENAGERS AND YOUNG
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WOMEN. There is a parallel trend with younger girls too. Stephen Hinshaw a psychologist at Berkley University, California indicates that suicide, depression and selfdestructive behaviors rates have increased during the past two decades. Hinshaw imputes this tendency on the failure feeling that young girls experience when they cannot rise to impossible cultural standards. Even though depression is not the opposite of happiness, Hinshaw argues that this identified tendency in female teenagers may be related to womens lower cultural level. Young girls and women in our culture feel a need to excel in all fields of activity - be able to take care of other people, be successful at work, be attractive and all these at the same time, Hinshaw says. And in the same line, Wolfers concludes: Perhaps women feel that if they are not succeeding everywhere, they are not succeeding anywhere. AN ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATION. An alternative theory that could explain the noticed decline is that todays women can easier talk openly about challenges and disillusions. Moreover, women do no longer have to compare only to their next door neighbors, but they have started to compare themselves even with men at work, adds Wolfers. In the same line of thought, the relatively low expectations of women during the 1970s together with the instilled optimism by the feminist movement may be responsible for the inflated levels of happiness that were recorded at that time. During the past 40 years women's expectations may have increased thus generating decreased levels of happiness. Coontz comments this phenomenon in using an analogy: If I have dinner in an elegant restaurant, I am more prone to complain about poor quality of service, which would not be the case if I have dinner in a common bar where I dont except extraordinary service. Therefore, women are happier when their expectations are met. CONCLUSION. So, what can be done about it? If young girls and women would no longer focus on the idea of perfection, they would be more easy-going and dispassionate, and such emotional states would lead the path to happiness. At the same time, despite modernity that hurries us to live at an unprecedented speed, we should keep in mind the human element, family, friends, and people who help us all women or men to go on from one day to another. In this context, Voltaire said: The perfect is the enemy of the good.

femeia n societate. percepii i contribuii

Fericirea la genul feminin


OPINIE drd. Alexandra Jugureanu | Brunel University, Londra Pe o scar de la 1 la 10, ct de fericite ai fost ieri? Dar n ultima sptmn? Ct de fericite ai fost n ultimul an? Studii recente (Stevenson & Wolfers, 2009; Plagnol & Easterlin, 2008) ne avertizeaz c femeile din ziua de azi au atins pragul maxim de nefericire din ultimii 40 de ani. ntrebarea fireasc este: de ce? i ce putem face n aceast privin? Dac ar fi s ntrebm un grup de femei cum e viaa lor n general, unele ne-ar rspunde probabil c sunt stresate, altele c au probleme n relaia de cuplu, c ntmpin dificulti materiale sau c resimt presiuni la locul de munc. i acest grup de femei nu este unul izolat; cu toii avem prietene, colege, mame, surori care sunt nefericite sau care se simt supra-ncrcate n viaa de zi cu zi. SITUAIA ACTUAL. Justin Wolfers i Betsey Stevenson colegi la Universitatea din Pennsylvania, dar i un cuplu n viaa real au analizat date, ncepnd cu 1972, cu privire la bunstarea subiectiv a europenilor i a americanilor. Ce au constatat a fost c nivelul de fericire al femeilor a sczut treptat i constant, iar dac acum 40 de ani femeile erau considerate a fi mai fericite dect brbaii, n prezent situaia este fix invers. Pentru a nelege fenomenul, cei doi cercettori au analizat factori care pareau s coreleze cu nefericirea la femei, cum ar fi starea civil, numrul de copii, educaia sau venitul, dar niciunul dintre acetia nu a putut explica schimbarea de peste ani. Este o enigm, zice Wolfers. Nu tim cu adevrat ceea ce se petrece i se pare c rezultatele noastre nu pot fi explicate de un simplu fenomen social, mai adaug acesta. EXPECTAII SOCIALE I CULTURALE. n cutarea unui verdict, o explicaie plauzibil a acestui fenomen ar putea fi determinat de normele sociale i culturale. Stephanie Coontz profesoar de istorie i studii familiale n cadrul Evergreen State College din Olympia, Washington consider c declinul nivelurilor de fericire al femeilor reflect ceva mult mai subtil. Cu toate c femeile din ziua de astzi lucreaz mult mai multe ore ca femeile din 1970, nu cantitatea muncii, ct presiunea ca ele s menin legturi sociale puternice att la serviciu ct i acas, le induce acestora un sentiment de nefericire. Femeile sunt nvate prin socializare s cread c ele sunt responsabile pentru legturile emoionale, spune Coontz, iar atunci cnd nu pot atinge astfel de ateptri, devin stresate. PRESIUNEA N RNDUL ADOLESCENTELOR I FEMEILOR TINERE. Exist o tendin paralel i n rndul fetelor mai tinere. Stephen Hinshaw psiholog la Universitatea din California, Berkeley arat c procentele suicidului, al depresiei i al comportamentelor auto-distructive au crescut n ultimele dou decenii. Hinshaw pune aceast tendin pe seama sentimentului de eec pe care l au fetele tinere atunci cnd nu se ridic la standardele culturale imposibile. Cu toate c starea de depresie nu este opusul fericirii, Hinshaw consider c aceast tendin identificat n rndul adolescentelor ar putea avea o legtur cu nivelul din ce n ce mai sczut n rndul femeilor. Fetele i femeile tinere din cultura noastr simt c trebuie s exceleze n toate domeniile s tie s aib grij de alii, s aib succes la serviciu sau la coal, s fie atrgtoare - i toate acestea n acelai timp, spune Hinshaw. n aceeai ordine de idei Wolfers concluzioneaz: Poate c femeile simt c dac nu au succes peste tot, nu au succes nicieri. O EXPLICAIE ALTERNATIV. O ipotez alternativ care ar putea explica declinul observat este c femeilor din ziua de azi le este mai uor s vorbeasc deschis despre provocri sau dezamgiri. Mai mult, ele nu mai au ca termen de comparaie doar vecina de palier, ci se compar i cu brbaii de la locul de munc, adaug Wolfers. Mergnd pe aceeai linie, ateptrile relativ joase ale femeilor din anii 70, mpreun cu optimismul insuflat de micarea feminist, ar putea fi responsabile pentru nivelurile umflate de fericire nregistrate atunci. n ultimii 40 de ani e posibil ca expectaiile femeilor s fi crescut i, deci, nivelurile de fericire s fi sczut. Coontz explic acest fenomen printr-o analogie, spunnd: Dac iau cina ntr-un restaurant elegant, sunt mai predispus la a m plnge dac serviciile au fost de slab calitate, lucru care nu s-ar ntmpla dac a lua cina ntr-un restaurant obinuit unde nu m astept la servicii extraordinare. Aadar, femeile sunt mai fericite atunci cnd ateptrile lor sunt ndeplinite. CONCLUZIE. Deci, ce este de fcut? Dac fetele i femeile nu ar mai fi att de concentrate pe ideea de perfeciune, ar fi mai relaxate i mai linitite, stri care are face loc mai uor unei emoii cum este fericirea. Totodat, n ciuda modernitii care ne oblig s trim cu o repeziciune fr precedent, e bine s nu uitm elementul uman, familie, prieteni i oameni, care ne ajut pe toi femei sau brbai s trecem de la o zi la alta. Adecvat contextului, Voltaire spunea: Nu lsai perfeciunea s fie dumanul lucrului bine fcut.
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Interview with Mrs.

