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Geometry For Elementary School Teachers

A Staff Development Training Program To Implement the 2001 Virginia Standards of Learning

February 2003
Office of Elementary Instructional Services Virginia Department of Education P.O. Box 2120 Richmond, Virginia 23218-2120

Virginia Department of Education

Copyright 2003 by the Virginia Department of Education P.O. Box 2120 Richmond, Virginia 23218-2120 www.pen.k12.va.us All rights reserved. Reproduction of these materials for instructional purposes in Virginia classrooms is permitted.

Superintendent of Public Instruction Jo Lynne DeMary Assistant Superintendent for Instruction Patricia I. Wright Office of Elementary Instructional Services Linda Poorbaugh, Director Karen Grass, Mathematics Specialist

Notice to Reader In accordance with the requirements of the Civil Rights Act and other federal and state laws and regulations, this document has been reviewed to ensure that it does not reflect stereotypes based on sex, race, or national origin. The Virginia Department of Education does not unlawfully discriminate on the basic of sex, race, color, religion, handicapping conditions, or national origin in employment or in its educational programs and activities. The activity that is the subject of this report was supported in whole or in part by the U.S. Department of Education. However, the opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and no official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education should be inferred.

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Acknowledgements
The Virginia Department of Education wishes to express sincere appreciation to the following individuals who have contributed to the writing and editing of the activities in this document.

Dr. Margie Mason, Associate Professor The College of William and Mary Williamsburg, Virginia Mr. Bruce Mason, Consultant Williamsburg, Virginia Dr. Carol L. Rezba, Former Mathematics Specialist Virginia Department of Education

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Introduction
The updated Geometry for Elementary School Teachers is a staff development training program designed to assist teachers in implementing the 2001 Virginia Standards of Learning for mathematics. This staff development program provides a sample of meaningful and engaging activities correlated to the geometry strand of the K-5 mathematics standards of learning. The purpose of the staff development program is to enhance teachers' content knowledge and their use of instructional strategies for teaching the geometry Standards of Learning. Teachers will learn about the van Hiele model for the development of geometric thought and how this can be used to guide instruction and classroom assessment. Through explorations, problem-solving, and hands-on experiences, teachers will engage in discussions and activities that address many of the dimensions of geometry including spatial relationships, properties of geometric figures, constructions, geometric modeling, geometric transformations, coordinate geometry, the geometry of measurement, informal geometric reasoning, and geometric connections to the physical world. Teachers will explore two- and threedimensional shapes, paper folding and origami, tessellations and geometric designs, and the use of other manipulatives to develop geometric understanding. Through these activities, it is anticipated that teachers will develop new techniques that are sure to enhance student achievement in their classroom. Designed to be presented by teacher trainers, this staff development program includes directions for the trainer, as well as the black line masters for overhead transparencies. An addendum to the module includes video segments of the van Hiele levels. The video segments portray students engaged in assessment tasks with a discussion of the students level of development of geometric thought. Assessment tasks are included as blackline masters. Trainers should adapt the materials to best fit the needs of their audience; adding materials that may be more appropriate for their audience and eliminating materials that have been used in previous training sessions. All materials in this document may be duplicated and distributed as desired for use in Virginia. The training program is organized into five three-hour modules that may be offered by school divisions for recertification points or for a one-credit graduate course, when university credit can be arranged.

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GLOSSARY
Acute Angle Acute Triangle Adjacent Sides Angle An angle that is smaller than a right angle. An acute angle measures less than 90 degrees. A triangle that has three acute angles. Each pair of sides that have a common vertex. A geometric figure consisting of two rays or line segments that have the same endpoint. The size of an angle measures the amount of rotation from one side to another. Part of a curve. In particular, part of the circumference of a circle. The amount of surface in a region or enclosed within a boundary. Area is usually measured in square units such as square feet or square centimeters. A characteristic possessed by an object. Characteristics include shape, color, size, length, weight, capacity, area, etc. The bottom side or bottom surface of a shape. A metric unit of length equal to one-hundredth of one meter. A two-dimensional shape formed by a set of points that are all the same distance from a fixed point called the center. The boundary of a circle, or the length of that boundary. The circumference can be computed by multiplying the diameter by pi (), a number a little more that 3.14. Two or more circles that have the same center and different radii. A three-dimensional shape with a base (usually a circle) joined to a vertex by a curved surface.

Arc Area

Attribute

Base Centimeter Circle

Circumference

Concentric Circles

Cone

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Congruent Coordinate System

Relating to geometric figures that have the same size and shape. A reference system for locating and graphing points. In two dimensions, a coordinate system usually consists of a horizontal axis and a vertical axis, which intersect to give the origin. Each point in the plane is located by its horizontal distance and vertical distance from the origin. These distances, or coordinates, form an ordered pair of numbers. A solid shape in which every face is a square and every edge is the same length. The volume of a cube that is one foot wide, one foot high, and one foot deep. A unit with length, width, and height that is used to measure volume. A can shape. A solid shape with congruent parallel circles (or other shapes) joined by a curved surface. A polygon with 10 sides. A regular decagon has10 equal sides. A line segment that joins two non-adjacent vertices of a polygon or polyhedron. A line segment passing through the center of a circle or sphere and connecting two points on the circumference. (See Rhombus) The number of coordinates used to express a position. A polygon with twelve sides. A regular dodecagon has twelve equal sides. A polyhedron with twelve faces. All faces of a regular dodecahedron are congruent regular pentagons. A line segment where two faces of a three-dimensional shape meet.
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Cube Cubic Foot Cubic Unit Cylinder Decagon Diagonal Diameter Diamond Dimension Dodecagon Dodecahedron Edge

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Endpoint

The point(s) at the end of a ray or line segment.

Equilateral Triangle A triangle with equal sides. Each angle measures 60 degrees. Face Flip Geometry Grid Hemisphere Heptagon Hexagon Hexahedron Hypotenuse Icosahedron Isosceles Triangle A flat side of a polyhedron. (See Reflection) The branch of mathematics that deals with the position, size, and shape of figures. A network of horizontal and vertical lines that intersect to form squares or rectangles. Half of a sphere, formed by making a plane cut through the center of a sphere. A polygon with seven sides. A regular heptagon has seven equal sides. A polygon with six sides. A regular hexagon has six equal sides. A polyhedron with six faces. A regular hexahedron is a cube. The side opposite the right angle of a right triangle. The hypotenuse is the longest side of a right triangle. A polyhedron with 20 faces. All faces of a regular icosahedron are congruent equilateral triangles. A triangle with two equal sides and two equal angles. (An equilateral triangle is a special case of an isosceles triangle.) A quadrilateral with two pairs of equal adjacent sides. A set of points that form a straight path extending infinitely in two directions. Lines are often called straight lines to distinguish them from curves, which are often called curved lines. Part of a line is called a line segment.

Kite Shape Line

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Line of Symmetry Line Segment Network

A line dividing a two-dimensional figure into two parts that are mirror images of each other. A part of a line. A line segment has two endpoints and a finite length. A diagram consisting of arcs (branches) connecting points or nodes (junctions). A network may represent a real-world situation, such as road system or electronic circuit. Sometimes the nodes are called vertices. A point in a network at the end of an arc or at the junction of two or more arcs. A polygon with nine sides. A regular nonagon has nine equal sides. An angle that is greater than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees; that is, between a right angle and a straight line. A triangle that has one obtuse angle. A polygon with eight sides. A regular octagon has eight equal sides. A polyhedron with eight faces. All faces of a regular octahedron are congruent equilateral triangles. In a quadrilateral, angles that do not have a common line segment. Two or more lines that are always the same distance apart. A quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel and equal in length. Opposite angles are equal. A polygon with five sides. A regular pentagon has five equal sides. The boundary of a plane shape or the length of a boundary. At right angles.

Node Nonagon Obtuse Angle Obtuse Triangle Octagon Octahedron Opposite Angles Parallel Lines Parallelogram Pentagon Perimeter Perpendicular

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pi ()

The ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. This ratio is the same for every circle. Its value, which is found by dividing the circumference by the diameter, is a little more than 3.14. A circle marked into sectors. Each sector shows the fraction represented by one category of data. Pie graphs are also called circle graphs. A flat surface extending infinitely in all directions. In geometry, a closed two-dimensional figure that lies entirely in one plane. (Polygons and circles are examples of plane figures. An arc is not a plane figure because it is not closed.) The smallest geometric unit. A position in space, often represented by a dot. A plane shape bounded by straight sides. A solid shape bounded by flat faces, A polyhedron with at least one pair of opposite faces that are parallel and congruent. Corresponding edges of these faces are joined by rectangles or parallelograms. A polyhedron with any polygon for its base. The other faces are triangles that meet at a point or vertex. A polygon with four sides. One-half of a line. A set of points that form a straight path extending infinitely in one direction. A ray has one endpoint. A quadrilateral with four right angles. Opposite sides are equal and parallel. A box shape. A prism with three pairs of parallel opposite faces.

Pie graph

Plane Plane Shape

Point Polygon Polyhedron Prism

Pyramid Quadrilateral Ray

Rectangle Rectangular Prism

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Reflection Regular Polygon

A transformation of a point, line, or geometric figure that results in a mirror image of the original. A polygon that has equal sides and equal angles.

Regular Polyhedron A polyhedron with congruent faces that are regular polygons. Rhombus Right Angle Right Triangle Scalene Triangle Semicircle A parallelogram with four equal sides. Opposite angles are equal. An angel that has one-fourth of a full turn. A right angle measures 90 degrees. A triangle that has one right angle. A triangle with sides of unequal length. One-half of a circle, bounded by a diameter and one-half of the circumference. Sometimes, one-half of the circumference is called a semi-circle. Figures that have the same shape but are different sizes. (See Translation) A closed, three-dimensional figure. A ball shape. A three-dimensional shape formed by a set of points that are all the same distance from a fixed point called the center. Also, the solid shape enclosed by that set of points. A rectangle with equal sides. A unit that has length and width used to measure area. Examples are square inches, square centimeters, acres, etc. Part or all of the boundary of a solid. A surface may be flat or curved. (For example, a cone has one flat surface and one curved surface.) The surfaces of a polyhedron are called faces.

Similar Slide Solid Shape Sphere

Square Square Unit

Surface

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Symmetry

a. When one side of a shape is a mirror image of the other side, the shape is said to have line of symmetry. b. When a shape can be turned through a fraction of a full rotation and still look the same, it is said to have turning symmetry or rotational symmetry.

Tessellation

An arrangement of plane shapes (usually congruent shapes) to cover a surface without overlapping or leaving any gaps. A polyhedron with four triangular faces. A tetrahedron is a triangular pyramid. Relating to objects that have length, width, and depth. Solid figures such as polyhedra, cones, and spheres are three-dimensional. The changing of a geometric figure from one position to another, according to some rule. Examples of transformations are reflection, rotation, and translation. A transformation in which a geometric figure is moved in a line. Each point of the figure moves the same distance. A quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides of unequal length. A polygon with three sides. A prism in which the parallel opposite faces is triangles. Relating to objects that have length and width but not depth. Plane shapes such as polygons and circles that are two-dimensional. A point, or corner, where the sides of shape, the rays of an angle, or the edges of a solid meet. The plural of vertex is vertices.

Tetrahedron Three-Dimensional

Transformation

Translation Trapezoid Triangle Triangular Prism Two-Dimensional

Vertex

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Table of Contents
PAGE I. van Hiele Theory of Geometric Thought Van Hiele Levels and Triangle Sorts. Quadrilaterals and their Properties Quadrilateral Sort Whats My Rule Quadrilateral Properties Laboratory Quadrilateral Sorting Laboratory Quadrilaterals and their Properties through LOGO Meet the Turtle Writing Geo-LOGO Procedures Squares and Rectangles II. Classification Tibby Whats In the Box Missing Pieces Whats My Rule Twenty Questions Game Who Am I? Game Differences-Trains and Games Hidden Number Patterns Attribute Networks Identifying Shapes Human Circle Geoboard Triangles and Quadrilaterals Shape Hunt 2 3 27 29 37 39 44 59 60 67 70 73 77 78 80 81 83 85 95 99 103 106 108 109 113

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III.

Spatial Relationships Square It Pick up the Sticks Partition the Square Cutting Square Puzzles Tangrams Make your Own Tangrams Area & Perimeter Problems/Tangrams Spatial Problem Solving Tangrams Symmetry Butterfly Symmetry Copy Cat Recover the Symmetry Folded Shapes Symmetry and Right Angles in Quadrilaterals Origami: Making a Square Origami: Making a Heart

115 117 120 122 127 129 131 133 136 139 142 144 146 150 155 163 165 171 174 177 187 192 195 197 198 199 200 201 202

IV.

Transformational Geometry: Tessellations Sums of Angles of a Triangle Do Congruent Triangles Tessellate? Do Congruent Quadrilaterals Tessellate? Tessellations by Translation Tessellations by Rotation Solid Geometry Polyhedron Sort Whats My Shape? Ask About It Whats My Shape? Touch Me. Take It Apart Building Polyhedra

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V. Perimeter and Area Dominoes and Triominoes Tetrominoes Pentominoes Areas with Pentominoes Hexominoes Perimeters with Hexominoes Perimeter and Area Part II The Perimeter Is 24 Inches. Whats the Area? The Area Is 24 Inches. What is the Perimeter? Change the Area Coordinate Geometry Hurkle Battleship Two-Dimensional Hurkle

204 207 210 215 219 229 234 236 238 242 243 246 247 254 257

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Elementary Geometry Module 1


Topic Van Hiele Theory of Geometric Thought Quadrilaterals & Their Properties Activity Name Lecture van Hiele levels Triangle Sorts Quadrilateral Sort Related SOL K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16 K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 4.15, 4.17, 5.14, 5.15 K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 4.15, 4.17, 5.14, 5.15 K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 4.15, 4.17, 5.14, 5.15 K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 4.15, 4.17, 5.14, 5.15 1.16, 3.18, 5.14 1.16, 3.18, 5.14 1.16, 3.18, 5.14 Transparencies Materials Handouts T: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 Paper triangles H: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 T: 1.4 H: 1.4, 1.5 Paper Quadrilaterals

Whats My Rule

T: 1.5 H: 1.4

Paper Quadrilaterals

Quadrilateral Properties Laboratory

T: 1.6 H: 1.6

Quadrilateral Sorting Laboratory Quadrilaterals & Their Properties Through LOGO Meet the Turtle Writing GeoLogo Procedures Squares & Rectangles

T: 1.6, 1.7 H: 1.6, 1.7

Geo-strips, D-stix, or miniature marshmallows, & toothpicks; square corner Paper Quadrilaterals

T: 1.8, 1.9, 1.10 H: 1.8


H: 1.9

H: 1.10

Geo-Logo on 1 computer per pair, overhead view screen hooked to computer, (if available)

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Key Idea: The van Hiele Levels of Geometry Understanding Description: The van Hiele theory of geometric understanding describes how students learn geometry and provides a framework for structuring student experiences that should lead to conceptual growth and understanding. In this first session, the participants will explore the van Hiele levels of geometric understanding doing triangle sorts and comparing their sorts to those performed by elementary students. The sorting task is appropriate for all ages and levels of students. It can serve as an activity to help students advance their level of understanding as well as an assessment tool that can inform the teacher what van Hiele level the student is thinking at with regard to triangles.

Kindergarten K.11 The student will identify, describe, and draw two-dimensional (plane) geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle). K.12 The student will describe the location of one object relative to another (above, below next to) and identify representations of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle), regardless of their position and orientation in space. K.13 The student will compare the size (larger/smaller) and shape of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle). First Grade 1.16 The student will draw, describe, and sort plane geometric figures (triangle, square, rectangle, and circle) according to number of sides, corners, and square corners.

Related SOL:

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van Hiele Levels: Introduction Page 2

Activity : Format:

The van Hiele Levels of Geometry Understanding


Large Group Lecture and Small Group Activity

Description: Participants will explore the van Hiele levels of geometric

understanding by doing triangle sorts and comparing their sorts to those performed by elementary students and by considering student activities appropriate for each level. Participants will be able to describe the developmental sequence of geometric thinking according to the van Hiele theory of geometric understanding and activities suitable for each level. In addition, participants will be able to assess the van Hiele levels of their students. K.11, K.12, K.13, and 1.16

Objectives:

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: van Hiele levels of geometric understanding, visualization,

analysis, abstraction, deduction, rigor, adjacency, distinction, separation, attainment, phases of learning, information, guided orientation, explicitation, free orientation, integration, gravity-based figures, triangle, shape orientation

Materials:

Paper triangles, cut out and placed in a plastic baggy or manila envelope (see Handout 1.1 for Triangle Sorting Pieces.) You will need at least one set of triangles for every three participants. Handout 1.1, Handout 1.2, and Handout 1.3 (the Crowley article), Transparency 1.1, Transparency 1.2, and Transparency 1.3.

Time Required: Approximately 1 hour

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van Hiele Levels: Introduction Page 3

Background: To Trainer (for lecture):

After observing their own students, Dutch teachers P.M. van Hiele and Dina van Hiele-Geldof described learning as a discontinuous process with jumps that suggest "levels." They identified five sequential levels of geometric understanding or thought: 1) Visualization 2) Analysis 3) Abstraction 4) Deduction 5) Rigor Clements and Battista (1992) proposed the existence of a Level 0 that they call Pre-recognition. In Grades K, 1, and 2 most students will be at Level 1. By grade 3, students should be transitioning to Level 2. If the SOL are mastered, students should attain Level 3 by the end of sixth grade. Students who can prove theorems using deductive techniques usually attain level 4. One problem is that most current textbooks provide activities requiring only Level 1 thinking up through sixth grade and teachers must provide different types of tasks to facilitate the development of the high levels of thought. 1. Show Transparency 1.1 on the overhead unmasking the information about Level 1 only. Describe Level 1, visualization. Make particular note of the student's way of identifying the rectangle. "I know it's a rectangle because it looks like a door and I know that the door is a rectangle." Identification is based on a visual model.

Directions:

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van Hiele Levels: Introduction Page 4

2. Unmask Level 2 on Transparency 1.1. Compare Level 1 and Level 2. Properties are perceived at Level 2, but they are isolated and unrelated. A Level 2 student would say "I know it's a rectangle because it is closed; it has 4 sides and 4 right angles; opposite sides are parallel; opposite sides are congruent; diagonals bisect each other; adjacent sides are perpendicular; etc...." All the properties known are listed since the student doesn't perceive any relationship between the properties, e.g., one implies the other. There is no knowledge of necessary and sufficient conditions. 3. Unmask Level 3 on Transparency 1.1. Relationships between properties and between figures are perceived at Level 3. Such a student would say "I know its a rectangle because it's a parallelogram with right angles." The student will give the minimum number of properties, eliminating redundancies. A Level 3 student can formulate meaningful definitions and understand inclusion relationships such as every square is a special type of rectangle, but not every rectangle is a square. Note that if a student is require to "know a definition" before attaining Level 3, it will be a memorized definition with little meaning to the student. His concept definition will likely not match his concept image. 4. Unmask Level 4 on Transparency 1.1. Generally speaking, most high school geometry courses are taught at this level. Mastering the Virginia Standards of Learning for geometry require this type of thinking. 5. Unmask Level 5 on Transparency 1.1. This level is sometimes referred to as the mathematicians' level; although gifted middle schools have been known to think at this level. The ability to do symbolic logic and non-Euclidean geometry are characteristic of this level of thought.

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van Hiele Levels: Introduction Page 5

6. Turn to Additional Points on Transparency 1.1. Note for Point 1 that the levels are hierarchical. Students cannot be expected to write a geometric proof successfully unless they have progressed through each level of thought in turn. At Point 2, mention that college students, and even some teachers, have been found at Level 1 while there are middle school students at Level 3 and above. (If the SOL are mastered, students should attain Level 3 by the end of sixth grade.) As an example of an experience that can impede progress (Point 3), give the illustration of the teacher who knew that the relationship between squares and rectangles was a difficult one for her fourth graders. Therefore, the teacher had them memorize "Every square is a rectangle, but not every rectangle is a square." When tested a couple of weeks later, half the students remembered that a square is a type of rectangle, while the other half thought that a rectangle was a type of square. It was almost impossible for these students to learn the true relationship between squares and rectangles now because every time they heard the words square and rectangle together, they insisted on relying on their memorized sentence rather than on the properties of the two types of figures. 7. Turn to Properties of Levels on Transparency 1.1. As an example of separation, you can use the meaning of the word "square." When someone such as a teacher who is thinking at Level 3 or above says "square," the word conveys the properties and relationships of a square such as having four congruent sides; having four congruent angles; having perpendicular diagonals; and being a type of polygon, quadrilateral, parallelogram, and rectangle. To a student thinking at Level 1, the word "square" will only evoke an image of something that looks like a square such as a CD case or first base. The same word is being used, but it has an entirely different meaning to the teacher and the student. The teacher must keep in mind what the meaning of the word or symbol is to the student and how the student thinks about it.

