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Farming a Few Acres of Herbs: An Herb Growers Handbook

by Rhonda Janke, Jeanie DeArmond, and David Coltrain Dept. of Horticulture, Forestry, and Recreation Resources, and Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Kansas State University

SECTION I. OVERVIEW

Why Grow Herbs?

There are many possible reasons that someone may want to grow herbs. One reason might be to have a few plants around the yard for personal use, for culinary or medicinal purposes. At the other end of the spectrum, some have heard that high prices are being offered for some herb products, and see this as a potential high value cash crop for the whole farm.

Medicinal Herbs in Kansas?

The production and marketing of medicinal herbs is being explored by some Kansas agricultural producers. Producers may be looking at alternative crops because of the current low prices of many traditional commodity crops. This interest is shared by many across the country as well as across the world including Canada, Australia and South Africa. Developing countries such as China, India, Thailand, South Korea, Brazil, Mexico, Egypt, Indonesia, Kenya and the Philippines grow a variety of medicinal herbs. European and Mediterranean countries also grow herbs, but are net importers.[1]

Medicinal plants have been used throughout history. Presently, 35,000 different plant species are used for medicinal purposes.[2] In the U.S., consumer interest in medicinal herbs continues to increase. Herbs are sold as capsules, tablets, extracts and teas and included as healthy ingredients in conventional foods. Extensive consumer polling shows consumers are

increasing their acceptance and understanding of dietary supplements, including herbs. The natural foods market has the largest selection with hundreds of products including whole herbs, tinctures, extracts and standardized products.

The global retail market for medicinal herbs is $14 billion. The demand for medicinal herbs in the U.S. currently has a retail value over $4 billion per year. Retail sales in the U.S. increased regularly from 1994 until 1998 and have since leveled off and little change has occurred over the past three years. Sales in 2000 when compared with 1999, have increased slightly in natural food and health food stores, but decreased in food stores, drugs stores and mass market retailers.[3] While the demand has stabilized, the supply of medicinal herbs has increased. Markets are overstocked with raw materials with an overall theme of oversupply and low demand.[4] A significant market risk is associated with growing any medicinal herb because of limited markets. Current demand can be quickly met by over production. For example, the price for Echinacea roots has been as low as $2.50 per pound of dried root in the last three years, which compares with over $20 per pound in 1998. The current market price range is $6-8 per pound.[5]

The potential for herb production is unclear because of: an uncertain market size low cost producers who dominate world production market information is difficult to access a lack of quality control procedures oftentimes agronomic information for different herbs is not available the position of the medical communitys acceptance[6]

Kansas does have an ideal climate to grow many herbs since many medicinal herbs are native species. Kansas State Universitys Department of Horticulture is conducting research trials to see how various herbs perform in Kansas. This research has the potential to provide insight about the relative advantages in raising superior herbs for Kansas producers when compared with production in other states and other parts of the world. Details from our research trials may be found in Appendix A of this publication. Recent price ranges for several herbs are found in Appendix B.

Do medicinal herbs have potential as an alternative crop in Kansas? For individuals willing to invest significant time, effort and capital, the answer is a cautious maybe. It is certainly not a get rich quick crop. The long-term answer for some may involve becoming a low cost, efficient producer. For others, it will entail selling smaller amounts of high quality product at the best price possible. For a few others, it may mean developing a value-added product, like an herb tea blend, or line of herb tinctures.

A word of caution is in order here for someone wanting to get rich quick. Yes, at some times, there are good prices, for some herbs. However, the prices fluctuate from year to year and season to season, and the high prices dont usually stay high for long. Secondly, contracts are generally needed to obtain those high prices, and these are secured after your track record as a grower is established, and you have a working relationship with one or more buyers. And finally, herbs are a high value crop, but are also a high input crop. These inputs include not only seed, land, fertility, and pest control, but some herbs also require a lot of hand labor as compared to other crops, and harvesting and post-harvest handling labor and quality control procedures can be expensive. Also, the trend for herb production is for organic certification, and there are costs to this service, including membership dues, inspectors fees, and the learning curve and 3-year transition period required before certification is granted.

In spite of these cautions, we feel that herbs have the potential to be an additional cash crop for Kansas farmers. Because these are high value crops, a farm can range from acre to1000+ acres in size. Since these are relatively new crops, beginning farmers are encouraged to try these, as well as farmers with experience in other crops. The term herb actually simply means a plant, and so more detail is needed to describe the production and marketing requirements of this diverse family. In fact, the production and harvesting requirements for herbs is probably even more diverse than that of fruits and vegetables, which also involves diverse equipment. For example, you wouldnt grow and harvest a watermelon the same way you grow and harvest a carrot.

The following sections will go into more detail, and will emphasize both the economic and agronomic, or specific growing requirements for herbs. Marketing strategies will be separated into local direct marketing, and growing for a marketing chain or network. Agronomic practices will include information on how the plant is harvested, since harvesting equipment will limit what is grown on an individual farm more than planting or weeding equipment. Root crops are probably the most labor intensive to grow, since they may require several seasons to reach a marketable size, and digging equipment, washing equipment, as well as drying equipment or space are needed. Plants harvested for their above-ground biomass (tops) may be harvested by hand, or mechanized, but drying equipment or space will be needed. Some of these plants may

be harvested once, and others are perennials, from which multiple harvests can be obtained, similar to an alfalfa or grass hay crop. Some herb crops can be grown for their flowers or seeds. Flowers are probably too labor intensive to be grown as a U.S. crop, since these crops are already grown in other countries where labor is less expensive, and it is unlikely a U.S. could compete at prices now on the market. However, some seed crop harvests can be mechanized, and growers may want to consider some of these. Also, some seed crops are from annuals, which must be replanted, but others are from perennials, with the possibility for multiple harvests.

As much as possible, Kansas data and experience will be used to illustrate the potential for some species to become crops in Kansas. Currently, more than 30 different herbs are being tested in experimental plots at 4 locations in Kansas. Data from the 2000 through 2002 growing seasons are available now, and found in this bulletin. Also, grower experiences from Kansas and the Great Plains will be shared, since this will supplement, and complement the field trial experimental data.

A. Herbs for Local Markets (Direct Marketing)

A wide variety of herbs can be grown and direct marketed locally, at farmers markets, or to local shops and stores. These include culinary herbs (herbs used in for cooking), herbs for teas, salves, and other medicinal uses, and herbs or plants used for decoration or floral design. Most of this bulletin will focus on medicinal herbs, since this is an active area of inquiry, and one for which we get many requests for information. However, herbs for other uses will be covered briefly in this section.

Herbs used for cooking can be harvested and sold fresh in bunches or packets, or dried and sold. Dried herbs however are going to compete with the international market, where labor is cheap, while the fresh herbs are not usually over-supplied and under-priced. The following table lists some culinary herbs that grow well under Kansas conditions.

Table 1. Culinary Herbs

Common Name

Latin Name

Part Used

Comments

Annuals Basil (many sub-types) Corriander Dill Garlic Perennials Chives

Ocimum basilicum

Leaf

Coriandrum sativum Anethum graveolens Allium sativum

Leaf and seed Leaf and seed bulb

can sell fresh in large quantities for pesto, best if can avoid refrigeration also called Cilantro when used green. many uses besides pickles plant cloves in fall for June/July harvest (winter annual) primarily used for garnish, but also adds flavor, purple flower flat leaved cousin of chives from Japan, white flower, great in salad and stir-fry tender perennial, must be brought inside for the winter in pots. similar to oregano in flavor, though not as strong. many varieties, adds flavor to many dishes, not just for tea the Greek oregano is the one used for pizza. Another species, Lippia graveolens is sold in the US as oregano, also called Mexican oregano. this plant has medicinal as well as culinary uses, flat-leaved (Italian) type best for cooking, curly leaf used more for garnish tender perennial, must be brought inside for the winter in a pot or as cuttings. medicinal as well as culinary uses French Tarragon is recommended for its flavor. Russian tarragon may be easier to grow, but lacks the flavor. medicinal as well as culinary uses, small leaves will strip off the stem easily when dried.