Barbara Turner, PhD


Barbara Turner, PhD, has earned the highest designation granted by the International Society for Sandplay Therapy-Sandplay Therapists of America. Turner, PhD, is also on the Faculty of the Academy of Play and Child Psychotherapy where she teaches Foundations & Theory of Sandplay.

C4C Communication for Community Association: What defines you as a woman? Barbara Turner, PhD: I find this a difficult question. On one hand there is my love of beauty. I always work toward making things more beautiful, whether it is the place I am living or a sentence I am writing. I always like to feel that whatever Ive had my hand in is more beautiful when I move on. On the other hand there is my connection to the inner world and the spirit. This has been a part of my reality as far back as I can remember. My quest has always been to discover more and more about what it means to be human, why we are here, what transpires when we interact with each other, what happens after life, and where do we find meaning. I have heard it said that women carry the spirit on the earth. Perhaps I am doing my little piece to do this as well. C4C Communication for Community Association: Which are your strong points on which you have constructed your life and/or career? Barbara Turner, PhD: My pursuit of the subtler meanings of life and my deep appreciate for beauty have influenced all of the choices I have made with my work and leisure activities. Now in my sixties I can see that the threads of the many things I have done along the way are coming together to weave a beautiful fabric. Now as a teacher and author it is clear how my experience in business, art and religious studies all inform what I do. Along the way I felt as if I was taking too many divergent paths, however there was a lot of sense in those choices
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after all. A friend once told me that it is much better to try something and discover you do not like it, than not make the attempt at all. I think that is good advice to follow. I have a great personal strength that developed out of in-born personality traits and the fact that I grew up with an abusive father. Even as a very young child I recognized that I was much more powerful than he was, yet I was very small and would be under his control for a very long time. My strength and determination to survive grew out of this painful situation. I became a very hard working person and I am not afraid to try new things. My intelligence has also been a tremendous gift. I attended a public school, but it happened to be in Silicon Valley in the 1960s. I was put into an advanced learning track, where we were encouraged to compete and speak up. Thus from age 12 through high school I competed with the boys, and challenged them. I developed a solid confidence in my intelligence and capabilities, in spite of the fact that the messages I received at home were quite the contrary. I developed a fierce commitment to be educated and to succeed at something meaningful. My family believed that girls do not need to go to college (because they will be housewives) so I had to find ways to put myself through school. It was very hard, but Ive always thought that success is the best revenge! C4C Communication for Community Association: Have you ever been or felt discriminated against in your career?

femeia n societate. percepii i contribuii

Interviu cu doamna

Dr. Barbara Turner


Este terapeut sandplay (terapie prin jocul cu nisip) i formator certificat de Sandplay Therapist of America, International Society for Sandplay Therapy i Play Therapy International, profesor n cadrul Academy of Child and Play Therapy din Londra.

Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Ce te definete ca femeie? Dr.Barbara Turner: Mi se pare o ntrebare dificil. Pe de o parte, este dragostea mea pentru frumos. ntotdeauna ncerc s fac lucrurile mai frumoase, indiferent dac este vorba de casa mea sau de fraza pe care o scriu. Pe de alt parte, este legtura mea cu lumea interioar i spiritual. Aceste lucruri fac parte din realitatea mea, de cnd m tiu. Am cutat ntotdeauna s descopr ct mai multe lucruri despre ceea ce ne face s fim umani, de ce suntem aici, ce se ntampl cnd interacionm unii cu alii, ce se ntampl dup moarte, unde putem gsi un neles mai profund. Se spune c femeile sunt purttoarele spiritului pe pmnt. Poate c ntr-un fel mi aduc i eu contribuia. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Care sunt punctele tale tari pe care i-ai construit viaa i cariera? Dr. Barbara Turner: Cutarea nelesurilor subtile ale vieii i aprecierea profund a tot ceea ce este frumos mi-au influenat toate alegerile pe care le-am fcut n viaa profesional i personal. Acum, cnd am ajuns la 60 de ani, pot vedea cum firele multor lucruri pe care le-am fcut n viaa mea se ntreptrund ntr-un material frumos. Ca autoare i profesoar pot vedea cu claritate cum experiena mea n afaceri, art i religie se ntreptrunde n tot ce fac. Pe parcursul vieii am simit c mergeam pe mai multe crri divergente, dar toate aveau o motivaie clar ca i alegerile fcute atunci. O

prieten mi-a spus odat c este mult mai bine s ncerci ceva i s descoperi c nu-i place dect s nu ncerci nimic. Cred c este un sfat bun de urmat. Am o mare putere interioar care s-a dezvoltat din trsturi de personalitate nnscute i datorit faptului c am avut un tat abuziv. Chiar de mic am realizat c eram mult mai puternic dect el, dar am fost supus controlului su pentu o perioad mare de timp. Puterea i hotrrea mea de a supravieui s-au datorat acestei situaii foarte dureroase pentru mine. Am devenit o persoan foarte muncitoare i nu m tem s ncerc lucruri noi. Am fost nzestrat cu inteligen, ceea ce a fost un dar nemaipomenit. Am fost la o coal public, n Sillicon Valley n anii 60. Am fost repartizat la o clas de elevi avansai unde eram ncurajai s fim competitivi i s ne expunem opiniile. Deci, de la 12 ani pn la liceu am fost n competiie cu bieii i i provocam mereu. Mi-am dezvoltat o ncredere solid n inteligena i abilitile mele, chiar dac mesajele pe care le primeam acas erau total opuse. M-am implicat total n educaia mea i n a reui s fac ceva care s aib substan. Familia mea credea c fetele nu trebuie s mearg la facultate (pentru c vor deveni soii casnice), aa c a trebuit s gsesc modaliti de a m susine n facultate. A fost foarte dificil, dar am crezut ntotdeauna c succesul este cea mai bun rzbunare! Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Te-ai simit vreodat discriminat n cariera ta? Dr. Barbara Turner: Da. S ncerci s ai o afacere n anii
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women in society. perceptions and contributions

