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Being a working adult and going back to school to learn about Marketing Management is a tall order.

The feeling has actually elated me to do something for myself and contribute what I learn in this great b-school to the future generations. It has taken me sometime to complete this assignment and with great effort. However, I dont think that this assignment is solely my creation. It is the result of the efforts of the lecturer, Ms. Mary Loh. She impressed me with her dedication, work ethic, and commitment to the quality of knowledge dissemination. I would also like to thank my fellow students who have always been a source of inspiration and were never selfish to share their experience and knowledge with me throughout this class. PARIS GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT - ESG International Executive Master of Business Management Marketing Assignment 1 (25%) Question : Marketing mix consists of Product, Price, Place and Promotion whereas Promotion mix includes Advertising, Promotions, Personal Selling and Publicity. Select TWO (2) businesses. One on marketing products (electronic goods SONY, cars - TOYOTA, mobile phones NOKIA, consumer products COCA-COLA) and the other on providing service (hotel (HILTON) and tourism visit Malaysia year in 2007, training and education, consultancy, entertainment) or, any other local products or brand(s). Recommend the appropriate marketing and promotion mix which are related to effective planning and marketing of your product as well as providing the selected service. Under the respective category mix, differentiate clearly the degree of emphasis between your selected product-based and service-based businesses. Your assignment should be between 2,000 to 2,500 words. Sources and references to support this assignment must be quoted. Introduction The objective of this study is to classify and make a comparison of two global business models in the Marketing and Promotion Mix categories. The organizations that will be used in this study are Starbucks Corporation (Restaurants, Retail Coffee and Tea, Retail Beverages and Entertainment products) and Southwest Airlines (Airline Service). Upon categorizing of the respective different mix, we will make a comparison of the degree of emphasis in the marketing and promotion mix between Starbucks Corporation and Southwest Airlines. Literature Review According to marketing guru Philip Kotler, (Kotler, et al (2005) "Marketing Management", Prentice Hall), Marketing Mix consists of 4 basic elements: product, price, place and promotion. The marketing mix is generally accepted as the use and specification of 'the four Ps', describing the strategic position of a product in the marketplace. Although the 4Ps form the fundamentals of the marketing mix, there are two other elements, personnel and packaging which have been lightly included. The fundamental of marketing mix typically identifies the four Ps as referring to: Product -A tangible object or an intangible service that is mass produced or manufactured on a large scale with a

specific volume of units. Intangible products are often service based like the tourism and hotel industry. Typical examples of a mass produced tangible object is the motor car and the disposable razor. Price The price is the amount a customer pays for the product. It is determined by a number of factors including market share, competition, material costs, product identity and the customer's perceived value of the product. The business may increase or decrease the price of product if their stores have the same product. Place Place represents the location where a product can be purchased. It is often referred to as the distribution channel. It can include any physical store as well as virtual stores on the Internet. Promotion Promotion represents all of the communications that a marketer may use in the marketplace. Promotion has four distinct elements - advertising, public relations, word of mouth and point of sale. A certain amount of crossover occurs when promotion uses the four principal elements together, which is common in film promotion. Advertising covers any communication that is paid for, from television and cinema commercials, radio and Internet adverts through print media and billboards. One of the most notable means of promotion today is the Promotional Product, as in useful items distributed to targeted audiences with no obligation attached. This category has grown each year for the past decade while most other forms have suffered. It is the only form of advertising that targets all five senses and has the recipient thanking the giver. Public relations are where the communication is not directly paid for and includes press releases, sponsorship deals, exhibitions, conferences, seminars or trade fairs and events. Word of mouth is any informal communication about the product by ordinary individuals, satisfied customers or people specifically engaged to create word of mouth momentum. Sales staff often plays an important role in word of mouth and Public Relations. A point-of-sale display (POS) is a specialized form of sales promotion that is found near, on, or next to a checkout counter (the "point of sale"). They are intended to draw the customers' attention to products, which may be new products, or on special offer, and are also used to promote special events, e.g. seasonal or holiday-time sales. POS displays can include shelf edging, dummy packs, display packs, display stands, mobiles, posters, and banners. Broadly defined, optimizing the marketing mix is the primary responsibility of marketing. By offering the product with the right combination of the four Ps, marketers can improve their results and marketing and competitive effectiveness. Making small changes in the marketing mix is typically considered to be a tactical change. Making large changes in any of the four Ps can be considered strategic. For example, a large change in the price, say from RM19.00 to RM39.00 would be considered a strategic change in the position of the product. However a change of RM131 to RM130.99 would be considered a tactical change, potentially related to a promotional offer. 1. Starbucks Corporation Founded In 1971 across from Pike Place Market in Seattle, Washington Founder Zev Siegl, Jerry Baldwin and Gordon Bowker Headquarters Seattle, Washington, USA Key people Howard Schultz, Chairman, President and CEO Martin Coles, President, Starbucks International Peter Bocian, Chief Financial Officer Industry Restaurants Retail Coffee and Tea Retail Beverages Entertainment Products Whole Bean Coffee Boxed Tea Made-to-order beverages Bottled beverages Baked Goods Merchandise Frappuccino beverages Smoothies Services Coffee Revenue exceeding US$9.411 billion (2007) Operating income exceeding US$1.053 billion (2007)