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van Hiele Levels: Introduction Page 6

8. For Attainment, mention that there are five phases of learning that lead to understanding at the next higher level. Then turn to the Phases of Learning on Transparency 1.1. Tell the participants that the activities that they are going to be doing during the course of the workshops are structured to provided these experiences for students. 9. Divide the participants into small groups. Pass out the sets of cutout triangles, at least one set per three participants. Instruct the participants to lay out the pieces with the letters up. Don't call them triangles. Tell the participants that objects can be grouped together in many different ways. For example, if we sorted the shapes that make up the American flag (the red stripes, the white stripes, the blue field, the white stars), we might sort by color. In this case we would put the white stripes and the stars together because they are white, the red strips in another group because they are red, and the blue field by itself because it is the only blue object. Another way to sort the flag parts would be to put all the strips and the blue field together because they are all rectangles and all the stars together because they are not rectangles. If needed, you can demonstrate a triangle sort using pieces cut from Transparency 1.2. Have participants sort the shapes into groups that belong together, recording the letters of the pieces they put together and the criteria they used to sort. Have them sort two or three times, recording each sort. 10. Ask the participants for some of their ways of sorting. Expect answers like "acute, right, and obtuse triangles" or "scalene, isosceles, and equilateral". Have them compare their ways with those of other groups. 11. Ask them how they think their students would sort these figures. Show sample sorts in Transparency 1.3 and ask the participants to conjecture the criteria used for sorting and the van Hiele level of the sorter. Sample 1 is a low Level 1 sort where the student is sorting strictly by size and may not even know that the figures are triangles. Sample 2 is another Level 1 sort. Here the student thinks that triangles must have at least two sides the same length or possibly that triangles must be symmetric. Sample 3 is another Level 1 sort. This student also believes that

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van Hiele Levels: Introduction Page 7

triangles must have at least two sides the same length or possibly that triangles must be symmetric. Additionally, this student recognized the figures with right angles or "corners" as a separate category. The Sample 4 sort is at least a Level 2 or 3 sort in which the sorter focuses on the lengths of the sides, criteria which separates the figures into categories which overlap. The student has actually sorted into groups where no sides have the same length, where two sides have the same length, and where all sides have the same length. It is unclear whether the student knows that equilateral triangles are a type of isosceles triangle. The Sample 5 sort focuses on parts of the figures and so is a Level 2 sort, but the student does have the vocabulary to adequately describe the figures. The Sample 6 sort is similar to the Sample 4 sort, but the word "Perfect" is incorrect and indicates that the student may be thinking more of the shape as a whole rather than of the individual parts. This sort is probably Level 2.

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van Hiele Levels: Introduction Page 8

The van Hiele Levels Level 1: Visualization. Geometric figures are recognized as entities, without any awareness of parts of figures or relationships between components of the figure. A student should recognize and name figures, and distinguish a given figure from others that look somewhat the same. "I know it's a rectangle because it looks like a door and I know that the door is a rectangle." Level 2: Analysis. Properties are perceived, but are isolated and unrelated. A student should recognize and name properties of geometric figures. "I know it's a rectangle because it is closed, it has 4 sides and 4 right angles, opposite sides are parallel, opposite sides are congruent, diagonals bisect each other, adjacent sides are perpendicular,...
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Transparency 1.1 Page 9

Level 3: Abstraction. Definitions are meaningful, with relationships being perceived between properties and between figures. Logical implications and class inclusions are understood, but the role and significance of deduction is not understood. I know its a rectangle because it's a parallelogram with right angles." Level 4: Deduction. The student can construct proofs, understand the role of axioms and definitions, and know the meaning of necessary and sufficient conditions. A student should be able to supply reasons for steps in a proof. Level 5: Rigor. The standards of rigor & abstraction represented by modern geometries characterize level 5. Symbols without referents can be manipulated according to the laws of formal logic. A student should understand the role and necessity of indirect proof and proof by contrapositive.

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Transparency 1.1 Page 10

Additional Points 1. The learner cannot achieve one level without passing through the previous levels. 2. Progress from one level to another is more dependent on educational experience than on age or maturation. 3. Certain types of experiences can facilitate or impede progress within a level or to a higher level.

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Transparency 1.1 Page 11

Properties of Levels Adjacency: what was intrinsic in the preceding level is extrinsic in the current level Distinction: each level has its own linguistic symbols and its own network of relationships connecting those symbols Separation: two individuals reasoning at different levels cannot understand one another Attainment: the learning process leading to complete understanding at the next higher level has five phases: inquiry, directed orientation, explanation, free orientation and integration

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Transparency 1.1 Page 12

Phases of Learning Information: Gets acquainted with the working domain (e.g., examines examples and non-examples) Guided orientation: Does tasks involving different relations of the network that is to be formed (e.g., folding, measuring, looking for symmetry) Explicitation: Becomes conscious of the relations, tries to express them in words, and learns technical language which accompanies the subject matter (e.g., expresses ideas about properties of figures) Free orientation: learns, by doing more complex tasks, to find his/her own way in the network of relations (e.g., knowing properties of one kind of shape, investigates these properties for a new shape, such as kites)
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Transparency 1.1 Page 13

Integration: Summarizes all that he/she has learned about the subject, then reflects on his/her actions and obtains an overview of the newly formed network of relations now available (e.g., properties of a figure are summarized)

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Transparency 1.1 Page 14

Triangle Sorting Pieces

A
F
N

C
G

H
S

Q
R
W

M
O
P
V

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Transparency 1.2 Page 15

Sample Student Sort 1


F

X
N

H
Z

Small
T

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B
S
R

Medium Large
C
O
A

Transparency 1.3 Page 16

Sample Student Sort 2


Q
B
S

Triangles

N
M

NOT Triangles
P

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Transparency 1.3 Page 17

D
V

Sample Student Sort 3


C

U X

J W

Triangles

Look alike... N is smaller... NOT triangles

look like ramps... NOT triangles

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Transparency 1.3 Page 18

N
G

Sample Student Sort 4


S X W K

EQUILATERAL

Z V

A M G

SCALENE

B U J N F C Q O

Y H

ISOSCELES
Transparency 1.3 Page 19

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Sample Student Sort 5


B H one longest side C

J E G P O U 2 sides are similar, one is shorter

irregular & very narrow R K W X same shape & small size N M D S

F 2 sides are similar, one is longer

V L Z A

irregular sides

3 uneven sides

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Transparency 1.3 Page 20

Sample Student Sort 6


N E
Z

V P T D

Every side has a different size

2 sides =, 3rd side smaller or larger Perfect Triangles


R

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J
Y

Transparency 1.3 Page 21

Triangle Sorting Pieces

A F N

C G

K J H S M O P V Z Y W Q R

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Handout 1.1 Page 22

Student Triangle Sorting Pieces

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Handout 1.2 Page 23

Student Triangle Sorting Pieces page 2

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Handout 1.2 Page 24

Student Triangle Sorting Pieces

C A B E F G

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Handout 1.3 Page 25

Student Triangle Sorting Pieces page 2

H H

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Handout 1.3 Page 26

Key Idea: Quadrilaterals and their Properties Description: Participants will explore quadrilaterals and their properties
through the use of various manipulatives such as sorting pieces and geo-strips. The sequence of activities is designed to facilitate an increase in a learner's van Hiele level of thinking about quadrilaterals from Level 1 to Level 3. First, the participants learn how to determine the van Hiele levels of their own students by analyzing how they sort a set of quadrilateral pieces. Then they play the game "What's My Rule?" to develop the ability to classify quadrilaterals by various attributes and to focus on more than one attribute at a time. The participants also construct parallelograms, rectangles, rhombi, and squares using D-stix, geo-strips, toothpicks, or other manipulatives and make observations while the figures are flexed (Level 2). Finally, the participants identify relationships between parallelograms, rectangles, rhombi, squares, trapezoids, kites, and darts through a lab that culminates in the creation of a quadrilateral family tree (Level 3). While these activities are presented with quadrilaterals, most of them are easily adapted to triangles and other polygons.

Related Geometry SOL:


Kindergarten K.11 The student will identify, describe, and draw two-dimensional (plane) geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle). K.12 The student will describe the location of one object relative to another (above, below, next to) and identify representations of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle), regardless of their position and orientation in space. K.13 The student will compare the size (larger/smaller) and shape of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle). Grade One 1.16 The student will draw, describe, and sort plane geometric figures (triangle, square, rectangle, and circle) according to number of sides, corners, and square corners. Grade Two 2.22 The student will compare and contrast plane and solid geometric shapes (circle/sphere, square/cube, and rectangle/rectangular solid).

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Quadrilaterals: Introduction Page

27

Grade Three 3.18 The student will analyze two-dimensional (plane) and three-dimensional (solid) geometric figures (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, cube, rectangular solid [prism], square pyramid, sphere, cone, and cylinder) and identify relevant properties, including the number of corners, square corners, edges and the number and shape of faces, using concrete models. Grade Four 4.15 The student will a) identify and draw representations of points, lines, line segments, rays, and angles, using a straightedge or ruler, and b) describe the path of shortest distance between two points on a flat surface. 4.17 The student will a) analyze and compare the properties of two-dimensional (plane) geometric figures (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, parallelogram, and rhombus) and three-dimensional (solid) geometric figures (sphere, cube,, and rectangular solid [prism]); b) identify congruent and noncongruent shapes, and c) investigate congruence of plane figures after geometric transformations such as reflection (flip), translation (slide) and rotation (turn), using mirrors, paper folding, and tracing. Grade Five 5.14 The student will classify angles and triangles as right, acute, or obtuse. 5.15 The student, using two-dimensional (plane) figures (square, rectangle, triangle, parallelogram, rhombus, kite, and trapezoid) will a) recognize, identify, describe, and analyze their properties in order to develop definitions of their figures; b) identify and explore congruent, noncongruent, and similar figures; c) investigate and describe the results of combining and subdividing shapes; d) identify and describe a line of symmetry; and e) recognize the images of figures resulting from geometric transformations such as translation (slide), reflection (flip), or rotation (turn).

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Quadrilaterals: Introduction Page

28

Activity: Format:

Quadrilateral Sort
Small Group/Large Group

Description: Participants sort quadrilaterals in three different ways and compare


their sort to what they predict their students would do. They then relate the sorts to the van Hiele levels of geometric understanding of quadrilaterals. After performing their own sorts, participants will be able to distinguish the way students at various van Hiele levels of geometric understanding may sort quadrilaterals. K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 4.15, 4.17, 5.14, 5.15

Objectives:

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: depends on participants. Terms such as parallel, congruent, right


angle, square, rectangle, trapezoid, parallelogram, rhombus, kite, and dart are likely.

Materials:

Paper Quadrilaterals from Handout 1.4, cut out and placed in a plastic baggy or manila envelope. You will need at least one set of quadrilaterals for every three participants. Handouts 1.4, 1.5, Transparency 1.4.

Time Required: Approximately 20 minutes Directions:


1) Divide the participants into small groups. Pass out the sets of cutout quadrilaterals, at least one set per three participants. Instruct the participants to lay out the pieces with the letters up. Don't call them quadrilaterals. Tell the participants that objects can be grouped together in many different ways. For example, if we sorted the shapes that make up the American flag (the red stripes, the white stripes, the blue field, the white stars), we might sort by color and put the white stripes and the stars together because they are white, the red strips in another group because they are red, and the blue field by itself because it is the only blue object. Another way the flag parts could be grouped would be all the strips and the blue field together because they are all rectangles and all the stars
Quadrilateral Sort Page 29

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together because they are not rectangles. Have them sort the shapes into groups that belong together, recording the letters of the pieces they put together and the criteria they used to sort. Have them sort two or three times, recording each sort. 2) Ask the participants for some of their ways of sorting. Have them compare their ways with those of other groups. 3) Ask them how they think their students would sort these figures.

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Quadrilateral Sort Page

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Quadrilateral Sorting Pieces

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Transparency 1.4 Page 31

Quadrilateral Sorting Pieces

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Handout 1.4 Page 32

Student Quadrilateral Sorting Pieces

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Handout 1.5 Page 33

Student Quadrilateral Sorting Pieces page 2

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Handout 1.5 Page 34

Student Quadrilateral Sorting Pieces

A B C

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Handout 1.5 Page 35

Student Quadrilateral Sorting Pieces page 2

J I

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Handout 1.5 Page 36

Activity: Format:

What's My Rule?
Small Group/Large Group

Description: A sorter separates the quadrilaterals according to a hidden rule


while other players try to figure out what the sorting rule is.

Objectives:

After playing the game, participants will be able to classify quadrilaterals by various attributes. In children, this game develops the ability to attend to more than one characteristic of a figure at the same time. K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 4.15, 4.17, 5.14, 5.15

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: depends on participants. Terms such as parallel, congruent, right


angle, square, rectangle, trapezoid, parallelogram, rhombus, kite, and dart are likely.

Materials:

Paper Quadrilaterals, cut out and placed in a plastic baggy or manila envelope (see Handout 1.4 for Quadrilateral Sorting Pieces.) You will need at least one set of quadrilaterals for every three or four participants. Transparency 1.5.

Time Required: Approximately 10 minutes Directions:


1) Divide the participants into groups or 3 or 4. Pass out the sets of cutout quadrilaterals, one set per group. 2) Display Transparency 1.5 and go over the rules of the game. One participant in each group is the sorter. The sorter writes down a "secret rule" to classify the set of quadrilaterals into two or more piles and uses that rule to slowly sort the pieces as the other players observe. 3) At any time, the players can call "stop" and guess the rule. After the correct rule identification, the player who figured out the rule becomes the sorter. The correct identification is worth 5 points. A correct answer, but not the written one, is worth 1 point. Each incorrect guess results in a 2-point penalty. The winner is the first one to accumulate 10 points.
What's My Rule? Page 37

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WHAT'S MY RULE? Rules

1. Choose one player to be the sorter. The sorter writes down a "secret rule" to classify the set of quadrilaterals into two or more piles and uses that rule to slowly sort the pieces as the other players observe. 2. At any time, the players can call "stop" and guess the rule. The correct identification is worth 5 points. A correct answer, but not the written one, is worth 1 point. Each incorrect guess results in a 2point penalty. 3. After the correct rule identification, the player who figured out the rule becomes the sorter. 4. The winner is the first one to accumulate 10 points.
Virginia Department of Education Transparency 1.5 Page 38

Activity: Format:

Quadrilateral Properties Laboratory


Small Group/Large Group

Description: Participants construct parallelograms, rectangles, rhombi,


and squares using D-stix, geo-strips, or toothpicks and marshmallows and make observations as the figures are flexed.

Objectives:

The participant will be able to identify the main properties of parallelograms, rectangles, rhombi, and squares.

Related SOL: K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 4.15, 4.17, 5.14, 5.15 Vocabulary: quadrilateral, parallelogram, rectangle, rhombus, square,
opposite sides, opposite angles, parallel

Materials:

D-stix, geo-strips, or miniature marshmallows and toothpicks cut into two different lengths; square corner (the corner of an index card or book); Handout 1.6; and Transparency 1.6

Time Required: Approximately 20 minutes Directions: 1) Divide the students into groups of 3 or 4 and direct each group to
experiment as you ask questions. Be sure to model constructing the polygons and flexing them.

2) Ask the participants to pick two pairs of congruent segments and connect them as shown below. Have them flex the figure to different positions.

. . .

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Quadrilateral Properties Lab Page 39

Ask what stays the same? (lengths of the sides, the opposite sides are parallel, opposite angles are the same, sum of angles, perimeter) What changes? (size of angles, area, lengths of diagonals) What do you notice about the opposite sides of this quadrilateral? (They remain parallel and congruent.) ______________________________________ A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel. ______________________________________ What is the sum of the interior angles of this quadrilateral? (360) What do you notice about the opposite angles? (congruent) Note to Trainer: Some participant will likely turn the strips so that they cross forming two triangles. If no one does, you should. Ask if this figure is a polygon. Elicit from the group what the essential elements of a polygon are, i.e., a) composed of straight line segments connected end to end b) simple (the segments don't cross) c) closed d) lies in a plane (e.g. if you take a wire square and twist it so that it isn't flat, it is no longer a polygon) 3) Make one of the angles a right angle (You can use the square corner to check your accuracy.) What happens to the other angles? (They become right angles.) Will this always be true when you make one angle of a parallelogram a right angle? (Yes) How do you know? (The sum of the angles in a parallelogram is 360. One angle is given as 90. Its opposite angle must be the same or 90. Subtracting these two angles from 360, the remaining two angles, which are congruent since they are opposite angles in a parallelogram, must total 180. Therefore, each is 90. Note: This is Level 3 thinking.) Is it still a parallelogram? (Yes) Is it still a quadrilateral? (Yes) Is it still a polygon? (Yes) What other name, besides polygon, quadrilateral, and parallelogram, can be given to it now? (rectangle) ______________________________________ A rectangle is a parallelogram with four right angles. ______________________________________ 4) Make a parallelogram that has all four sides equal in length. What is another name for this parallelogram? (rhombus)
Virginia Department of Education Quadrilateral Properties Lab Page 40

______________________________________ A rhombus is a parallelogram with four congruent sides. ______________________________________ 5) Flex the figure to different positions.

. .

. .

What stays the same? (lengths of the sides, the opposite sides are parallel, opposite angles are the same, sum of angles, perimeter) What changes? (size of angles, area, lengths of diagonals) What is the sum of the interior angles of this quadrilateral? (360) What do you notice about the opposite angles? (congruent) Is it still a quadrilateral? (Yes) Is it still a polygon? (Yes) 6) Make one of the angles of this rhombus a right angle, checking with your square corner. What happens to the other angles? (All right angles) Is it still a parallelogram? (Yes) What other name, besides polygon, quadrilateral, parallelogram, and rhombus, can be given to this new figure? (square) ______________________________________ A square is a parallelogram with four congruent sides and four right angles. ______________________________________ Is it a rectangle? (Yes) How do you know? (It has four right angles.) 7) Pass out Handout 1.6 (Transparency 1.6) and discuss the definitions for quadrilateral, parallelogram, rectangle, rhombus, and square. Discuss the examples of each, noticing their orientations and how each example fits the definition even though they aren't necessarily the stereotype figure usually seen. Ask what implications the fact that a Level 1 student recognizes shapes by comparing them to a known shape has for teaching.

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Quadrilateral Properties Lab Page 41

TYPES OF QUADRILATERALS
A quadrilateral is a four sided polygon. A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel .
These sides are parallel.

A rectangle is a quadrilateral with all right angles.

A rhombus is a quadrilateral with all sides congruent.

A square is a quadrilateral with 4 right angles and 4 congruent sides .

A trapezoid is a quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides.


These sides are parallel.

A kite is a quadrilateral with 2 pair of consecutive congruent sides but not all congruent sides.

A dart is a concave quadrilateral.

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Transparency 1.6 Page 42

TYPES OF QUADRILATERALS
A quadrilateral is a four sided polygon. A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel .
These sides are parallel.

A rectangle is a quadrilateral with all right angles.

A rhombus is a quadrilateral with all sides congruent.

A square is a quadrilateral with 4 right angles and 4 congruent sides .

A trapezoid is a quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides.


These sides are parallel.

A kite is a quadrilateral with 2 pair of consecutive congruent sides but not all congruent sides.

A dart is a concave quadrilateral.

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Handout 1.6 Page 43

Activity: Format:

Quadrilateral Sorting Laboratory


Small Group/Large Group

Description: Participants record which quadrilaterals meet the various

descriptions listed in the properties table, determine which sets are identical and are subsets of one another, attach labels to each category, and create a quadrilateral family tree. The participant will be able to identify the relationships between parallelograms, rectangles, rhombi, squares, trapezoids, kites, and darts.

Objectives:

Related SOL: K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 4.15, 4.17, 5.14, 5.15 Vocabulary: quadrilateral, parallelogram, rectangle, rhombus, square,
trapezoid, kite, dart, and proper subset

Materials:

Paper Quadrilaterals (Handout 1), cut out and placed in a plastic baggy or manila envelope. You will need at least one set of quadrilaterals for every three or four participants. Transparencies 1.6 and 1.7 and Handouts 1.6 and 1.7.

Time Required: Approximately 30 minutes Directions:


1) Pass out Handout 1.6. Divide the participants into groups of 3 or 4 and direct each group to experiment and answer the questions on the handout. 2) After the participants have filled out the table, have pairs of groups compare their answers, and reconcile any discrepancies. 3) Have the students continue with Steps 5-10. Refer to Transparency 1.6 as needed while discussing the results of #10. Participants may refer to Handout 1.6 for Step 10. 4) For Step 11 the participants can construct the family tree as small groups or as a large group. Discuss various possibilities for the entries using Transparency 1.7.