Barbara Turner, PhD: Yes, I have. Trying to manage a business in the 1970s was very difficult as a pretty young woman. Men would frequently dismiss me, not take me seriously. I once had a carpet salesman refuse to meet with me without my husband to give a bid on re-doing an entire apartment block! My husband was not even a part of my business. I was so angry with than man I told him he just lost the opportunity for a big account and hung up the phone on him. I rallied on and over the years, the culture in the States has changed to be accepting of women in positions of power. However, the saddest discrimination now comes from the many attempts by my (female) professional colleagues to undermine the work I am doing. This comes in the form of vicious rumors and open denouncements of my writing and teaching. It is professional jealousy, but the very saddest part about it to me is that as women, we have struggled hard to come to a place where we are able to write and speak out. Yet when a member of the group actually raises to a point of recognition it is the women that attempt to damage the reputation of a sister colleague. C4C Communication for Community Association: How do you see the role of woman in the modern society? How does a woman contribute to the development and progress of the society? Barbara Turner, PhD: In the States, women have careers and families. It is a difficult job and there is a lot of stress in families. Many women are putting off child bearing until they are established in their careers. These women do wield power and influence. I understand that women in Romania are still expected to be homemakers while the men have the careers. The difficulty with this is that the women do not earn the money and do not have control of it. This leaves them powerless. Things change in the balance of power between men and women when women generate their own incomes. Women process information and sustain relationships differently than do men. For this reason I think that having women involved in all aspects of society has the possibility of creating deep order social change. The shadowy side of this is that the women lose their feminine viewpoints and essentially become men to compete in the workplace. C4C Communication for Community Association: Who or what has supported you in your project? Barbara Turner, PhD: My teacher in sandplay therapy, Dora Kalff of Switzerland was greatly supportive of my eventual career direction. She saw my depths and my capabilities and told me in no uncertain terms that I must study more so I will have credibility when I speak about sandplay therapy. This was astonishing to me because I was a beginner at sandplay at that time, and moreover, she saw that deep inner truth in me that no one else had recognized. I am profoundly grateful for those few personal moments together with her.
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70 era foarte greu, mai ales dac erai o femeie tnr i frumoas. Brbaii nu m luau ntotdeauna n serios. Odat, un vnztor de covoare, pe care l solicitasem s refac un ntreg bloc de apartamente, a refuzat s se ntlneasc cu mine fr aprobarea soului meu ! Si soul meu nu era deloc implicat n afacere! Am fost aa de furioas pe acel brbat c i-am spus c a pierdut o oportunitate important i i-am trntit telefonul n nas! Am continuat, iar pe parcursul anilor cultura n SUA s-a schimbat i acum femeile sunt acceptate n poziii de putere. Totui, acum ntmpin o discriminare cu att mai dureroas cu ct vine din partea colegelor de breasl care ncearc s-mi submineze munca. Atacurile vin sub forma unor zvonuri nefondate sau denunuri pe fa a muncii mele ca autoare sau profesoar. Este gelozie profesional, dar ceea ce este trist este faptul c, n calitate de femei, am luptat mult s ajungem ntr-o poziie n care s putem scrie sau vorbi liber. i totui, cnd o membr a acestui grup este recunoscut n breasl, tot femeile ncearc s-i distrug reputaia. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Cum vezi rolul femeii n societatea modern? Cum contribuie o femeie la dezvoltarea societii? Dr. Barbara Turner: n State [n.r. Statele Unite ale Americii] femeile au cariere i familii. Este foare dificil i este un stres ridicat n familie. Multe femei amn decizia de a avea copii pn se realizeaz n carier. Aceste femei sunt puternice i influente. neleg c, de la femeile din Romnia, se ateapt s se ocupe de familie n timp ce brbaii au cariere. Ceea ce este dificil n aceast situaie este c femeile nu-i ctig banii i astfel nu au independen. Asta le las fr nici o putere. Lucrurile se vor schimba i puterea se va echilibra ntre femei i brbai cnd femeile vor avea propriile lor venituri. Femeile proceseaz informaia i susin relaiile n mod diferit fa de brbai. De aceea cred c dac femeile se vor implica n aspecte diferite ale societii, se vor face schimbri profunde n ordinea social. Partea negativ a acestei situaii va fi c femeile i vor pierde feminitatea i vor deveni practic brbai ca s fie competitive cu acetia n munc. Asociaia C4C Communication for Community: Cine sau ce te-a susinut n proiectele tale? Dr. Barbara Turner: Profesoara mea de sandplay, Dora Kalff, din Elveia, m-a susinut foarte mult n cariera mea. Ea a vzut n profunzime abilitile mele i mi-a spus clar c trebuie s studiez i mai mult dac doresc s fiu credibil cnd voi vorbi de terapia sandplay. Acest lucru m-a uimit pentru c eram o nceptoare n sandplay la vremea aceea. Mai mult dect att, ea a vzut profundul meu adevr interior pe care nimeni nu l-a recunoscut pn atunci. i voi fi mereu recunosctoare pentru acele puine momente personale pe care le-am petrecut n compania ei.

