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COGS 101B – Week 6 Wed: 9:00 – 9:50 am
COGS 101B – Week 6
Wed: 9:00 – 9:50 am

! Recall from last week: statistical learning

! Infants can learn where word boundaries are given the transitional probabilities between words ! Test: string many speech sounds together and see if they can tell the different. (novelty preference)

! Works for language, tone sequences, sequences of visual stimuli, textile sequences, etc.

! Easier to identify auditory stimuli vs visual stimuli. (in general – people are better at perceiving time relations than spatial relations)

! But slowing the rate of presentation for visual stimuli helps performance.

Nonadjacent Dependencies

! Non-adjacent = not right next to each other

! Dependent on linguistic structure that is learnable through input. (like like either….or, knowing that something is in the past tense when we hear got… ed).

! Newport and Aslin, 2004

! In order to learn this predictability, information needs to be of like kind. (same segment type, consonant- consonant, vowel-vowel, but not syllables).

How do we know what things go together?

! Gestalt grouping cues

! We perceive things as grouped together when they are next to each other in time or space

! Works for vision and audition

! What influences whether or not we perceive things as grouped? ! How fast notes are played, pitch proximity, frequency of co-occurrence

Creel, Newport and Aslin Study

! Looked at how grouping strategies and perceptual learning interact

! Played tones in two statistical grouping (nonadjacent statistics) that either had the same pitch range or different pitch range. ! Do people group by pitch or temporal proximity? ! People were played a string of notes A! predicted tone b ! predicted tone C

! People had to skip over intervening notes in the similar pitch condition (more difficult) but not an issue in different pitch condition. ! Then played legal and illegal non-adjacent sequences and adjacent sequences

Findings:

! Similar pitch condition:

! People do not learn nonadjacent sequences (at chance) ! They learn tone to tone temporal sequence

! Different pitch condition:

! Learned non-adjacent sequences ! Did not learn adjacent sequences of tones temporally close together but far apart in pitch proximity

Experimental Data cont.

! Added another test condition, where they added a different timbres (tone quality, clarity)

! In this case, they ensured that fundamentals of each tone were in same frequency range, so harmonics dont overlap

! In both different pitch and timbres experiments, people learned non-adjacent tone relationships, but did poorly at learning ones that are temporally adjacent

Experimental Data cont.

! Now added a bigger timbre difference (like flute vs violin, which are more discernably different, but harmonics DO overlap)

! In original timbre experiment (no overlapping of harmonics), people learned non-adjacent tones, but were at chance for adjacent tones)

! In flute vs violin timbre experiment, people learned non-adjacent and adjacent tone relationships above chance

General Principles:

! General auditory perceptual principles may constrain learning of both speech statistics and non-speech statistics (like for musical tone sequences)

! We see similar effects across both domains (especially for consonant-consonant transitions, vowel-vowel transitions, flute-flute transitions, violin-violin transitions, etc.).

! For perceive temporal sequences audition is better

! For perceiving spatial sequences, vision is better