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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1

INTRODUCTION

Audio amplifiers are meant to amplify signals, which operate a part or the entire audio frequency spectrum. The regular domestic hi-fi audio amplifiers are designed to amplifier speech signals, which form part of the audio frequency spectrum. The amplifiers could be used for a myriad of applications, which range from simple inter-com, baby alarm or for filling a large concert hall, for amplifying microphone signals or synthesizer sounds, or mainly for the enjoyment of constructing the circuits and investigating their properties to check avenues for technical improvement.

Audio amplifiers come in different classes and each class with peculiar characteristics that makes it suitable for particular application. They include; CLASS A, CLASS AB, CLASS B, CLASS C, CLASS D and CLASS E. Details of the various classes are explained in the literature review
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chapter, but in this project a CLASS AB amplifier is designed. This is because the regular class B has a crossover distortion problem which is due to the drop across the base emitter junction of the transistors in the push pull amplifier, and hence distortion of the ware form which causes distortion in sound. These audio amplifiers, which are sometimes called hi-fi (high fidelity) amplifiers must have an undistorted representation of the input (amplified) sound at the output, this is because the human ears response to sound distortion is very short.

The class AB amplifier combines the quiescent bias of the base (i.e. the base is driven to the threshold of conduction to prevent crossover distortion) and the high efficiency of class B to get a class AB combination. The general requirements for a good quality audio amplifier are as follows:

(1) Match the input device characteristics input level, input impedance and frequency response.

(2) Match the output characteristics, usually a loud speaker with its output power rating and impedance.

(3) Maintain an audio frequency response from 30Hz to 20 KHz on beyond. Additional requirements vary according to the applications but normally may include the following.

(4) Tone controls; for bass, middle and treble adjustments to suit the loudspeakers characteristics and surroundings or mainly for personal choice. Filters are often included for such distortion as tape hiss, record scratches, mains hum, and the variations of the ears response with volume (loudness control), and so on. Every listener has preferences for the types of sounds that are most pleasing: tone control circuits should satisfy most different tests.

(5) A loudness control, referred to above, which connects for the ear response. The ear hears all audio frequencies with

equal volume only when the sound is very loud. If the volume is reduced by 40dB, 60dB, and so on, the intensity at high and low frequency falls until, at very low volume, the bass is almost inaudible.

(6) Scratch rumbles and tapes his filters to eliminate scratch noise on records, rumble noise due to motor vibrators on record player and tape recorder decks and the type hiss of the cassette players.

(7) Stereo adjustments such as balance and left/right tone correction to balance the two channels properly in situations where two channels are employed.

(8) Other optional refinements, offer necessary such as: speaker switches for left, right or lift/right through both speakers; power VU meters; quadra switches for pseudo quatra, clock stops on rotating controls; individual filters for selected frequencies usually via a maze of slide controls, monitor output volume, peak overload detector etc.
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Nowadays single units mixer, which contains equalization, filters, stereo adjustments and all items mentioned in (8) above are available. This project concentrates on the power amplifier and the volume control alone.

1.2 GENERALISED BLOCK DIAGRAM

MICROPHONE PREAMPLIFIER

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

DRIVER STAGE

CLASS AB AMPLIFIER

8 ohms speaker

POWER SUPPLY

Figure 1.2 shows the generalized block diagram of the entire unit.

1.3 DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS Output power: 100watts 8

Output impendence: Input voltage Supply voltage: Amplifier gain

220VAC +30 Vdc : 0-70dB

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 AMPLIFIERS Amplifiers are one of the most common electrical building blocks. By definition an amplifier is any circuit that provides gain. It receives a low-power input, which controls, via an external supply, a larger amount of power at the output.

An amplifier arrangement consists of some active device (transistor, FET, or valve) with biasing components, a source of power, and a load. The input signal is used to control the current flowing through the active device. For example, with
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a FET in common source mode, the input voltage between gate and source (VGS) will control the current flowing from drain to source (iDS). Since the output current flows in the load it will develop a voltage across the load so that, P o = Vo i o watts.............................................................. 2.1 While P i = V i ii

watts .................................................................2.2

Therefore POWER GAIN Ap = Po / PI ...................................................................2.3

In many cases an amplifier may be designed primarily for voltage or current gain: VOLTAGE GAIN Av = Vo / Vi .................................................................2.4 CURRENT GAIN Ai = io / ii .....................................................................2.5

These are all expressions of gains as ratios; it is usually more convenient to express gain in logarithmic units { Decibel}: Av = 10log (Po / PI) Av = 20log (Vo / Vi) Av = 20log (io / ii) provided that the input and output impedances are identical.