Notes / Note
Women in the Orthodox Church
1

Genesis, Chapter 2.18 (King James Bible, Cambridge Ed.) 2 Idem, Chapter 2.24 3 http://www.sfaturiortodoxe.ro/pcleopa/19femeia.htm 4 Bogiile Oratorice, Sf Ioan Gur de Aur, Ed. Pelerinul Romn, Oradea, 2002. 5 Idem

Femeia n Biserica Ortodox


1 2

Cap. 2 Facerea, Biblia - Vechiul Testament. Idem. 3 http://www.sfaturiortodoxe.ro/pcleopa/19femeia.htm 4 Bogiile Oratorice, Sf Ioan Gur de Aur, Ed. Pelerinul Romn, Oradea, 2002. 5 Idem

Discrimination on the Labor Market Before and After 1989


1

Liliana Coica, National Report on Equal Opportunities Between Men and Women, Bucharest, 2002

Discriminarea pe piaa muncii nainte i dup 89


1

Liliana Coica, Raport naional privind egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai , Bucureti, 2002

Classic Discrimination in the Labor Market


1

Life Quality Magazine, Specific discrimination phenomena at work: mobbing, XXI, no. 1-2, 2010, pag. 115-116

Discriminarea clasic pe piaa muncii


1

Revista Calitatea vieii, Fenomene specifice de discriminare la locul de munc: mobbing-ul , XXI, nr. 1-2, 2010, pag. 115-116

Gender-Based Wage Discrimination


1

Ctlin Puna, Wage Discrimination in Romania Evolution and Explanations, pag. 1-2

Discriminarea salarial ntre femei i brbai


1

Ctlin Puna, Discriminarea salarial n Romnia evoluie i explicaii , pag. 1-2

Pregnant Women - A Target for Discrimination at Work


1

Femeile nsrcinate, o int a discriminrii la locul de munc


1

Law no. 202/2002 republished in 2007, on equal opportunities between women and men, published in the Official Gazette, Part I, no. 150 of 01/03/2007. 2 Convention no. 183/2000 regarding the revision of the Convention concerning Maternity Protection of 1952, adopted at the 88th session of the General Conference of the International Labour Organization in Geneva, in June 15th, 2000, article 8, Employment protection and non-discrimination

Legea nr. 202/2002 republicat n 2007, privind egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai, publicat n Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 150 din 01/03/2007 2 Convenia nr. 183/2000 privind revizuirea Conveniei asupra proteciei maternitii din 1952, adoptat la cea de-a a 88-a sesiune a Conferinei Generale a Organizaiei Internaionale a Muncii la Geneva, la 15 iunie 2000, articolul 8, Protecia locului de munc i nediscriminarea

Domestic Violence. Another Form of Gender Discrimination


1

Violena n familie, o alt form de discriminare de gen


1

Law no. 217/2003 for the prevention and repression of domestic violence, published in the Official Bulletin, Part I, no. 367 of May 29, 2003 2 www.garbo.ro, Sleeping with the enemy Letter to a victim of domestic violence , October 4, 2010

Legea nr. 217/2003 pentru prevenirea i combaterea violenei n familie, publicat n Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 367 din 29 mai 2003 2 www.garbo.ro, n pat cu dumanul - Scrisoare ctre o victim a violenei domestice , 4 octombrie 2010

Legislative Framework in the Field of Equal Opportunities between Women and Men in Romania
1

Cadrul legislativ n domeniul egalitii de anse ntre femei i brbai n Romnia


1

Law no. 202/2002 republished in 2007, regarding equal opportunities between men and women, published in the Official Bullettin, Part. I, no. 150 of 01/03/2007 2 Council Directive no.75/117/EEC of 10.02.1975 3 Council Directive no.76/207/EEC of 09.02.1976, European Parliament and Council Directive no.2002/73/EC of 23.09.2002 4 Council Directive no.79/7/EEC of 19.12.1978, Council Directive no. 86/378/ EEC of 24.07.1986 5 Council Directive no. 86/378/EEC of 24.07.1986 6 Council Directive no. 92/85/EEC of 19.10.1992 7 Council Directive no. 93/104/EC of 23.11.1993 8 Council Directive no. 96/34/EC of 03.06.1996 9 Council Directive no. 97/80/EC of 15.12.1997 10 Council Directive no. 97/81/EC of 15.12.1997

Legea nr. 202/2002 republicat n 2007, privind egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai, publicat n Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 150 din 01/03/2007 2 Directiva Consiliului nr.75/117/EEC din 10.02.1975 3 Directiva Consiliului nr.76/207/EEC din 09.02.1976, Directiva Parlamentului European i Consiliului nr.2002/73/EC din 23.09.2002 4 Directiva Consiliului nr.79/7/EEC din 19.12.1978, Directiva Consiliului nr. 86/378/EEC din 24.07.1986 5 Directiva Consiliului nr. 86/378/EEC din 24.07.1986 6 Directiva Consiliului nr. 92/85/EEC din 19.10.1992 7 Directiva Consiliului nr. 93/104/EC din 23.11.1993 8 Directiva Consiliului nr. 96/34/EC din 03.06.1996 9 Directiva Consiliului nr. 97/80/EC din 15.12.1997 10 Directiva Consiliului nr. 97/81/EC din 15.12.1997

Romanian Laws on Equal Opportunities between Women and Men


1

Legile romne referitoare la egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai


1

tefnescu, T., Considerations refering to Law no.202/2002 regarding equal opportunities for men and women concerning the labour field, Romanian Labour Law Magazine, no. 2 April-June 2002, pp. 9-14