Allium schoenoprasum Garlic Chives Allium tuberosum

leaf and flower leaf

Lemongrass

Cymbopogon citratus

Marjorum

Mint Oregano

Origanum vulgare (sometimes listed as Marjorana hortensis) Mentha spp. Origanum vulgare hirtum

Inner core of leaf whorl. leaf/flower

leaf leaf

Parsley

Petroselinum crispum

leaf (root also medicinal) leaf

Rosemary

Rosmarinus officinalis

Sage Tarragon

Salvia officinalis Artemisia dracunculus sativa

leaf leaf

Thyme

Thymus vulgaris

leaf

A second category of herbs that are relatively easy to grow, harvest and sell to a local market would be those used for teas. These herb teas may simply be a pleasant beverage, have medicinal properties, or both. Precautions should be taken when growing any medicinal plant to have the correct species, and avoid plants with potentially toxic side effects. The species listed below are generally considered safe, and are widely used. However, some individuals may have sensitivities or allergies, and should be careful when trying new products. For more information on herb tea, see MF-2579, "Home Grown Herbs for Home Use."

Table 2. Herbs Commonly Used in Herb Tea.

Common Name Annuals ChamomileGerman ChamomileRoman Stevia

Latin Name

Part Used

Comments

Matricaria chamomilla Chamaemelum nobile Stevia rebaudiana

flower flower leaf

Best one for tea. More often used as an oil. Is 300 times sweeter than sugar. Only need a little bit of this. Can be used as fresh or dried leaf, though an extract is sold commercially. mild flavor, often overlooked healthful plant strong but pleasant flavor, great butterfly plant too. not just for cats anymore! great for tea. Recently issued warnings of liver damage with prolonged use. Might not want to sell this one commercially. Can be slightly bitter in tea, but

Perennials Alfalfa Leaf Bergamot Catnip Comfrey

Medicago sativa Monarda fistulosa Rhamnus purshiana Symphytum officinale

leaf leaf/flower leaf leaf

Dandelion

Taraxacum officinale

leaf/root

Hibiscus Flowers Lemon Balm Lemon Verbenba Lemongrass

Hibiscus sabdariffa Melissa officinalis Aloysia triphylla Cymbopogon citratus

flower leaf leaf leaf

has many health promoting properties; best in a blend with other herbs. Adds color and tartness to tea. Medicinal, as well as nice flavor. Bring inside during the winter. Tender perennial. Also a tender perennial. Bring inside. These will spread. Adds sweet flavor to tea. Not recommended for people with high blood pressure. These will also spread. The classic tea plant. Available in flavors, including chocolate.

Licorice Root Glycyrrhiza glabra, root Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese), Glycyrrhiza lipedita (N. Am.) Mint (several Mentha piperita leaf types) (peppermint) Mentha spicata (spearmint) Rubus idaeus Trifolium pratense Rosa canina Urtica dioica

Raspberry Leaf Red Clover flowers Rosehips Stinging Nettle Yarrow

leaf flower fruit leaf

Achillea millefolium

leaf

Included in many "women's teas," worth looking in to. Also popular in women's teas, has some estrogenic properties contain vit. C, may need to boil slightly to extract flavor mineral rich and flavorful tea, sometimes recommended as a spring tonic. surprisingly nice tea.

A third group of herbs could be grown for use in salves, creams, or other topical uses. Infused oils, salves, and creams are not difficult to make. One can learn how to make them from a class or from several available books. Some of the herbs can also be used internally, and some cannot, so become familiar with each plant and its uses. Some recommended herbs for Kansas include:

Table 3. Herbs for home-made salves and creams.

Common

Latin Name

Part Used

Comments

Name Annuals Callendula Chickweed Perennials Aloe

Calendula officinalis Stellaria media Aloe barbadensis

flower leaf leaf

high resin varieties available, pick when flower is at its prime Harvest when young and tender. Mucilagenous gel in the fresh leaf used in hand creams and other products. Grow indoors as a house plant, or set out during summer months for rapid growth. Difficult in Kansas. Prefers an alpine environment, but is in high demand from herbalists. easy to grow, wild type also found in Kansas Easy to grow, propagate by root divisions Easy to grow, will spread. Essential oil1 or infused oil2 of mint more likely in skin products than whole leaf. This common sidewalk weed often used for skin ailments. Often found in skin creams and oils, as well as for internal use.

Arnica

Arnica montana

leaf

Burdock Comfrey Mint

Arctium lappa Symphytum officinale Mentha spp.

root/leaf leaf/root leaf

Plantain St. John's Wort

Plantago lanceolata, P. leaf major Hypericum perforatum flowers

Essential oil has been extracted through the use of heat and pressure, usually involving a steam distillation process. These oils are highly concentrated, and used in very small quantities, like a few drops. These are usually not made at home, but could if one had a distillation unit. When sold commercially, these bring a very high price, or are sometimes diluted, and sold at a lower price.
2

Infused oil can easily be made at home, using a process of soaking the fresh or dried herb in olive or other vegetable oil. See reference section for books that describe the process in more detail.

A fourth group of herbs that could be grown and sold locally include those for fragrance, dried flower arrangements, potpourri, or other similar decorative uses. Some of these are harvested on a commercial scale for their essential oils. However, this is only economically feasible in regions where a processing plant already exists, or where enough growers are

concentrated in one area to jointly support processing. This market is already somewhat mature, or saturated, and so we do not see this being a competitive area for new growers to get into on a large scale. However, on a small scale with local markets, these have potential to return a profit to small growers. These may not be safe for internal use, but a few of these are on the other lists and have internal uses; for example, mint.

Table 4. Herbs for fragrance, oils, and decorative uses.

Common Name Perennials Bergamot Bittersweet

Latin Name

Part Used

Comments

Monarda fistuolosa Solanum dulcamara

flower/leaf vine/berries

Lavendar Mints Orris Root Patchouli Pine cones

Lavandula angustifolia flower/leaf Mentha spp. Iris germanica var. florentina Pogostemon patchouli Pinus spp. leaf root leaf cone

Rattlesnake Master Roses

Eryngium yuccafolium whole plant Rosa spp. Rosa canina (rosehips) rosa centifolia Rosa gallica Rosmarinus officinalis Pelargonium spp. flower petals and buds

Flowers and leaves may be dried. Can be harvested from the wild in KS, primarily used for decoration now, but also has medicinal properties. Dried flowers and stems are used. Many types available. The dried root of this variety is fragrant. Tender perennial. Many types may be collected and added to potpourri mixtures. Unusual native plant in found only in virgin prairie. Many types, old fashioned musk type have the most aromatic petals. Rosehips, petals, or whole flowers may be dried and preserved.

Rosemary Scented Geraniums

leaf/flower leaf

Decorative as well as useful culinary and medicinal herb. Many types available

Sumac

Rhus glabra

berries

White sage Yarrow

Salvia apiana Achillea millefolium

leaf and stem leaf and flower

Sumac berries may be used in tea or decoration. Woody plant, wild in great plains. Used for incense or potpourri, not cooking. Flowers dry nicely for arrangements

Any of the herbs sold by direct marketing can be promoted in a variety of ways. Herbs are placed in the category by the FDA as dietary supplements, which are a class separate from food and also from drugs. There are some special rules that apply. First of all, health claims cannot be made about the herbs. As with food items, all herbs sold should be clean, well labeled, and sold un-processed, unless you have a certified commercial kitchen, and/or have sought out the advice of your local or state health department.

Attractive labels can be made for the herbs, whether sold fresh or dried, with the name, culinary uses, and some information about the folk uses of the herb. Reference books can also be kept handy, so that the customer can look up the herbs and read about possible uses for themselves. That also takes you out of the risky role of unlicensed health care provider.

Recipes are also nice for people trying out new culinary herbs for the first time, and tea blends or suggestions of blends of herbs for tea can also be made when direct marketing. Other marketing ideas include bringing in a speaker for your local garden club or farmers' market association to talk about herbs, and to write articles about herbs for local newspapers or newsletters. When selling herbs, the more educated the consumer, the better off you are. It will help them to know how to safely use herbs, and also how important it is to find the highest quality, fresh (and if possible local) source of herbs.