Net income exceeding US$672.64 million (2007) Total assets US$5.343 billion (2007) Total equity US$2.284 billion (2007) Employees 172,000 (2008) Subsidiaries Starbucks Coffee Company Tazo Tea Company Seattle's Best Coffee Torrefazione Italia Hear Music Ethos Water Website Starbucks Corporation is an international coffee and coffeehouse chain based in Seattle, Washington, USA. Starbucks is the largest coffeehouse company in the world, with 15,012 stores in 44 countries. Starbucks sells drip brewed coffee, espresso-based hot drinks, other hot and cold drinks, snacks, and items such as mugs and coffee beans. Through the Starbucks Entertainment division and Hear Music brand, the company also markets books, music, and film. Many of the company's products are seasonal or specific to the locality of the store. Starbucks-brand ice cream and coffee are also sold at grocery stores. From Starbucks' founding in Seattle as a local coffee bean roaster and retailer, the company has expanded rapidly. In the 1990s, Starbucks was opening a new store every workday, a pace that continued into the 2000s. Domestic growth has since slowed, although the company continues to expand in foreign markets and will open a net of 900 new stores outside of the U.S. in 2009. The first location outside of the United States and Canada was established in 1990s, and they now constitute almost one third of Starbucks' stores. By late March 2008, Starbucks had more than 16,226 stores worldwide, including 11,434 stores located in the United States. On July 1, 2008, the company announced it was closing 600 under-performing company-owned stores and cutting U.S. expansion plans amid growing economic uncertainty. On July 29, 2008, Starbucks also cut almost 1,000 non-retail jobs as part of its bid to re-energize the brand and boost its profit. Of the new cuts, 550 of the positions are layoffs and the rest are unfilled jobs. These closings and layoffs have effectively ended the companys period of prolific growth and expansion that began in the mid-1990s. 1.1 Marketing Mix based on the Starbucks business model Marketing is the human activity directed at satisfying human needs and wants through an exchange process (Kotler 1980) 1.1.1 Product Starbucks serves a variety of beverages including brewed coffee, hot chocolate, espresso, teas, Frappuccinos and, in some outlets, fruit smoothies known as Vivanno Nourishing Blends. Also available are bottled beverages, sometimes including Naked Juice, Ethos water, San Pellegrino, Izze soda, and Horizon Organic Milk. Cappuccinos, and all other beverages with steamed-milk and/or foam can be customized to order with pumps of flavored syrups, reasonable temperature changes and additional espresso shots. Starbucks also offers blended beverages, such as the "Frappuccino Blended Coffee", a flavored drink of coffee, milk, and sugar blended with ice. However, coffee is optional in the Frappuccinos. The name is a portmanteau of frapp and cappuccino and was introduced in 1995. Starbucks markets seasonal beverages as well, such as the Pumpkin Spice Latte (September to January) and Eggnog Latte (November to January). There is also seasonal brewed coffee, like the "Christmas/Holiday Blend" of whole bean coffee. Starbucks supplements the beverage offerings with pastries, ready-to-eat salads and sandwiches, coffee merchandise, at-home brewing equipment, and whole bean coffee. Starbucks sells a variety of ready-to-eat and drink products that are kosher (food that fulfills the requirements of