Stefnescu, T., Consideraii referitoare la Legea nr.202/2002 privind egalitatea de anse ntre femei i brbai, cu privire asupra domeniului muncii, Revista Romn de Dreptul muncii, nr.2 aprilie-iunie 2002, pp. 9-14

How to Align the Romanian Laws to the European Union Norms and Regulations
The Ministry of European Integration, The Guidelines for Equal Opportunities , Bucureti, 2006, pages 10-11
1

Cum se aliniaz legile din Romnia la normele Uniunii Europene


1

Ministerul Integrrii Europene, Ghidul egalitii de anse , Bucureti, 2006, pag. 10-11

Opiuni de programare care sprijin egalitatea de anse


1

Programming Options that Support Equal Opportunities


1

ANOFM, The application of the principle of gender transversality in the development and implementation of projects financed under the European Social Fund , Bucureti, 2011, page 17-21 2 The European Commission: The New Programming Period 2000-2006. Document No. 3: Integration of Gender Equity between Women and Men into Structural Funds Programs and Projects, 2000

ANOFM, Aplicarea principiului transversalitii egalitii de gen n elaborarea i implementarea proiectelor finanate de Fondul Social European, Bucureti, 2011, pag. 17-21 2 Comisia European: Noua Perioad de Programare 2000-2006. Documentul Tehnic nr. 3: Integrarea Egalitii de Gen dintre Femei i Brbai n Programele i Proiectele Fondurilor Structurale, 2000

Organizaii feministe n Romnia


1

Feminist Organizations in Romania


1

Mia Biciclista, ne Maria Mihaescu, was one of the first modern women of Romanias early 20th century and one of the first Romanian women to ride a bicycle. 2 Elizabeth Wood, The baba and the Comrade. Gender and Politics in Revolutionary Russia, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1997, pag. 207

Mia Biciclista, ne Maria Mihaescu, was one of the first modern women of Romanias early 20th century and one of the first Romanian women to ride a bicycle. 2 Elizabeth Wood, The baba and the Comrade. Gender and Politics in Revolutionary Russia, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1997, pag. 207

Feminismul n perioada comunist


1

Feminism under the Communist Regime


1

Jill Massino, Womens Anonymity in the Aesthetics of Ceauescus Romania, http://ebooks.unibuc.ro/istorie/ciupala/anonimatulfemeii.htm 2 Idem, http://ebooks.unibuc.ro/istorie/ciupala/anonimatulfemeii.htm 3 Idem

JJill Massino, Anonimatul femeii n estetica Romniei Ceauiste, http://ebooks.unibuc.ro/istorie/ciupala/anonimatulfemeii.htm 2 Idem 3 Idem

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197

Feminism after December 1989


1

www.antoniomomoc.ro, The Woman in Romanian Movies after 1990 , September 2007

Feminismul n perioada post-decembrist


1

www.antoniomomoc.ro, Femeia n filmele romneti dup 90 , septembrie 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SlutWalk

The Magistrate
1

Magda Isanos (1916 - 1944) was a Romanian poetess, writer, journalist and lawyer.

Magistrata (fragment)
1

Magda Isanos (1916 - 1944) a fost o poet, prozatoare i publicist romn.

Lines of Action to Promote Equal Opportunities in Organizations


1

ANOFM, Guide for Promoting Equal Opportunities for Men and Women in the Labor Market , Bucureti, 2011, pag. 26-28

Linii de aciune pentru promovarea egalitii de anse n companii


1

ANOFM, Ghid pentru promovarea egalitii ntre femei i brbai pe piaa muncii , Bucureti, 2011, pag. 26-28

The Unions Mediators between Employees and Employers


1

CPE, What can unions do for a correct salary system of the employees, men and women? , Bucharest, 2007, pag. 10-11, 22-30

Sindicatele mediatori ntre angajai i angajatori


1

CPE, Ce pot face sindicatele pentru un sistem corect de salarizare a angajailor, femei i brbai? , Bucureti, 2007, pag. 10-11, 22-30

What is Fair and Equal Pay?


1

Constitution of Romania: art. 41 (4) 2 Labour Code: art. 6(2), art. 154(3), art. 155 3 Law no. 202/2002: art. 6(1)(c); art. 4(e) 4 Law no. 48/2002 which approves the GO no. 137/2000 brings an important amendment related to the principle of payment non-discrimination, extending this principle to granting other social rights other than those representing payment 5 GO no. 137/2000: art. 1(2)(e)(i); art. 6

Ce este plata corect i plata egal?