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Quadrilateral Sorting Lab Page 44

Quadrilateral Table ___________________________________________________ 1. has 4 right angles ___________________________________________________ 2. has exactly one pair of parallel sides ___________________________________________________ 3. has two pair of opposite sides congruent ___________________________________________________ 4. has 4 congruent sides ___________________________________________________ 5. has two pair of opposite sides parallel ___________________________________________________ 6. has no sides congruent ___________________________________________________ 7. has two pair of adjacent sides congruent, but not all sides congruent ___________________________________________________ 8. has perpendicular diagonals ___________________________________________________ 9. has opposite angles congruent ___________________________________________________ 10. is concave ___________________________________________________ 11. is convex ___________________________________________________ 12. its diagonals bisect one another ___________________________________________________ 13. has four sides ___________________________________________________ 14. has four congruent angles ___________________________________________________ 15. has four congruent sides and four congruent angles ___________________________________________________

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Transparency 1.7 Page

45

PARALLELOGRAMS

QUADRILATERALS

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RHOMBI bBI

OTHERS
Transparency 1.7 Page 46

Quadrilateral Sorting Laboratory


Objective: The participant will be able to identify the relationships between parallelograms, rectangles, rhombi, squares, trapezoids, kites, and darts. Materials: Paper Quadrilaterals, cut out and placed in a plastic baggy or manila envelope (See P-2.). One set per 3 or 4 people is desirable. Directions: 1) Spread out your Quadrilateral Set with the letters facing up so you can see them. 2) Find all of the quadrilaterals having 4 right angles. List them by letter alphabetically in the corresponding row of the Table. 3) Consider all of the quadrilaterals again. Find all of the quadrilaterals having exactly one pair of parallel sides. List them by letter alphabetically in the corresponding row of the Table. 4) Continue in this manner until the Table is complete. 5) Which category is the largest? What name can be used to describe this category? 6) Which lists which are the same? What name can be used to describe quadrilaterals with these properties? 7) Are there any lists that are proper subsets of another list? If so, which ones? 8) Are there any lists that aren't subsets of one another that have some but not all members in common? If so, which ones? 9) Which lists have no members in common? 10) Label each of the categories in the Table with the most specific name possible using the labels kite, quadrilateral, parallelogram, rectangle, rhombus, square, and trapezoid. For example, #1 - a quadrilateral which has 4 right angles is a rectangle. (Having 4 right angles isn't enough to make it a square; it would need 4 congruent sides as well.) 11) Compare your results to that of the other Lab Groups. Then fill out the family tree by inserting the names kites, rectangles, squares, and trapezoids into the appropriate places on the diagram.

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Handout 1.7Page 56

Quadrilateral Table ___________________________________________________ 1. has 4 right angles ___________________________________________________ 2. has exactly one pair of parallel sides ___________________________________________________ 3. has two pair of opposite sides congruent ___________________________________________________ 4. has 4 congruent sides ___________________________________________________ 5. has two pair of opposite sides parallel ___________________________________________________ 6. has no sides congruent ___________________________________________________ 7. has two pair of adjacent sides congruent, but not all sides congruent ___________________________________________________ 8. has perpendicular diagonals ___________________________________________________ 9. has opposite angles congruent ___________________________________________________ 10. is concave ___________________________________________________ 11. is convex ___________________________________________________ 12. its diagonals bisect one another ___________________________________________________ 13. has four sides ___________________________________________________ 14. has four congruent angles ___________________________________________________ 15. has four congruent sides and four congruent angles ___________________________________________________

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Handout 1.7Page 57

PARALLELOGRAMS

QUADRILATERALS

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RHOMBI

OTHERS
Handout 1.7Page 58

Key Idea: Quadrilaterals and their Properties Through LOGO Description: Participants will explore quadrilaterals and their properties
through the use of Geo-Logo, an inexpensive type of LOGO created under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation. After the basic commands of the language are introduced, the sequence of activities is designed to facilitate an increase in a learner's van Hiele level of thinking about quadrilaterals from Level 1 to Level 3. While these activities are presented with quadrilaterals, most of them are easily adapted to triangles and other polygons.

Related Geometry SOL:


Kindergarten K.11 The student will identify, describe, and draw two-dimensional (plane) geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle). K.12 The student will describe the location of one object relative to another (above, below, next to) and identify representations of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle), regardless of their position and orientation in space. K.13 The student will compare the size (larger/smaller) and shape of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle). Grade One 1.16 The student will draw, describe, and sort plane geometric figures (triangle, square, rectangle, and circle) according to number of sides, corners, and square corners. Grade Three 3.18 The student will analyze two-dimensional (plane) and three-dimensional (solid) geometric figures (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, cube, rectangular solid [prism], square pyramid, sphere, cone, and cylinder) and identify relevant properties, including the number of corners, square corners, edges and the number and shape of faces, using concrete models. Grade Five 5.14 The student will classify angles and triangles as right, acute, or obtuse.

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Quadrilaterals through LOGOPage 59

Activity: Format:

Meet the Turtle


Individual / Small Group

Description: Participants become familiar with the basic commands of Geo-Logo


by drawing their initials; making a square, a rectangle, and an equilateral triangle; and drawing a house.

Objectives:

After drawing their initials; making a square, a rectangle, and an equilateral triangle; and drawing a house; participants will be familiar with the commands in Geo-Logo and be able to describe the geometric properties of the figures they have made. 1.16, 3.18, and 5.14

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: See handout of Logo commands. Additionally, right angle,


congruent, interior angles, and opposite sides

Materials:

Geo-Logo on one computer per pair of participants or one computer per person, overhead viewscreen hooked to computer (if available), Handout 1.8, Transparencies 1.9, 1.10, and 1.11.

Time Required: Approximately 30 minutes Directions:


1) Divide the participants into pairs, sharing one computer, or have one participant per computer. Pass out Handout 1.8. Demonstrate how to start Geo-Logo. 2) Display Transparency 1.9 and discuss the basic commands. 3) Have participants complete Handout 1.8, recording their procedures and answers. Monitor their progress, helping when needed.

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Meet the Turtle Page 60

4) You can anticipate that some participants will try to use 60 angles to draw an equilateral triangle. It is useful to stop the class from working on the computers and pretend that you are the turtle. Have them tell you the directions to walk a square with sides 3 human steps long. Use Transparency 1.10 to illustrate that the turtle is turning the exterior angles, not the interior angles. If necessary, refer to Transparency 1.11 for the exterior angles of an equilateral triangle. 5) Ask the participants to list the geometric properties they used in making the required figures.

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Meet the Turtle Page 61

Geo-Logo Commands
Shorthand pd fd x bk x rt x lt x home pu fill Means Pen down Forward x Back x Right x Left x Home Pen up Fill Meaning The turtle's pen will now leave a track. The turtle moves forward x turtle steps. The turtle moves backward x turtle steps. The turtle turns right x degrees. The turtle turns left x degrees. The turtle returns to his initial position in the middle of the screen. The turtle's pen no longer leaves a track. Fills a closed shape or the entire drawing window with the current turtle's color, starting at the current turtle's position. The turtle becomes invisible. The turtle becomes visible. The turtle and its track changes color. The color names are: white, black, grey, grey2, yellow, orange, red, pink, violet, blue, blue2, green, green2, brown, brown2, grey3. A list of available colors is printed. Makes points and shows them on the drawing window - you can use tool. The points and labels are shown. Points become invisible. The turtle moves to the point whose coordinates are given without leaving a path.

ht st setc

Hide turtle Show turtle Set color

print colors make-points {A. B} sp hp jt [_, _] Show point Hide point Jump to

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Transparency 1.8 Page 62

Making a Square

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Transparency 1.9 Page 63

Making an Equilateral Triangle

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Transparency 1.10 Page 64

Meet the Turtle


Click twice on the program titled "Geo-Logo Turtle Paths." After the Geo-Logo title page appears on the screen, click on "Free Explore" to begin the program. Now you will see a screen labeled "Untitled (Drawing)" at the center top. This center part is the turtle's domain. The left part is the Command Center. The turtle should be in his "Home position" on the center part of the screen. Try moving him around using the following commands: Shorthand pd fd x bk x rt x lt x home pu fill ht st setc color Means Pen down Forward x Back x Right x Left x Home Pen up Fill Hide turtle Show turtle Set color Meaning The turtle's pen will now leave a track. The turtle moves forward x turtle steps. The turtle moves backward x turtle steps. The turtle turns right x degrees. The turtle turns left x degrees. The turtle returns to his initial position in the middle of the screen. The turtle's pen no longer leaves a track. Fills a closed shape or the entire drawing window with the current turtle's color, starting at the current turtle's position. The turtle becomes invisible. The turtle becomes visible. The turtle and its track changes color. The color names are: white, black, grey, grey2, yellow, orange, red, pink, violet, blue, blue2, green, green2, brown, brown2, grey3 A list of available colors is printed. Makes points and shows them on the drawing window - you can use tool The points and labels are shown. Points become invisible. The turtle moves to the point whose coordinates are given without leaving a path.

print colors make-points {A. B} sp hp jt [_, _] Show point Hide point Jump to

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Handout 1.8 Page 65

Record your procedures and answers to the following questions.


1. 2. Have the turtle draw your first initial. Record the commands you used. Move the turtle around to find the length and width of the turtle's screen in turtle steps. It is approximately _____ turtle steps wide and _____ turtle steps tall. Erase the screen. Draw a square that is 50 turtle steps on a side. Record the commands you used. Draw a rectangle that is 60 turtle steps by 40 turtle steps. Record the commands you used. Draw an equilateral triangle that is 80 turtle steps on a side. Record the commands you used. You can use a short cut to writing all the commands out. For example, if I wanted to make a rectangle 80 turtle steps by 30 turtle steps, I could type in the commands fd 80 rt 90 fd 30 rt 90 fd 80 rt 90 fd 30 rt 90 or I could use the repeat command to repeat the parts that are done over. It would look like this: repeat 2[fd 80 rt 90 fd 30 rt 90] Draw a square that is 100 turtle steps on a side using the REPEAT command. 7. Draw a house using squares, rectangles, and equilateral triangles. Record the commands.

3. 4. 5. 6.

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Handout 1.8 Page 66

Activity: Format:

Writing Geo-Logo Procedures


Individual / Small Group

Description: By making a procedure for a 60-step square, participants learn how


to use the repeat command and write logo procedures and use variables, using the Teach Turtle function.

Objectives: Related SOL:

Participants will write procedures using the repeat command with variables and use the Teach Turtle function. 1.16, 3.18, and 5.14

Vocabulary: See handout of Logo commands. repeat, procedure, and Teach


Turtle

Materials:

Geo-Logo on one computer per pair of participants or one computer per person, overhead viewscreen hooked to computer (if available), Handout 1.9

Time Required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions:


1) Divide the participants into pairs, sharing one computer, or have one participant per computer. Pass out Handout 1.9. Have participants start Geo-Logo. 2) Introduce the concept of a procedure as teaching the turtle a new vocabulary word. Have students complete Handout 1.9, helping individuals as needed.

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Writing Geo-Logo Procedures Page 67

Writing Geo-Logo Procedures

1.

You can teach the turtle vocabulary so that you don't have to type in the set of commands every time. First, type in the commands you want to teach the turtle in the command center. This is called writing a procedure. Press the "Teach Turtle" button in the upper left part of the screen and name the procedure when asked. The computer will add the word "end" to the procedure and move it to the Teach screen. Let's define a procedure for making a square 50 steps on a side. Type repeat 4[fd 50 rt 90] and press return. Now press the Teach-Turtle button. Type the word Square and press return. What happened? Now type Square in the command center and press return. Did the turtle follow your directions? Now we want to make a square that is 60 steps on a side. Go to the Teach section. What do you have to change in your procedure to make the new square? Go ahead and change it using the arrow key and the delete key to move around the screen just as in a word processor. Try out your new procedure. You can have more than one procedure written in the Teach section at any time. Just be sure that each one ends with end. It can be an awful nuisance to have to keep editing to get different squares. Wouldn't it be nice if we could tell the turtle how long we wanted a side of the square to be when we ran the procedure? Well, guess what! We can do just that using variables for the things we want to change. For example, go to the Teach section and let's edit that procedure you have for a 60 step square. to square repeat 4[fd 60 rt 90] end to look like this: to square: side repeat 4[fd :side rt 90] end

2.

3. 4.

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Handout 1.9 Page 68

The way Logo designates a variable is to put a colon in front of the variable name, which can be a single letter or a series of letters. I could have called the variable :side, :s, :x or even :George if I wanted to. It usually helps to call it something that will help you remember what it stands for. When you run the procedure, you type in the name of the procedure (square in this case) and what number you want used for the variable. The computer will take that value and plug it in wherever it finds the variable. Now flip back to your graphic page and type square 100. Try square 50. Try some other values. If you need more than one variable in your procedure, just type their names in one at a time separated by a space after the name of the procedure. When you run it you just type the name of the procedure followed by the values you want used, separated by spaces. The computer will automatically take the first value and plug it into the first variable, etc.

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Handout 1.9 Page 69

Activity: Format:

Squares and Rectangles


Individual / Small Group

Description: The participants write a procedure for a square using a variable for
the length of side and a procedure for a rectangle using variables for the length and width. After trying to make a square with the rectangle procedure and a non-square rectangle with the square procedure, participants derive the inclusion relationship between squares and rectangles, which requires van Hiele level 3 thinking.

Objectives: Related SOL:

Participants will derive the inclusion relationship between squares and rectangles after writing procedures for each. 1.16, 3.18, and 5.14

Vocabulary: See handout of Logo commands. inclusion relationship Materials:


Geo-Logo on one computer per pair of participants or one computer per person, overhead viewscreen hooked to computer (if available), Handout 1.10

Time Required: Approximately 20 minutes Directions:


1) Divide the participants into pairs, sharing one computer, or have one participant per computer. Pass out Logo Handout 1.10. Have participants start Geo-Logo. 2) Have students complete Handout 1.10, helping individuals as needed. 3) Discuss the relationship between squares and rectangles and ask participants how this lesson could be used to teach this relationship.

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Squares and Rectangles Page 71 70

Squares and Rectangles


1. 2. 3. 4. Make a procedure using variables for a square. Make a procedure for a rectangle using variables. Record them. Now, draw a square 50 turtle steps on a side using the Rectangle Procedure. How did you do it? Record what you did. Now, draw a rectangle 50 turtle steps by 100 turtle steps using the Square Procedure. Record what happened. What mathematical principle did you just illustrate?

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Handout 1.10 Page 71

Elementary Geometry Module 2


Topic Activity Name Related SOL 1.20 Transparencies Materials Handouts 32 or 60 piece set of attribute pieces 32 or 60 piece set of attribute pieces 32 or 60 piece set of attribute pieces T: 2.1 32 or 60 piece set of attribute pieces 32 or 60 piece set of attribute pieces T: 2.2 32 or 60 piece H: 2.1 set of attribute pieces T: 2.3 32 or 60 piece H: 2.2 set of attribute pieces T: 2.4 32 or 60 piece H: 2.3 set of attribute pieces T: 2.5 32 or 60 piece H: 2.4 set of attribute pieces Enough pieces of string, each of the same length (5-10 ft) for each participant but one; chalk T: 2.6 H: 2.5

Classification

Tibby Whats In the Box? Missing Pieces Whats My Rule? Twenty Questions Game Who Am I? Game Differences Trains & Games Hidden Number Patterns Attribute Networks

K.11, K.12, K.13, K.17, 1.20 K.17, 1.20 K.17, 1.20 K.17, 1.20 K.17, 1.20 K.17, 1.20 K.17, 1.20 K.17, 1.20 K.11, K.12, 1.16, 1.17, 2.20, 2.22, 3.18, 4.17 K.11, K.12, 1.16, 1.17, 2.20, 2.22, 3.18

Identifying Shapes

Human Circle

Geoboard Triangles and Quadrilaterals Shape Hunt

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Page 72

Key Idea: Classification Using Attribute Block Materials Description: Participants will explore the concept of classifying; a basic process of
mathematical thinking that is essential to many concepts that are developed in the grades K-5 mathematics curriculum. Classification involves the understanding of relationships. Classification activities (observing likenesses and differences) can be presented through problem solving situations and provide students with the opportunity to develop logical reasoning abilities. Logical reasoning skills and especially the meaningful use of the language of logic (if-then, and, or, not, all, some) are valuable across all areas of mathematics. An understanding of classification, or the recognition of the various attributes of items, is also an essential skill to patterning (extending, exploring, and creating patterns or sequences). These classification skills can be taught through a variety of materials; attribute blocks will be the manipulative used for this session.

Attribute Materials:

Attribute materials are sets of objects that lend themselves to being sorted and classified in different ways. Natural or unstructured attribute materials include such things as sea shells, leaves, the children themselves, or the set of the children's shoes. The attributes are the ways that the materials can be sorted. For example, hair color, height, and gender are attributes of children. Each attribute has a number of different values: for example, blond, brown, or red (for the attribute of hair color), tall or short (for height), male or female (for gender). A structured set of attribute pieces has exactly one piece for every possible combination of values for each attribute. For example, several commercial sets of plastic attribute materials have four attributes: color (red, yellow, blue), shape (circle, triangle, rectangle, square, hexagon), size (big, little), and thickness (thick, thin). In the set just described there is exactly one large, red, thin triangle as well as each of all other combinations. The specific values, number of values, or number of attributes that a set may have is not important.

The value of using structured attribute materials (instead of unstructured materials) is that the attributes and values are very clearly identified and easily articulated to students. There is no confusion or argument concerning what values a particular piece possesses. In this way we can focus our on the reasoning skills that the materials and

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Introduction to Classification Page 73

activities are meant to serve. Even though a nice set of attribute pieces may contain geometric shapes or different colors and sizes, they are not very good materials for teaching shape, color, or size. A set of attribute shapes does not provide enough variability in any of the shapes to help students develop anything but very limited geometric ideas. In fact, simple shapes, primary colors, and two sizes are usually chosen because they are most easily discriminated and identified by even the youngest of students.

Kindergarten K.11 The student will identify, describe, and draw two-dimensional (plane) geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle). K.12 The student will describe the location of one object relative to another (above, below, next to) and identify representations of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle) regardless of their position and orientation in space. K.13 The student will compare the size (larger/smaller) and shape of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle). K.17 The student will sort and classify objects according to similar attributes (size, shape, and color). K.18 The student will identify, describe, and extend a repeating relationship (pattern) found in common objects, sounds, and movements. Grade One 1.16 The student will draw, describe, and sort plane geometric figures (triangle, square, rectangle, and circle) according to number of sides, corners, and square corners. 1.20 The student will sort and classify concrete objects according to one or more attributes, including color, size, shape, and thicknesses. 1.21 The student will recognize, describe, extend, and create a wide variety of patterns, including rhythmic, color, shape, and numeric. Patterns will include both growing and repeating patterns. Concrete materials and calculators will be used by students. Grade Two 2.25 The student will identify, create, and extend a wide variety of patterns, using numbers, concrete objects, and pictures. Grade Three 3.18 The student will analyze two-dimensional (plane) and three-dimensional (solid) geometric figures (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, cube, rectangular solid [prism], square pyramid, sphere, cone, and cylinder) and identify relevant properties, including the number of corners, square corners, edges and the number and shape of faces, using concrete models.

Related Geometry SOL:

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Introduction to Classification Page 74

3.24 The student will recognize and describe a variety of patterns formed using concrete objects, numbers, tables, and pictures and extend the patterns, using same or different forms (concrete objects, numbers, tables, and pictures). Grade Four 4.21 The student will recognize, create, and extend numerical and geometric patterns, using concrete materials, number lines, symbols, tables, and words. Grade Five 5.20 The student will analyze the structure of numerical and geometric patterns (how they change or grow) and express the relationship, using words, tables, graphs, or a mathematical sentence. Concrete materials and calculators will be used.

Note: On the following page you will find a black-line master of the 32-Piece Attribute Block Shapes. Copy the page on red, blue, green and yellow cover stock or construction paper and laminate the pages, if possible. Finally, cut out the shapes and place them in baggies before using them for instruction.

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Introduction to Classification Page 75

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Introduction to Classification Page 76

Activity: Format:

Tibby
Large Group

Description: The teacher selects a particular student attribute such as shirt color
and sorts the children accordingly. The participants guess the sorting rule. Participants will use logical reasoning to identify specific attributes used to sort them into groups. 1.20

Objectives: Related SOL:

Vocabulary: Tibby Materials:


Participants themselves

Time Required: Approximately 5 minutes Directions:


1) Select an attribute, such as the color of a participant's shirt, hair, or some other attribute. Don't tell the participants what has been selected. Call a participant's name and have him/her stand up and say, "You're a Tibby" if the participant has on the color of the shirt you're thinking of (or other attribute); otherwise, say "You're not a Tibby". Continue choosing participants that are Tibbys and not Tibbys. Have participants try to guess what makes a participant a Tibby or not a Tibby. 2) Let participants take the lead and select a characteristic and determine who is and who is not a Tibby. 3) As the participants become more proficient in figuring out the selected attributes, involve two or more attributes in the determination of Tibbys.

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Tibby Page 77

Activity: Format:

What's In the Box?


Large Group

Description: The teacher has participants ask her/him questions that have

yes or no answers about the items in the box. The object of the game is to determine how many items are in the box based on the recognition of the attributes. Participants will use logical reasoning to determine the number of pieces in the whole set of attribute blocks after asking questions and receiving information about a few items in the set. K.11, K.12, K.13, K.17, and 1.20

Objectives:

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: Depends on the set of Attribute Pieces used. Vocabulary may

include size: large or small; color: red, yellow, green, or blue; thickness: thick or thin; shape: square, rectangle, rhombus, triangle, or circle). Use a standard 32 or 60 piece set of Attribute Pieces. Using a subset of Attribute Pieces such as all large or all thick can modify the level of difficulty of the activity. Before beginning this activity, check your set to be sure that it is complete.