B. Herbs for Commercial Markets

Deciding which herbs to grow for the commercial market may be much tougher than for the local, direct market. For a local market, one can try out a few things, see what the customer

likes, educate the consumer about other possible products, and get pretty far through trial and error. For the commercial market, the grower is several steps away from the end consumer, and must be aware not only of what consumers want, but what the manufacturers, and hence the buyers for the manufacturers want. Also, there is a lot of competition in the commercial market, both from with the U.S., and even more, from other countries. An herb that must be hand harvested, or is time consuming to grow will probably have an advantage in another country. Herbs that grow in tropical climates will not be considered here, except for those that may be grown successfully in unheated greenhouses, or tender tropical perennials that could be grown as annuals. For example, Stevia, originally from the tropical area of Paraguay, does very well in Kansas as an annual (see MF-2630 later in this handbook).

Over 30 herbs have been screened for their production potential in field test plots in Kansas. Results for herbs screened for two years or more are found in Appendix A., which is a compilation of fact sheets for each species. As more species are evaluated, new fact sheets will be written. Table 5. summarizes our results in the form of overall recommendation. The 30 species in the fact sheets are there, plus additional information on species where we have only observations from gardens. Interpret these recommendations for your own site, because it will make a difference if your field is in an exposed site vs. protected, no irrigation vs. drip or other system, etc. Additional information on equipment and business planning are in the next section of this handbook, and site specific data from each year are found on the KSU Horticultural website: www.oznet.ksu.edu/ksherbs.

Table 5. is organized by plant part/harvest method, because time to harvest may limit more growers than any other factor. Though some herbs have markets for more than one plant part (for example, leaves and roots), they are listed in the table under their most common use.

Table 5. Herbs for the Commercial Market - Organized by Harvest Method for Primary Crop (some have multiple uses)

Footnotes:
1

Fact sheet number if available. Recommendation code: G = good for gardens N = not adapted to Kansas F = could be a good field crop L = limitations, could be insect, disease, labor to harvest,

Comments are generally about growing conditions or marketing potential. Occasionally mention medicinal uses to give one a sense of whether this plant has market potential in the future.

Common Name

Latin Name

Annual Sun/ / Shade Perenn ial

Part/Ho KSU w trials1 harveste d

Recomme Comments3 nd-ations2

Pollen Saffron
Crocus sativus

perenni al

partial shade

pollen by hand

no

v. expensive, tedious imported from Spain.

Flowers/petals Borage Borago officinalis

annual

sun

flowers (also stems and leaves).

yes MF-2608

G/L

For borage oil, the fatty oil of the seeds, though other parts

Harvest during flowerin g period.

Calendula

Calendula officinalis

annual

sun

flowers

yes MF-2610

G/F

Chamomile - German

Matricaria chamomill a

annual

sun

flower rake

yes (no fact sheet yet)

G/L

Elderberry

Sambucus nigra

woody perenni al

sun or partial shade

by hand (flowers and/or fruit)

yes (no fact sheet yet)

F/G

also used medicinall y. Flowers added to salads. Good for gardens. Limitations are flowers hard to harvest, and limited market for other parts of the plant. Grows well here, limitation will be time to harvest flowers. easy to grow, tedious to harvest? Dont confuse with Roman chamomile , Chamaeme lum nobile, which is primarily grown for its oil, and not for tea. Market for elderberry now at a winery in Mulvane, KS.

Red Clover

Trifolium pratense

perenni al

sun

blossom s

yes MF-2625

F/G/L

Native plant, well adapted. Easy to grow, time consuming to harvest? Better to grow a large field of it, or rotate with other crops as a cover crop. If only growing a few plants, the rabbits may be a problem.

St. Johns Wort

Hypericum perforatum

perenni al

sun

flowers yes and/or top 6 MF-2629 inches in full flower

G/F

Well adapted, best yields might be during second year, need to replant periodicall y. Gets shrubby. Pretty in garden. Could partially mechanize the harvest? Big market for this crop, especially if high

quality. Fruit Sambucus Elderberry


nigra

woody perenni al

sun or partial shade

by hand (flowers and/or fruit)

yes (no fact sheet yet)

F/G

Hawthorn

Crataegus laevigata, also C. monogyna

woody perenni al

sun

fruit (also flower and leaf)

observati on

G/F(?)

Market for elderberry now at a winery in Mulvane, KS. Native plant, well adapted. cardiac stimulant, antioxidant , now imported from Poland, Chile, Bulgaria and France. Seems well adapted to Kansas landscape setting.

Seeds Evening Oenothera primrose biennis

biennia l

sun

small seeds

yes MF-2611

medicinal part is the fatty oil extracted from the ripe seeds and fresh plant gathered at the beginning of the flowering season. Did not do well in our

Milk Thistle

Silybum marianum

normall sun ya winter annual

can use combine ?

yes MF-2618

trials here, and seed shatters easily. N (if from can plant transplants w/ wheat ) drill, plant v. early Feb/March to get a crop in KS. Not sure whether to recommen d until we do some direct seeding trials.

Leaf

Alfalfa

Medicago sativa

perenni al

sun

leaf & seed, could mechani ze both

no

Bee Balm

Monarda fistulosa

perenni al

sun

leaf/flow yes er MF-2605

G/F

This is a common forage crop in Kanasas, well adapted to our climate. The only limitations would be to market the crop successfull y, and work out quality control details. M. fistulosa did well in field trials, but M.

Blue Vervain

Verbena hastate

perenni al

sun

leaf/who le herb

yes MF-2606

G/F

Boneset

Eupatoriu perenni m al perfoliatum

sun

leaf/abo ve ground portion

yes MF-2607

G/F

Feverfew

Tanacetum perenni parthenium al

sun

flowerin yes g tops/leav MF-2614 es

G/F

Gingko

Gingko biloba

woody perenni al

sun

leaves

no

G F?

Heal All

Prunella vulgaris

perenni al

sun

leaves

yes MF-2636

G/F

Heartsease/ Wild Violet/Wild

Viola tricolor

annual to perenni

sun or shade

fresh aerial parts, 2-

no

didyma did not. Nice plant, though had heavy insect damage in some years. Nice white flowers, does well under field conditions, even when dry. Grow this plant like an annual rather than a perennial. Poor winter survival. Limitations are market and harvest method. Adapted landscape tree common in Kansas. Attractive plant, did ok in field trials, but may be difficult to harvest, low growing. Approved by Commissio

Pansy/Johnn y-Jump-Up

al

3 harvests per year possible

Lemon Balm

Melissa officinalis

perenni al

sun or partial shade

collect leaves before flowerin g and/or branchin g.

no

G/F?

Lemon Verbena

Aloysia triphylla

tender perenni al, somew hat woody shrub

sun or partial shade

lateral branches harveste d in the fall.

no

Mullein

Verbascum thapsus

biennia l

sun (needs good draina ge)

leaves for tea, flowers for infused oil.

yes MF-2619

G/F

n E for inflammati on of the skin, used both internally and externally. Often found as a weed in flower beds. Great in tea, seems to be expanding market. Observatio ns so far indicate it is winter hardy in a moderately protected area. Propagated by runners or cuttings. Used to flavor teas. Probably not hardy in Kansas. Bring inside each winter. Attractive, adapted plant for garden or field. Harvest leaves first

Oregano

Origanum vulgare Lespedeza capitata

perenni al perenni al

sun

leaves

yes MF-2621 yes MF-2626

G/F

year, flower in second. Adapted to Kansas. Native to Kansas, looked good in the field. Small market now. Great in garden as a salad and/or tea herb. Limitation in field might be how to pick such a low growing herb. Spreads a LOT. Did great in field trials. Attractive plant. Market for tops now, roots in future? Did great in field trials. Is from Paraguay, and a tropical plant, so

Round Head Lespedeza

sun

whole herb tops

G/F

Sheep Sorrel

Rumex acetosella

perenni al

sun

whole herb top and/or leaves

yes MF-2627

G/F

Skullcap

Scutellaria lateriflora

perenni al,

sun

aerial yes part of 3-4 yr MF-2628 old plants harveste d in June

G/F

Stevia

Stevia tender rebaudiana perenni al

sun

aerial portions.

yes MF 2630

G/F

Stinging Nettle

Urtica dioica

perenni al

partial shade

leaves (now a market for roots also)

yes MF-2631

White Sage

Salvia apiana

tender sun perenni al, but grow as an annual.

whole tops

yes MF-2633

G/F

Yarrow

Achillea millefolium

perenni al

sun

flowerin g tops

yes MF-2634

G/F

grow like an annual. A bit stingy for the garden, but grows well here, even in full sun. Attractive in the garden. This is a plant used for ceremony, not cooking or other herbal preparation s. Not winter hardy here. Attractive in the garden, did well in the field.