1 2

Constituia Romniei: art. 41 (4) Codul Muncii: art. 6(2), art. 154(3), art. 155 3 Legea nr. 202/2002: art. 6(1)(c); art. 4(e) 4 Legea nr. 48/2002 care aprob OG nr. 137/2000 aduce un amendament important legat de principiul nediscriminrii n salarizare, extinznd acest principiu i ctre acordarea altor drepturi sociale dect cele reprezentnd salariul 5 OG nr. 137/2000: art. 1(2)(e)(i); art. 6

Women versus Men Managers


1

www.adevarul.ro, Women Leadership in a Mens World , 31 May 2011

Femeia manager versus brbatul manager


1

www.adevarul.ro, Femei-lider ntr-o lume a brbailor , 31 mai 2011

Women and Men Health Differences


1

www.nutritie-sanatoasa.ro, Femeile sunt mai vulnerabile dect brbaii (Women Are more Vulnerable than Men), 30 iulie 2008

Femei i brbai diferene privitoare la starea sntii


1

www.nutritie-sanatoasa.ro, Femeile sunt mai vulnerabile dect brbaii , 30 iulie 2008

Factors and Conditions that Can Affect Womens and Mens Health
1

Crina Popa: http://www.nutritie-sanatoasa.ro/articol/Retete-naturiste/Terapii,cure/1137/

Factori i condiii care pot influena sntatea femeilor i a brbailor


Crina Popa: http://www.nutritie-sanatoasa.ro/articol/Retete-naturiste/Terapii,cure/1137/
1

Women in Mass Media


1

www.capital.ro, Imaginea femeii n mass-media: de la gospodin la obiect sexual (Women image in the mass media: from housewife to sexual object), 9 September 2011

Femeia n mass-media
1

www.capital.ro, Imaginea femeii n mass-media: de la gospodin la obiect sexual , 9 septembrie 2011

The Feminine Elite of the Romanian Society


1

Elita feminin a societii romneti


1

Take Ionescu (1858-1922) was a Romanian centrist politician and former prime minister of Romania, a diplomat and also a journalist and lawyer who also enjoyed reputation as a short story writer

Take Ionescu (1858-1922) a fost un politician de centru i prim-ministru al Romniei, un diplomat i, de asemenea, un jurnalist i avocat care s-a bucurat de reputaia de a fi un scriitor de proz scurt

Bibliography / Bibliografie
What Should Be Known About Discrimination? Psychological Aspects of Discrimination and Its Impact on Personal Development
Alexandra Gheondea, Simona Ilie, Mihaela Lambru, Adina Mihilescu, Adriana Negu, Mariana Stanciu, Cristina Tomescu. Life Quality Magazine, XXI, nr. 12, 2010. Article: Specific discrimination phenomena at work: mobbing

Ce trebuie s tim despre discriminare? Aspecte psihologice ale discriminrii i consecinele ei n planul dezvoltrii personaliti

Alexandra Gheondea, Simona Ilie, Mihaela Lambru, Adina Mihilescu, Adriana Negu, Mariana Stanciu, Cristina Tomescu. Revista CALITATEA VIEII, XXI, nr. 12, 2010. Articol: Fenomene specifice de discriminare la locul de munc: mobbing-ul

How Much Money Does Barbie Make?

Biddle, Jeff E. i Hamermesh, Daniel S. (1995). Beauty, productivity and discrimination: Lawyers look and lucre. British Broadcasting Company. (2005). BBC- Secrets of the sexes - Attraction. Ciccotti, Serge. (2007). 150 Psychological Experiments to Know Others. Iai: Polirom Publishing House. Guguen, Nicolas. [2007] (2008). Psychology of Seduction. 100 Experiments to Better Understand Behaviors of Those in Love. Iai: Polirom Publishing House. Laabs, Jennifer. (1995). Does image matter? Personnel Journal, December 1995. Wikipedia: Waist-hip ratio http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waist-hip_ratio

Ce salariu are Barbie?

Biddle, Jeff E. i Hamermesh, Daniel S. (1995). Beauty, productivity and discrimination: Lawyers look snd lucre. British Broadcasting Company. (2005). BBC- Secrets of the sexes - Attraction. Ciccotti, Serge. (2007). 150 de experimente n psihologie pentru cunoaterea celuilalt. Iai: Editura Polirom. Guguen, Nicolas. [2007] (2008). Psihologia seduciei. 100 de experimente pentru nelegerea comportamentului n dragoste. Iai: Editura Polirom. Laabs, Jennifer. (1995). Does image matter? Personnel Journal, Decembrie 1995. Wikipedia: Waist-hip ratio http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waist-hip_ratio

When Feminism is Misunderstood

Marshall, Gordon (edt.) (2004). Oxford Dictionary of Sociology. Bucharest: Univers Enciclopedic Publishing House. Wikipedia: SlutWalk http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SlutWalk

Cnd feminismul este greit neles

Marshall, Gordon (edt.) (2004). Oxford Dicionar de sociologie. Bucureti: Editura Univers Enciclopedic. Wikipedia: SlutWalk http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SlutWalk