2.2 AMPLIFIER CLASS Classification of amplifiers A wide variety of types exist. They are usually described under one or a combination of the following headings. 1) Intended use: power, voltage or current gain. 2) Frequency response. D.C. (from zero frequency). Audio (15Hz to 20 KHz). Tuned R.F. (narrow band with center frequency from tens of kHz to hundreds of megahertz). Video or pulse (wideband d.c to 10MHz). V.H.F. (up to thousands of megahertz).

3) Method of operation: This means the biasing arrangement that determines the position of the quiescent operating points.

Class A: The active device (transistor or valve) is biased so that a current flows without any signal present. This value of bias current is either increased or decreased about its mean value by the input signal. This mode of operation is commonly used for small signal low power amplifiers.

Class B: The active device is biased just to the point of cut off so that zero current flows when no signal is present. The device conducts on one half cycle of the input.

Class AB: This is a modified form of class B where the active device is provided with a small amount of bias just sufficient to allow the device to conduct slightly. This class of operation is widely used ib audio push pull and complementary power amplifiers to avoid non linearity at the cross over point.
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Class C: The active device is reverse biased beyond the point of cut off so that it only conducts when the amplitude of one half cycle of the input exceeds a relatively large value. This method is used in pulsed and R.F. Power amplifiers.

2.3 AMPLIFIER COUPLING Coupling refers to the methods used to transfer the signal from one stage to the next. There are three basic types of amplifier coupling (capacitive, direct and transformer).

Capacitive coupling Capacitive coupling is useful when the signals are alternating current. Coupling capacitors are selected to have a low reactance at the lowest signal frequency. This gives good performance over the frequency range of the amplifier. Any dc component will be blocked by a coupling capacitor. Figure 2.2(a) shows a capacitor coupled amplifier.

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+Vcc = 10V

7V

To next stage

Q1

Coupling capacitor

3V

Q2

Figure 2.2(a) Capacitor coupled amplifier

Direct coupling Direct coupling does work at 0 Hz (direct current). A direct coupled amplifier uses wire or some other dc path between stages. Fig 2.2(a) shows a direct-coupled amplifier. Notice that the emitter of Q1 is directly connected to the base of Q2. An amplifier of this type will to be designed so that the static terminal voltages are compatible with each other. Temperature sensitivity can be a problem in direct-coupled amplifiers. As temperature goes up, and leakage current
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increases. This tends to shift the static operating point of an amplifier. When this happens in an early stage of a dc amplifier, all of the following stages will amplify the temperature drift.

+Vcc

Direct coupling Direct coupling Q1 Signal

Direct coupling

Output

Q2

Figure 2.2(b) Direct coupled amplifier

2.4 FREQUENCY
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Any signal or quality that varies regularly with time will have a frequency which is defined as the number of complete variations it makes in unit time-in other words, the number of cycles per second. The correct unit for frequency is Hertz. Frequency is related to the periodic time of the waveform by the formula: F = 1 / T Hz ............................................................................2.6 Where T is measured in seconds

Angular velocity w = 2f r/s ......................................................2.7 For a propagated wave, the velocity u is given by V=f .....................................................................................2.8 Where is the wavelength in meters and the velocity per sec. Thus for a radio signal at 30 MHz the wavelength is V = 300 x 106 = 10m
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30 x 106

Frequency band A range of frequencies, within specified limits, that are used for particular purposes.

Frequency distortion This type of distortion in amplifiers is caused by variations in gain with frequency over the range of frequencies for which the gain should be flat. The signal components of different frequencies of complex input signal are then amplified differently with the result that the output waveform will be distorted.

Table 2.1 Showing frequency bands, its wavelength, types and its typical use. Band (f) Below 30KHz 30KHz to Wavelength (m) 105 to 104 10 to 10
4 3

Type V.L.F (very low freq) L.F


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Typical use VF telegraphy. Radio telegraphy. Carrier

300KHz 300kHz to 3MHz 3MHz to 30MHz 30mHz to 300mHz 300MHz to 3 GHz 3GHz to 3 GHz 0.1 to 0.01 1 to 0.1 10 to 10
2 3 2

Low freq M.F Medium freq H.F. High freq V.H.F. Very high freq. U.H.F.

telegraphy. A.M. radio A.M radio Long distance radio Mobile radio. F.M. radio. Television Radar.

10 to 10 10 to 1

Ultra high freq. T.V. and S.H.F. Super high freq. communications. Radar and communications.