Materials:

Time Required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions:


1) The teacher says to the participants, "This box (or bag) contains some materials." Shake it so the participants can hear. "I'd like you to ask me some questions with yes or no answers to figure out what is in the box." If the answer to the question is yes, (i.e., Do you have something red in the box?) the teachers pulls out a block that has this attribute and will help the participants determine the number of items in the entire set (i.e., produce a red circle, then maybe a red triangle, to show there are other attributes besides color, etc.) 2) During the questions, the teacher may wish to ask:
What's in the Box? Page 78

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How many pieces do you think I have left in the box? How many pieces would the total set of Attribute blocks contain? Why? What are the characteristics (attributes) of this set of attribute blocks? Is it possible to find a pair of Attribute Pieces that have neither size, color, thickness, or shape in common? Is each of the Attribute Pieces in you complete set unique? How can you determine the number of pieces in the set of Attribute blocks? (Answer: multiply the number of each attribute.)

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What's in the Box? Page 79

Activity: Format:

Missing Pieces
Small Group

Description: Participants play a game where one of them hides an attribute


and the others identify the missing piece.

Objectives: Related SOL:

Participants have an opportunity to visualize the whole set and divide it into a number of subsets based on the attributes in the set. K.17 and 1.20

Vocabulary: Depends on the set of Attribute Pieces used. Vocabulary may

include size: large or small; color: red, yellow, green, or blue; thickness: thick or thin; shape: square, rectangle, rhombus, triangle, or circle. Use standard 32 or 60 piece sets of Attribute Pieces. Using a subset of Attribute Pieces such as all large or all thick can modify the level of difficulty of the activity. Before beginning this activity, check your sets to be sure that they are complete.

Materials:

Time Required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions:


1) The teacher asks the participants to get into small groups. The teacher tells the participants to spread the Attribute Pieces on the table or desk. One participant removes a piece while the other participants look away. They are then asked to identify the missing piece without touching any of the pieces on the table. When the missing piece has been identified, the identifier removes the next piece, exchanging roles with the first participant. The activity is repeated. 2) After a few rounds of the activity, the teacher should ask participants to describe the strategies used to organize the pieces.

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Missing Pieces Page 80

Activity: Format:

What's My Rule?
Small Group

Description: Participants play a game where one of them sorts Attribute

Pieces into two or more piles according to a specified rule and the others try to identify the rule. Participants will focus on more than one attribute at a time and use logical reasoning to determine how the set of Attribute Pieces were sorted. K.17 and 1.20

Objectives:

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: Depends on the set of Attribute Pieces used. Vocabulary may

include size: large or small; color: red, yellow, green, or blue; thickness: thick or thin; shape: square, rectangle, rhombus, triangle, or circle. Use standard 32 or 60 piece sets of Attribute Pieces. Using a subset of Attribute Pieces such as all large or all thick can modify the level of difficulty of the activity. Before beginning this activity, check your sets to be sure that they are complete. Transparency 2.1

Materials:

Time Required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions: Separate the participants into small groups and have them
spread the Attribute Pieces out. Display Transparency 2.1 and go over the rules of the game. One participant, the sorter, thinks of a "secret rule" to classify the set of Attribute Pieces into two piles. The participant tells the rule to the teacher or writes it on a piece of paper without letting the other participants see it. The sorter uses that rule to slowly sort the pieces as the other participants observe. At any time, a player can call "stop" and guess the rule. The correct identification is worth 5 points. A correct answer, but not the written one, is worth 1 point. Each incorrect guess results in a 2-point penalty. After the correct rule identification, the player who figured out the rule becomes the sorter. The winner is the first one to accumulate 10 points.
Whats My Rule? Page 81

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WHAT'S MY RULE?
Rules 1. Choose one player to be the sorter. The sorter writes down a "secret rule" to classify the set of attribute pieces into two or more piles and uses that rule to slowly sort the pieces as the other players observe. 2. At any time, the players can call "stop" and guess the rule. The correct identification is worth 5 points. A correct answer, but not the written one, is worth 1 point. Each incorrect guess results in a 2- point penalty. 3. After the correct rule identification, the player who figured out the rule becomes the sorter. 4. The winner is the first one to accumulate 10 points.

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Transparency 2.1 Page 82

Activity: Format:

Twenty Questions Game


Small Group

Description: Participants play a game that is a variation of the standard

"Twenty Questions" game to determine a mystery block. A scorekeeper can count the number of questions asked. Participants try to find the mystery block using the fewest questions possible. Participants play a game to develop skill at the strategy of elimination to reduce the set the quickest way in order to identify a specific element. K.17 and 1.20

Objectives:

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: Depends on the set of Attribute Pieces used. Vocabulary may

include size: large or small; color: red, yellow, green, or blue; thickness: thick or thin; shape: square, rectangle, rhombus, triangle, or circle. Use a standard 32 or 60 piece set of Attribute Pieces. Using a subset of Attribute Pieces such as all large or all thick can modify the level of difficulty of the activity. Before beginning this activity, check your set to be sure that it is complete.

Materials:

Time Required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions:


1) This is a variation of the standard "Twenty Questions" game. Ask one participant to think of a block. The participant tells its name to the teacher or writes its name on a piece of paper without letting the other participants see it. The other participants, in turn, ask yes/no questions about the mystery block. After each question is answered, the participants move to one side those blocks that do not fit the clues already disclosed. A scorekeeper can count the number of questions asked. Participants try to find the mystery block using the fewest questions possible.
Twenty Questions Game Page 83

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2) After a few games the teacher can ask, "What is the best first question to eliminate the greatest number of blocks?" The participants may suggest "Is the block four-sided?" This may not be the best first question, especially when the answer is no. Help the participants recognize that a strategy of eliminating the set by half is the quickest way to reduce the set and identify a specific element. In this game, if they are using the 32 piece set (Size: large or small; Color: red, yellow, green, or blue; Shape: square, rhombus, triangle, or circle), participants should learn to reduce the set by half each time as this strategy always provides the answer within 5 guesses (i.e., 32 = 25). If they are using the 60-piece set (Size: large or small; Thickness: thick or thin; Color: red, yellow, or blue; Shape: square, rhombus, triangle, rectangle, or circle), the answer can be found within 7 guesses.

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Twenty Questions Game Page 84

Activity: Format:

Who Am I? Game
Small / Large Group

Description: Participants are shown or read a "clue card." The first player to
discover the mystery piece is the winner.

Objectives: Related SOL:

Participants reinforce their understanding of attributes through a game where they use clues to identify a specific attribute piece. K.17 and 1.20

Vocabulary: Depends on the set of Attribute Pieces used. Vocabulary may

include size: large or small; color: red, yellow, green, or blue; thickness: thick or thin; shape: square, rectangle, rhombus, triangle, or circle). Use a standard 32 or 60 piece set of Attribute Pieces. Using a subset of Attribute Pieces such as all large or all thick can modify the level of difficulty of the activity. Before beginning this activity, check your set to be sure that it is complete. Handout 2.1; Transparency 2.2.

Materials:

Time Required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions:


1) This game can be played by individuals or teams. In the classroom with younger students, the teacher reads the clues. "Clue cards" should be prepared for participants. The players are shown a "clue card." (See Handout 2.1 or Transparency 2.2.) The first player to discover the mystery piece is the winner. 2) Participants should be encouraged to develop their own problems to share with others. They may be used as an assessment.

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Who Am I? Game Page 85

Answers:
32 piece Attribute Set 1) Large, red rhombus 2) Small red circle 3) Large green rhombus 4) Small green circle 5) Large red triangle

60 piece Attribute Set 1) Large thick red rectangle 2) Small thin, red circle 3) Large thin blue rectangle 4) Small thin, yellow circle 5) Large thin red triangle 6) Large thick yellow rhombus

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Who Am I? Game Page 86

Who Am I? Game
(32 Piece Attribute Set)

(1) I am large. I am not yellow. I have four sides. I am not blue and not green. I am not a square. Who am I?

(2) I am not large. I am green or red. I am not four sided. I have no corners. I am not green. Who am I?
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Who Am I? Game
(32 Piece Attribute Set)

(3) I do not fit in a round hole. I have four corners. I am not red. I am large. I am green. I am not square. Who am I?
(4) I am lost, help me find myself. When you find me, hold me in your hand. I am small. I am not blue. I am not square. I am green. I will roll off the table. Who am I?
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Who Am I? Game
(32 Piece Attribute Set)

(5) I am blue or large or square. I am not green. I am small or a triangle. I am red or blue. I am not a circle. I am blue or large. I am not blue. Who am I? (6) Write Your Own!

Who am I?
Virginia Department of Education Transparency 2.2 Page 89

Who Am I? Game
(60 Piece Attribute Set)

(1) I am large and not a square. I am not yellow. I have four sides. I am not blue or thin. I am not a rhombus. Who am I? (2) I am not large. I am yellow or red. I am not four sided. I have no corners. I am not yellow or thick. Who am I?

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Transparency 2.2 Page 90

Who Am I? Game (60 Piece Attribute Set)

(3) I do not fit in a round hole. I have four corners. I am not red. I am large. I am blue and thin. I am not a square. I am not a rhombus. Who am I? (4) I am lost, help me find myself. When you find me, hold me in your hand. I am small. I am not blue. I am not square or thick. I am yellow. I will roll off the table. Who am I?
Virginia Department of Education Transparency 2.2 Page 91

Who Am I? Game
(60 Piece Attribute Set)

(5) I am blue or thin or square. I am not yellow. I am small or a triangle. I am red or blue. I am not a circle. I am blue or large. I am not blue. Who am I?
(6) I am not small or not blue. I am thick or a triangle. I am a square or a rhombus. I am not red or large. I am yellow or small. I am not red or large. I am not a square. I am large or not a rhombus. Who am I?
Virginia Department of Education Transparency 2.2 Page 92

Who Am I? Game
(32 Piece Attribute Set) I am large. I am not yellow. | I have four sides. I am not blue and not green. I am not a square. Who am I? (1) | | (2) | I am not large. I am green or red. | I am not four sided. | I have no corners. | I am not green. | Who am I? | | | (4) | I am lost, help me find myself. | When you find me, hold me | in your hand. | I am small. | I am not blue. I am not square. | I am green. | I will roll off the table. | Who am I? | | | | | | | | | | |

(3) I do not fit in a round hole. I have four corners. I am not red. I am large. I am green. I am not square. | Who am I?

(5) I am blue or large or square. I am not green. I am small or a triangle. I am red or blue. | I am not a circle. | I am blue or large. I am not blue. Who am I?

(6) Write Your Own!

Who am I?

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Handout 2.1 Page 93

Who Am I? Game
(60 Piece Attribute Set) (1) I am large and not a square. I am not yellow. | I have four sides. I am not blue or thin. I am not a rhombus. Who am I? | | (2) | I am not large. I am yellow or red. | I am not four sided. | I have no corners. | I am not yellow or thick. | Who am I? | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

(3) I do not fit in a round hole. I have four corners. I am not red. I am large. I am blue and thin. I am not a square. I am not a rhombus. Who am I?

(4) I am lost, help me find myself. When you find me, hold me in your hand. I am small. I am not blue. I am not square or thick. I am yellow. I will roll off the table. Who am I?

(5) I am blue or thin or square. I am not yellow. I am small or a triangle. I am red or blue. I am not a circle. I am blue or large. I am not blue. Who am I?

(6) Write Your Own!

Who am I?

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Handout 2.1 Page 94

Activity: Format:

Differences - Trains and Games


Small Group

Description: Participants will identify the number of differences between

two objects (i.e. one difference, two-differences, threedifferences, etc.) as they create difference trains and play games where they must identify the number of differences. Participants reinforce their understanding of differences and similarities through problem solving activities and games. K.17, and 1.20

Objectives: Related SOL:

Vocabulary: Besides same and different, the vocabulary depends on the set of

Attribute Blocks used. Vocabulary may include size: large or small; color: red, yellow, green, or blue; thickness: thick or thin; shape: square, rectangle, rhombus, triangle, or circle. Attribute Blocks, Differences Game Mat, Handout 2.2 and Transparency 2.3

Materials:

Time Required: Approximately 30 minutes Directions:


1) Ask participants to compare blocks in terms of their differences and similarities. Hold up a block and ask the participants to hold up a block that differs in one way. Repeat this with several blocks, and then ask them to hold up a block that differs in two ways, then in three ways. At the same time, ask the participants to hold up blocks that are similar in two, one, or no ways.

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Trains and Games Page 95

2) Tell the participants that "Difference Trains" have engines and cars. Place the large, red circle on the table as the engine of the train. Cars are to be sequentially attached to the train according to the given rule. Start with the rule that the car to be attached must differ from the preceding car by a single attribute - by one difference. That is, if the engine is a large, red circle, then there are a variety of possibilities that could be attached as the cars; for example, a small, red circle or a large, yellow circle. Have participants identify all of the possibilities. Ask the participants "Why could the small, blue square not be the first car attached to the large, red circle engine?" Taking turns with their partners, have the participants build a train at least 20 cars long, verbalizing the difference as the next car is put into place. 3) Ask the participants "Could you have built a train using all of the Attribute Pieces? Try it?" 4) Two-Difference Variation: Have the participants start with the same engine. This time attach a car that differs from the car to which it is attached by two-differences. Ask the participants "Could you have built a train using the 30 large pieces before using any small pieces? Try it!" 5) Three-Difference Variation: Have the participants agree on the Attribute Piece to be the engine. Build a train so that the adjacent cars will differ by exactly three differences. 6) Differences is a game for two players or two teams on a four-byfour game mat. The blocks are randomly divided equally between the two players or teams. A turn consists of placing a block on the game mat. THE ONLY RULE is that a block must differ from its horizontal and vertical neighbors in exactly one way. The first player who cannot place a block loses. Extension: a block must differ from its neighbors horizontally, vertically, and diagonally. In Game 2, the block must differ in two ways.

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Trains and Games Page 96

Difference Game Mat


Games: Blocks must differ from their horizontal and vertical neighbors in: exactly one way (Game 1) exactly two ways (Game 2)

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Transparency 2.3 Page 97

Difference Game Mat


Games: Blocks must differ from their horizontal and vertical neighbors in: exactly one way (Game 1) exactly two ways (Game 2)

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Handout 2.2 Page 98

Activity: Format:

Hidden Number Patterns


Small Group

Description: Participants will identify the number of differences between

two objects (i.e., one difference, two-differences, threedifferences, etc.) as they examine trains of Attribute Blocks on Hidden Number Cards. Participants apply their understanding of differences and similarities by identifying number patterns related to the differences in a sequence of attribute blocks. K.17, and 1.20

Objectives:

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: Besides same and different, the vocabulary depends on the set of

Attribute Blocks used. Vocabulary may include size: large or small; color: red, yellow, green, or blue; thickness: thick or thin; shape: square, rectangle, rhombus, triangle, or circle. Handout 2.3 and Transparency 2.4

Materials:

Time Required: Approximately 10 minutes Directions:


1) Have the participants identify the number of differences between two objects (i.e., one difference, two-differences, threedifferences, etc.) in the Hidden Number Cards (see Handout 2.3 and Transparency 2.4). 2) Have participants create difference trains where they develop a number pattern for the number of differences in their trains.

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Hidden Number Patterns Page 99

Hidden Number Pattern #1 Y Y R B ?

Y R Y B R

What is the number pattern (of differences) associated with this train? How many different blocks could be placed after the large blue square?

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Transparency 2.4 Page 100

Hidden Number Pattern #2

R B

What large block would you place after the large yellow triangle? Why did you select that block? Are there any other blocks that could immediately follow the large yellow triangle? What number pattern (of differences) did you discover in the train?
Virginia Department of Education Transparency 2.4 Page 101

Hidden Number Pattern #1

Y R Y B R

B ?

What is the number pattern (of differences) associated with this train? How many different blocks could be placed after the large blue square?

Hidden Number Pattern #2

R B

What large block would you place after the large yellow triangle? Why did you select that block? Are there any other blocks that could immediately follow the large yellow triangle? What number pattern (of differences) did you discover in the train?

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Handout 2.3 Page 102

Activity: Format:

Attribute Networks
Small Group / Individual

Description: Participants complete an attribute network problem to

demonstrate their understanding of differences. This may be used as an assessment of the participants' understanding of one, two-, and three-differences. Participants reinforce their understanding of the relationships by focusing on differences and similarities in an attribute network problem. K.17 and 1.20

Objectives:

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: Besides difference, the vocabulary depends on the set of Attribute


Blocks used. Vocabulary may include size: large or small; color: red, yellow, green, or blue; thickness: thick or thin; shape: square, rectangle, rhombus, triangle, or circle. Handout 2.4 and Transparency 2.5

Materials:

Time Required: Approximately 20 minutes Directions:


1) Place an Attribute Piece on one of the regions. Place another Attribute Piece in an adjacent region which differs from the first piece by as many variables (i.e., color, shape, size, thickness) as there are lines connecting the regions. For example the piece in Region B must differ from the piece in Region A by exactly two attributes. 2) Once you have created a solution that works, write you answers in each block.

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Attribute Networks Page 103

Attribute Network Puzzle

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Transparency 2.5 Page 104

Attribute Network Puzzle

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Handout 2.4 Page 105

Key Idea: Identifying Shapes Description:


Participants will explore shapes by creating a human circle, creating shapes on geoboards, and conducting a shape hunt.

Kindergarten K.11 The student will identify, describe, and draw two-dimensional (plane) geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle). K.12 The student will describe the location of one object relative to another (above, below, next to) and identify representations of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle) regardless of their position and orientation in space. First Grade 1.16 The student will draw, describe and sort plane geometric figures triangles, (triangle, square, rectangle, circle) according to number of sides, corners, and square corners. 1.17 The student will identify and describe objects in his/her environment that depict plane geometric figures (triangle, rectangle, square, and circle). Second Grade 2.20 The student will identify, describe, and sort three-dimensional (solid) concrete figures; including a cube, rectangular solid (prism), square pyramid, sphere, cylinder, and cone, according to the number and shape of the solids faces, edges, and corners. 2.22 The student will compare and contrast plane and solid geometric shapes (circle/sphere, square/cube, and rectangle/rectangular solid). Grade Three 3.18 The student will analyze two-dimensional (plane) and three-dimensional (solid) geometric figures (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, cube, rectangular solid [prism], square pyramid, sphere, cone, and cylinder) and identify relevant properties, including the number of corners, square corners, edges and the number and shapes of faces, using concrete models.

Related SOL:

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Identifying Shapes: Introduction Page 106

Grade Four 4.17 The student will a) analyze and compare the properties of two-dimensional (plane) geometric figures (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, parallelogram, and rhombus) and three-dimensional (solid) geometric figures (sphere, cube,, and rectangular solid [prism]); b) identify congruent and noncongruent shapes, and c) investigate congruence of plane figures after geometric transformations such as reflection (flip), translation (slide) and rotation (turn), using mirrors, paper folding, and tracing.

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Identifying Shapes: Introduction Page 107

Activity : Human Circle Format:


Large Group

Description: Have participants create a human circle by having one person serve
as the center and the remainder of the participants be points on the circle whose locations are determined by a fixed length of string. The activity can be extended to three dimensions.

Objective: Related SOL:

Participants will develop a definition of a circle and a sphere after creating a human circle. K.11, K.12, 1.16, 1.17, 2.20, 2.22, 3.18, 4.17

Vocabulary: circle, center, radius, and sphere Materials:


Enough pieces of string, each the same length (5-10 feet, depending on the space available), for each participant but one; chalk (optional)

Time required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions:


1) Clear a space larger than twice the length of the string cut or go outside to the playground. 2) Choose one participant to be the center. 3) Have this center person hold the ends of all the strings in one hand, making a fist with all the strings coming out of the top. This person should crouch down, with their arm help over their head. 4) Have every other person take an end of string and back up so the string is taut, spacing themselves around the center person in all directions. 5) (Optional) Draw a circle with chalk on the ground or floor to approximate the circle created by the humans. 6) Discuss the circle as the set of all points in a plane that are the same distance from the center. 7) Extend the idea to the set of all points in space that are the same distance from a center point. Contrast a circle and a sphere.
Human Circle Page 108

Virginia Department of Education

Activity : Geoboard Triangles and Quadrilaterals Format:


Large Group

Description: Each participant creates various shapes on his/her geoboard. The


class sorts the shapes by various criteria such as number of sides, number of angles, etc., and describes, compares and contrasts the shapes.

Objective: Related SOL:

Participants will identify various polygons by their number of sides and angles, regardless of their orientation or size. K.11, K.12, 1.16, 1.17, 2.20, 2.22, 3.18

Vocabulary: Side, angle, triangle, square corner, right angle, isosceles


triangle, square, rectangle, and quadrilateral

Materials:

Geoboards, rubber bands, geoboard dot paper

Time required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions:


1) Give each participant a geoboard, several rubber bands, and a sheet of geoboard dot paper to record their results. 2) Ask the participants to make a three-sided shape on their geoboard and to record it on their dot paper. 3) Display the geoboards on the chalkboard ledge. Have the participants sort them in various ways (e.g., those having a square corner, those have two equal sides). 4) If none of the triangles made are isosceles right triangles, challenge the participants to make a three-sided shape with a square corner and two sides equal in length. Can more than one be made? How are they alike? How are they different? 5) Ask the participants to make a shape that has four sides and four square corners and to record it on their dot paper.

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Geoboard Triangles & Quadrilaterals Page 109

6) Have the participants make as many different shapes as they can that have four sides and four square corners. Have them copy these shapes onto their dot paper. Discuss how these shapes are alike and how they are different. 7) Have the participants change the shape on their geoboard from a four-sided shape with square corners to four-sided shape without any square corners. Copy it onto dot paper and compare to the four-sided shapes with square corners. Have the participants describe what they have made.