Root

Black Cohosh

Actaea racemosa

perenni al

shade

by hand?

no

G?

Blue Cohosh

Caulophyll um

perenni al

shade

by hand?

no

G?

difficult to germinate seeds, difficult to grow in Kansas, but is endangered species in the wild. Expanding market. difficult to germinate seeds,

thalictroide s

Burdock

Artium lappa

biennia l

sun

Chinese Milkvetch

Astragalus membrana ceus

perenni al

sun

root is most marketa ble, fresh or dried, but leaves and seeds also used. by hand, or use root digger to loosen soil first.

yes MF-2609

G/F

difficult to grow in Kansas, but is endangered species in the wild. Expanding market. Does well in Kansas. Main limitation will be harvest.

yes MF-2612

G/F

Many uses, including anti-viral and immunestimulating . Potential for high demand, used in many formulatio ns. Grows well in Kansas, but difficult to dig this root. Poor survival on soils that are not well drained. Attractive

Dandelion

Taraxacum oficinale

perenni al

sun

roots and tops markete d

yes MF-2613

G/F

Echinacea (Narrowleaved coneflower)

Echinacea angustifoli a

perenni al

sun

hand or machine dig root

yes MF-2620

Echinacea (Pale purple coneflower)

Echinacea angustifoli a var. pallida

perenni al

sun

hand or machine dig root

yes MF-2620

G/F

Echinacea (Purple coneflower)

Echinacea pupurea

perenni al

sun

hand or machine dig root

yes MF-2624

G/F

Garlic

Allium sativum

winter annual

sun

hand or machine

no

G/F

plant. best yields under cultivated conditions, though could harvest small plants at home as "wild greens." Direct seeding seems to be more successful than transplanti ng. Poor survival. Easier to grow than E. angustifoli a. Larger tap root, but unclear market. Easiest Echinacea to grow. Limited as commercia l crop by Aster Yellows disease. Flowers can also be sold to floral shops. Common vegetable

Ginseng

Panax quinquefoli us

perenni al

50% shade

by hand

yes (observati on)

Goldenseal

Hydrastis canadensis

perenni al

50% shade

by hand

yes (observati on)

Joe Pye Weed

Eupatorim purpureum

perenni al

sun

by hand or root digger

yes MF-2615

G/F

Licorice

Glycyrrhiz a uralensis and G> glabra.

perenni al

sun

by hand yes or root digger to MF-2616 loosen first

G/F

crop in Kansas. Many varieties well adapted. Poor survival. Have tried for several years under simulated woodland conditions. Too hot and dry here. Better survival than ginseng. May be worth growing on a small scale, but probably not a good field crop for Kansas. Attractive, though tall garden plant. Did well in field trials, even when dry, though it prefers wet locations. Both did well in field trials, but be prepared

Marsh Mallow

Althea officinalis

perenni al

sun, partial shade

Roots, also leaves harveste d. root (leaves are toxic)

yes MF-2617

G/F

Pleurisy Root (Butterfly milkweed)

Asclepias tuberosa

perenni al

sun

yes MF-2623

G/F

Valerian

Valeriana officinalis

perenni al

sun or partial shade

hand or machine dig roots

yes MF-2632

for some plants to spread via rhizomes. Difficult to harvest root, as its all over the place. Attractive relative of hollyhock, did well in the field, few pests. Great for gardens, adapted to field, but time consuming to dig. Seems to survive in a garden setting, but very poor survival in field trials. Root diseases or other problems limit this as a crop.

Equipment Needs and Capitalization:

Growing the crop. The equipment needed to plant and cultivate an herb crop will be similar to that needed for grain and vegetable crops. Harvesting may be quite different, and will be discussed in a later section. If herbs are the first enterprise on a farm, this equipment will need to be purchased, rented, or borrowed, but if one is adding herbs to an existing farm, many of these items will already be available or in use. When calculating cost budgets however, make sure to include depreciation, repairs, and other equipment costs in your budgets to give a fair accounting.

If the crop can be direct seeded, standard planting equipment may work. For example, medium-sized seeds like milk thistle and Echinacea may be planted with a wheat drill or planter. Smaller seeded species like goats rue and red clover could be seeded using the forage seeder box on a standard planter. Some very small seeded species, such as chamomile or St. Johns wort, will need to be seeded in the greenhouse and put into the field as transplants, or direct seeded by hand, and then thinned. For field crop farmers, new equipment and facilities may need to be purchased to grow transplants and get them in the ground. Transplants for some species can be purchased or contracted to another local grower who already has the facilities. On a small scale, purchasing a transplanter does not make sense, but if one is going large scale, a transplanter can save on labor costs.

With each purchase, one will need to look at the trade-off between capital investment, and the accompanying opportunity cost of that money, the interest if the money is borrowed, the expected life-time of the equipment, versus the cost of the labor that the equipment will displace. This calculation should be performed for everything from a tractor to a root digger. The following three tables should help you look at your own operation, and decide what scale might be appropriate, and to calculate costs associated with equipment and land.

In general, equipment needed for growing herb crops is not that different from other crops, so time wont be spent in this section discussing the details of this equipment. For more information, see current grain or vegetable bulletins, including MF-1115, Farming a Few Acres of Vegetables, by C. W. Marr, KSU Extension fact sheet.

Harvesting Herbs. This is where growing herbs and growing other crops becomes somewhat different. For some items, harvesting herbs is similar to harvesting vegetables, especially if the herb is simply a leaf crop and harvested by hand, similar to lettuce harvest. Root crops, also, may be similar, as many herb root crops can be hand dug, or machine harvested with a potato or other root digger. Cleaning herb crops may also be similar to vegetable crops, as the customer wants clean, dust and soil-free produce.

Though some herb crops may be sold fresh, most are sold dry, and priced on a dry-weight basis. This changes how things are done at harvest and in the packing shed or processing area. Another difference is that many herbs, especially root crops, are perennial, and not annual crops like carrots and potatoes. This means that roots harvested may be longer, more twisted, and harder to extract from the soil than carrots or simple tubers like potatoes. Thus, mechanical diggers may need to be modified to handle these situations.

In researching the literature on herb harvesting equipment, very little is found with any degree of detail. Herb growers apparently work out the harvesting, digging, and washing for their own situation on their own farms, and you probably will too. Instructions for harvesting found in books and growers manuals simply say, dig with fork or root harvester. What type? How deep? The most useful information so far has been featured on web sites sponsored by the herb farms themselves, where the use of a chisel plow to loosen Echinacea roots was illustrated, or where rotating barrel carrot washers were featured as a way to wash herb roots. Metal screens mounted on wooden frames with a pressure washer/hose can be used to speed up the root washing process, if one doesn't want to invest in a barrel.

Our experience in digging roots in the field plots is that some degree of mechanization may be useful. For example, loosening roots with a tractor-pulled chisel plow would save some of our back muscles, knees, and would have gone deeper than we were able to do by hand. However, a lot of hand work probably remains for sorting, washing, and loading roots into the dryer. Other equipment recommended for handling roots include a U shaped bar to undercut roots, or an L shaped bar. These are sometimes used in the production of things like strawberry transplants, but probably wont go as deep as a chisel plow shank. We tried the Ushaped bar on our field plots near Wichita, on a sandy soil in the fall, with moderate moisture content. It did a nice job of cutting and lifting the roots, but the braces on the bar prevented it from going deep enough to get things like burdock. It did a nice job on the mallow roots, and even helped extract some of the licroice, which is a shallow, runner-type root. The bar was originally designed for sweet potato digging, and was fabricated locally. Also keep in mind that some roots are more fibrous, and these may be easier to dig, but harder to wash. Echinacea pallida, for example has a nice, carrot shaped tap-root, while Echinacea pupurea has a fibrous root system. Stinging nettle also, has a shallow fibrous root system that is easy to dig, but hard to clean.