2.5 NOISE Electrical noise is defined as any unwanted signal, which is present at the output of a system or at any part within the system. It is particularly important in communications receivers that unwanted signals are kept to a minimum; otherwise the required output information may be lost within
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the noise. Noise is a source of error in both analogue and digital systems but the latter is much more tolerant of an electrically noisy environment because in a digital system a wanted signal is either logic 1 or logic 0. The difference between these two logic states gives a barrier to noise and is referred to as the noise margin. Fig 2.4a shows the sources and effects of noise on a purely analogue system such as a communications receiver.

A E B L
POWER SUPPLY SECTION

RECTIFIER

Output + Noise

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C Figure 2.4 Sources of noise A = Atmospheric noise

B = Interference from other transmitters C = Artificial radiated noise, ie. Arcing noise D = internally generated noise at input stage E = Mainsbourne noise (spikes on mains) The external noise affecting the receiver can have several origins. Artificial or man-made sources of noise are, for example, arcing contacts on switches or relays controlling heavy loads such as motor. The spark will give off an electromagnetic radiated signal, which is picked up by the aerial. Alternatively the interference may be carried along the mains lead since the heavy loads being switched on and off produce large spikes n the mains which can then be transmitted through the systems power supply. Another source of noise is interference from radio transmitters. This is called second channel and image channel interference. The effects of artificial sources can be minimized either by suppression at source (i.e. preventing arcing at switch
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contacts) or by filters and special shields at the receiver. Second and image channel interference can be reduced by improved selectivity in the first stage in the receiver There are natural sources of noise, referred to as atmospheric noise, such as static noise from space and electrical discharges during storms. The signal arriving at the input of the system will therefore have a small noise superimposed. The signal arriving at the input of the system will therefore have a small noise superimposed. The receiver itself now adds more noise in the process of selecting and amplifying the wanted information. Internal noise is mostly the result of that produced in the first stage and is caused by noise from resistors and semiconductor devices.

INTERNAL NOISE This is the thermal agitation or resistor noise produced by the random motion of free electrons in a conductor. R.M.S. noise voltage in a conductor is given by

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Vn =

(4kTBR)

...............................................................2.9

Where k = Boltzmanns contact 1.38 x 10-23 J/oK T = Temperature of conductor in degrees Kelvin B =Bandwidth in Hz over which the noise is measured R = Resistance of conductor in circuit.

Example

The noise voltage produced by a 100 k (ohms)

resistor at a temperature of 20oC and over a bandwidth of 100 kHz is Vn = = (4x 1.38 x 10 (162 x 10
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x 293 x 103 x100 x 103)

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) = 12.73 V

The available noise power from any resistor is P n = KTB NOISE IN BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS This has several components: a) Thermal agitation noise, developed mostly in the base spreading resistor r
bb

of the device, given by

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Vn =

(4kTBr

bb

1/2 ................................................2.10

b) Partition noise resulting from the random variations of the emitter current division between base and collector. c) Shot noise caused by the random arrival and departure of charge carriers by diffusion across p-n junction. d) Flicker noise (1/f noise) resulting from changes in the conductivity of the semiconductor material and changes in its surface conductor. This noise is inversely proportional to frequency and is usually negligible above 1 kHz. To achieve low noise figures from a bipolar transistor it is operated at low values of collector current (a few micro amps) and at low voltage.

NOISE IN FETS
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Since a FET is a unipolar device it is inherently less noisy than a bipolar transistor. Only one type of charge carrier is used and only one current flows. The three sources of noise are a) Shot noise, resulting from the changes in the small leakage currents in the gate-to-source junction. b) Thermal agitation noise developed in the channel resistance of the device. c) Flicker noise.

Signal-to-noise ratio For a quoted input signal power, over a defined bandwidth, the signal-to- noise ratio in an amplifier or receiver is given by

Average wanted signal power Ps S/N ratio = = Pn Average noise power present

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This is usually expressed in dB as S/N ratio =10 log 10 (ps / pn)

Example At a frequency of 10 kHz the average wanted signal power at the input is 800 mf w and the average noise power present is 6 mf w. What is the input signalto-noise ratio? Input S/N ratio = 10 log10 (800/6) = 21.25dB at 10 kHz

In electronics, voltage ratio is also often used: S/N ratio = 20 log10 (Vs / Vn) dB

Noise factor (B.S. 3860) Used to specify the noisiness of an amplifier or device, noise factor is Total noise power out F= resistor power gain x Noise power due to source

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F = PN/GPn ................................................................................2.11

But since G = Ps(0)/Ps( i ) where Ps is signal power, F = PN/ (Ps(0) x Pn / Ps(i))

Ps(i)/ Pn(i) Ps(0)/ Pn (0)

Signal/noise ratio at input Signal/noise ratio at output

Noise figure = 10 log10 F dB. Thus if the noise figure for a device at a particular frequency is say 3 dB and the output signal-to-noise ratio is 100: 1 (20 dB), then the resulting signal-tonoise ratio at the output will be 3 dB less at 17 dB (a ratio of 5:1).