Jewish dietary law), but due to business hours and sandwich products a Starbucks store cannot be certified 'kosher'. Starbucks also serves tea beverages categorized as Tazo tea for tea lovers. 1.1.2 Place "The Third Place" Starbucks envisions its outlets as a "third place" (besides home and work) to spend time, and store design is intended to achieve this. The caf section of the store is often outfitted with stuffed chairs and tables with hardbacked chairs. Most stores provide free electricity for customers, and many stores also provide wireless Internet access (provided in American stores by AT&T, in Canadian stores by Bell Mobility, in New Zealand outlets by Telecom NZ, T-Mobile in the UK, Germany, Austria & Switzerland, in Mexico by Telmex, in Australia by Telstra and Telekoms Malaysia Berhad in Malaysia). The company operates a non-smoking policy at almost all of its outlets, despite predictions that this would never succeed in markets such as Germany, which used to have few restrictions on smoking. This has changed in 2007 with many German states issuing smoking bans for restaurants and bars. Outlets in Vienna and Mexico City, which have smoking rooms separated by double doors from the coffee shop itself, and a smoking room upstairs in the Largo do Senado, Macau, branch are the closest the company has come to making exceptions. Starbucks generally does not prohibit smoking in outside seating areas, unless required by local codes. According to the company, the smoking ban is to ensure that the coffee aroma is not adulterated. The company asks its employees to refrain from wearing strong perfumes for similar reasons. The aroma issue was also mentioned when the company announced it would stop serving hot breakfast sandwiches in early 2008, although in the end the sandwiches were retained in less-odorous versions. Howard Schultz has said, "We're in the business of human connection and humanity, creating communities in a third place between home and work." 1.1.3 Pricing The pricing strategy of Starbucks is also employed by their competitors too. Simply put, they set the prices for their small-amount products like a 200 ml coffee so high that it appears to make sense buying a middle-sized one for a few more cents. Other products of the cheaper category are simply not advertised. The difficulty is that if some of their products are cheap, they may lose money from customers who would willingly have paid more. So, businesses try to discourage their more lavish customers from trading down by making their cheap products look or sound unattractive, or, in the case of Starbucks, making the cheap product invisible. This practice has been around for hundreds of years. The French economist Emile Dupuit wrote about the early days of the railways, when third-class carriages were built without roofs, even though roofs were cheap: "What the company is trying to do is prevent the passengers who can pay the second-class fare from traveling third class; it hits the poor, not because it wants to hurt them, but to frighten the rich." 1.1.4 Promotion Starbucks implements its global marketing strategy while also adapting to local market. In China, it mainly promotes itself through office visits and free sample to customers but seldom does it spend on advertisement (Qin, 2004). Besides, it offers seasonal promotions based on holiday themes. Staffs wear special clothes; decorate the store; put up the designed banners or other promotional materials. During Chinese New Year, for example, staffs usually decorate the store with red lanterns or spring festival scrolls. 1.2 Promotion Mix based on the Starbucks business model 1.2.1 Advertising Starbucks do not spend much of its revenue on advertisements as they are proud of the products that they market

and are confident that customers who enjoy their coffee will definitely come again with their friends and families. 1.2.2 Personal Selling Starbucks has successfully retained its leadership as a preferred coffee specialty provider by means of joint-ventures with market leaders in other product areas and also by acquiring smaller competitors. As such, Starbucks controls all its marketing efforts by franchises and expansion of it outlets globally and do not market their products by way of personal selling. 1.2.3 Sales Promotion In order to survive tough competition from global names such as McDonalds, Procter & Gamb le and Nestle, all of which distributed their coffees through supermarkets, Starbucks had recently begun selling its coffees in supermarkets. Starbucks coffee sold in supermarkets featured distinctive, elegant packaging; prominent positions in grocery aisles; and the same premium quality as that sold in its own stores. Product freshness was guaranteed by Starbucks' FlavorLock packaging, and the price per pound paralleled the prices in Starbucks' retail stores. 1.2.4 Public Relations Howard Schultz's effort to "build a company with soul" included a broad-based program of corporate responsibility, orchestrated mainly through the Starbucks Foundation, set up in 1997. a) Starbucks was the largest corporate contributor in North America to CARE, a worldwide relief and development organization that sponsored health, education, and humanitarian aid programs in most of the Third World countries where Starbucks purchased its coffee supplies; b) Starbucks had an Environmental Committee that looked for ways to reduce, reuse, and recycle waste, as well as contribute to local community environmental efforts. c) Starbucks Memorial Fund that would make annual grants to local groups working to reduce violence and aid the victims of violent crimes. 1.2.5 Direct Marketing Starbucks do not market nor promote their brand name by direct marketing, preferring instead to build the brand cup by cup with customers and depend on word-of-mouth and the appeal of its storefronts. The company was, however, engaged in a growing effort to extend the Starbucks brand and penetrate new markets. In addition to expanding internationally, venturing into ice cream with Dreyer's and into Frappuccino with Pepsi, partnering with licensees, and developing specialty and mail-order sales, Starbucks had recently begun selling its coffees in supermarkets. 2. Southwest Airlines Founded 1971 Focus cities McCarran International Airport Chicago Midway International Airport Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport Baltimore-Washington International Airport William P. Hobby Airport Dallas Love Field Oakland International Airport Los Angeles International Airport Orlando International Airport San Diego International Airport Nashville International Airport Denver International Airport Frequent flyer program Rapid Rewards Fleet size 539 Destinations 65