Happiness Is Feminine

Diener, E, Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective Well-Being: Three Decades of Progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276-302. Nolen-Hoeksma, S. and Rusting, C.L. (1999). Gender differences in well-being In Kahneman et al (1999) Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology, New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Plagnol, A. C. & Easterlin, R. A. (2008). Aspirations, Attainments, and Satisfaction: Life Cycle Differences Between American Women and Men. Journal of Happiness Studies. Stevenson, Betsey & Wolfers, Justin (2009). The Paradox of Declining Female Happiness. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 1:2, 190225. http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/pol.1.2.190. Suttie, Jill, (2009). Is There a Happiness Gender Gap? http://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/ item/is_there_a_happiness_gender_gap/

Fericirea la genul feminin

Diener, E, Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective Well-Being: Three Decades of Progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276-302. Nolen-Hoeksma, S. and Rusting, C.L. (1999). Gender differences in well-being In Kahneman et al (1999) Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology, New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Plagnol, A. C. & Easterlin, R. A. (2008). Aspirations, Attainments, and Satisfaction: Life Cycle Differences Between American Women and Men. Journal of Happiness Studies. Stevenson, Betsey & Wolfers, Justin (2009). The Paradox of Declining Female Happiness. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 1:2, 190225. http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/pol.1.2.190. Suttie, Jill, (2009). Is There a Happiness Gender Gap? http://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/ item/is_there_a_happiness_gender_gap/

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Asociaia C4C Communication for Community, prin Proiectul Munca are genul feminin, urmrete promovarea incluziunii sociale i a egalitii de anse pe piaa muncii a femeilor a ate n situaii de excludere i/sau marginalizare socio-profesional. C4C Communication for Community Association through its project Work Is Feminine aims to promote social inclusion and equal opportunities in the labour market for women at risk of social exclusion and/or social and professional marginalization. Militam ca aceste femei s aib acces, n condiii nediscriminatorii, la ncadrare n munc i tratament egal n stabilirea i evaluarea criteriilor de recrutare, selectare, promovare i acces la toate formele si nivelurile de orientare, formare i perfecionare profesionala. We advocate for womens easy and non-discriminatory access to work and employment, as well as equal treatment in assessig and establishing criteria for their recruitment, selection, promotion and access to all forms and levels of professional orientation, formation and improvement. Ne propunem s atingem semni cativ viaa a 2800 de femei prin: Informare direct privind programele de (re)cali care, dar i locurile de munc existente pe pia; Consiliere psihologic a femeilor a ate n cutarea unui loc de munc; Mediere ntre persoanele care caut locuri de munc sau cursuri de formare profesional, precum i ntre ofertanii acestora; Accesul unui numr de 2800 de femei la cursuri de (re)cali care i sprijinirea acestui demers prin gratuitatea cursurilor i subvenie acordat la nalizare; Servicii de acompaniere, de tip gradini i coal dup coal, pentru 200 copii, pe perioada participrii mamelor sau tutorilor la cursurile de formare profesional; Organizare de cursuri n domeniul TIC; Dou ediii Bursa locurilor de munc, orientate mai ales pe intermedierea contactului dintre femeile care i doresc s munceasc i posibili angajatori. We aim to reach and significantly change the lives of 2,800 women through: Direct information on quali cation/requali cation programs and the existing jobs on the labour market; Psychological counselling of women looking for a job; Mediation between parties looking for a job or professional training courses, and the parties able to provide the above; Access of 2,800 women to quali cation/professional training courses and nancial support granted to this process; Accompaniment services for children - kindergarten and school after-school, during their mothers or tutors participation in training courses; Organization of professional training courses in IT&C; Two editions of the Women Job Fair to be focused on the womens needs. Pentru mai multe detalii, ne putei contacta sau vizita: For more information, visit us at: Sediu implementare Bucureti Bd. Carol I, nr. 54, et. 3, sc. A, ap. 4, Sector 2 Tel: 0317 115 240/0317 115 241 Fax: 0317 115 242 Sediul de implementare Piteti Muzeul Judetean Arge Str. Armand Clinescu, nr. 44 Tel: 0736 400 415

Titlul programului: Programul Operaional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013 Investete n oameni! Titlul proiectului: Munca are genul feminin POSDRU/97/6.3/S/63494 Editorul materialului: Asociaia C4C Communication for Community Data publicrii: noiembrie 2011 Coninutul acestui material nu reprezint n mod obligatoriu poziia o ciala a Uniunii Europene sau a Guvernului Romniei. Programme title: Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007 2013 Investing in people! Project title: Munca are genul feminine (Work is feminine) - POSDRU/97/6.3/S/63494 Publisher: Asociaia C4C Communication for Community Published in: November 2011 The content of this publication does not necessarily re ect the o cial position of the European Union or the Romanian Government.