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Noise in digital systems The same sources of external noise such as arcing contact and mains bourne spikes can affect a digital system if the resulting noise spike on a signal lead exceeds the noise margin. When this occurs the logic itself can generate power line noise as gates switch and a short duration current pulse is taken from the supply. Most logic types, apart from ECL, suffer from this effect and therefore the power supply decoupling and distribution is important. I.C.s should be decoupled using 100 nF ceramic capacitors wired directly across the IC supply pins. If possible a ground plane should be sued to give low-inductance earth return. Other sources of internal noise are cross-talk when the signal on one track is coupled to an adjacent track and reflections from mismatched lines. For cross-talk Vin = Vs .....2.12 (1.5 + Zm) ( 1 + Z1 )( Z0 ) Z0 1

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Where Vin is the induced voltage between the two parallel tracks Vs is the voltage swing of the logic Z1 is the output impedance of gate 1 Z0 is the line impedance. Zm is the mutual coupling impedance. Careful design can eliminate the effects of internal logic generated noise, and external sources can be effectively stopped from affecting the logic by the use of mains filters, screening and special filters on the input lies. The higher the noise margin the better immunity of the logic to noise. Manufacturers usually quote d.c. value of noise margin giving typical and worst-case values. Taking TTL as an example, the typical noise margin will be the difference between the voltage level from the output of a gate and the threshold of the gate input it is driving (fig. N5). Using this criterion the best logic 1 or high-state noise margin is 1.9v, whereas the 0 or low-state noise margin is 1.2v. However the typical noise margin is 1 v in both cases. The worst-case d.c. noise immunity has to take into account the minimum
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and the maximum values of output levels and input threshold. The maximum value of logic 0 output is 400mv and minimum value of threshold (V10) is 800 mv giving a worst-case noise margin of 400mv.

2.6 TRANSISTORS Transistors are active components used basically as amplifiers and switches. The two main types of transistors are: The bipolar transistors whose operation depends on the flow of both minority and majority carriers, and the unipolar or field effect transistors (called FETs) in which current is due to majority carriers only (either electrons or holes). The transistor as a switch operates in class A mode. In this mode of bias the circuit is designed such that current flows without any signal present. The value of bias current is either increased or decreased about its mean value by the input signal (if operated as an amplifier), or ON and OFF by the input signal if operated as a switch.

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V+

IcRc

Vin

Ib Rb

Figure 2.5 transistor as a switch

For the transistor configuration, since the transistor is biased to saturation. VCE =O, when the transistor is ON. Which implies that? V+ = Ic Rc + VCE ........................................................................................... .......2.13 Vin = IBRB + VBE ................................................................................................. 2.14

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Ic

= hfe

................................................................................................. ...........2.15 Ib Rb = Vin VBE ........................................................................................ ...2.16 Ib

Where, Ic = collector current Ib = base current Vin = input voltage V+ = supply voltage VCE = collector-emitter voltage Hfe = current gain.

2.7 OTHER PASSIVE COMPONENTS

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Passive components are components, which cannot amplify power and require an external power source to operate. They include resistors, capacitors, diode, indicators, and transformers etc. their application range from potential dividers to control of current (as in resistors), filtration of ripples voltages and blocking of unwanted D.C voltages (as in capacitors). They form the elements of the network circuit oscillator stages and are also used generally for signal conditioning in circuits.

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RESISTOR According to ANAND, these are components which resist the flow and hence limit the amount of current flowing through a circuit. The resistance is measured in Ohms. The symbol of a resistor is shown in fig. 2.1

Figure 2.7 Circuit symbol of a resistor

The resistor may be pure at low frequencies but may have inductive or capacitive impedance at higher frequencies. The frequency up to which it is only (pure) and has only resistivity is called its frequency range. The resistor, while working produces noise. This is called thermal noise and the noise generated depends upon its resistance value and temperature.