Company slogan A Symbol of Freedom / You Are Now Free to Move About The Country Headquarters Dallas, Texas Key people Gary C. Kelly (Chairman, CEO and President) Herb Kelleher (Co-Founder) LauraWright(CFO) Colleen Barrett (Ex-President) Website: Southwest Airlines Co. is an American low-cost airline based in Dallas, Texas, with its largest focus city at Las Vegas' McCarran International Airport. It is the largest airline in the United States by number of passengers carried domestically per year (as of December 31, 2007). It is also the 6th largest U.S. airline by revenue. It also maintains the fifth-largest passenger fleet of aircraft among all of the world's commercial airlines. As of July 12, 2008, Southwest operates approximately 3,500 flights daily. Southwest Airlines has carried more customers than any other U.S. airline since August 2006 for combined domestic and international passengers according to the U.S. Department of Transportations Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Southwest Airlines is one of the world's most profitable airlines, posting a profit for the 35th consecutive year in January 2008. 2.1 Marketing Mix based on the Southwest Airlines business model 2.1.1 Product The product is simply providing the right product to the correct target market. Southwest Airlines offer its customers air transportation with no frills. Southwest also offers good customer service with outstanding baggage handling. In fact, they have been awarded the prestigious Triple Crown for Best On-Time Record, Best Baggage Handling, and Fewest Customer Complaints. Southwest uses the Boeing 737 aircraft exclusively, which provides the same conveniences as other competitive discount providers. The airline also offers ticket-less reservations that can easily be made on the internet. (Matthew Brelis) (Southwest Airlines) (Perreault, W.E., et al., 2004). 2.1.2 Place Southwest's core marketing strategy is short-haul domestic routes with an average flight length of 394 miles that typically lasts about an hour, allowing the airline to be at or near top in periodic measures of on-time performance. Southwest further takes advantage of serving airports that are readily accessible, rather than using large, crowded international airports. Low fare airlines compete in the segment of the market that accounts for approximately 40 percent of all passenger traffic in the United States. Before starting service to a new city, Southwest first launches an extended public relations program that emphasizes community relations, special events, and direct marketing. (Southwest Airlines) (Perreault, W.E., et al., 2004). 2.1.3 Price Southwest Airlines' main strength lies in its low-fares. The airline is best known for its three categories of ticket prices, and if tickets are purchased far enough in advance, the customer stands a good a chance of reaping a huge discount. Southwest keeps its operating costs down by not offering meals on their flights; however, they do offer a variety of snacks. (Southwest Airlines) (David Carter, et al) (Perreault, W, E. McCarthy, J.)

2.1.4 Promotion As for Promotion, Southwest carefully selects new markets where there are too few flights and often high fares. When it enters the market, fares drop by as much as 70 percent. This action often triggers a price war that quickly turns into tremendous benefits for customers and increases air traffic in that area. Southwest Airlines employs two major price strategies, a variable - price strategy and a low - price strategy, to compete against other airlines. Passengers would not fly at high prices, and demand for air travel is highly elastic. (Matthew Brelis) (Southwest Airlines) (Perreault, W.E., et al., 2004). 2.1.5 People

