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Omar Bin Al-Khattab Sec.

Biology Dept
Worksheet – 1
Name :
Introduction :
 Inheritance is the passing of traits from parents to offspring.
 Genetics is the science that study inheritance and variation in living
 Mendel was the first person to study inheritance. He chose pea plants to
work on. Peas were an ideal choice because of the following :
1. __________________________________________.
2. __________________________________________.
3. __________________________________________.
4. __________________________________________.
 He studied seven traits, each of which has two contrasting varieties.

 Mendel started his experiment by pure-breeding plants, these are, plants

which when self fertilized produce identical offspring generation after
One of Mendel`s experiments :
 Mendel selected two pure-breeding plants with alternative varieties of a
particular trait
( one pure tall and the other pure short plant ).
 He carried cross-pollination between them.

 He collected the seeds resulted and grew them to give
the first-generation offspring ( F1 )
 He carried a self pollination for F1 plants and collected
the seeds, and grew them to give F2 generation.

What results he got?

1. ______________________________________________________________________
2. ______________________________________________________________________
3. ______________________________________________________________________
Note : Mendel repeated his experiment on other traits and every
time he got the same results.
How Mendel explained these results?
 He called the trait that appeared in F1 generation 
 He called the trait that disappeared in F1 generation
 Every trait is controlled by ______________________________________.
 Alleles separate during gamete formation. So, every gamete contains
 Alleles of the dominant trait represented by capital letter. [ T : is the
factor for tallness ]
 Alleles of the recessive trait represented by small letter. [ t : is the
factor for dwarf ]
 An organism that has two similar alleles known as
 An organism that has two different alleles known as

 Dominant allele : an allele which has the same effect on the phenotype of
an organism weather the organism is homozygous or heterozygous for the
 Recessive alleles : alleles which only shows in the phenotype when no
dominant allele is present.
So Mendel put his first law of inheritance ( Law of segregation ) :
Characteristics of an organism are determined by
alleles which occur in pairs
Only one allele can be present in a single gamete.
For the previous example :
 Tall plant contained 2 dominant alleles _____________
 Short plant contained 2 recessive alleles _____________
 When they were crossed, each plant formed gametes, so :
- The tall plant gave two similar gametes ______ and _______.
The short plant gave two similar gametes ______ and _______.
gametes t t
 We can represent the different possible combinations
T Tt Tt
of gametes using Punnette square. T Tt Tt
 All F1 were _____________________________________________.
 In a heterozygous organism the dominant allele T masks the effect of the
recessive allele t
so all plants appears Tall.

TT  homozygous dominant. tall

Tt  heterozygous dominant tall ( coz. T
masks t ).
tt  homozygous recessive. Short

Genotypes phenotypes

Genotype :

Phenotype :

Monohybrid inheritance :
 Is the cross between two individuals to study the inheritance of a single
characteristic, one gene. ( Here 2 alleles are involved ).

What is the result of crossing a homozygous tall plant and a homozygous

short plant.
phenotype Homozygous tall X Homozygous short
Genotype ______ X ______

At fertilization
All are tall plant tes

What is the result of crossing of two heterozygous tall plants.

phenotype ______________ X ______________
Genotype ________ X ________


Game At fertilization


If a purple colored pea plant crossed with a white colored. All F1 were purple.
1. Which trait is the dominant ? ___________ . recessive? ____________.
2. Explain your answer in Q1 ? __________________________________.

3. What is the genotype of the purple plant ? _______. of the white plant ?
4. What is the genotype of the F1 plants ? _______.
5. If two F1 plants were crossed, what will be the result? Calculate the ratio of
phenotype _________________ X ___________________
Genotype ______ X __________

At fertilization

A tall pea plant was crossed with a short one. Half F1 were tall, and half short.
What is the genotype
of both parents?


In pea plants, the allele for yellow seeds is dominant to the allele of green
seeds. Predict the genotypic
ratio of offspring produced by crossing two parents heterozygous for this trait.


If a two yellow seeds pea plant were crossed, the results were as
following :

298 yellow seeds plant. 99 green seeds plant.

1. What is the most probably dominant trait ? ___________ recessive trait

? ____________ .
2. What is the expected genotype of the parents ? _______________ .