CLASSIFICATION OF RESISTORS Resistor may be: Fixed resistors Variable resistors.


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Fixed Resistors These are resistors whose are fixed and cannot be changed. Examples include carbon resistors and wire wound resistors.

Carbon, binder and filter rod Plastic or lacquer coating

End caps

Lead

Figure 2.8 Diagram of a carbon resistor.

SPECIFICATION OF FIXED RESISTORS

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The main specifications of fixed resistors are: The values of resistance, its power rating, voltage rating, Temperature coefficient voltage coefficient, Noise voltage, frequency range, and tolerance stability and for variable resistor, e.g. temperature, magnetic field and light intensity, the range of the stimulus that can be applied, the range of resistance variation and lastly the law governing the resistance variation.

VARIABLE RESISTORS These are resistors in which the value of the resistance varies with the applied stimulus. From the popular equation R = p. l/a, we can observe that stimulus has to change one or more of these quantities to give rise to variation in the resistance. These are four types of stimuli and corresponding, the following four types of variable resistors; 1) Mechanically variable resistor (e.g. potentiometer, Rheostat) 1) Thermally variable resistor (Thermistors) 2) Electrically/voltage variable resistor (Varistors)
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3) Optically/ (Light) variable resistors (photo resistors).

RESISTOR COLOUR CODE The value of a resistor (carbon) may be obtained by looking at the coloured rings painted on it. Each colour has a numerical value. Below is the colour coding of a carbon resistor given in Table 2.1. Table 2.2 Table showing resistance colour code COLOUR Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White NUMERICAL VALUE 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 MULTIPLIER 100 =1 101 =10 102 =100 103 =1000 104 =10000 105 =100000 106 =1000000 107 =10000000 108 =100000000 109 =1000000000

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Tolerance: Each resistor has a tolerance ring. Generally they have golden or silver rings for this purpose. Table 2.3 Table showing colour coding tolerance COLOUR TOLERANCE RING PERCENTAGE TOLERANCE Gold + 5% Silver + 10% No ring + 20% Sometime, other colours are also used for tolerance, as shown in Table 2.3

Table 2.4 Table showing the tolerance colour and its value COLOUR BAND Black Red Yellow TOLERANCE 20% 1% 2%

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Sometimes, the value and the tolerance of the resistor are printed on the resistor itself instead of a colour code. After the value, a letter is added to indicate the tolerance. F = +1% G = +2% J = +5%, K = +10% and M = +20% For example 1 1) 20kk is a 20k + 10% resistor. 2) 8M8M is an 8.8m 20% resistor and so on. Example 2

Red

Black Blue

Gold

Figure 2.9 Resistor with colour code Red 2 Black 0 Blue 6 Gold 5%

= 20 106 = 2000000 Ohms = 20Mega Ohms 5%

CAPACITOR OR CONDENSERS
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By M. L. ANAND (2000), capacitors are the components which have a capacity to store (condense) charge. The capacity is measured in Farads. 1 Farad = 103 Mill farads (mf) =106 Micro Farads (f) = 1012 Pico Farads (pf) A capacitor is basically made up of two metallic plates separated by some insulting material called dielectric. The metallic plates may be of aluminium and dielectric may be paper, mica, ceramic, etc. A capacitor is known by its dielectric. So we have paper capacitors, mica capacitors, and ceramic capacitors and so on. CLASSIFICATION OF CAPACITOR Capacitors are of two kinds: i. ii. Fixed capacitors Variable capacitors.

FIXED CAPACITORS Fixed capacitors are capacitors whose values are fixed. Generally, the capacity and voltage are marked on them. However, colour coding is also used to find their capacity. On the basis of dielectric, these capacitors may be the following types: i) Paper capacitors ii) Ceramic capacitors
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iii) Mica capacitors iv) Electrolytic capacitors v) Aluminium electrolytic capacitors. Non-polarized These are made by joining two polar capacitors in back position or both the electrode is using oxide film. These have no polarity and therefore can be connected without considering positive or negative terminals. These can be used for AC appliances. Examples include - Tantalum electrolytic capacitors - Plastic capacitors

VARIABLE CAPACITORS Variable capacitors are those whose capacitance can be changed. They are used in tuning circuits to change the operating frequency of the circuits. Capacitance depends upon dielectric constant (), area of plate (A) and the distance between the plates (d) i.e. C = A/ d Variable capacitor can be; i Rotary type ii Concentric type. TYPES OF VARIABLE CAPACITOR
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i Air capacitors ii Trimmer iii Padder vi Varactor capacitors Table 2.5 colour coding chart for fixed capacitors COLOUR CAPACITANCE IN PF 1ST DIGIT 2ND DIGIT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 MULTIPLIER TOLERAN 1 10 100 1000 10000 0.01 0.1 0.1 0.011 CE (%) 20 1 2 30 5 10 1 10

Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White Gold Silver

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TRANSFORMER A transformer is basically two inductors placed on the same core. One of the inductor is known as primary winding and the other as secondary winding. A transformer is a device that transfers electrical power from one circuit to the other. It only transfers; therefore, input power fed at the primary is equal to the output power obtained at the secondary in an ideal case. Even supply frequency remains the same. If V 1, I1 are the voltage and current at the primary and V2, I2 on the secondary side, then for an ideal transformer: (As shown in fig 2.6) V1I1 = V2I2 Transformer can also be either step up or step down.

Primary winding Secondary winding

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Figure 2.10 Diagram of a transformer

TYPES OF TRANSFORMERS i Power transformer ii Output impedance transformer iii Intermediate frequency transformer (IFT) iv Isolation v Instrument vi Trigger vii Audio viii Video transformer

DIODE/LIGHT EMITTING DIODES These are junctions device consisting of p type impurities on one side and n type impurities on the other side. The phenomenal mode of operation of this device is by diffusion of excess carrier across the junction.

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In electronics, a diode is a two terminal component that conduct electric current in only one direction. The term usually refers to a semiconductor diode. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the diodes forward direction), while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). Thus, the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. This unidirectional behaviour is called rectification, and is used to convert alternating current and to extract modulation from radio signals in radio receivers. Below is the circuit symbol of a diode.

Figure 2.11 Circuit symbol of a diode

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Similarly light emitting diodes are p n junction as well which emits visible light when energized (i.e. when electrons from the n side cross the junction and recombine with holes on the p side). Here electrons are in the higher conduction band on the n side while holes are on the lower valence band on the p side. During recombination this energy difference is given up in the form heat and light (photons). In some semiconductors, greater percentage is given up in the form of heat, e.g. Silicon and Germanium semiconductors. If the semiconductor is translucent, light is emitted and the junction becomes a light source [i.e. a light emitting diode (LED)]. The colour of emitted light depends on the type of material used.

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Figure 2.12 Circuit symbol of a light emitting diode Other special types of diode include; 1. Zener diode used as voltage stabilizer. 2. Varactor diode used as a variable capacitor. 3. Shorttky diode used for AC/DC converter, detector, mixer, application, etc. 4. Tunnel diodes used as high speed switches and high frequency oscillators. 5. Light dependent diode (photo diode) used as photo detector, for street lighting and for punch card reading.

CHAPTER THREE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS 3.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION The 100watts audio amplifier is designed to give power gain to an audio signal using class AB amplifier. The class AB
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operation is such that each transistor is biased to the threshold of conduction in the absence of an input signal with a small idling current flowing. The class AB amplifier used in this project is a quasi-complementary type. The quasi-complementary arrangement is often advantageous because it uses identical devices in the output stage (that is both, n-p-n or p-n-p devices rather than one n-p-n and one pn-pa as in the regular complimentary. arrangements). This is very advantageous as matching of devices is made easier. It is preferable to use n-p-n devices as they handle greater amount of power rather than p-n-p devices. Each output transistor has its own driver transistor as shown in the comprehensive circuit diagram in fig. 3.5

3.2

POWER AMPLIFER STAGE

As already explained in the principle of operation, the power amplifier uses a quasi-complementary stage where both output transistors are of same type. The power amplifier stage is comprised of TR4 TR7 (see comprehensive circuit diagram).
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DESIGN CALCULATIONS Under maximum condition (ignoring the effects of Vbe 1, Vbe2 and Re of the output transistors), Pac ~ Vcc2 8RL Where Vcc = peak to peak supply voltage RL = PAC = load resistors maximum ac power output. .. 3.1

For a power of 100watts on a load resistance of 4 , => 100 = Vcc2 8 (4) Vcc = 100(8) (4) (from 3.1)

3200

56V

Since Vcc = Peak to peak voltage.


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It implies. Vcc = + 28.2 ~ + 30V Hence a power supply of + 30V was designed to power the entire project for realization of the output power. Since the mean d.c current drown from the supply depends on the peak value of output voltage, which can have a maximum value of

Vcc ignoring Vbe1, or Vbe2, then 2 Idc = 1 Vpk

........................................................................................3.2 RL

And Pdc =

Vpk Vcc RL

watts.