Southwest Airlines do not base their point of sales service involving human process, as the customer makes flight reservations via online and mobile methods. Other means of contact with Southwest Airlines is through their ticketing agents. The customers luggage(s) are hauled in to the same flight that they travel in, thus minimizing the risk of losing their baggage. 2.1.6 Physical Evidence Southwest Airlines rely heavily on physical evidence to market their brand name. Using internet to advertise, signage on their planes and attractive uniforms for their staff are some of the strategies Southwest Airlines use. 2.1.7 Process At Southwest Airlines, the Mission Statement has always governed the way to conduct business. It highlights their desire to serve customers and gives them direction when they have to make service-related decisions. It is another way of the Company saying, "We always try to do the right thing!" Employees are told that the Airline is in the Customer Service businessthey just happen to provide airline transportation. It gives all its passengers the impression that it is a privilege of Southwest to serve their air travel needs. This clear shows that the organization promotes the importance of process, which is from customer to employee so that they have a sence of belonging to the brand name. 2.2 Promotion Mix based on the Southwest Airlines business model 2.2.1 Advertising Southwest promotes its services is a variety of methods. Television commercials air during highly viewed hours such as sporting events or popular television shows. These commercials usually have a humorous tone as well as information on the latest special. Southwest latest marketing tool is named "Ding". Ding is a computer program which allows the consumer to be notified of specials. Notifications of the specials occur at various times of the day and may occur multiple times per day. The icon for this is a tail of a Southwest plane and appears in the system tray (lower right hand corner of a computer screen). When the specials arrive the icon changes to a piece of mail over the tail section of the plane and a sound occurs. The sound is the "Ding" tone heard in the Southwest television commercials and in the cabin of the airplane. The consumer can click on the icon to launch the software. The screen appears with the details of the latest special. These specials are market specific and are focused on time availability. 2.2.2 Personal Selling Southwest Airlines does not employ the personal selling strategy in its promotion mix, as anyone can make a reservation through the internet, which is readily available anywhere. Southwest Airlines has won several awards for their internet site. The internet site allows the consumer to visit Southwest Airlines website from anywhere where there is an internet connection. So, if you are at the library, office, internet caf, or on a portable device such as a Blackberry, Southwest is there. 2.2.3 Sales Promotion Southwest's frequent flier program is called Rapid Rewards. Customers receive one credit for each one-way trip (even though the flight may have stopovers). A free ticket, expiring after 11 months, is automatically issued when a member accumulates 16 credits in a 24-month period. In addition, one half credit is earned for using a Southwest partner to book any car rental and/or hotel stay, regardless of whether a Southwest flight is involved. Rapid Reward members can also earn one credit for every $1,200 charged to a Rapid Rewards branded Visa credit card (with charges from Southwest or its partners counting double). This arrangement has won numerous Freddie Awards over the years. 2.2.4 Public Relations The public relations for Southwest speak to the character of the company. Southwest sponsors various charitable events and the employees, including the CEO, volunteer for various events. The charity work Southwest does also aids in the promotion of the company. Many consumers feel that it is a good company because of its social responsibility.

2.2.5 Direct Marketing As Southwest Airlines operate on a budget-cost operation, it utilizes this promotion mix in its strategy to maximize its market share and minimize operating costs by way of tele-marketing, direct mail, online marketing, etc. 3.0 The Differentiation Between Starbucks & Southwest Airlines. 3.1 Product Mix Dimension We need to analyze the width of the product mix that both of these models have. 3.1.1 Product width It can be seen quite easily that the Starbucks product range is so wide compared to Southwests range of service. Starbucks has over 30 products whereas Southwest Airlines only have their budget flights. 3.1.2 Product length In the area of product length, both Starbucks and Southwest Airlines have their own strategies to stay ahead of competition. Starbucks provide extra services, such as internet access, besides the range of over 30 beverages. Southwest Airlines however, have tied up with other major airlines to provide international flights. On July 8, 2008, Southwest announced that it has agreed to a comprehensive code share agreement with Canada's second largest carrier WestJet. The terms of the code share should be finalized by the end of 2009. Southwest has said that they have interest in flying to international destinations in the future, the Caribbean, Mexico, and England are all within their aircraft's range. 3.1.3 Product Depths Starbucks has a wide range of coffee products, ranging from drip brewed coffee, espresso-based hot drinks, other hot and cold drinks, snacks, and items such as mugs and coffee beans. Through the Starbucks Entertainment division and Hear Music brand, the company also markets books, music, and film. Many of the company's products are seasonal or specific to the locality of the store. Starbucks-brand ice cream and coffee are also sold at grocery stores. Southwest Airlines too has some depth in their service in that their core marketing strategy is short-haul domestic routes and services easily accessible airports throught United States of America. They have also tied up with other airlines internationally to serve parts of Canada, Mexico and some parts of Europe. 3.1.4 Consistency The level of consistency between Starbucks and Southwest Airlines can be considered quite similar. Starbucks and Southwest Airlines both employs the Pull method of marketing, relying more on their product and services rather then advertising widely in the media. 3.2 Pricing Strategy The second point of analysis is to determine the differentiation in the both compa nys pricing strategies; 3.2.1 Value Based Pricing Starbucks is an extremely well known name and successful brand. They have created a great marketing strategy in offering unique values for their customers. They have set the standards in the coffee industry. It appears to make sense buying a middle-sized one for a few more cents for their coffee because it is deemed "the best" and "most convenient" way to get coffee products. They already have the competitive advantage and offer high-quality products and have the ability to use value based pricing strategies. The pricing strategy is based on the consumers' perceptions of value. Price ranges: Coffee per pound - Latin America coffee ranges from $9.95 to $12.95 per pound. - Africa/Arabia ranges from $9.95 to $15.95 per pound. - Asia/Pacific ranges from $10.15 to $13.45 per pound. - Multi-region blend ranges from $ 9.95 to $12.95 per pound.