Virginia Department of Education

Geoboard Triangles & Quadrilaterals Page 110

Geoboard Dot Paper

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Transparency 2.6 Page 111

Geoboard Dot Paper

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Virginia Department of Education

Handout 2.4 Page 112

Activity: Format:

Shape Hunt
Small Group, Large Group

Description: Assign each team of participants a shape to locate and

photograph with an electronic camera or Polaroid camera. The participants should then make a poster or mural of the pictures of their shape, outlining and labeling the shape.

Objective:

Participants will identify various objects in their environment that depict triangles, rectangles, squares, and circles. 1.17

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: Triangle, rectangle, square, circle Materials:


Electronic camera, computer, and drawing software or Polaroid cameras and film; magic markers; poster board; and paste

Time required: Approximately 30 minutes Directions:


1) Instruct the participants in the use of the camera. 2) Organize the participants into groups of two or three. Assign each group the shape triangle, rectangle, square, or circle. 3) Each group should identify and photograph various objects they find within a specified area that depict their assigned shape. 4) If an electronic camera was used, download the images and print them. 5) Have the participants outline their shapes with the magic marker and create a poster or mural by gluing the shapes to the poster board and labeling them. 6) Display and discuss the results.

Virginia Department of Education

Shape Hunt Page 113

Elementary Geometry Module 3


Topic Activity Name Related SOL Transparencies Handouts T: 3.1 H: 3.1 T: 3.2 Materials

Spatial Square It Relationships Pick Up the Sticks Partition the Square Cutting Square Puzzles Make Your Own Tangrams Area & Perimeter Problems/Tangrams Spatial Problem Solving/Tangrams Butterfly Symmetry Copy Cat Recover the Symmetry Folded Shapes Symmetry & Right Angles in Quadrilaterals Origami: Making a Square Origami: Making a Heart

K.11, K.12, 1.16, 2.13 K.11, K.12, 1.16 K.11, 1.16, 1.21, 2.25, 3.18 3.18, 4.14, 4.16 K.11, 1.16 3.18 2.12, 2.13, 4.13, 5.8, 5.10 3.18, 5.10 2.21, 3.20, 4.21, 5.20 2.21, 3.20, 4.21, 5.20 2.21, 3.20, 4.21, 5.20 2.21, 3.20, 4.21, 5.20 1.16, 2.21, 3.20, 4.15, 5.14, 5.15 K.11, 1.16, 2.21, 3.18, 3.20 K.11, 1.16, 2.21, 3.18, 3.20

T: 3.3 H: 3.2 H: 3.3 H: 3.4 H: 3.5 H: 3.6, 3.7

Colored 1-inch square markers 11 toothpicks per student Scratch paper Tag board, puzzles, scissors, and glue Paper, scissors, and overhead tangrams Tangrams Tangrams Construction paper, pencils, scissors, magazines, paint, crayons, or markers About 30 pattern blocks per group, paper, rulers, Miras, & overhead pattern blocks

Symmetry

T: 3.4, 3.5 T: 3.6 H. 3.8 T: 3.7 H: 3.9 T: 3.8 T: 3.9

Scissors & Handout 3.9 or cut out quadrilaterals, square corner (e.g., a file card or piece of paper) A non-square rectangular piece of paper, pencil, ruler, scissors A rectangular piece of paper, 8.5 x 2.5

Virginia Department of Education

Page 114

Key Idea: Spatial Relationships Description: To build spatial visualization skills, students need a wide
variety of experiences, including building and dissecting shapes from different perspectives. In these activities, participants will explore spatial relationships by playing a strategy game with squares, solving a match stick triangle puzzle, partitioning squares into smaller squares, and using square dissection puzzles,

Related Geometry SOL:


Kindergarten K.11 The student will identify, describe, and draw two-dimensional (plane) geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle). K.12 The student will describe the location of one object relative to another (above, below next to) and identify representations of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle), regardless of their position and orientation in space. K.13 The student will compare the size (larger/smaller) and shape of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle). Grade One 1.16 The student will draw, describe, and sort plane geometric figures (triangle, square, rectangle, and circle) according to number of sides, corners, and square corners. Grade Two 2.13 The student, given grid paper, will estimate and then count the number of square units needed to cover a given surface (determine area). 2.25 The student will identify, create, and extend a wide variety of patterns using numbers, concrete objects, and pictures. Grade Three 3.18 The student will analyze two-dimensional (plane) and three-dimensional (solid) geometric figures (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, cube, rectangular solid [prism], square pyramid, sphere, cone, and cylinder) and identify relevant properties, including the number of corners, square corners, edges and the number and shape of faces, using concrete models.

Virginia Department of Education

Spatial Relationships: Introduction Page 115

Grade Four 4.13 The student will a) identify and describe situations representing the use of perimeter; and b) use measuring devices to find perimeter in both standard and nonstandard units of measure. 4.14 The student will investigate and describe the relationships between and among points, lines, line segments, and rays. 4.16 The student will identify and draw representations of lines that illustrate intersection, parallelism, and perpendicularity. Grade Five 5.8 5.10 The student will describe and determine the perimeter of a polygon and the area of a square, rectangle, and right triangle, given the appropriate measures. The student will differentiate between perimeter, area, and volume and identify whether the application of the concept of perimeter, area, or volume is appropriate for a given situation.

Virginia Department of Education

Spatial Relationships: Introduction Page 116

Activity: Format:

Square It!
Small Group

Description: A strategy game for two - four players in which the players place

markers of their own color on an empty box on an array game board in an effort to be the first to recognize a square of their own color. Participants will recognize squares and gain practice in visualization. As an extension, students will determine the area of a square by counting the number of square units needed to cover it. K.11, K.12, 1.16, and 2.13

Objectives:

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: square, area Materials:


Playing board: Handout 3.1 or 8 x 11 one inch grid paper, Transparency 3.1, and colored one inch square markers.

Time Required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions:


1) Players choose who starts. Play rotates clockwise. 2) Player places a marker of his or her color on a vacant box on the playing board. Players alternate placing markers. 3) The winner is the player to first recognize a SQUARE on the board where all four corners are his or her color. Players check for "squareness" by counting the lengths of the sides. Winning squares may range from 2 x 2 to 7 x 7. 4) (Optional) The winning player must state the area of the winning square.

Virginia Department of Education

Square It! Page 117

Square It!

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 3.1 Page 118

Square It!

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 3.1 Page 119

Activity: Format:

Pick Up the Sticks


Small Group

Description: Eleven toothpicks are arranged to give five triangles. Have students Objectives: Related SOL:
Participants will recognize triangles and gain practice in visualization. K.11, K.12, and 1.16

pick up varying numbers of sticks to yield certain number of triangles.

Vocabulary: triangle, sides Materials:


11 toothpicks per participant and Transparency 3.2

Time Required: Approximately 10 minutes Directions: 1) Pass out 11 toothpicks per participant. Tell them to use the physical
materials suggested as they work through the problems posed. They shouldn't consider this activity to be concerned with mental spatial visualization skills -- they should actually use the materials. 2) Show Transparency 3.2. Eleven toothpicks are arranged as shown to give five triangles. For each problem begin with the original 11-stick configuration and... A. remove two toothpicks to show three triangles; B. remove one toothpick to show four triangles; C. remove three toothpicks to show three triangles; D. remove two toothpicks to show four triangles.

3) Be sure to discuss the fact that all the sides don't have to be the same length in order for a three-sided figure to be a triangle.

Virginia Department of Education

Pick Up Sticks Page 120

Pick Up the Sticks


Eleven toothpicks are arranged as shown to give five triangles. For each problem begin with the original 11stick configuration and... A. B. C. remove two toothpicks to show three triangles; remove one toothpick to show four triangles; remove three toothpicks to show three triangles; remove two toothpicks to show four triangles.

D.

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 3.2 Page 121

Activity: Format:

Partition the Square


Individual / Large Group

Description: Participants partition squares into 7-15 smaller squares and explain
how they know that the smaller figures are really squares.

Objectives: Related SOL:

Participants will draw and describe squares and discover patterns related to partitioning squares into smaller squares. K.11, 1.16, 1.21, 2.25, and 3.18

Vocabulary: square, sides Materials:


Handout 3.2, Transparency 3.3, and scratch paper

Time Required: Approximately 30 minutes Directions: 1) Pass out Handout 3.2. Draw the participants' attention to the fact
that they are to divide each square into smaller squares and that there are many ways to each number of squares. Use the two sample partitions to point out that the squares don't have to be the same size, just the four sides of each one must be the same, and that overlaps won't count. 2) Circulate around the room, referring participants to the two samples if they appear stuck. Also, be on the lookout for non-square rectangles and remind the participants that all four sides of a square are congruent. 3) After they have had a few minutes to work, ask the participants to share their solutions, either on the blackboard or on Transparency 3.3. Start out with labels 7 - 15 and ask for a volunteer to do each one. Ask participants to add their method if they have a different way of partitioning than the one shown.

Virginia Department of Education

Partition the Square Page 122

4) After all have been put up by the participants, challenge the group to justify that each really is composed of squares. Tell them that you will allow them to assume that angles that look like right angles are right angles. Perhaps the simplest way of justifying four congruent sides in each of the drawn squares is to think of the original square as a unit square and them label the sides accordingly. 5) As an extension while you are discussing each figure, ask the participants to calculate the area of each small square they drew within the figure and check to see if the areas add up to 1.

4 Virginia Department of Education

Partition the Square Page 123

Partition the Square A square can be partitioned into squares in more than one way. Shown below are squares partitioned into 4 smaller and 6 smaller squares.

Use these partitioning ideas to find ways to partition the nine squares below into 7 - 15 smaller squares.

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 3.3 Page 124

Partition the Square

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 3.3 Page 125

Partition the Square Objectives: Directions:


Participants will draw and describe squares and discover patterns related to partitioning squares into smaller squares. A square can be partitioned into squares in more than one way. Shown below are squares partitioned into 4 smaller and 6 smaller squares.

Use these partitioning ideas to find ways to partition the nine squares below into 7 15 smaller squares.

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 3.3 Page 126

Activity: Format:

Cutting Square Puzzles


Small Group

Description: Make squares of various colors of construction paper or tag

board and cut each square apart in a different way. Have the students reassemble the squares. Note: This activity was adapted from "Geometry - A Square Deal for Elementary School" by Marcia E. Dana in Learning and Teaching Geometry, K-12, the 1987 NCTM Yearbook.

Objective:

Participants will investigate the relationships between the parts of a square to the whole square, of acute angles to right angles to obtuse angles, and of the diagonals to the sides of a square. 3.18, 4.14, and 4.16

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: Square, triangle, diagonal, and line segment Materials:


Construction paper or tag board puzzles of various colors in envelopes or Xerox showing separate pieces of each square, scissors, a sheet of paper with the proper size square outlines on it, and glue; Handout 3.3

Time required: Approximately 30 minutes Directions:


1) Make squares of various colors of construction paper or tag board and cut each square a different way as shown below. Put each puzzle in an envelope so that the students may try as many as they wish. Note: The puzzles are shown on grid paper for clarity. They should be made on construction paper or tag board for student use. 2) Alternately, give each student a handout showing the separate pieces of each puzzle. The students then cut out each set, put them together to form a square, and accurately glue their square to a sheet of paper with the proper size square outline on it.
Cutting Square Puzzles Page 127

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Possible Square Puzzles

Note that the last square is a tangram.

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 3.3 Page 128

Key Idea:

Tangrams
explore area and perimeter relationships in geometric figures. They will engage in problem solving puzzles using tangrams.

Description: Participants will make their own tangrams and will use them to

Related Geometry SOL:

Kindergarten K.11 The student will identify, describe, and draw two-dimensional (plane) geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle). Grade One 1.16 The student will draw, describe, and sort plane geometric figures (triangle, square, rectangle, and circle) according to number of sides, corners, and square corners. Grade Two 2.12 The student will estimate and then use a ruler to make linear measurements to the nearest centimeter and inch, including the distance around a polygon (determine perimeter). 2.13 The student, given grid paper, will estimate and then count the number of square units needed to cover a given surface (determine area). Grade Three 3.18 The student will analyze two-dimensional (plane) and three-dimensional (solid) geometric figures (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, cube, rectangular solid [prism], square pyramid, sphere, cone, and cylinder) and identify relevant properties, including the number of corners, square corners, edges and the number and shape of faces, using concrete models. Grade Four 4.13 The student will a) identify and describe situations representing the use of perimeter; and b) use measuring devices to find perimeter in both standard and nonstandard units of measure. Grade Five 5.8 The student will describe and determine the perimeter of a polygon and the area of a square, rectangle, and right triangle, given the appropriate measures.

Virginia Department of Education

Tangrams Page 129

5.10

The student will differentiate between perimeter, area, and volume and identify whether the application of the concept of perimeter, area, or volume is appropriate for a given situation.

Virginia Department of Education

Tangrams Page 130

Activity: Format:

Make Your Own Tangrams


Small group

Description: Participants construct their own tangrams and observe properties


of the seven tangram pieces.

Objectives: Related SOL:

The student will identify properties of tangrams. K.11, 1.16 and 3.18

Vocabulary: tangram, congruent, similar Materials:


paper suitable for folding such as copy paper (one sheet per student), scissors, one set of overhead tangrams, Handout 3.4 with directions for making tangrams

Time Required: 30 minutes Directions:


1) Give out Handout 3.4 with directions for making a set of the seven tangram pieces or give the directions orally for participants to follow individually as you make a master set as a demonstration. 2) Ask participants to make a square out of all seven tangram pieces. 3) Have participants label the pieces by number as indicated in the diagram below. They should also identify each by the name of the shape. Put a set of overhead tangrams on the overhead projector discuss: * Identify each tangram piece by the name of the shape. * Which pieces are congruent? How do you know? * Which triangles are similar? How do you know? Can you write a proportion to express the relationship? 4) Have participants find the measure of each angle of each piece. They should trace each piece and label the angle measures.

Virginia Department of Education

Make Your Own Tangrams Page 131

Directions for Making Tangrams

2 4

1. Fold the lower right corner to the upper left corner along the diagonal. Crease sharply. Cut along the diagonal. 2. Fold the upper triangle formed in half, bisecting the right angle, to form Piece 1 and Piece 2. Crease and cut along this fold. Label these two triangles "1" and "2". 3. Connect the midpoint of the bottom side of the original square to the midpoint of the right side of the original square. Crease sharply along this line and cut. Label the triangle cut off "3". 4. Fold the remaining trapezoid in half, matching the short sides. Cut along this fold. 5. Take the lower trapezoid you just made and connect the midpoint of the longest side to the vertex of the right angle opposite it. Fold and cut along this line. Label the small triangle "4" and the remaining parallelogram "7". 6. Take the upper trapezoid you made in Step 4. Connect the midpoint of the longest side to the vertex of the obtuse angle opposite it. Fold and cut along this line. Label the small triangle "5" and the square "6".

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 3.4 Page 132

Activity: Format:

Area and Perimeter Problems with Tangrams


Individual or small group

Description: Participants will consider parts of the composite tangram as

fractions of the whole and will consider each piece relative to a given non-standard unit, namely small square and the small triangle. They will find the perimeter of each piece by using the length of the side of the small square as the unit; this will require the application of the Pythagorean Theorem The student will express the area of each tangram piece as a fraction of the large composite square. The student will find the area of each tangram piece by using the square piece as the unit and then using the small triangle as the unit.

Objectives:

Related SOL: 2.12, 2.13, 4.13, 5.8 and 5.10 Vocabulary: area, perimeter Materials:
a set of tangrams for each student, Handout 3.5

Time Required: 30 - 40 minutes Directions:


1) Give participants the Handout 3.5 Area and Perimeter With Tangrams. Make sure they also have a set of tangrams. Ask them to work alone or in small groups to complete the tasks outlined on the handout. Circulate around the room helping participants who need assistance. 2) Debrief the worksheet by inviting participants to the overhead projector to describe how they found one of the answers.

Virginia Department of Education

Area & Perimeter w/ Tangrams Page 133

Area and Perimeter With Tangrams


1. If the area of the composite square (all seven pieces -- see below) is 1 unit, find the area of each of the separate pieces.

piece #
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

area

2. If the smallest triangle is the unit for area, find the area of each of the separate pieces in terms of that triangle.

Piece #
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

area 1 5

2 4 7

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 3.5 Page 134

3. If the smallest square (piece #6) is the unit for area, find the area of each of the separate pieces in terms of that square. Enter your findings in the table below. 4. If the side of the small square (piece #6) is the unit of length, find the perimeter of each piece and enter your findings in the table.

piece #
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

area

perimeter

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 3.5 Page 135

Activity: Format:

Spatial Problem Solving with Tangrams


Independent and small group work

Description: Participants will develop spatial reasoning skills by using tangrams


to solve puzzles.

Objectives:

Participants will make geometric shapes with a subset of the tangram set. They will solve puzzles by arranging the set of seven tangrams to form the pictures given to them.

Related SOL: 3.18 and 5.10 Materials:

Spatial problem solving, integrated throughout all grades, A set of tangrams for each student; Handout 3.6: Spatial Problem Solving with Tangrams; Handout 3.7: Tangram Puzzles

Time Required: Variable, allow 30 minutes to get started. Participants

may work independently over a period of a week or so and turn in solutions later. 1) Give out Handouts 3.6 and 3.7 and have participants work individually or in small groups to solve the tangram puzzles.

Directions:

Virginia Department of Education

Spatial Problem Solving w/ Tangrams Page 136

Spatial Problem Solving with Tangrams


Use the number of pieces in the first column to form each of the geometric shapes that appear in the top of the table. Make a sketch of your solution(s). Some have more than one solution while some have no solution. Make These Polygons Use this many pieces 2

Square

Rectangle

Triangle

Trapezoid

Trapezoid

Parallel -ogram

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 3.6 Page 137

Tangram Puzzles
Can you make these shapes with the seven Tangram pieces? Make a sketch of your solutions.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Design your own tangram picture. Trace the outline and give it a name. Submit the outline and a solution key.

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 3.7 Page 138

Key Idea:

Symmetry Using Paper Folding, Pattern Blocks, Miras, and Origami


occurs frequently in nature. Butterflies, leaves, blossoms, and even the human body are symmetric. Since symmetric forms are pleasing to the human eye, many artists and architects incorporate symmetry in their designs. Even many national flags and corporate logs exhibit symmetry. There are two types of symmetry: line symmetry (also called reflectional or mirror symmetry) and point symmetry (also called rotational symmetry).

Description: Participants will explore the concept of symmetry, a phenomenon that

Pattern Blocks:

Pattern blocks are a set of blocks that consists of shapes: a hexagon (usually yellow), a trapezoid (usually red) that is one-half the size of the hexagon, a rhombus (usually blue) one-third the size of the hexagon, a triangle (usually green) one-sixth the size of the hexagon, and another rhombus (usually tan). As their name would imply, they are used in creating patterns, but they are also excellent for teaching tessellations, fractions, and several other concepts. In this section, we will use them for exploring symmetry.

Mirrors or Miras:

Small mirrors are useful in checking line symmetry. If you are worried about using glass mirrors with children, there are several commercially available alternatives such as polished metal mirrors or Miras (a rectangle of translucent red plastic with a beveled edge at the bottom and attached rectangular sides to stabilize the reflector and serve as handles).

Virginia Department of Education

Symmetry: Introduction Page 139

Origami:

Origami is the Japanese art of paper-folding. Many of the figures that can be made are symmetric. Special origami paper may be purchased from teacher supply stores or most mail order math supply companies. A sheet of origami paper will be square, white on one side, and colored on the other side. It will make a sharp crease when folded properly and has stiffness to it so that it will hold the shape it's folded into. If you are not able to locate origami paper, heavy wrapping paper may be cut into squares and used. In a pinch, patty paper works, but it is not very good substitute because it does not hold its shape and doesn't have an obvious wrong side and right side.

Related Geometry SOL:


Kindergarten K.13 The student will compare the size (larger/smaller) and shape of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle). Grade One 1.16 The student will draw, describe, and sort plane geometric figures (triangle, square, rectangle, and circle) according to number of sides, corners, and square corners. Grade Two 2.21 The student will identify and create figures, symmetric along a line, using various concrete objects. Grade Three 3.18 The student will analyze two-dimensional (plane) and three-dimensional (solid) geometric figures (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, cube, rectangular solid [prism], square pyramid, sphere, cone, and cylinder) and identify relevant properties, including the number of corners, square corners, edges and the number and shape of faces, using concrete models. 3.20 The student, given appropriate drawings or modes, will identify and describe congruent and symmetrical two-dimensional figures, using tracing procedures. Grade Four 4.21 The student will recognize, create, and extend numerical and geometric patterns, using concrete materials, number lines, symbols, tables, and words.

Virginia Department of Education

Symmetry: Introduction Page 140

Grade Five 5.19 The student will analyze the structure of numerical and geometric patterns (how they change or grow) and express the relationship, using words, tables, graphs, or a mathematical sentence. Concrete materials and calculators will be used. 5.20 The student will analyze the structure of numerical and geometric patterns (how they change or grow) and express the relationship, using words, tables, graphs, or a mathematical sentence. Concrete materials and calculators will be used.