And maximum value of pdc occurs when Vpk = Vcc 2 so that

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PdC =

Vcc

Watts .

..................................3.3 2 RL Since maximum efficiency, = Pac x 100% = Pdc VCC2 8RL Vcc2 2 RL 78.5% 4 X 100% = X100

This shows that the efficiency is same as that of the conventional class B push pull amplifier circuit.

The power dissipated in transistor Pdiss = p dc pac And for each transistor, Pdiss = Vpk Vcc V2pk

.......................................3.4 2 RL 4RL

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Differentiating equation (3.4) with respect to Vpk gives maximum power dissipation when

Vpk = Vcc/. Hence Pdiss (max) = Vcc2 22RL _ Vcc2 42RL

Or

Pdiss (max)

Vcc2

..........................................................3.5 42RL Therefore maximum power dissipation on the amplifier (i.e. power wasted as heat) is, Pdiss (max) = 602 (From 3.5)

42(4) = 19.8 watts ~ 20 watts

The power transistors used are rated 115 watts hence can comfortable handle the dissipated power,

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OUTPUT CONSIDERATIONS Transistors TRI and TR2 in fig 3.5a were selected to handle the peak current and power dissipation requirement of the output.

Since Vce (peak)

=Vcc (approx)

Vce (peak) = 30V (approx) Hence Ic (peak) =30/ 4

= 7.5A Hence, the 2N3055 was selected for TR1 and TR2 since it has a max output current of 15A, and power rating of 115watts. The hfe of the 2N3055 is 20 (from data sheets) Since hfe = Ic / IB IB = Ic / hfe = 7.5A / 20 = 0.375

The emitter of TR3 and TR4 must supply this current to TR1 and TR2 base.
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TR3 and TR4 use TIP31 and TIP32 respectively, with an Hfe of 60 each. The base current requirement for TR3 and TR4 is given by IB = 0.375/ 60 = 6.25mA

This is the quiescent base bias required to prevent crossover distortion of the class AB amplifier stage. Diodes D 5 and D6 are used to drop a base voltage of 1.2V across TR 3 and TR4. Considering the quiescent bias circuit in fig 3.5b
V
-

R10

D5 Vin D6

R11 V+

Figure 3.1 Quiescent bias circuits For symmetry of bias, R10 = R11
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R = (Vcc 1.2) / IB = 60 1.2 (60 - 1.2) 6.25mA But R10 = R11 = R R 3.3 = 4.7k, hence R10 and R11 = 4.7K = 9.408 K

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER STAGE

The differential amplifier stage amplifiers the difference between the input and the output signals, hence signals common to both input and output are cancelled out; hence any residual noise is not amplified. The differential amplifier has two input; one to the output of the amplifier and the other to the signal input. The gain of the differential amplifier determines the entire amplifier gain. Fig.3.1a shows the differential amplifier stage.

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R1

Input A Vin A C1

out put R3 R2 C2 R4 Input B

R5 V+

C3

Figure 3.2 Differential Amplifier Stage

The differential amplifier stage, sometimes called the longed tail pair gives an output, which goes to the driver stage. R3 is the feedback resistor while R2 is the input resistor. For a power gain of 20 and letting R3 =33K Since gain = 1+ Rf / Rin 20 = 1+ 33K / Rin

Rin = 1+ 33K / 19 = 1.73K = 1.5K preferred value.


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C1 and C3 are decoupling capacitors. The driver stage using TR5 feeds the complementary pair of transistors from the differential amplifier stage.

3.4

POWER SUPPLY STAGE.

All stages in the project use +30V and 30V. The power supply stage is a linear power supply type and involves in step down transformer, rectifier and filter-capacitor. Voltage regulators were not used, as there was no critical need for a fixed stabilized voltage in a power amplifier. Fig 3.5a below shows the circuit of the power supply stage.
D1

D2

D4 C2

220V AC D3

C1

Figure 3.3 Power supply stage


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The rectifier is designed with four diodes to form a full wave bridge network. C1 and C2 are filter capacitors and the filter capacitor C1 is inversely proportional to the ripple gradient of the power supply.
Vrms

dv

dt

Figure 3.4 Ripple gradient Where dv is the ripple voltage for time dt, where dt is a dependent in power supply frequency. For an rms voltage of 20volts (from transformer) Vpeak = 20 x 2 (i.e., rms x 2 = 28.2V

Hence letting a ripple voltage of 10% makes dv = 2.82V But 1/C = dv dt C = dt


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dv = 10ms (where dt = 10ms for 50Hz) 2.82 = 3546uF = 4700uF (preferred value). Hence C1 and C2 = 4700uF. Diodes D1-4 are 1N5404 power rectifier diodes.

