Sunteți pe pagina 1din 22

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Autonomous Mobile Robots


z

The three key questions in Mobile Robotics


Where am I ? Where am I going ? How do I get there ?

To answer these questions the robot has to


have a model of the environment (given or autonomously built) perceive and analyze the environment find its position within the environment plan and execute the movement

This course will deal with Locomotion and Navigation (Perception, Localization, Planning and motion generation)
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Content of the Course


1. Introduction 2. Locomotion 3. Mobile Robot Kinematics 4. Perception 5. Mobile Robot Localization 6. Planning and Navigation Other Aspects of Autonomous Mobile Systems Applications
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1


Date Time 14 - 16 14 - 16 14 - 16 16 - 18 14 - 16 14 - 16 16 - 18 14 - 16 14 - 16 16 - 18 14 - 16 14 - 16 16 - 18 14 - 16 16 - 18 14 - 16 14 - 16 16 - 18 14 - 16 Topic Introduction: problem statements, typical applications, video Locomotion with legs and wheels (2h) Mobile Robots Kinematics I: Kinematics model (2h) Exercise 1: Kinematics model and trajectory calculation of wheeled robots Mobile Robots Kinematics II: Kinematics model (1h) Mobile Robots Kinematics III: Motion control (1h) Perception II: Sensing and Perception (2h) Exercise 2: Motion control of a differentially driven robot, implementation on Matlab and Lego-Robot Perception III: Sensing and Perception, Uncertainty Representation Feature extraction (1h) Localization I: Introduction, odometry (1h) Exercise 3: Vision and/or laser; take picture, feature extraction; uncertainty representation; belief representation Localization II: Map representation, introduction to probabilistic map- based localization, Markov localization(0.5h) Localization III: , Markov localization(1.5h), Kalman filter localization (0.5) Exercise 4: Partical Filter Based Localization, implementation on Matlab and LegoRobot Localization IV: Kalman filter localization (1), Other examples of localization systems, map building (1) Exercise 5: Probabilistic pose estimation with Khepera based on topological map, implementation on Matlab and Lego-Robot Architectures for Navigation I: Introduction, path planning (2) Architectures for Navigation II: Obstacle avoidance, techniques for decomposition (2) Exercise 6: Obstacle avoidance base on local grid, implementation on Matlab and Lego-Robot Summery and Outlook Responsible R. Philippsen R. Siegwart R. Siegwart R. Siegwart A. Krebs R. Siegwart F. Tache K. Macek S. Gchter V. Nguyen D. Scaramuzza S. Gchter R. Triebel R. Siegwart L. Spinello X. Perrin R. Siegwart V. Nguyen S. Vasudevan R. Siegwart R. Siegwart A. Krebs K. Macek

Program

22.3.07 29.3.07 5.4.07 5.4.07 12.4.07 19.4.07 19.4.07 26.4.07 3.5.07 3.5.07 10.5.07 24.5.07 24.5.07 31.5.07 31.5.07 7.6.07 14.6.07 14.6.07 21.6.07

R. Siegwart R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

From Manipulators to Mobile Robots

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

General Control Scheme for Mobile Robot Systems


Knowledge, Data Base Mission Commands

Localization Map Building Environment Model Local Map Information Extraction

"Position" Global Map

Cognition Path Planning

Path Path Execution

Raw data

Actuator Commands

Sensing

Acting

Real World Environment

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Motion Control
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Perception

Applications of Mobile Robots


Indoor
Structured Environments

Outdoor
Unstructured Environments

transportation industry & service customer support museums, shops .. research, entertainment, toy cleaning .. large buildings surveillance buildings

mining space forest sewage tubes agriculture air construction demining fire fighting

underwater

military

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Automatic Guided Vehicles

Newest generation of Automatic Guided Vehicle of VOLVO used to transport motor blocks from on assembly station to an other. It is guided by an electrical wire installed in the floor but it is also able to leave the wire to avoid obstacles. There are over 4000 AGV only at VOLVOs plants.
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Helpmate

HELPMATE is a mobile robot used in hospitals for transportation tasks. It has various on board sensors for autonomous navigation in the corridors. The main sensor for localization is a camera looking to the ceiling. It can detect the lamps on the ceiling as reference (landmark). http://www.ntplx.net/~helpmate/
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

BR700 Cleaning Robot

BR 700 cleaning robot developed and sold by Krcher Inc., Germany. Its navigation system is based on a very sophisticated sonar system and a gyro. http://www.kaercher.de
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

ROV Tiburon Underwater Robot

Picture of robot ROV Tiburon for underwater archaeology (teleoperated)- used by MBARI for deep-sea research, this UAV provides autonomous hovering capabilities for the human operator.