Virginia Department of Education

Symmetry: Introduction Page 141

Activity: Format:

Butterfly Symmetry
Small group

Description: Participants use paper folding and cutting to create designs that are
symmetric.

Objectives: Related SOL:

Students will create symmetric cutouts and identify the lines of symmetry. 2.21, 3.20, 4.21 and 5.20

Vocabulary: Symmetry, line symmetry, fold, and matching parts Materials:


Construction paper, pencils, scissors, magazines, paint, crayons, or markers

Time Required: Approximately 30 minutes Directions:


1) Organize the class into small groups. Have the students fold a piece of paper once and cut out any shape, beginning and ending on the folded edge. Have them unfold the paper and make observations about their shapes. They should notice that there are matching parts. Tell them that since all the parts match when folded on a straight line, we say that the shape has line symmetry and that the fold is the line of symmetry. Ask the students if their figures can be folded any other way so that the parts match. 2) Now repeat the folding and cutting activity using two folds. Again have the students describe the figures they have created. Ask how many ways can the figure be folded so that the two halves match. (When the paper is folded twice, the cut figure will have two lines of symmetry with four matching parts.) 3) Have the students find pictures in magazines and objects in the classroom that have line symmetry. Questions you might ask: What do we mean when we say that something has symmetry? What does a line of symmetry do? What does it show us? Could we draw a line of symmetry anywhere on a symmetrical shape?
Virginia Department of Education Butterfly Symmetry Page 142

4) Have the students use paper, scissors, and markers, crayons, or paint to create symmetrical butterflies for display on the bulletin board. As a class, find the lines of symmetry on each butterfly and discuss.

Virginia Department of Education

Butterfly Symmetry Page 143

Activity: Format:

Copy Cat
Small Group

Description: The participants create a symmetrical shape, piece by piece, using


pattern blocks and verify the shape's symmetry.

Objectives: Related SOL:

The participant will be able to recognize line symmetry across a horizontal or vertical line in designs created using pattern blocks. 2.21, 3.20, 4.21 and 5.20

Vocabulary: Pattern blocks, line symmetry, line of symmetry Materials:


About 30 pattern blocks per group, paper, ruler, Mira, and optional overhead pattern blocks

Time Required: Approximately 30 minutes Directions:


1) Give each participant a piece of paper and some pattern blocks. Have them make a fold line in the paper and then spread it out flat or draw a thick vertical line down the center of the paper. Have them place a pattern block on the paper so that one of its edges lies along the fold line. Another participant should place another pattern block on the other side of the line so that it forms a design that is symmetrical about the line. Explain that the block should be placed so that when you trace the blocks and fold the paper along the line, the two shapes will cover each other exactly. Trace around the two blocks, fold the paper, and verify that the design is symmetrical.

Example:

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Copy Cat Page 144

2) Unfold the paper, and put the two blocks back as they were. Have another person in the group place a block on one side of the line of symmetry so that it is touching at least one of the blocks already placed there. Have another person place a block on the other side to "balance" that block and keep the design symmetrical. Continue to add blocks to the design and check its symmetry. 3) Change the rules so that students place two or more pattern blocks on one side of the design on each turn. 4) Challenge the students to make a design that is symmetrical without using a fold line or drawn line. Have them use a Mira to check the symmetry of their design. 5) Using the Mira, have the students find the lines of symmetry for their pattern blocks. For this activity, the Mira is placed on top of the block and moved around until the image matches the block. Have the students trace the block on paper and record the lines of symmetry of each block. Discuss the results with the whole class.

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Copy Cat Page 145

Activity: Format:

Recover the Symmetry


Small Group

Description: Participants work in groups of two to create symmetrical designs


with pattern blocks, disturb the symmetry, and then challenge a partner to restore symmetry to their design.

Objectives: Related SOL:

The participant will explore symmetry concepts using pattern blocks by verifying that a design has line symmetry. 2.21, 3.20, 4.21 and 5.20

Vocabulary: Pattern blocks, line symmetry, line of symmetry Materials:


About 30 pattern blocks per group, paper, ruler, Mira, Transparencies 3.4 and 3.5, and optional overhead pattern blocks

Time Required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions:


1) Before meeting with the class, build two identical symmetrical shapes on the overhead projector. Then move two blocks in one of the shapes to make it asymmetrical. For example:

Symmetrical Design

Asymmetrical Design

Alternately, use Transparency 3.4.

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Recover the Symmetry Page 146

2) Display both shapes and identify them as symmetrical and asymmetrical, respectively. Identify the line of symmetry on the symmetrical design. 3) Have the students suggest how they might move two blocks in the asymmetrical design to make it symmetrical. Test the results. 4) Display the rules on Transparency 3.5. Play Recover the Symmetry! Rules 1. This is a game for two players. 2. Together, the players build a symmetrical design using 12 pattern blocks. It should be symmetrical in both shape and color. 3. Players can use a Mira to check the symmetry of the design. They should locate all lines of symmetry in the design. 4. One player looks away while the other player moves 3 blocks so that the design is not symmetrical. 5. The player who wasn't looking then tries to move 3 blocks to make the design symmetrical again. 6. After the symmetry has been recovered, players talk over these questions with each other: Is the new design symmetrical? Were the same blocks moved to recover the symmetry? Is the final design the same as the original one? 5) Play several round of Recover the Symmetry! and discuss your games with the class. Other questions for discussion are: What was easier, creating the original design or recovering the symmetry? Why? Did you ever find more than one line of symmetry in a design? If so, describe how this happened. What helped you decide how to move the blocks to recover the symmetry? When you make an asymmetrical shape symmetrical, did you recreate the original shape or did you find a new one? Why do you think this happened?

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Recover the Symmetry Page 147

Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Designs

Symmetrical Design

Asymmetrical Design

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Transparency 3.4 Page 148

Recover the Symmetry Rules


1. 2. This is a game for two players. Together, the players build a symmetrical design using 12 pattern blocks. It should be symmetrical in both shape and color. Players can use a Mira to check the symmetry of the design. They should locate all lines of symmetry in the design. One player looks away while the other player moves 3 blocks so that the design is not symmetrical. The player who wasn't looking then tries to move 3 blocks to make the design symmetrical again. After the symmetry has been recovered, players talk over these questions with each other: Is the new design symmetrical? Were the same blocks moved to recover the symmetry? Is the final design the same as the original one?

3.

4.

5. 6.

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Transparency 3.5 Page 149

Activity: Format:

Folded Shapes
Small Group

Description: The participant will use pattern block designs which are folded

along an indicated line of symmetry and imagine what each design looks like unfolded to sketch the other half of the design. The participant will construct the other half of pattern block designs by imagining that the design is unfolded or that a mirror is placed along a given line of symmetry.

Objectives:

Related SOL: Vocabulary: Materials:

2.21, 3.20, 4.21 and 5.20 Pattern blocks, line symmetry, line of symmetry About 30 pattern blocks per group, paper, ruler, Mira, Handout 3.8, Transparency 3.6, and optional overhead pattern blocks Time Required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions: 1) Divide the participants into small groups. Pass out Handout 3.8to each individual and about 30 pattern block to each group. Put Transparency 3.6 on the overhead projector. Tell the participants that the design they see is a pattern block design that has been folded along the line of symmetry. It is their task to imagine what each design would look like unfolded and sketch it. First of all, recreate the design using the pattern blocks as in the previous activity. Then sketch what they think the other side looks like. Check it be removing the pattern blocks and placing a Mira along the line of symmetry. If Miras or mirrors are unavailable, the figure may be folded along the line of symmetry and held up to a light to check for congruence. 2) Have the participants complete the remaining shapes and check their symmetry. Display the results on the overhead. 3) Ask the participants to check to see if any of the designs have more than one line of symmetry. 4) Have the participants create an original design having only one line of symmetry. Have them check the symmetry using a Mira or by folding along the line of symmetry. 5) Have the participants create an original design having two lines of symmetry and check it by folding along each line of symmetry in turn.

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Folded Shapes Page 150

Folded Shapes
These pattern block designs were folded along the indicated line of symmetry. Imagine what each design would look like unfolded and sketch it. Check your work by placing a Mira on the line of symmetry.

line of symmetry

line of symmetry

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Folded Shapes Page 151

Folded Shapes
These pattern block designs were folded along the indicated line of symmetry. Imagine what each design would look like unfolded and sketch it. Check your work by placing a Mira on the line of symmetry.

line of symmetry

line of symmetry

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Transparency 3.6 Page 152

Folded Shapes
These pattern block designs were folded along the indicated line of symmetry. Imagine what each design would look like unfolded and sketch it. Check your work by placing a Mira on the line of symmetry.

line of symmetry

line of symmetry

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Handout 3.8 Page 153

Folded Shapes
These pattern block designs were folded along the indicated line of symmetry. Imagine what each design would look like unfolded and sketch it. Check your work by placing a Mira on the line of symmetry.

line of symmetry

line of symmetry

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Handout 3.8 Page 154

Activity: Format:

Symmetry and Right Angles in Quadrilaterals


Small Group

Description: Participants fold various cut out quadrilaterals to determine how


many lines of symmetry each has and use square corners to determine how many right angles each has.

Objectives: Related SOL:

Participants will investigate the symmetry and right angles in various quadrilaterals. 1.16, 2.21, 3.20, 4.15 and 5.14, 5.15

Vocabulary: Quadrilateral, square, rectangle, kite, trapezoid, line symmetry, line of


symmetry, corner, square corner, and right angle

Materials:

Scissors and Handout 3.9 or cut-out quadrilaterals, Transparency T3.7, square corners (e.g., a piece of paper or a file card)

Time Required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions:


1) Give each participant Handout 3.9 and a scissors and have them cut out each quadrilateral or give each participant a set of cutout quadrilaterals. Have them find as many ways as possible to fold the shapes in half so the halves match, i.e., find all the lines of symmetry. Using Transparency 3.7, have them discuss what they found.

Four

Two

One

None

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Symmetry & Right Angles Page 155

2) Give each participant a square corner and the shapes from Step 1. Ask them to find a quadrilateral that has an angle that is a) a right angle (the same as a square corner) b) greater than a right angle c) less than a right angle. 3) Add shapes such as the following:

One right angle

Two right angles

Ask the participants to find a quadrilateral that has exactly a) one right angle, b) two right angles, and c) four right angles. How many different quadrilaterals can they find that have four right angles? What are the special names of these quadrilaterals?

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Symmetry & Right Angles Page 156

Quadrilateral Patterns

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Transparency 3.7 Page 157

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Transparency 3.7 Page 158

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Transparency 3.7 Page 159

Quadrilateral Patterns

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Handout 3.9 Page 160

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Handout 3.9 Page 161

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Handout 3.9 Page 162

Activity: Format:

Origami: Making a Square from a Non-Square Rectangle


Individual or Small Group

Description: Participants use non- square rectangular paper to construct a

square through paper folding. They also determine how many lines of symmetry the square has. Participants will be able to identify squares and concepts related to symmetry used in paper folding.

Objectives:

Related SOL: K.11, 1.16, 2.21, 3.18, and 3.20 Vocabulary: Quadrilateral, square, rectangle, line symmetry, and line of symmetry Materials:
Scissors, non-square rectangular piece of paper, and Transparency 3.8

Time Required: Approximately 5 minutes Directions:


1) Give each participant a scissors and a non-square rectangular piece of paper. Have them fold the corner to the opposite side to form a triangle as shown on Transparency 3.8. They then cut along the vertical line. Have them find as many ways as possible to fold the square in half so the halves match, i.e., find all the lines of symmetry.

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Origami: Making a Square Page 163

Folding a Square

CUT

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Transparency 3.8 Page 164

Activity: Format:

Origami: Making a Heart


Individual or Small Group 1 1

Description: Participants use rectangular paper, 82 inches by 22 inches, to


construct a heart by paper folding.

Objectives: Related SOL:

Participants will be able to identify geometric figures and concepts related to symmetry used in paper folding. K.11, 1.16, 2.21, 3.18, and 3.20

Vocabulary: Quadrilateral, square, rectangle, line symmetry, and line of symmetry Materials:
1 1 Piece of paper, 82 inches by 22 inches, and Transparency 3.9

Time Required: Approximately 5 minutes Directions:


1 1 1) Give each participant a piece of paper, 82 inches by 22 inches. Have them fold the heart as shown on Transparency 3.9. 2) At the first fold, point out the line of symmetry. 3) At step 4, discuss the pentagon formed. 3) At step 5, point out the isosceles right triangle formed.

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Origami: Making a Heart

1) Fold the right edge to meet the left edge. Unfold.

2) Fold the top left edge down to meet the center crease (the line of symmetry).

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LINE OF SYMMETRY

Transparency 3.9 Page 166

3) Fold the top right down to meet the center crease.

4) Turn over.

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Transparency 3.9 Page 167

5) Now rotate 180.

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Transparency 3.9 Page 168

6) Fold the four corners at the top down into small triangles. 7) Turn the heart over.

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Transparency 3.9 Page 169

Elementary Geometry Module 4


Topic Activity Name Related SOL Transparencies Materials Handouts Paper, scissors, & scissors T: 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, Paper, scissors, & 4.4 scissors H: 4.1, 4.2 T: 4.5, 4.6 Paper, scissors, & scissors

Transformational Geometry: Tessellations

Sums of Angles of Triangles Do Congruent Triangles Tessellate? Do Congruent Quadrilaterals Tessellate? Tessellations by Translation Tessellations by Rotation

5.13 3.18, 4.17, 5.13, 5.14 4.17, 5.15 4.17, 5.15 4.17, 5.15 2.20, 2.22, 3.18, 4.17, 5.16 2.20, 2.22, 3.18, 4.17, 5.16 2.20, 2.22, 3.18, 4.17, 5.16 2.20, 2.22, 3.18, 4.17, 5.16 2.20, 2.22, 3.18, 4.17, 5.16

T: 4.7 H: 4.3 T: 4.8 H: 4.3

Solid Geometry

Polyhedron Sort Whats My Shape? Ask About Me Whats My Shape? Touch Me Take It Apart Building Polyhedra

A large square piece of paper per participant, rulers & scissors A large square piece of paper per participant, rulers & scissors 1 set of geometric solids per group of 4-6 1 set of geometric solids per group of 4-6 1 set of geometric solids per group of 4-6 Cardboard cereal boxes, canisters, milk cartons, scissors Scissors and tape or glue; or polyhedrons, D-stix, or other commercial 3-dimensional building kit

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Page 170

Key Idea: Transformational Geometry: Tessellations Description: Patterns of geometric design are all around us. We see them
every day, woven into the fabric of the clothes we wear, laid underfoot in the hallways of the buildings where we work, and printed on the wallpaper of our homes. Whether simple or intricate, such patterns are intriguing to the eye. We will explore a special class of geometric patterns called tessellations. Our investigation will interweave concepts basic to art, to geometry, and to design. The word tessellation comes to us from the Latin tessela, which was the small, square stone, or tile used in ancient Roman mosaics. Tilings and mosaics are common synonyms for tessellations. Much like a Roman mosaic, a plane tessellation is a pattern made up of one or more shapes, completely covering a surface without any gaps or overlaps. Note that both two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes will tessellate. Two-dimensional shapes may tessellate a plane surface, while three-dimensional shapes may tessellate space. We will use the word tessellation alone to always mean a plane tessellation. Although the mathematics of tiling can become quite complex, the beauty and order of tessellation is accessible to anyone who is interested. To analyze tessellating patterns, you have to understand a few things about geometric shapes and their properties - but all you need to know is easily explained in a few pages. We will approach this subject through directed exploration. We will be looking into the following questions: which shapes will tessellate (that is, tile a plane without overlapping or leaving spaces)? Why will certain shapes tessellate and others not? How many different tessellating patterns can we create using two or

Virginia Department of Education Transformational Geometry Tessellations Page 171

more regular polygons? Do tessellating designs have symmetry? If so, what kind? How can we use transformations (slides, flips, and turns) to create unique tessellations? What other techniques could we use to generate the intricate designs? In the twentieth century, a number of fine artists have applied the concept of tessellating patterns in their work. The best known of these is Dutch artist M. C. Escher. Inspired by the Moorish mosaic designs he saw during a visit to the Alhambra in Spain in the 1930s, Escher spent most of his life creating tessellations in the medium of woodcuts. He altered geometric tessellating shapes into such forms as birds, reptiles, fish and people.

Related SOL:
Kindergarten K.11 The student will identify, describe, and draw two-dimensional (plane) geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle). K.12 The student will describe the location of one object relative to another (above, below, next to) and identify representations of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle) regardless of their position and orientation in space. First Grade 1.16 The student will draw, describe, and sort plane geometric figures (triangle, square, rectangle, and circle) according to number of sides, corners, and square corners. Second Grade 2.21 The student will identify and create figures, symmetric along a line, using various concrete objects. Third Grade 3.18 The student will analyze two-dimensional (plane) and threedimensional (solid) geometric figures (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, cube, rectangular solid [prism], square pyramid, sphere, cone, and cylinder) and identify relevant properties, including the number of corners, square corners, edges and the number and shape of faces, using concrete models.

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3.20

The student, given appropriate drawings or modes, will identify and describe congruent and symmetrical two-dimensional figures, using tracing procedures.

Fourth Grade 4.17 The student will a) analyze and compare the properties of twodimensional (plane) geometric figures (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, parallelogram, and rhombus) and three-dimensional (solid) geometric figures (sphere, cube, and rectangular solid [prism]); b) identify congruent and noncongruent shapes; and c) investigate congruence of plane figures after geometric transformations such as reflection (flip), translation (slide) and rotation (turn), using mirrors, paper folding, and tracing. Fifth Grade 5.13 The student will measure and draw right, acute, and obtuse angles and triangles, using appropriate tools. 5.14 The student will classify angles and triangles as right, acute, or obtuse.

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Activity: Format:

Sum of Angles of a Triangle


Small Group, Large Group

Description: One property of the angles of a triangle is extremely

important in understanding which polygons tessellate: The sum of the interior angles of any triangle equals 180. The students will not present a formal proof of this, but a simple demonstration will verify the relationship. Participants will verify that the interior angles of a triangle add up to 180 by cutting three random triangles out of paper, numbering and tearing off their vertices, and rearranging them adjacent to each other to form a straight angle.

Objective: Related SOL:

Participants will demonstrate that the sum of the interior angles of any triangle equals 180. 5.13

Vocabulary: Triangle, angle, vertex, vertices, interior angle, adjacent,


straight angle, and conjecture.

Materials:

Paper, scissors, and straightedges

Time required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions:


1) Pass out the paper, scissors, and straightedges. 2) Have each participant draw 3 large triangles using a straightedge, and then cut the 3 triangles out. They should label the vertices of one triangle as 1, 2, and 3; label the vertices of the second triangles as 1*, 2*, and 3*; and label the vertices of the third triangle as 1', 2', and 3'.

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Sum of Angles of a Triangle Page 174

3 1 2

3. Now have them tear off the corners. (That's right. Tear, not cut. By tearing, you can still determine which was the vertex. It will be the cut part.)

3 1 2

4. Now the participants should draw a dot on the page and a straight line through the dot. Have them place the cut vertex of <1 on the dot and the cut side on the line. They can trace the angle or tape it in place. They should choose another angle from the same figure and place its cut vertex on the dot, lining up the side of the first angle not on the line with a side of the second angle, and trace or tape it in place.
1

5. Have them repeat this sequence of steps until all the angles from one figure are adjacent to one another.

6. Ask what angle these combined corners form? 7. Repeat this procedure with the other two triangles. Ask if the same thing happens with all three triangles?

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Sum of Angles of a Triangle Page 175

8. Have the groups share their results and then form conclusions focused on the following issues. a. Do the angles from all of their triangles always equal the same amount? b. Examine any triangle that turned out differently? Why do you think it did? c. Based on this activity, what conjecture can you make about the sum of the angles in a triangle? d. If you and your classmates made 200 triangles, tore off the vertices, lined them up, and they all totaled the same, would this insure that the 201st triangle would come out the same? e. What if you made 1,000 triangles this way and they all came out the same? Would this insure that the 1,001st triangle that you made would come out the same? f. What if you made 1,000,000 triangles and they all came out the same? Would this insure that the 1,000,001st triangle that you made would come out the same? g. If you could find a single triangle that came out differently, you would disprove the conjecture that the sum of the measures of the interior angles in a triangle always is always 180. Any item that doesn't fit your conjecture is called a counterexample. A single counterexample is enough to disprove a conjecture. Did you or any of your classmates find a triangle whose angles didn't add up to 180? Unfortunately, not finding one doesn't mean that one doesn't exist. However, it does give us more confidence in our conjecture.

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Sum of Angles of a Triangle Page 176

Activity: Format:

Do Congruent Triangles Tessellate?


Large Group, Small Group

Description: Students cut out sets of congruent triangles of various types


and try to cover the plane with each type of triangle.

Objective:

Participants will determine whether all triangles tessellate.