Leaf crops would be easier to mechanize, as many types, styles, and sizes of mowing equipment exist. However, keeping the leaf matter clean, and then loaded into a dryer without contaminants would limit the kind of mechanization used. Since most leaf crops can NOT be dried in the sun, one cant simply treat their feverfew crop the way they would handle an alfalfa hay crop; mow, sun-dry, and turn in the field prior to baling. Small scale mowers, with adjustable height (to miss the lower, less-than-perfect leaves, might be best, with a way to catch the foliage, or collect it for placement in dying rooms or frames. Leaf crops will have the highest moisture content as compared to roots, and will need to be moved as quickly as possible from the sun into a shady area, and preferably straight into the drying area. Some herb leaves and stems bruise easily, and need to be handled with special care to maintain the highest quality. In some crops, leaves and stems can be harvested together at ground level; in others stems will need to be separated either in the field or later on.

Flower crops probably provide the biggest challenge, and small-scale growers making herb products for themselves or for local sale often simply hand harvest individual blossoms, and pick each patch of calendula, red clover, or chamomile several times a week during the peak flowering seasons. Some even harvest St. Johns wort as individual blossoms, though the commercially harvested product includes the top 6 inches or so of the plant as a clipped, rather than plucked product. Hand picking blossoms probably does not pay a living wage, if one sits down to do the math, so start with some small plots and do these calculations before signing a large contract for a flower crop. Tim Blakely (see book listed in references section) estimates that a fast picker can pick about one pound of dried red clover flowers per hour if the field is healthy, but an average picker will only pick one-half to three-quarters of a pound. If the price per pound is only $5 to $10 this is hardly a living wage, if one also calculates planting time, land, shipping cost, etc.

There are mechanical flower harvesters available for purchase, but only the largest growers could probably afford them. It may be possible in the future for a group or co-op to jointly purchase equipment like this, and make it more cost effective to mechanize. An inbetween option is the use of flower rakes. Some catalogs sell a chamomile harvester, which is a small scoop held in one hand, with long pointed metal rods welded at about the right spacing (about one stem-width) to catch small blossoms, and pluck them as one lifts up the scoop. Stem material is also gathered with this tool, which is not desirable, but it does speed up the picking process some. It is unclear at this time whether flower crops will be commercially viable in the U.S., when consumers may purchase less expensive products grown abroad.

Drying Herbs. This is where herb growing is very different from vegetable farming. Some vegetable growers that have diversified into cut flowers, especially everlastings, or dried flowers,

may be more familiar with drying methods, and may have the place on the farm ready for storing dried herb products.

A few companies may give contracts for fresh herb delivery, and if so, you can skip this step. However, you will have to be careful to follow shipping guidelines and timing, and may need to cool the crop prior to, or during shipping, so that it arrives in good shape. Some essential oils are extracted from fresh plant material, so if you find a market for oils, or a local extraction facility, fresh shipping/hauling may work for you.

Most herbalists buy dried product, mainly for practical reasons related to storage and shelf life. In a few herbs, compounds become more or less active when dried. A rule of thumb is that the shelf life of a properly dried and stored whole (not ground) herb is about one year. Grinding an herb increases the surface area, which is subject to oxidation, and also leads to more volatilization of various compounds. Thus, herbs should ground as close to the time of use as possible.

Drying herbs on farm is not rocket science, but there are a few general rules or guidelines. The herb industry, in collaboration with government committees, is coming up draft versions of Good Manufacturing Process guidelines which can be followed, but for the most part, they are just common sense. For example, wash your hands before handling herb for human consumption, dont sneeze on it, dont allow rodents to nest in it, etc. Here are a few dos and donts.

Do:

move herb as quickly from the field to the drying room as possible either air dry, or use forced air to dry herbs as quickly as possible prepare a special insect/rodent free area to dry and/or store herbs clean herbs as much as possible before moving into the drying area slice roots (when appropriate) to speed drying

dry all herb products thoroughly. This may take 3 days for some leafy crops, or 3 weeks for roots. Check by calculating the % moisture content by oven drying (or micro-waving). The % moisture shoud be xx or less. It can be calculated as fresh weight-dry weight = water. Water / fresh weight = moisture content. Also, leaves should crumble easily, and roots should be hard and/or snap.

Dont:

allow herb to heat up in the field in piles after harvesting and before drying allow UV light or other light to fade the herb. dry or store herb where insects or rodents will be a problem sell dirty or inferior product dry at temperatures above 120o F. Most recommend temperatures between 80 and 105oF, with some air circulation. store in plastic bags store before the herb is completely dry

The drying room will vary for different farms. Extremely small quantities can be dried in a table-top food dryer, but it will take you virtually forever if you want to do several pounds rather than ounces of material. Some have modified greenhouses as drying areas, but these should be shaded, as light will fade the plant material and reduce its value. A large shed or barn with beams on which to hang tied herbs could work as a drying area, as long as it is relatively rodent proof, and one doesnt mind tying lots of little bundles together.

Our drying ovens at KSU consist of large cabinets, which can be constructed of plywood, with a fan and heat generating unit at the bottom, and a vent at the top. A thermostat controls the heat, and the fan runs continuously. Home-made shelves made of 2x2 lumber and rigid screen are spaced at about every foot, for a total of 8 to 10 shelves per cabinet. Herbs are either laid on the screen in loose layers, or small quantities are placed in brown paper bags, and dried in the bag in the oven. Other models for drying areas, especially if they are primarily used in the summer, might be to section off a corner of a garage or shed from dust and animals, install a large fan to draw air, and possibly a de-humidifier. The Kansas weather will provide the heat.

Home-made shelves can be attached to walls or suspended from the ceiling. Some herb reference guides give specific drying time recommendations, but only use these as general guidelines. Drying time will depend a lot on the condition of the plant when brought in from the field, and your drying conditions, relative humidity at the time, and other factors.

Processing and packing is another step that will take place on farm, and our recommendations at this point are to get specific information from your buyer on these details. General guidelines include keeping the product away from light, dust, rodents, and insects. Most herbs are stored at room temperature, but cool and dry is a good general practice. Generally packing in paper or other breathable material is better than plastic. Anything that isnt completely dry will encourage bacteria and fungi growth, which would not only decrease the quality, but may produce harmful substances. The amount of herb that you have will determine how , or to whom you sell your product. Some buyers want ounces, some pounds, some tons. Burlap has been used in the past for herbs, but is not recommended at this time, as the fibers may contaminate the herb.

Farm or production size is also an important consideration in determining the amount of mechanization necessary to successful raise and harvest an herb crop. Table 6 is intended to help you visualize the types of equipment relative to your scale of production. One key to profitability is to have your fixed cost investment be scale-appropriate. Table 7 & 8 will then help you to calcuulate your fixed costs for the herb portion of your business. These figures will then be used in Table 10, to calculate profitability for various herbs that can be grown in Kansas.

Table 6. Mechanization Appropriate for Farm Size and Operation Intensity. (Note: these are not absolute categories - needs will vary, and one farm may use items from more than one column. Also, in the intermediate levels, it may make sense to rent or borrow equipment listed in the "high" category rather than to purchase it.)

None Tillage Hand/shovel

Range of Mechanization Low Medium small rototiller large rototiller

High tractor mounted plow, spader, rotovator

Weeding

by hand, combined with mulch, flame, etc. hand seed, hand transplant by hand shovel, fork

Planting

Leaf harvest Root harvest

Root washing

by hand, hose, bucket by hand

Flower Harvesting Drying

air dry, small batches

some plastic or fabric row cover, walk behind wheel hoe push seeder, use wheel hoe to make furrow hand with large loppers shovel or fork with more labor, or borrow equipment? mounted screens, pressure washer hand rake (chamomile example) air dry, large batches 1.0-2.0 $20-$100

walk behind tractor mounted rototiller/cultivator cultivation equipment, flame rototiller to make furrow, attach seeder? electric hedge trimmer furrow with tractor or tiller, hand separate rent or borrow barrel washer modified hedge trimmer? small forced air heater/dryer 2.0-5.0 $100-$2000 tractor mounted seeder and transplanter sickle bar mower root digger (carrot or potato)

barrel root washer commercial flower harvester large forced air heater/dryer 5.0+ $2000-$25,000

Approximate 0.1 - 1.0 acres size of operation: Equipment Price $0-20 range (per item):

In Table 7, you will see an example of fixed cost budget calculations. These are investments that are made up front with expenses that will be there whether you plant a crop or not. The standard way to account for land costs is to either use the interest on the value of the land, if purchased, or the rental cost, if rented. In this example, the land was purchased, and a per acre per year cost was determined ($80). When this number is used in an actual herb enterprise budget, take this figure time the number of (or fraction of) an acre that is used for that herb.