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

The Pioneer

Picture of Pioneer, the teleoperated robot that is supposed to explore the Sarcophagus at Chernobyl
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

The Khepera Robot

KHEPERA is a small mobile robot for research and education. It sizes only about 60 mm in diameter. Additional modules with cameras, grippers and much more are available. More then 700 units have already been sold (end of 1998). http://diwww.epfl.ch/lami/robots/K-family/ K-Team.html
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Forester Robot

Pulstech developed the first industrial like walking robot. It is designed moving wood out of the forest. The leg coordination is automated, but navigation is still done by the human operator on the robot. http://www.plustech.fi/

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Robots for Tube Inspection

HCHER robots for sewage tube inspection and reparation. These systems are still fully teleoperated. http://www.haechler.ch

EPFL / SEDIREP: Ventilation inspection robot


R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Sojourner, First Robot on Mars

The mobile robot Sojourner was used during the Pathfinder mission to explore the mars in summer 1997. It was nearly fully teleoperated from earth. However, some on board sensors allowed for obstacle detection. http://ranier.oact.hq. nasa.gov/telerobotic s_page/telerobotics. shtm
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

NOMAD, Carnegie Mellon / NASA


http://img.arc.nasa.gov/Nomad/

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

The Honda Walking Robot http://www.honda.co.jp/tech/other/robot.html

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

General Control Scheme for Mobile Robot Systems


Knowledge, Data Base Mission Commands

Localization Map Building Environment Model Local Map Information Extraction

"Position" Global Map

Cognition Path Planning

Path Path Execution

Raw data

Actuator Commands

Sensing

Acting

Real World Environment

Motion Control
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Perception

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Control Architectures / Strategies


z

Control Loop
dynamically changing no compact model available many sources of uncertainty

Two Approaches
Classical AI
o complete modeling o function based o horizontal decomposition

Localization
Environment Model Local Map

"Position" Global Map

Cognition
Path

New AI, AL
o o o o sparse or no modeling behavior based vertical decomposition bottom up

Perception

Real World Environment

Motion Control

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Two Approaches
z

Classical AI
(model based navigation)

complete modeling function based horizontal decomposition


z

New AI, AL
(behavior based navigation)

sparse or no modeling behavior based vertical decomposition bottom up


z

Possible Solution
Combine Approaches
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Mixed Approach Depicted into the General Control Scheme

Localization

Position Position Local Map Local Map


Perception to Action Obstacle Avoidance

Cognition

Position Feedback

Environment Model Local Map


Real World Environment

Perception

Motion Control
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Path

Environment Representation and Modeling:

The Key for Autonomous Navigation


z

Environment Representation
Continuos Metric Discrete Metric Discrete Topological -> x,y, -> metric grid -> topological grid

Environment Modeling
Raw sensor data, e.g. laser range data, grayscale images
o large volume of data, low distinctiveness o makes use of all acquired information

Low level features, e.g. line other geometric features


o medium volume of data, average distinctiveness o filters out the useful information, still ambiguities

High level features, e.g. doors, a car, the Eiffel tower


o low volume of data, high distinctiveness o filters out the useful information, few/no ambiguities, not enough information

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Environment Representation and Modeling: How we do it!


z

Odometry
39

Modified Environments

Feature-based Navigation

121 34

95

25

Corridor crossing Elevator door

Entrance How to find a treasure Landing at night

not applicable

expensive, inflexible

still a challenge for artificial systems

Eiffel Tower

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Environment Representation: The Map Categories


z

Recognizable Locations

Topological Maps
Courtesy K. Arras

Metric Topological Maps

Fully Metric Maps (continuos or


discrete)
y

200 m 50 km 2 km

100 km

{W}

x
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Courtesy K. Arras

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

1
Raw data <-> Features

Environment Models: Continuous <-> Discrete ;


z

Continuos
position in x,y,

Raw Data
as perceived by sensor

z z

A feature (or natural landmark) is an


environmental structure which is static, always perceptible with the current sensor system and locally unique.