- Dark roast blend ranges from $ 9.95 to $10.65 per pound. Individual beverages - Tazo tea ranges from $1.35 to $3.45 - Espresso ranges from $ 1.35 to $2.30 per pound. - Coffee (hot) ranges from $ 1.45 to $1.75 per pound. - Coffee (hot) ranges from $ 1.60 to $2.45 per pound. - Frapuccino ranges from $ 2.65 to $4.20 per pound. 3.2.2 Market Penetration The low-cost strategy of carriers such as Southwest Airlines has a solid basis. Southwest does not occupy itself with meals, 'in-flight' films, design chairs, and various classes (and the corresponding options). All frills have been removed from the value proposition. It is also striking that Southwest Airlines uses the 'point-to-point' flight concept, offering rates that are at least 60% cheaper than those of the direct competition. To compete in this competitive airline industry, Southwest Airlines have reviewed their pricing strategy to cater to the mass, thus attracting frequent travelers to take to their airline without any hesitations. 3.3 Place Strategy Third point of analysis is to determine the differentiation in both the business models place strategies; Starbucks stores are typically clustered in high-traffic, high-visibility location in each market. Stores vary in size, with an average of approximately 1,500 square feet. Since the Company is able to vary the size of its stores, Starbucks stores are located in a variety of settings, including office buildings, downtown and suburban retail centers, airport terminals, and kiosks located usually in building lobbies. The same has to be said of Southwest Airlines in that they have open service routes throughout the country and even expanded internationally leveraging on joint-ventures with other successful airlines. 3.4 Promotion Strategies We now analyze the last of the differentiation strategies, i.e. the promotion strategy; Starbucks implements its global marketing strategy while also adapting to local market. In China, it mainly promotes itself through office visits and free sample to customers but seldom does it spend on advertisement (Qin, 2004). Southwest Airlines meanwhile has employed humor in its advertising. slogans include "Just Plane Smart," "There is Somebody Else Up There Who Loves You" and "The Low Fare Airline". The airline's current slogan is "A Symbol of Freedom". A select history of prints and video ads are available on the company website. Conclusion The assignment covers the marketing strategies of the both a product based model, Starbucks, and a service based model, Southwest Airlines. The marketing strategies for a product based business are commonly linked to product, place, price and promotion. Starbucks deploys the 4Ps marketing strategy very prudently and efficiently to grow and sustain their leadership in the coffee beverage business. As for a service oriented business model, the marketing strategy is strongly tied to the 7Ps strategies which are product, place, price, promotion, physical evidence, people and process. Through the assignment, it is clear that both these business models have maintained their leadership by successfully implementing the marketing strategies related to their area of expertise. References Philip Kotler, (Kotler, et al (2005) "Marketing Management", Prentice Hall)

(Matthew Brelis) (Southwest Airlines) (Perreault, W.E., et al., 2004) (Southwest Airlines) (Perreault, W.E., et al., 2004) (Southwest Airlines) (David Carter, et al) (Perreault, W, E. McCarthy, J.) (Matthew Brelis) (Southwest Airlines) (Perreault, W.E., et al., 2004)