Building and equipment costs are also assigned values based on the interest if the money was borrowed (theoretically the opportunity cost of the money, if it wasn't borrowed), and the depreciation. Depreciation is simply the total cost of the building or piece of equipment divided

the number of anticipated useful years of the item. There are some standard values used for tax purposes, but for these budgets, use your best realistic estimate. The percentage of time or space that the herb business on your farm as compared to other enterprises is also taken into account (column 2). The number of hours per year used for herbs (column 7) is used to come up with a per hour estimate cost for the item. This value is used in Table 10. After completing Table 10, or after a field season where hours of usage has been tracked you find that the total hours estimate in column 7 is wrong, re-adjust, and recalculate column 8.

Now complete Table 8, using expenses and fixed inputs from your own farm. Include land, facilities, and equipment that are part of the farm now, and also items that you intend to purchase if you go into the herb business.

Table 7. Example calculation for fixed costs budget for adding an herb business to an existing farm.

Item

1 Cost of Item

2 Share or amou nt used

3 Total Cost

4 5 Usefu Depreciati l life on $/year (year s)

6 Interest$/ yr (8% of total cost)

7 Numb er of hours per year used

8 Cost ($)

Land Cropland

$1000/ A

2 acres $2000

na1

na

$160

na

$80/ A/year

Improveme nts and Facilities Storage Buildings Equipment2 Tractor Rotovator

$5000

10%

$500

10

$50

$40

na

$90/yr

$12,00 0 $3000

50% 100%

$6,000 20 $3000 15

$300 $200

$480 $240

120 50

$6.50/ hr $8.80/ hr

Cultivator $500 Farm truck Storage Containers Drying Frames Hand tools Total Fixed Costs $25,00 0 $100 $200 $200

100% 2% 100% 100% 90%

$500 $500 $100 $200 $180

15 5 5 5 10

$33 $100 $20 $40 $18

$30 $40 $8 $16 $14

70 25 na na 50

$0.90/ hr $5.60/ hr $28/yr $56/yr $0.65/ hr


3

$12,98 0

$761

$1028

Not Applicable.

Note: gas, oil, and repairs are not included in equipment costs. A formula or percentage may be used to estimate future costs, or farm records can be used to record actual costs.

Use the numbers in this column to complete Table 10.

Table 8. Worksheet for calculating fixed costs. This table should include existing equipment, new equipment purchases, and used/rebuilt equipment.

Item

1 Cos t of Ite m

2 Share or amoun t used

3 Tota l Cost

4 Useful life (years )

5 Depreciatio n $/year

6 7 Interest$/yr Numbe (8% of r of total cost) hours per year used

8 Cos t

Land Cropland Woodland Other land

Improvement s and Facilities Storage Buildings Dryers Other

Equipment1 Primary Tillage

Cultivation Harvest

Total Fixed Costs

Marketing

A marketing plan is essential when examining growing herbs. Marketing herbs is unlike conventional crops with established markets and where market information is readily obtained. Markets exist for herbs, but the market is likely to be a small or niche market. Like most niche markets, finding an accurate assessment of wholesale prices is difficult. However, prices can be obtained for retail items, especially those that have been processed.[7] These retail prices are often substantially higher than the wholesale price offered to the grower. Thus, it is important that growers have a market plan in place before starting production and entering this industry.

The driving force in the industry is the relatively few large corporations that control manufacturing, distribution and marketing of herbal products. Herb marketing involves many channels. Some growers do their own processing and market their own brands in health food stores. Some growers have a satisfactory outlet through an individual herb distributor. Oftentimes herb marketing is achieved by using brokers. Many growers sell to small dealers or brokers who sell to larger dealers or pharmaceutical manufacturers who form capsules, extract or tincture that is marketed in grocery and drugstore chains.

Growers must show an ability to produce before they can reach established markets. Buyers also want assurances the grower can provide a product for several years. Neither local dealers nor large dealers will enter into a contract with an inexperienced grower until they know what the grower can produce. A grower might raise a trial plot to supply the dealer with a product sample and build a reputation for quality and reliability. Thus a long-term commitment is required to grow herbs. Large dealers and manufacturers often have minimum amounts that they will buy and will offer contracts to selected established growers.

Knowing what herbs to grow can be a problem. Trends change constantly and growers need to keep informed of what the current market is demanding.[8] Yet, there are few sources of information on the herb market to which growers can turn. To address some of these marketing concerns, the Great Plains Herb Growers Association was organized in 2001. This not-for profit association was formed to foster communication among herb growers, herb buyers, retailers, herbalists, health practitioners and other interested parties; to cultivate, foster and promote interest and participation in the growing and use of herbs; to further the knowledge and safe use of herbs and herbal products; to educate farmers and others about organic cultivation practices

for medicinal plants best suited for the Great Plains by region; and to provide collective resources to aid in the production, processing and marketing of organically grown, high quality herbs.[9] Contact information for the Great Plains Herb Growers Association and other marketing resources are listed in the references section of this handbook.

Economic Factors

The profitability of any enterprise depends on successful marketing and knowing costs of production. However, production costs for growing herbs are hard to obtain and in fact are virtually non existent in the published literature. Producers growing herbs should carefully assess their enterprise budgets for specific herbs to monitor whether the enterprise is profitable.

Factors to consider include location, size, machinery, labor use, marketing activities and growth habits of specific herbs. The general growing habits of herbs fit into three categories: annuals, quick perennials, and long-term perennials. Herbs classified as annuals are planted and harvested in a one year time period. Crops such as wheat, corn, tomatoes and melons have a similar growing habit. Quick perennials are planted one year and completely harvested at one time in subsequent years after they have reached maturity. Not many other agronomic crops besides herbs fit into this growing habit category. Biennials for seed production are a close example. The last growing habit classification, long-term perennials are harvested over a number of years and are not destroyed by harvesting. Woody and non-woody plants are in this category. Agronomic crops that fit into this category include alfalfa, asparagus, berries, and apples.

A fast growing herb may return a quicker profit, but perhaps the herb is sold at a lower price, because it is easy for others to grow too. A longer growing, perennial herb, may be slower to return a profit, and two or more years of costs may be incurred before the herb is harvested. However, some of these crops sell at a higher value per pound, so one could make as much or more per acre on a slow growing, but higher value crop.

The following tables are a starting point for developing enterprise budgets for specific crops. Table 9 can be used to estimate the gross income per acre. Also from Table 9, one can see how gross income will change if the price for an herb drops from $10 per lb, to only $6 per lb, for example, or how income would change if one had a drought year, and the marketable yield was only 600 lb per acre, rather than the estimated 1000 lb. Taking these "what if"

scenarios into consideration is important when estimating risk. Some of these scenarios could also be explored using Table 10 as a template.

Table 9. Gross Income ($/Acre) Calculated from Estimated Yield and Price Information.