3.5 COMPREHENSIVE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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VV-

R10 R6 R7 TR5 TR3 R13 TR6 TR7 R9 R12 R3 R4 C5 C4 R11 TR4 R8 TR2 TR1

C3

R14

R5

V+
INPUT

+30V

D1

D2

V+

D4 C2

220V AC D3

C1

-30V

Figure 3.5 COMPREHENSIVE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM.

3.6 COMPONENTS LIST C1 & C2 D1 D4 470F 1N5404


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C3 C4 C5 R3, R5 R4 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10, R11 R12 D5, D6 TR3, TR4 TR1, TR2 TR6, TR7 TR5

1F / 35V 100F 47F 4.7K 15K 680 2.7K 1.5K 33K 4.7K 100 1/2watt IN4007 TIP 31 & TIP 32 2N3055 A733 BD139

CHAPTER FOUR CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING 4.1 CONSTRUCTION


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The circuit was first assembled on a project board component by component according to the schematic diagram. At each placement, a jumper copper wire was employed to extend and make connections from one componenet to another, and also to ensure tight connections. Unit by unit starting with the power supply, microphone amplifier, differential amplifier, driver stage, and class AB amplifier, the entire circuits was completed with testing done on each unit for comfirmations. Later on the whole unit were tested and coupled together still on the project board. Afterwards, the entire system was transferred to the Vero-board or strips board where there were properly soldiered together again component by component and unit by unit. Figure 3.5 is the circuit diagram of a 100 wattage amplifier.

4.2 IMPLEMENTATION The implementation of this project was done on the breadboard. The power supply was first derived from a bench power supply in the school electronics lab. (To confirm
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the workability of the circuits before the power supply stage was soldered). Stage by stage testing was done according to the block representation on the breadboard, before soldering of circuit commenced on Vero board. The various circuits and stages were soldered in tandem to meet desired workability of the project.

4.3 TESTING The physical realization of the project is very vital. This is where the fantasy of the whole idea meets reality. The designer will see his or her work not just on paper but also as a finished hardware. After carrying out all the paper design and analysis, the project was constructed, implemented and tested to ensure its working ability, to meet desired specifications. The process of testing and implementation involved the use of some test and measuring equipments.

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The testing of this work was done stage by stage using available instrument stated below. The testing was done to confirm and ensure its functionality and desired output.

POWER SUPPLY STAGE The power supply stage was tested using the following instruments: Analogue and digital multimeter: This was used to measure the output voltage, voltage drop across R 1 and LED, and also the continuity of different conducting paths and sections.

Oscilloscope: The oscilloscope was used to observe the ripples in the power supply waveform and to ensure that all waveforms were correct and their frequencies accurate. The waveform of the stages was as well checked at different stages.

Digital Multimeter: The digital multimeter basically measures voltage, resistance, continuity, current, frequency,
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and temperature and transistor hfe. The process of implementation of the design on the board required the measurement of parameters like, voltage, continuity, current and resistance values of the components and in some cases frequency measurement. The digital multimeter was used to check the voltage in this project.

4.4 PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED These are some of the problems encountered. Testing of the project on breadboard before it was soldered on the vero board proof difficult to accomplish due to the complementary of the circuitry. Also in determining the frequency required. There was some difficulty experienced while drilling on the casing so as to get the actual size of the LED, switch and buzzer frequency knob. Loss of signal was experienced due to cross-talk.

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CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 CONCLUSION I have successfully constructed a suitable easy going 100 wattage amplifier, based on the effectiveness of the discrete components in response to their linear external dynamic variables such as voltage, current, frequency and temperature. By employing passive and active components this was achieved. The design compares favourably with any standard light and security light control in the world and has also an added advantage of being environmental friendly and pollution free.

5.2 RECOMMENDATION With this device,...(FROM YOUR ABSTRACT).....................................the. However, the degree of perfection or operational efficiency of the system may be improved when subjected to a high great performance test
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and evaluation in order to determine areas of modification and to optimize the performance of the system. Therefore I recommend that: - Subsequent undergraduate be given this topic for modification. - Adequate lectures are given toward the design and construction of circuits and the use of components. - A timely maintenance culture. - Funds for the execution of electronic projects should be release to physics department to enable them carry out research on electronics and design more projects that will benefit the university community and the world at large.

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