Discrete
metric grid topological grid

Examples
geometric elements (lines, walls, column ..) a railway station a river the Eiffel Tower a human being fixed stars skyscraper
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Human Navigation: Topological with imprecise metric information


~ 400 m
Courtesy K. Arras
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

~ 1 km ~ 200 m

~ 50 m ~ 10 m

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Methods for Navigation: Approaches with Limitations


z

Incrementally
(dead reckoning)

Modifying the environments


Courtesy K. Arras
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

(artificial landmarks / beacons)

Inductive or optical tracks (AGV)

Odometric or initial sensors (gyro)

Reflectors or bar codes

not applicable expensive, inflexible

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Methods for Localization: The Quantitative Metric Approach


1. A priori Map: Graph, metric y
w

yr

lw

{W}

xr

x
4. Position Estimation: e.g. Kalman filter, Markov

2. Feature Extraction (e.g. line segments)

Odometry

Observation

z z

representation of uncertainties optimal weighting acc. to a priori statistics


R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Courtesy K. Arras

3. Matching: Find correspondence of features

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Gaining Information through motion: (Multi-hypotheses tracking)

Believe state

Courtesy S. Thrun, W. Burgard


R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Grid-Based Metric Approach


z

Grid Map of the Smithsonians National Museum of American History in Washington DC. (Courtesy of Wolfram Burger et al.)

Grid: ~ 400 x 320 = 128000 points

Courtesy S. Thrun, W. Burgard


R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Methods for Localization: The Quantitative Topological Approach


1. A priori Map: Graph locally unique points 3. Library of driving behaviors e.g. wall or midline following, blind step, enter door, application specific behaviors Example: Video-based navigation with natural landmarks

edges

2. Method for determining the local uniqueness

e.g. striking changes on raw data level or highly distinctive features

Courtesy of [Lanser et al. 1996]


R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Map Building: How to Establish a Map


1. By Hand 3. Basic Requirements of a Map: a way to incorporate newly sensed information into the existing world model
12 3.5

information and procedures for estimating the robots position information to do path planning and other navigation task (e.g. obstacle avoidance) predictability
z

2. Automatically: Map Building

The robot learns its environment Motivation: - by hand: hard and costly - dynamically changing environment - different look due to different perception

Measure of Quality of a map topological correctness


metrical correctness

But: Most environments are a mixture of predictable and unpredictable features hybrid approach model-based vs. behaviour-based
R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Courtesy K. Arras

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Map Building: The Problems


Courtesy K. Arras

1. Map Maintaining: Keeping track of changes in the environment

2. Representation and Reduction of Uncertainty

e.g. disappearing cupboard

position of robot -> position of wall

position of wall -> position of robot - e.g. measure of belief of each environment feature
z z

probability densities for feature positions additional exploration strategies


R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Map Building: Exploration and Graph Construction


1. Exploration
explore on stack already examined

2. Graph Construction

Where to put the nodes?


z

Topology-based: at distinctive locations

- provides correct topology - must recognize already visited location - backtracking for unexplored openings

Metric-based: where features disappear or get visible


R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Courtesy K. Arras

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Control of Mobile Robots


Knowledge, Data Base Mission Commands

Localization Map Building

global
Environment Model Local Map

"Position" Global Map

Cognition Path Planning

Most functions for save navigation are local not involving localization nor cognition Localization and global path planning slower update rate, only when needed This approach is pretty similar to what human beings do.

Path Path Execution

local Perception

Raw data

Actuator Commands

Sensing

Acting

Real World Environment

Motion Control

Information Extraction

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Tour-Guide Robot (Nourbakhsh, CMU)

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Autonomous Indoor Navigation (Thrun, CMU)

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Tour-Guide Robot (EPFL @ expo.02)

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Autonomous Indoor Navigation (Pygmalion EPFL)


very robust on-the-fly localization one of the first systems with probabilistic sensor fusion 47 steps,78 meter length, realistic office environment, conducted 16 times > 1km overall distance partially difficult surfaces (laser), partially few vertical edges (vision)

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Autonomous Robot for Planetary Exploration (ASL EPFL)

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Humanoid Robots (Sony)

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Turning Real Reality into Virtual Reality

Courtesy of Sebastian Thrun


R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh

Autonomous Mobile Robots, Chapter 1

Robots Invading Our Environment

R. Siegwart, I. Nourbakhsh