Related SOLs 3.18, 4.17, 5.13, 5.14 Vocabulary: Tessellation, congruent triangles, equilateral triangle,
equiangular triangle, scalene triangle, isosceles triangle, right triangle, and vertex Paper, scissors, rulers, Handouts 4.1 and 4.2, and Transparencies 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, and 4.4

Materials:

Time required: Approximately 20 minutes Directions:


1) Using Transparency 4.1, remind the participants of the following definition. Tessellation: to tessellate a plane means to completely cover a surface with a pattern of shapes with no gaps and no overlapping. 2) Since a triangle is the simplest polygonal shape, we will start with the triangle in our investigation of which polygons tessellate. Also, to keep things simple, have the participants explore tessellating with a single triangular shape rather than combinations of different triangular shapes. 3) Review the definition of congruent triangles -- Two triangles that have the same size and shape are said to be congruent triangles.

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Do Congruent s Tessellate? Page 177

4) Before proceeding with the investigation, have the students look at some different types of triangles so that we can consider each type separately. Triangles are classified according to the relationships and the size of their sides and angles. Examples of each triangle types are shown on the Handout 4.1 and Transparency 4.2. 5) Ask the students to explore the following questions: Which triangles (if any) tessellate? If some triangles tessellate, do they all? Start the investigation with scalene triangles. Have the students draw a scalene triangle and copy it several times to make congruent triangles. They should label them so that all angle 1's are congruent, all angle 2's are congruent, and all angle 3's are congruent. The students should cut the congruent triangles out and move them around to see if they tessellate. If you don't want the students to create their own scalene triangles, you can just have them cut out several triangles from Handout 4.2. 6) Do you have angles 1, 2, and 3 together at a common vertex? What appears to be the sum of angles 1, 2, and 3?

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Do Congruent s Tessellate? Page 178

7) Using six congruent scalene triangles, we can completely fill all the space around the common vertex point of the six triangles. There are no gaps, no overlaps - a criterion of a tessellation. Do you think that all scalene triangles will tessellate in the plane? Why or why not? Discuss this question, referring to Transparency 4.3.

8) Try to make a tessellation using six congruent right triangles. Do you think that all right triangles will tessellate in the plane? Why or why not? 9) Can you make a tessellation using six congruent equilateral triangles or six congruent isosceles triangles? 10) Examine the tessellations in Transparency 4.4. Identify the triangles used to form the tessellations. Do you think that any six congruent triangles can be used to make a tessellation? Why or why not?

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Do Congruent s Tessellate? Page 179

3 1

1 2

Tessellation: To tessellate a plane means to completely cover the surface with a pattern of shapes with no gaps and no overlapping.

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Transparency 4.1 Page 180

Types of Triangles
An isosceles triangle has sides congruent. two or more These are

A scalene triangle has congruent sides.

no

These are triangle has An equilateral all three sides congruent. An equiangular triangle has all three angles congruent. These are These are A right An acute triangle has all three angles acute. These are less 90. These 90 An obtuse triangle contains an obtuse angle. triangle contains a right angle.

This angle is greater than 90E and less than 180E.

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Transparency 4.2 Page 181

What is the sum of the angles about the center point?

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Transparency 4.3 Page 182

3 1

1 2

Some Tessellations of Triangles

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Transparency 4.4 Page 183

More Tessellations of Triangles

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Transparency 4.4 Page 184

Types of Triangles
A scalene triangle has congruent sides. no

An isosceles triangle has sides congruent. two or more

These are

These are

An equilateral triangle has all three sides congruent.

An equiangular triangle has all three angles congruent.

These are
These are

A right
An acute triangle has all three angles acute.

triangle contains a right angle.

These are less 90.


These 90

A obtuse triangle contains an obtuse angle.

These angle greater 90 and than

Congruent Scalene Triangles


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Handout 4.1 Page 185

Will They Tessellate?


2 1 2 3 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 3 2 1 2 2 2 3 1 3 2 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 3 1 3 2 1 3 3 2 1 2 3 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 3 2 1 1 3 1 2 3 2 1 3 2 3 2 1 3 3 1

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Handout 4.2 Page 186

Activity: Do Congruent Quadrilaterals Tessellate? Format:


Large Group, Small Group

Description: Students cut out sets of congruent quadrilaterals and try to


cover the plane with them.

Objective: Related SOL:

Participants will determine whether congruent quadrilaterals tessellate. 4.17, 5.15

Vocabulary: Tessellation, congruent, quadrilateral, and vertex Materials:


Paper, scissors, rulers, and Transparencies 4.5, and 4.6

Time required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions:


1) Repeat the experiment above with six or more congruent quadrilaterals (four sided polygons). Do your quadrilaterals tessellate? 2) Using four congruent quadrilaterals, we can completely fill all the space around the common vertex point of the four quadrilaterals. There are no gaps, no overlaps - a criterion of a tessellation. Do you think that all quadrilaterals will tessellate in the plane? Why or why not? Discuss this question, referring to Transparency 4.5. 1 2

4 3
1

3
3

2) Examine the tessellations in Transparency 4.6. Identify the quadrilaterals used to form the tessellations. Do you think that any four congruent quadrilaterals can be used to make a tessellation? Why or why not? Virginia Department of Education
Do Congruent Quadrilaterals Tessellate Page 187

2 4

What is the sum of the angles about the center point?


1 2

4 3
1

3
3

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2 4

Transparency 4.5 Page 188

Some Tessellations of Quadrilaterals

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Transparency 4.6 Page 189

More Tessellations of Quadrilaterals

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Transparency 4.6 Page 190

Another Tessellation of Quadrilaterals

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Transparency 4.6 Page 191

Activity: Format:

Tessellations by Translation
Individual

Description: Participants create their own tessellations based on a square

using translations. They cut out a shape from one side of the square and translate it to the other side and repeat a translation from the top of the square to the bottom. After they make a pattern in this manner, they trace the pattern repeatedly to form a tessellation.

Objective: Related SOL:

Participants will create their own tessellations using translations. 4.17, 5.15

Vocabulary: Tessellation, translation Materials:


One large square piece of paper, Transparency 4.7, Handout 4.3, straightedge, and scissors

Time required: Approximately 40 minutes Directions:


1) Sketch a shape extending into the square from one side on Handout 4.3. Cut out that shape from the one side of the square and slide it across to the other side. Trace it as shown on Transparency 4.7. 2) Sketch a shape extending into the square from the top on Handout 4.3. Cut out that shape from the top of the square and slide it down to the bottom. Trace it as shown on Transparency 4.7. 3) Cut out the other side and the bottom of the square along the shapes you traced. Now you have your pattern to tessellate. 4) Trace the pattern repeatedly, translating it as shown on Transparency 4.7 to form a tessellation.

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Tessellations by Translation Page 192

Tessellation by Translation

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Transparency 4.7 Page 193

Square

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Handout 4.3 Page 194

Activity: Format:

Tessellations by Rotation
Individual

Description: Participants create their own tessellations based on a square


using rotations. They cut out a shape from one side of the square and rotate it to the other side. After they make a pattern in this manner, they trace the pattern repeatedly to form a tessellation. Participants will create their own tessellations using rotations. 4.17, 5.15

Objective: Related SOL:

Vocabulary: Tessellation, rotation Materials:


One large square piece of paper, Transparency 4.8, Handout 4.3, and scissors

Time required: Approximately 40 minutes Directions:


1) Sketch a shape extending into the square from one side on Handout 4.3. Cut out that shape from the one side of the square and rotate it across to the other side. Trace it as shown on Transparency 4.8. 2) Cut out the shape you traced and the other sides of the square. Now you have your pattern to tessellate. 3) Trace the pattern repeatedly, translating it as shown on Transparency 4.8 to form a tessellation.

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Tessellations by Rotation Page 195

Tessellation by Rotation

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Transparency 4.8 Page 196

Key Idea: Solid Geometry Description:


Participants will explore three-dimensional shapes by sorting and classifying them, determining what they are by touch, building them, and taking them apart.

Related SOL:
Second Grade 2.20 The student will identify, describe, and sort three-dimensional (solid) concrete figures; including a cube, rectangular solid (prism), square pyramid, sphere, cylinder, and cone, according to the number and shape of the solids faces, edges, and corners. 2.22 The student will compare and contrast plane and solid geometric shapes (circle/sphere, square/cube, and rectangle/rectangular solid).

Third Grade 3.18 The student will analyze two-dimensional (plane) and three-dimensional (solid) geometric figures (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, cube, rectangular solid [prism], square pyramid, sphere, cone, and cylinder) and identify relevant properties, including the number of corners, square corners, edges and the number and shape of faces, using concrete models. 4.17 The student will a) analyze and compare the properties of two-dimensional (plane) geometric figures (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, parallelogram, and rhombus) and three-dimensional (solid) geometric figures (sphere, cube,, and rectangular solid [prism]);b) identify congruent and noncongruent shapes, and c) investigate congruence of plane figures after geometric transformations such as reflection (flip), translation (slide) and rotation (turn), using mirrors, paper folding, and tracing. Fifth Grade 5.16 The student will identify, compare, and analyze properties of threedimensional (solid) geometric shapes (cylinder, cone, cube, square pyramid, and rectangular prism).

Virginia Department of Education

Solid Geometry: Introduction Page 197

Activity: Format:

Polyhedron Sort
Small Group/Large Group

Description: Participants sort polyhedra in three different ways and compare

their sort to what they predict their students would do. They then relate the sorts to the van Hiele levels of geometric understanding of polyhedra. After performing their own sorts, participants will be able to distinguish the way students at various van Hiele levels of geometric understanding may sort polyhedra. 2.20, 2.22, 3.18, 4.17, 5.16

Objectives:

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: depends on participants. Terms such as cube, prism, sphere, cone,


cylinder, and pyramid are likely.

Materials:

One set of geometric solids per group of 4-6

Time Required: Approximately 10 minutes Directions:


1) Divide the participants into small groups. Pass out the sets of geometric solids, one set per 4-6 participants. Have them sort the solids into groups that belong together, sketching the pieces they put together and the criteria they used to sort. Have them sort two or three times, recording each sort. 2) Ask the participants for some of their ways of sorting. Have them compare their ways with those of other groups.

Virginia Department of Education

Polyhedron Sort Page 198

Activity: Format:

What's My Shape? Ask Me About It.


Large Group

Description: The teacher has students ask her/him questions that have yes or
no answers about a polyhedron in the box. The object of the game is to determine what the polyhedron is.

Objectives: Related SOL:

Students will use logical reasoning to determine the polyhedron in the box after asking questions and receiving information about it. 2.20, 2.22, 3.18, 4.17, and 5.16

Vocabulary: depends on participants and the polyhedra used. Terms such as


cube, prism, sphere, cone, cylinder, pyramid, triangle, square, rectangle, and circle are likely. One set of geometric solids, box or bag

Materials:

Time Required: Approximately 10 minutes Directions:


1) The teacher says to the students, "This box (or bag) contains a polyhedron." Shake it so the students can hear. "I'd like you to ask me some questions with yes or no answers to figure out what is in the box." 2) Questions and answers continue until the participants can figure out what shape is in the box.

Virginia Department of Education

Whats My Shape? Ask Me About It. Page 199

Activity: Format:

What's My Shape? Touch Me.


Large Group

Description: A polyhedron is placed in a paper bag. One student at a time


reaches into the bag and touches the solid. The object of the game is to determine what the polyhedron is.

Objectives: Related SOL:

Students will determine the polyhedron in the bag by touch alone. 2.20, 2.22, 3.18, 4.17, and 5.16

Vocabulary: depends on participants and the polyhedra used. Terms such as


cube, prism, sphere, cone, cylinder, pyramid, triangle, square, rectangle, and circle are likely. One set of geometric solids, a paper bag

Materials:

Time Required: Approximately 10 minutes Directions:


1) The teacher says to the students, "This box (or bag) contains a polyhedron." Shake it so the students can hear. "One of you at a time may put your hand into the bag and touch the solid. Try to figure out what is in the box." 2) The students take turns touching the solid in the bag without looking and try to figure out what the solid is.

Virginia Department of Education

Whats My Shape? Touch Me Page 200

Activity: Format:

Take It Apart
Small Group / Large Group

Description: Participants cut apart various polyhedra to form their nets. Objectives: Related SOL:
Students will determine the shapes that form various polyhedra and analyze how they fit together to form the polyhedra. 2.20, 2.22, 3.18, 4.17, and 5.16

Vocabulary: depends on participants and the polyhedra used. Terms such as


cube, prism, sphere, cone, cylinder, pyramid, triangle, square, rectangle, and circle are likely.

Materials:

Cardboard cereal boxes, canisters, milk cartons, etc., emptied and cleaned, scissors

Time Required: Approximately 10 minutes Directions:


1) The teacher or class collects a variety of cardboard containers such as cereal boxes. The teacher (or the students) carefully cut apart a container along its seams, in such a way that the container can be flattened out, but each piece is connected. This shape is called the net. 2) The class should identify each shape formed. 3) The class should see how many different nets they can find for the same container.

Virginia Department of Education

Take It Apart Page 201

Activity: Format:

Building Polyhedra
Small Group / Large Group

Description: Participants connect polygons to form nets and then construct the
polyhedra.

Objectives: Related SOL:

Students will determine the shapes that form various polyhedra and analyze how they fit together to form the polyhedra. 2.20, 2.22, 3.18, 4.17, and 5.16

Vocabulary: depends on participants and the polyhedra used. Terms such as cube,
prism, pyramid, triangle, square, rectangle, and circle are likely.

Materials:

Scissors, tape or glue, geometric solids, and Handout made by tracing the sides of various geometric solids; or Polydrons, D-stix, or other commercial 3-dimensional building kit

Time Required: Approximately 20 minutes Directions:


1) Choose a geometric solid from the set. Make a handout by tracing each of the faces to form its net. Repeat for 2 or 3 more solids. 2) Pass out scissors, tape or glue, and multiple copies of Handout; or Polydrons, D-stix, or other commercial 3-dimensional building kit 2) Working in small groups, the students should predict which solid the net will make. The teacher may show several solids, one of which is the one that the net will form. 3) After the predictions are made, the students should cut out the net and tape it together. 4) The students should compare their solids to their predictions and to the original solids.

Virginia Department of Education

Building Polyhedra Page 202

Elementary Geometry Module 5


Topic Activity Name Related SOL

Perimeter And Area

Dominoes and Triominoes Tetrominoes

Pentominoes

Areas with Pentominoes Hexominoes

Perimeters with Hexominoes Perimeter And Area, Part II

The Perimeter is 24 Inches. Whats the Area? The Area is 4.13, 5.8, 5.10 24 Inches. Whats the Perimeter? Change the Area 4.13, 5.8, 5.10 Hurkle Battleship TwoDimensional Hurkle 4.18 4.18 4.18

K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 3.20, 4.17, 5.15 K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 3.20, 4.17, 5.15 K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 3.20, 4.17, 5.15 K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 3.20, 4,13, 5.10 K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 3.20, 4.17, 5.15 K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.20, 3.18, 3.20, 4.13, 5.10 4.13, 5.8, 5.10

Transparencies Handouts H: 5.1

Materials

Tiles, scissors

T: 5.1, 5.2 H: 5.1, 5.2 T: 5.3, 5.4 H: 5.1 T; 5.5, 5.6, 5.7 H: 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6 T: 5.8

Tiles, scissors, paste (optional) Tiles, scissors, & envelopes or plastic baggies Scissors & envelopes or plastic baggies; or sets of Pentominoes Tiles, scissors, graph paper. and envelopes Hexominoes from previous activity 24 inch paper strip (collar), 38 one-inch cubes, graph paper 24 one-inch squares and graph paper

T: 5.9

T: 5.10, 5.11 H: 5.1 or 5.7 T: 5.10, 5.11 H: 5.1 or 5.7

Coordinate Geometry

T: 5.12 Square Geoboard, overhead H: 5.8 Geoboard and rubber bands T: 5.13,5.14,5.15 H: 5.9, 5.10, 5.11 T: 5.16 Square markers (tiles) H: 5.12 T: 5.17 H: 5.13
Page 203

Virginia Department of Education

Key Idea: Perimeter and Area Description: Participants will explore the concept of area through the use of
"-ominoes" formed by arranging sets of squares. Putting two squares together, with full edges touching forms the domino, the most familiar "-ominoes." Using the "-ominoes" rule (see below), there is only one shape that you can make with two squares. However, by adding squares, other "-ominoes" can be produced. Working with "-ominoes," the participants will have the opportunity to: use spatial visualization to build shapes develop strategies for finding new shapes test to find shapes that are flips and turns of other shapes reinforce their understanding of congruence by flipping and turning figures in order to compare them use "-ominoes" to fill given rectangular areas sort "-ominoes" according to their perimeter and look for patterns in their collected data. A unit on "-ominoes" can be developed through the use of materials such as color tiles, paper squares, the orange block in the pattern block set, interlocking cubes, or graph paper. Most "-ominoes" activities are best done where children work in groups of two to four, each group with its own set of materials. In that format, groups can explore the various problems independently. All activities should be conducted in an easy-going manner that encourages risks, good thinking, attentiveness and discussion of ideas. The atmosphere should be nonthreatening, non-punitive, and non-evaluative.

"-Ominoes" Rule:
At least 1 full side of each tile must touch 1 full side of another tile. Touching Not Touching Not Touching

Virginia Department of Education

Perimeter and Area Page 204

Related Geometry SOL:


Kindergarten K.11 The student will identify, describe, and draw two-dimensional (plane) geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle). K.12 The student will describe the location of one object relative to another (above, below, next to) and identify representations of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle) regardless of their position and orientation in space. K.13 The student will compare the size (larger/smaller) and shape of plane geometric figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle). Grade One 1.16 The student will draw, describe, and sort plane geometric figures (triangle, square, rectangle, and circle) according to number of sides, corners, and square corners. Grade Two 2.22 The student will compare and contrast plane and solid geometric shapes (circle/sphere, square/cube, and rectangle/rectangular solid). Grade Three 3.18 The student will analyze two-dimensional (plane) and three-dimensional (solid) geometric figures (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, cube, rectangular solid [prism], square pyramid, sphere, cone, and cylinder) and identify relevant properties, including the number of corners, square corners, edges and the number and shape of faces, using concrete models. 3.20 The student, given appropriate drawings or modes, will identify and describe congruent and symmetrical two-dimensional figures, using tracing procedures. Grade Four 4.17 The student will a) analyze and compare the properties of two-dimensional (plane) geometric figures (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, parallelogram, and rhombus) and threedimensional (solid) geometric figures (sphere, cube,, and rectangular solid [prism]); b) identify congruent and noncongruent shapes, and c) investigate congruence of plane figures after geometric transformations such as reflection (flip), translation (slide) and rotation (turn), using mirrors, paper folding, and tracing. Grade Five 5.15 The student, using two-dimensional (plane) figures (square, rectangle, triangle, parallelogram, rhombus, kite, and trapezoid) will a) recognize, identify, describe, and analyze their properties in order to develop definitions of their figures;
Virginia Department of Education Perimeter and Area Page 205

b) identify and explore congruent, noncongruent, and similar figures; c) investigate and describe the results of combining and subdividing shapes; d) identify and describe a line of symmetry; and e) recognize the images of figures resulting from geometric transformations such as translation (slide), reflection (flip), or rotation (turn).

4.13 The student will identify and describe situations representing the use of perimeter and will use measuring devices to find perimeter in both standard and nonstandard units of measure. 5.10 The student will differentiate between area, perimeter, and volume and identify whether the application of the concept of perimeter, area, or volume is appropriate for a given situation.

Related Measurement SOL:

Virginia Department of Education

Perimeter and Area Page 206

Activity: Format:

Dominoes and Triominoes


Small Group / Large Group

Description: Participants will use spatial visualization to build "-ominoes" with


two and three tiles. They will test to find shapes that are flips and turns of other shapes. After building dominoes and triominoes, participants will recognize congruent shapes and shapes that are flips and turns of other shapes. K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 3.20, 4.17, 5.15

Objectives:

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: domino, triomino, congruent, flip, turn Materials:


Tiles, Scissors, Graph Paper preferably with the same size squares as the tiles (Handout 5.1 has 1 inch squares.)

Time Required: Approximately 20 minutes Directions:


1) Show the participants a domino and ask them to describe everything they can about the domino. Putting two squares together, with full edges touching forms this shape. There is only one shape that you can make with two squares. Establish that its made up of two tiles and that each tile shares one complete side with the other side. 2) Ask the participants if they can find another way to arrange the two tiles so that every tile touches at least one complete side of another tile. They may describe the 90-degree rotation as different. As they discuss their strategies for determining whether or not two shapes are the same, you may want to informally introduce the terms flip and turn used in transformational geometry.

Virginia Department of Education

Dominoes & Triominoes Page 207

3) Ask the participants to arrange 3 tiles in as many ways as possible and to tell something about the shape. Establish that it is made up of three Color Tiles and that every tile shares at least one complete side with another tile. Tell them that this is called a triomino, noting that the "tri" stands for three like in triangle. 4) Ask the participants to find another way to arrange the three tiles so that every tile touches at least one complete side of another tile. Have volunteers who think they have found different shapes display them. 5) Model how to record the first shape on grid paper and cut it out. Then have the participants record and cut out their shapes. Collect the cutout shapes, making two piles, one for each of the two possible arrangements. Show how, by flipping or turning the pieces in each pile, you can fit them over each other exactly to make a neat stack.

Virginia Department of Education

Dominoes & Triominoes Page 208

One-Inch Grid Paper

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 5.1 Page 209

Activity: Format:

Tetrominoes
Small Group / Large Group

Description: Participants will use spatial visualization to build "tetrominoes" with


four tiles, testing for shapes that are flip and turns of other shapes.