1 Yiel d lb/A 50 100 200 400 600 800 1,00 0 1,50 0 2,00 0 3,00 0 4,00 0 50 100 200 400 600 800 1,00 0 1,50 0 2,00 0 3,00 0 4,00 0

Price per pound ($) 10 15

20

30

40

50

100 200 400 800 1,20 0 1,60 0 2,00 0 3,00 0 4,00 0 6,00 0 8,00 0

200 400 800 1,600 2,400 3,200 4,000 6,000 8,000 12,00 0 16,00 0

300 600 1,200 2,400 3,600 4,800 6,000 9,000 12,00 0 18,00 0 24,00 0

400 800 1,600 3,200 4,800 6,400 8,000 12,00 0 16,00 0 24,00 0

500 1,000 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,00 0 15,00 0 20,00 0 30,00 0

750 1,500 3,000 6,000 9,000 12,00 0 15,00 0 22,50 0

1,000 2,000 4,000 8,000 12,00 0 16,00 0 20,00 0 30,00 0

1,500 3,000 6,000 12,00 0 18,00 0 24,00 0 30,00 0

2,000 4,000 8,000 16,00 0

2,500 5,000 10,00 0

Table 10. Worksheet for calculating profit/loss for several herb crops.

How to use this table:

1) Use a separate column for each herb crop, if growing a one-year annual crop. Use multiple columns for multi-year crops, especially if yield is obtained more than one year. Complete each column for the amount of herb on your farm. Convert to $ per acre or $ per square foot later, to compare among crops.

2) Supplies, such as seed, fertilizer, compost, can be recorded as $ actually spent in each year for each crop.

3) Equipment costs can be estimated by taking the number of hours of equipment use times your farm cost in $ per hour calculated in table 8. Land and building costs will be added in at the end under fixed costs.

4) When calculating labor costs, separate into self-labor, and hired labor. The hired labor is part of the variable cost of producing the crop, while the self-labor column will be calculated at the end of the worksheet, as the residual once all the variable and fixed costs are paid. The number of hours you put in will be divided by the total net income, to figure out your return to management/labor.

5) At the end of the table, compare your hourly wage raising herbs to the opportunity cost of your labor at another job for which you are qualified. Also, compare to a living wage in Central KS, which is about $10/hr.

Individual Herbs (list) Herb 1 (or year Herb 2 (or Herb 3 (or year 1) year 2) 3)

Herb 4

Common Name Latin Name Seed Source (for record keeping purposes) Plot dimensions Square footage % acre (ft2/43,560) Date planted Date harvested Number of years? Yield Flower or Seed Total quantity harvested (lb fw or dw) Marketable yield (lb fw or dw) Leaf or Herb Tops Total quantity harvested (lb fw or dw) Marketable yield (lb fw or dw) Root or Bark Total quantity harvested (lb fw or dw) Marketable yield (lb fw or dw) Return (list each part of crop on separate line) Price per lb (fw or dw)

Total sold

Total gross income

Variable Costs 1. Soil Preparation soil test plow chisel disk rototill lime soil amendments (fertilizer, compost, manure) hired labor (hrs x rate = $) self labor (enter hours)

Total Soil Preparation: 2. Seeding and transplanting seeds transplants (or cost to produce) planting equipment cost hired labor (hrs x rate = $) self labor (enter hours)

Total Seeding and Transplanting 3. Production Costs mulches/row cover cultivation equipment other equipment used other? herbicide (if used) insecticide (if used)

fungicide (if used) irrigation fuel and oil misc. equip. repairs hired labor (hrs x rate = $) self labor (enter hours)

Total Production Costs 4. Harvesting Costs mowing/clipping digging root washing seed harvest sorting drying equipment? bags/containers grinding? hired labor (hrs x rate = $) self labor (enter hours)

Total Harvesting Costs 5. Management & Marketing Costs shipping/hauling brokerage fee? hired labor (hrs x rate = $) self labor (enter hours) Accounting? other?

Total Management Costs

Total Variable Costs hired labor (hrs x rate = $) self labor (enter hours)

Fixed Costs1 Interest on land and buildings Taxes on land and buildings Cash rent Depreciation on machinery Interest on machinery Depreciation on irrigation equipment Interest on irrigation equipment Insurance Organic Certification Operating loan/interest Other fixed costs memberships?

Total Fixed Costs: Total Fixed plus Variable Costs: Returns Returns over variable costs Returns over total (fixed plus variable) costs Average returns per year over variable costs Average return per year over total costs (fixed plus variable)

Total hours of self labor $/hr for self over variable costs $/hr for self over total costs Opportunity costs (what you would have been paid for those hours at another job)

Divide fixed costs into amount appropriate for each crop. For example, land cost can be apportioned to the crop actually growing on the land. Insurance, organic certification, and other costs might be divided by the total number of crops grown, or also apportioned according to space or size of each crop enterprise.

Make additional copies of Table 10 if needed, to work out production and marketing costs for several herbs and yield and price scenarios. Making a business plan for the whole farm would also be a good idea. More ideas on whole farm planning can be found in MF-2403 "Whole-Farm Planning for Economic and Environmental Sustainability."

The next section of this handbook contains more specific information on how to grow the herbs. Table 11 lists all of the herbs described in the fact sheets, and some additional herbs that we grew in observation plots. Details on seed germination requirements, and out experience with the seed is listed. More growing information, as well as background information, and economic projections, are found in Appendix. A. Retail prices are listed in Appendix B. These can be used as rough estimates of the relative value of the herbs at the time the price research was conducted. However, it should be noticed that many times there was a bigger difference in the prices of a particular herb between companies, than for different herbs within a single company.

Table 11. Germination Requirements of Herbs Grown in KSU Trials. (Includes plants listed on fact sheets and also new plants which will appear on future fact sheets.)

Herb Latin Name Common Name

Achillea Yarrow millefolium

Literature Our Experience at KSU Recommendations Seed Germinati Ger KSU Transpl Recommendati Treatmen on m. Germ. ant ons t % Time Light 10-12 70% 6 Days 8-12 Small seed Days Weeks

Althea officinalis

Marshmall Stratify 7 ow Days

3-5 Weeks

70%

11 Days

8 Weeks Spreads quickly

Arctium lappa

Burdock

No Treatment

1-2 Weeks

80- 7 Days 90%

4-8 Direct seed weeks biennial

Mugwort Artemesia vulgaris

Stratify 2 weeks.

2--4 Weeks

70%

10-12 Small seed Weeks

Asclepias tuberosa

Butterfly Weed

Stratify

2-3 Weeks

40% 8 Days

12-16 Grows slowly Weeks

Astragalus

Several Weeks Milk Vetch Stratify 3 Weeks, Scarify and soak

4 Weeks 50% 2 Days (overni ght soak) 10 Days

12 Soak overnight Weeks

membranac eus Borago Borage officinalis

No 7-14 Days 75% Treatment

6 Weeks Direct seed

Calendula

Calendula No 7-10 Days 80% 4 Days 8 Weeks Direct seed Treatment

officinalis

Cnicus benidictus

Blessed Thistle

No 7-15 Days 60% 5 Days Treatment

4-8 Direct seed weeks

Narrow Echinacea Leaf angustifolia Cone Flower Pale Echinacea Purple pallida Cone Flower Purple Echinacea purpurea Cone Flower Boneset Eupatorium perfoliatum Joe Pye Eupatorium Weed purpureum Licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra

Stratify 90 Days, Light Stratify 60 Days, Light No Treatment

10-20 Days

50%

15 Days

12 Direct seed in Weeks fall

10-20 Days

50% 4 Days

8-12 Direct seed in Weeks fall

10-20 Days

70% 9 Days

8-12 Direct seed Weeks

Stratify 7 Days, Light Stratify 7 Days,

2-3 Weeks

8090%

13 Days

8-12 Small seed Weeks

3-4 Weeks

12 Days

8-12 Likes moisture Weeks

Light Soak and 7-14 Days 70- 7 Days Scarify 80%

12-16 Soak overnight Weeks

Licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis

Soak and 7-14 Days 70- 7 Days Scarify 80%

12-16 Soak overnight Weeks

St. John's Light Hypericum Wort perforatum

3-4 Weeks

70%

3 Weeks

12 Small seed Weeks

Hyssopus Hyssop

No Treatment

10-20 Days

70% 6 Days

10-12 Small seed Weeks

officinalis

Inula helenium

Elcampane No Treatment

3-4 Weeks

50% 6 Days

8-12 Direct seed Weeks

Leonurus Mother cardiaca Wort

Stratify Several Weeks

2 Weeks 75%

15 Days

10-12 Small seed Weeks

Round Lespedeza Head capitata Lespedeza Lovage Stratify 1Levisticum 2 Weeks officinale