Objectives:

While building tetrominoes, participants will develop strategies for finding new shapes and reinforce their understanding of congruence by flipping and turning figures to compare them. K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 3.20, 4.17, 5.15

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: tetromino, congruent, flip, turn, regular tetromino, irregular


tetromino, regular polygon

Materials:

Tiles, Scissors, Handout 5.1 (or grid paper with the same size squares as the tiles), Handout 5.2 (Sorting Mat), Transparencies 5.1 and 5.2, and Paste (optional)

Time Required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions:


1) Ask the participants to work in pairs. Pass out at least 30 Color Tiles per pair, scissors, Handouts 5.1 and 5.2. Ask each participant to make a shape with 4 Color Tiles that follows the rule that at least 1 full side of each tile must touch 1 full side of another tile. These shapes are called tetrominoes. 2) Ask the partners to compare their shapes. If both made the same shape, have them copy it only once onto the grid paper and cut it out. If they made 2 different shapes, have them copy and cut out both shapes. Ask the participants how many different shapes they think they can make with 4 Color Tiles. 3) Ask the participants to make more shapes with 4 Color Tiles. Each time they should compare the shapes and record and cut out each different shape. The partners should continue until neither can think of any new shapes to make and then count all their different shapes, recording that number.

Virginia Department of Education

Tetrominoes Page 210

4) To promote thinking and sharing, use prompts such as these to promote class discussion: How did you and your partner decide whether or not your shapes were different? (Be sure to discuss flips and turns and congruency here.) Did you use any of you old shapes to find new ones? If so, how did you do this? How did you know that you found all of the different shapes? How many different shapes are there? (5) 5) Invite participants to determine which of the tetrominoes are regular and which are irregular. (Regular tetrominoes are those that are squares or rectangles, while irregulars are not.) This is another way to reinforce the attributes of squares and rectangles. You might contrast this use of the "regular" with its more general meaning. A regular polygon is a polygon that has all congruent sides and all congruent angles. So a rectangle is a regular tetromino, but not a regular polygon. A square is both a regular tetromino and a regular polygon. With teachers, be sure to point out that the definition of regular tetromino is actually redundant because since a square is a type of rectangle, it would be enough to say that a regular tetromino is a rectangle. (Ask at what level this distinction should be discussed with students.) Invite participants to come to the front of the class and place their tetrominoes into one of the categories on Transparency 5.2 and give the reason for their decision. 6) Have participants trace or glue their tetrominoes into the appropriate columns on Handout 5.2.

Virginia Department of Education

Tetrominoes Page 211

Tetrominoes

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.1 Page 212

Sorting Tetrominoes
Sort your shapes into regular tetrominoes and irregular tetrominoes. If an arrangement of squares does not form a rectangle or a square, then it is irregular. Trace or paste the tetrominoes into the proper column below. Regular Tetrominoes Irregular Tetrominoes ________________________________________ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
Virginia Department of Education
Transparency 5.2 Page 213

Sorting Tetrominoes
Sort your shapes into regular tetrominoes and irregular tetrominoes. If an arrangement of squares does not form a rectangle or a square, then it is irregular. Trace or paste the tetrominoes into the proper column below.

Regular Tetrominoes Irregular Tetrominoes ________________________________________ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |


Virginia Department of Education
Handout 5.2 Page 214

Activity: Format:

Pentominoes
Small Group / Large Group

Description: Participants will use spatial visualization to build "pentominoes"


with five tiles, testing for shapes that are flip and turns of other shapes.

Objectives:

While building pentominoes, participants will develop strategies for finding new shapes and reinforce their understanding of congruence by flipping and turning figures in order to compare them. K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 3.20, 4.17, 5.15

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: pentomino, congruent, flip, turn Materials:


Tiles, Scissors, Handout 5.1 (or grid paper with the same size squares as the tiles), Transparencies 5.3 and 5.4, and envelopes or plastic baggies

Time Required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions:


1) Hand out the materials and ask the participants to: a) On their own, use 5 Color Tiles to find all the possible pentominoes. A pentomino is a shape made of 5 squares, each of which has at least 1 full side touching 1 full side of another square. b) With a partner, use 5 Color Tiles of 1 color to make a pentomino. Record the pentomino on graph paper. Then make a different pentomino. Keep on making and recording pentominoes until you cannot make any more that are different. c) Cut out the pentominoes. Compare them by flipping and turning them to see if any match exactly. If you find a match, keep only one of them.

Virginia Department of Education

Pentominoes Page 215

d) Number your pentominoes and put them in an envelope. Write the number on the envelope. Exchange envelopes with another pair. Check their pentominoes to see that none of them are the same. Mark any that you think are exactly the same. Return the envelopes. Check your envelope to see if any duplicates were found. e) Talk about ways you could sort your pentominoes. 2) Ask one or two pairs to post their pentominoes in an organized way. Note the organizations, then discuss each of the posted pentominoes. Point out any duplicates and figures that are not pentominoes. Call on volunteers to supply any missing pentominoes. Use prompts such as these to promote class discussion: Do you think that you have found all possible pentominoes? Explain. In what ways do the arrangements differ from one another? What strategies did you use to make new pentominoes from your old ones? Did you find any patterns while making your pentominoes? Did you use these patterns when sorting them? How? Did you sort the pentominoes according to the letters of the alphabet that they resemble? (Use Transparency 5.3 to illustrate.) Did sorting your pentominoes help you find others that were missing? If so, explain. 3) Ask the participants to predict which shapes they think will fold up to make topless boxes. Have them put their shapes into two groups: those they do not think will make boxes and those they think will. 4) Have the student fold their shapes to test their predictions. Transparency 5.4 gives the solution.

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Pentominoes Page 216

The Pentomino "Alphabet"


F I L N P T U

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.3 Page 217

Which pentominoes fold up into an open top box?

10

11

12

Shapes 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, and 12 fold up into an open top box.

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.4 Page 218

Activity: Format:

Areas with Pentominoes


Small Group / Large Group

Description: Participants will use "-ominoes" to fill given rectangular areas Objectives: Related SOL:
Participants will enrich their understanding of area by covering various shapes with pentominoes. K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 3.20, 4,13, 5.10

Vocabulary: area, perimeter, square units, and symmetry Materials:


Handout 5.3, scissors and envelopes or plastic baggies or Sets of pentominoes made in previous activity, Handouts 5.4, 5.5, and 5.6, Transparencies 5.5, 5.6, and 5.7.

Time Required: Approximately 25 minutes Directions:


1) Ask the participants to get out the pentominoes that they made in the previous activity or have them carefully cut out a set from Handout 5.3. 2) Invite the participants to take some of their pentominoes and see if they can fit together like jigsaw puzzle pieces. Point out that there are usually several ways to combine pentominoes to fill a given area.

Virginia Department of Education

Areas with Pentominoes Page 219

For example,

can be made by combining

and

like this

or in several other ways.

3) Pass out Handout 5.4 and have the participants fill in the 3 x 5 and 4 x 5 areas with pentominoes. Use Transparency 5.5 to show an example. Ask them to keep a record of their work on a separate piece of graph paper. Have them compare their results with the answer keys (Handouts 5.5 and 5.6, Transparencies 5.6 and 5.7). 4) Ask the participants how many square units there are in each pentomino (5). Ask them to find the pentomino with the largest perimeter and the pentomino with the smallest perimeter. Discuss how shapes with the same area can have different perimeters. 5) Ask participants how many square units there are in all 12 pentominoes combined (60). Have them design a symmetrical shape with an area equal to 60 square units and then see if it can be completely filled in with all twelve pentominoes. Share.

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Areas with Pentominoes Page 220

Rectangle Puzzles

3x5

4x5

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.5 Page 221

3 x 5 Puzzle Solutions

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Transparency 5.6 Page 222

4 x 5 Puzzle Solutions

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.7 Page 223

PATTERNS FOR PENTOMINOES

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 5.3 Page 224

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 5.3 Page 225

Rectangle Puzzles
1) Choose pentominoes to fill in the two rectangles. You do not have to use all of the pieces to fill in the rectangle. Fill another using the pieces over again. 2) When you have filled in a rectangle, trace each pentomino in its place to make a record of your solution and compare your solutions with others. 3) Are there any pentominoes that cannot be used in filling the rectangles? Why? 4) How many ways can you fill in the 4 x 5 rectangle?

3 x 5 Puzzle

4 x 5 Puzzle

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 5.4 Page 226

3 x 5 Puzzle Solutions

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 5.5 Page 227

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Handout 5.6 Page 228

Activity: Format:

Hexominoes
Small Group / Large Group

Description: Participants will use spatial visualization to build "hexominoes"


with six tiles, testing for shapes that are flip and turns of other shapes.

Objectives:

While building hexominoes, participants will develop strategies for finding new shapes and reinforce their understanding of congruence by flipping and turning figures in order to compare them. K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.22, 3.18, 3.20, 4.17, 5.15

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: hexomino, congruent, flip, turn Materials:


Tiles, Scissors, graph paper, Transparency 5.8, and envelopes or plastic baggies

Time Required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions:


1) Hand out the materials and ask the participants to: a) On their own or working with a partner, use 6 Color Tiles to find all the possible hexominoes. A hexomino is a shape made of 6 squares, each of which has at least 1 full side touching 1 full side of another square. b) Record each hexomino on graph paper. When you think you have found all the hexominoes cut them out. Check to make sure that each hexomino is different from all the others. c) How many hexominoes did you find? (35) Number them on the back and put them in an envelope. Write your names and the number of hexominoes on the envelope.

Virginia Department of Education

Hexominoes Page 229

d) Exchange envelopes with another pair. Check that none of their hexominoes are duplicates of one another. Mark any two that you think are exactly the same. Return the envelopes. Check your envelope to see if any duplicates were found. e) Decide on a way you can sort your hexominoes. 2) Ask one or two pairs to post their hexominoes in an organized way. Use prompts such as these to promote class discussion: Do you think that you have found all possible hexominoes? Why or why not? In what ways do the hexominoes differ from one another? Did you use a strategy to find new shapes? If so, what? Note: one strategy is that they could start with each of the pentominoes and place one additional tile in each location around the perimeter of each pentomino to generate all of the hexominoes. Did you find any patterns while making your hexominoes? Did you use these patterns when sorting them? If so, how? Did sorting your hexominoes help you find others that were missing? If so, explain.

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Hexominoes Page 230

Hexominoes

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.8 Page 231

2Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.8 Page 232

2Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.8 Page 233

Activity: Format:

Perimeters with Hexominoes


Small Group / Large Group

Description: Participants will sort "hexominoes" according to their perimeters


and look for patterns in their collected data.

Objectives: Related SOL:

While sorting their hexominoes, participants will develop a better understanding of perimeter and area. K.11, K.12, K.13, 1.16, 2.20, 3.18, 3.20, 4.13, 5.10

Vocabulary: hexomino, perimeter, area, congruent Materials:


Hexominoes from previous activity and Transparency 5.9

Time Required: Approximately 15 minutes Directions:


1) Ask the participants how they would determine the perimeter of each hexomino. Have them sort all of the hexominoes according to their perimeter and then look for patterns in the collected data. Example Patterns: there are no odd numbered perimeters all hexominoes with perimeter 12 include a large square made up of four small squares all hexominoes with perimeter 12 include a rectangle made up of three squares all hexominoes with perimeter 14 include a rectangle made up of two squares none of the hexominoes with perimeter 14 include a large square made up of four small squares 2) Ask the participants what the area of each hexomino is. Ask how two shapes can have the same area but different perimeters.

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Perimeters with Hexominoes Page 234

Perimeters of Hexominoes
10 11 12 13 14

All Others

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.9 Page 235

Key Idea: Perimeter and Area, Part II Description: Participants will explore the relationship between area and
perimeter by creating various shapes with the same perimeter and different areas or the same area and different perimeter using both one-inch cubes and geoboards. They will also find the areas of rectangles and triangles by counting squares covered by the figures on a geoboard and then develop formulas for area.

Related Geometry SOL:


Grade Two 2.13 The student, given grid paper, will estimate and then count the number of square units needed to cover a given surface in order to determine area. Grade Three 3.5 The student will a) divide regions and sets to represent a fraction: and b) name and write the fractions represented by a given model (area/region, length/measurement, and set). Fractions (including mixed numbers) will include halves, thirds, fourths, eighths, and tenths. 3.18 The student will analyze two-dimensional (plane) and three-dimensional (solid) geometric figures (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, cube, rectangular solid [prism], square pyramid, sphere, cone, and cylinder) and identify relevant properties, including the number of corners, square corners, edges and the number and shape of faces, using concrete models. Grade Four 4.16 The student will identify and draw representations of lines that illustrate intersection, parallelism, and perpendicularity. 4.21 The student will recognize, create, and extend numerical and geometric patterns, using concrete materials, number lines, symbols, tables, and words. Grade Five 5.8 The student will describe and determine the perimeter of a polygon and the area of a square, rectangle, and right triangle, given the appropriate measures.

Related Measurement SOL:

4.13 The student will identify and describe situations representing the use of perimeter and will use measuring devices to find perimeter in both standard and nonstandard units of measure.

Virginia Department of Education

Perimeter & Area, Part II: Introduction Page 236

5.10 The student will differentiate between area, perimeter, and volume and identify whether the application of the concept of perimeter, area, or volume is appropriate for a given situation.

Virginia Department of Education

Perimeter & Area, Part II: Introduction Page 237

Activity : Format:

The Perimeter Is 24 Inches. What's The Area?


Small Group

Description: Participants find out how many different rectangular arrays

they can make that have a perimeter of 24 inches, check their work with a 24 inch strip of paper, and determine the area of each.

Objective:

Participants will differentiate between perimeter and area, and determine the perimeter and area of various rectangles.

Related SOL's: 4.13, 5.8, and 5.10 Vocabulary: Perimeter, area, rectangle, rectangular array, collar Materials:
24 inch paper strip (collar), 38 one inch cubes, graph paper 1 Handout 5.1 has 1 inch squares; Handout 5.7 has 2 inch squares.), and Transparencies 5.10 or 5.11.

Time Required: Approximately 10 minutes Directions:


1) Organize the participants into teams of 2 or 3. 2) Ask the teams to find out how many different rectangular arrays they can make that have a perimeter of 24 inches. Have them make the arrays with the cubes and have them check the perimeter with a 24 inch collar. What is the area of each? 3) Once they find a rectangular array, have them draw its representation on the graph paper and write the perimeter and area for each array.

Virginia Department of Education

What's the Area? Page 238

One-Inch Graph Paper

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.10 Page 239

One-Half Inch Graph Paper

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.11 Page 240

One-Half Inch Graph Paper

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 5.7 Page 241

Activity: Format:
Description:

The Area Is 24 Square Inches, What Is The Perimeter?


Small group Participants find out how many different rectangular arrays they can make that have an area of 24 square inches, checking their work with 24 one inch cubes, and determining the perimeter of each. Participants will differentiate between the perimeter and area, and will determine the perimeter and area of various rectangles.

Objective:

Related SOL: 4.13, 5.8, 5.10 Vocabulary: perimeter, area, rectangular array Materials:
24 one-inch cubes, graph paper (Handout 5.1 has 1 inch 1 squares; Handout 5.7 has inch squares.), and 2 Transparencies 5.10 or 5.11.

Time required: Approximately 10 minutes


Directions:

1) Organize the participants into teams of 2 or 3. 2) Ask the participants to find out how many different rectangular arrays they can make that have an area of 24 square inches. What is the perimeter of each? 3) Once they find a rectangular array of 24 square inches, have them draw its representation on the graph paper and write the perimeter and area for each array.

Virginia Department of Education

What's the Perimeter? Page 242

Activity: Format:

Change The Area


Small group should then change the figure to make 5 different shapes that have the same area and different perimeters, recording the shapes on dot paper with their areas and perimeters.

Description: Participants make a particular shape on the geoboard. They

Objective:

Participants will differentiate between perimeter and area and determine the perimeter and area of various shapes without dependence on formulas.

Related SOL: 4.13, 5.8, 5.10 Vocabulary: perimeter, area Materials:


square geoboards, rubber bands, Handout 5.8 and Transparency 5.12

Time required: Approximately 10 minutes Directions:


1) Organize the participants into teams of two or three. 2) Have them copy this figure on the geoboard and onto dot paper, labeling its area and perimeter.

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3) Have the participants change the figure to make another shape that has the same area and a larger perimeter, recording it on dot paper with its area and perimeter. 4) Have the participants change the figure to make another shape that has the same area and a smaller perimeter, recording it on dot paper with its area and perimeter. 5) Have the participants make three more shapes that have different perimeters but the same area, recording them on dot paper. Ask them "What do you notice?" Virginia Department of Education
Change the Area Page 243

Geoboard Dot Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

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Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

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Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.12 Page 244

Geoboard Dot Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

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Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

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Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

Perimeter: _______ Area: __________

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 5.8 Page 245

Key Idea: Coordinate Geometry Description: Participants will learn how to label and use order pairs of positive numbers on a coordinate grid.

Related Geometry SOL:


Fourth Grade 4.18 The student will identify the ordered pair for a point and locate the point for an ordered pair in the first quadrant of a coordinate plane.

Virginia Department of Education

Coordinate Geometry: Introduction Page 246

Activity: Format:

Hurkle
Small Group

Description: One student hides the "Hurkle" on a number line for a second

student to find. Extensions include using vertical number lines, horizontal number lines, number lines extending from -5 to +5 Participants will review number lines through a simple warmup exercise. 4.18

Objectives: Related SOL:

Vocabulary: Hurkle, number line, horizontal, vertical, positive and negative


numbers

Materials:

Transparencies 5.13, 5.14, & 5.15 and Handouts 5.9, 5.10, & 5.11

Time Required: Approximately 10 minutes Directions:


1) Have the first student draw a number line with 0 as the left endpoint and 10 as the right endpoint. 2) The second student should write down a whole number between 0 and 10 where the first student can't see it. This number represents the location where the "Hurkle" is hiding. 3) The first student tries to guess the number with the second student responding "higher", "lower", or "perfect". 4) Repeat several times, alternating roles, and using vertical number lines, horizontal number lines, and number lines extending from -5 to +5. Note: This warm-up is a non-computer version of the excellent old MECC program Hurkle for the Apple II and very early MS-DOS computers.

Virginia Department of Education

Hurkle Page 247

Find the Hidden Hurkle

10

10

10

10

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.13 Page 248

Find the Hidden Hurkle

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.14 Page 249

Find the Hidden Hurkle

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.15 Page 250

Find the Hidden Hurkle

10

10

10

10

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 5.9 Page 251

Find the Hidden Hurkle

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 5.10 Page 252

Find the Hidden Hurkle

-5

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-3

-2

-1

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-5

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Virginia Department of Education

Handout 5.11 Page 253

Activity: Format:

Battleship
Small Group

Description: Each player hides various ships on a grid. The players take turns
calling out coordinates to locate and sink their opponent's ships. Participants will practice naming and locating coordinates on a two-dimensional grid. 4.18

Objectives: Related SOL:

Vocabulary: rectangle, coordinate, grid, ordered pair Materials:


Transparency 5.16 and Handout 5.12

Time Required: Approximately 10 minutes Directions:


1) Battleship is a game for two players. Each student marks the following ships on their coordinate grid (Handout 5.12), hidden from the view of the opposing player: PT boat: 1 X 1 square submarine: 2 x 1 rectangle destroyer: 3 x 1 rectangle cruiser: 4 x 1 rectangle battleship: 5 x 1 rectangle 2) The players take turns calling out the coordinates of a square they wish to "fire" at on their opponent's grid. Player 1 names a coordinate. If a ship lies on the coordinate named on Player 2's grid, Player 2 says, "Hit." If no ship lies on the named coordinate, Player 2 says, "Miss." The players take turns calling out the coordinates of a square they wish to "fire" at on their opponent's grid. 3) Players can mark the hits and misses on their grids. They sink a ship when then have hit all of its coordinate points. 4) The winner is the first player to sink all of his opponent's ships.

Virginia Department of Education

Battleship Page 254

Sink the Ships!


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.16 Page 255

Sink the Ships!


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 5.12 Page 256

Activity: Format:

Two-Dimensional Hurkle
Small Group

Description: One student hides the "Hurkle" on a 10 x 10 coordinate plane for


a second student to find.

Objectives:

Participants will learn how to label points on a coordinate grid with an ordered pair of positive numbers and develop problem strategies for finding hidden points. 4.18

Related SOL:

Vocabulary: Hurkle, ordered pair, coordinates Materials:


Transparency 5.17 and Handout 5.12

Time Required: Approximately 10 minutes Directions:


1) Divide the participants into pairs 2) The first student should write down an ordered pair of numbers, each between 0 and 10 where the other student can't see it. This ordered pair represents the location where the "Hurkle" is hiding. 3) The second student tries to guess the ordered pair with the second student responding "go right", "go left and down", "go up", "perfect", etc. 4) Repeat several times, alternating roles Note: This activity is a further adaptation of the MECC program Hurkle for the Apple II and very early MS-DOS computers.

Virginia Department of Education

Two-Dimensional Hurkle Page 257

Find the Hidden Hurkle!


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Virginia Department of Education

Transparency 5.17 Page 258

Find the Hidden Hurkle!


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Virginia Department of Education

Handout 5.13 Page 259