2 Weeks

5%

12 Days

8-12 Poor Weeks germination

Marrubuim Horehound No vulgare Treatment

2-3 Weeks

70% 9 Days

8-12 Small seed Weeks

Matricaria Chamomile No 7-14 Days 70% recutita Treatment

8-10 Quick crop Weeks

Monarda Monarda fistulosa

Stratify 3 Months

2-3 Weeks

60- 8 Days 8-weeks Spreads quickly 70%

Nepeta cataria

Catnip

Stratify 23 Weeks

2-3 Weeks

50%

2-3 Spreads quickly Months

Oenothera biennis

Evening Primrose

Stratify Several Weeks Stratify 1 Week

2-weeks 80% 8 Days

8-10 Biennial weeks

Oregano Origanum Vulgare

7-14 Days 70%

8 Weeks Spreads quickly

Passiflora Passion

Stratify 1

3 Weeks 40%

8-10

Difficult to

incarnata

Flower

Week

Weeks germinate

Prunella Self Heal vulgaris

Stratify 1 Month

3 Weeks 70%

12 Days

8 Weeks Spreads quickly

Rumex acetosella

Sheep Sorrel

No 7-10 Days 70% 7 Days 8 Weeks Spreads quickly Treatment

Ruta Garden graveolens Rue

Stratify 1 Week

7-10 Days 50%

14 Days

8-10 Handle with Weeks gloves

Salvia apiana

White Sage

Stratify 1 Week

2-3 Weeks, 80 2-4 Weeks

40% 9 Days

10-12 annual in Weeks Kansas

Skullcap Scutellaria lateriflora

Stratify 1 Week

75%

13 Days

10-12 Spreads quickly Weeks

Sillibum Milk Thistle No marianum Treatment

10-14 Days

90%

10 Days

4 Weeks Direct seed

Spilanthes

Toothache High Temperat ure No Treatment ,

10 Days

100 4 Days %

4-8 Spreads quickly weeks

Stevia Stevia rebaudiana

2-3 Weeks

30% 4 Days

8-10 Difficult to Weeks germinate

bottom Heat Fever Few Stratify 1 Tanacetum Week, parthenium Light Dandelion Stratify 1 Taraxacum Week, officinale Light

10-14 Days

70% 7 Days 8 Weeks Will reseed readily

10-14 Days

90% 7 Days 8 Weeks Deer love this herb

Trifolium Red Clover Stratify 7 pratense Days

7-14 Days 75% 9 Days

4-8 Deer love this weeks herb

Urtica dioica

Stinging Nettle

Stratify 1 Week, Light No Treatment

10-15 Days

50% 4 Days

8-12 Handle with Weeks gloves

Valerian Valeriana officinalis

2-3 Weeks

70%

14 Days

8-12 Root rot Weeks problems

Mullein Verbascum thapsus

Plant on Surface

10-20 Days

80%

14 Days

8-12 Needs a lot of Weeks space

Verbena Blue hastata Vervain

Stratify 2 Weeks

2-3 weeks 75%

10 Days

4-8 High seed weeks production

Withania Ashwagan No 7-14 Days 70% somnifera dha Treatment

13 Days

12 Needs a lot of Weeks space

Kansas State University herbs propagated in greenhouse at a daytime temperature of 70 degrees, nighttime temperature of 68 degrees. Seed started in 3" cavity cell with a media mix of Jiffy mix and compost at a 1-1 ratio. Seedlings transplanted into 4" square containers using a media of high porosity mix and compost at a 1-1 ratio. Fish emulsion used for fertilizer. Beneficial insects and soap and water for insect control.

Glossary (taken from the PDR for Herbal Medicines)

abortifacient A drug or chemical that induces abortion.

adaptogen A preparation that acts to strengthen the body and increase resistance to disease.

alterative Any drug used to favorably alter the course of an ailment and to restore health. To improve the excretion of wastes from the circulatory system.

annual A plant that completes its growth cycle in one year.

anthelmintic An agent or drug that is destructive to worms.

balm - topical, usually includes oil, somewhat viscous

bitter An alcoholic liquid prepared by maceration or distillation of a bitter herb or herb part that is often used to improve appetite or digestion.

deciduous A tree that sheds its leaves at the end of the growing season.

decoction A liquid substance prepared by boiling plant parts in water or some other liquid for a period of time.

extraction The portion of a plant that is removed by solvents and used in drug preparations in solid or liquid form.

homeopathic Substances that are administered in minute amounts with the theory that subtabnces that may cause or mimic a disease in larger amounts can be used to treat or prevent disease if given in small amounts.

inflorescence The spatial arrangement of flowers along the asix. The mode of disposition of slowers or the act of flowering.

infusion The process of steeping or soaking plant matter in liquid to extract its medicinal properties without boiling.

mucilage A viscid substance in a plant consisting of a gum dissolved in the juice of the plant. A soothing application made from plant gums.

perennial A plant that grows for three or more years.

rhizome An underground stem.

salve - topical, made with infused oil, and sometimes thickened with beeswax.

tincture An alhoholic or hydroalcohoic mixture prepared from plant parts.

tonic A medication used to fortify and provide increased vigor.

Disclaimer:

Please consult reference texts, and even better, your health care practitioner(s) before taking herb products to treat a medical condition. The intent of this fact sheet is to provide herbal information to gardeners, not medical advice.

For more information:

American Botanical Council, non-profit educational organization, publishes the quarterly trade magazine Herbalgram, see website at www.herbalgram.org, or contact at their headquarters P.O. Box 144345, Austin, TX, 78714-4345. Phone: (512) 926-4900. Fax: (512) 926-2345.

ATTRA, Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas. P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702. 1-800-346-9140. http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/herblist.html Many fact sheets on herbs in general, and also specific popular herbs. Many other fact sheets of interest to farmers looking for alternative crops.

Kansas State University, see website www. oznet.ksu.edu, especially publication MF 2532 Economic Issues with Echinacea. Also, www.oznet.ksu.edu/kcsaac/ for hot links to other herb websites.

North Carolina, see website www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/hil/. Check out the specialty crop fact sheets for information on both culinary and medicinal herbs.

Seed Sources:

Horizon Herbs, LLC, PO Box 69, Williams, OR 97544. ph. 541-846-6704, fax 541-846-6233, hhcustserv@HorizonHerbs.com, website at www. chatlink.com/~herbseed/. Seeds grown by well-known herbalist/writer Richo Cech and his family.

Johnnys Seeds, See website at www.Johnnyseeds.com, or contact at 184 Foss Hill Rd, Albion, Maine, 04901. Ph. 207-437-4301. Sells vegetable seed to gardeners and professional growers, good selection of culinary and medicinal herb seed, including some organically grown seed.

Prairie Moon Nursery, Route 3, Box 1633, Winona, MN 55987-9515, Phone (507) 4521362, Fax (507) 454-5238, http://www.prairiemoonnursery.com, pmnrsy@luminet.net. Large selection of seeds for prairie plantings and restoration, including medicinal plants from the prairie.

Richters Herbs, see www. Richters.com, or contact at: ph. .905-640-6677, Fax .905-640-6641, Goodwood, Ontario, Canada. L0C 1A0 Company founded in 1970 to sell bedding plants and herbs. Good selection and informative catalog and website.

Seedman.Com, Jim Johnson, Seedman, 3421 Bream St., Gautier, MS 39553, ph. 800-336-2064, fax 228-497-5488, support@seedman.com, www.seedman.com/medicine.html. Carries large and varied selection of seeds from around the world.

Associations:

Great Plains Herb Growers Association - for those considering herb production on a commercial scale. 1-year membership, newsletter $25.00. Send to Rhonda Janke, 2021 Throckmorton, KSU, Manhattan, KS 66506. Can be added to mailing list for future herb workshop update mailings for free. Contact Christy Dipman, 785-532-6173, e-mail cdipman@oznet.ksu.edu.

The Herb Growing & Marketing Network, PO Box 245, Silver Spring, PA 17575, ph. 717-3933295, fax 717-393-9261, www.herbnet.com and herbworld.com, HERBWORLD@aol.com. Non-members can learn a lot from visiting this website, reading their newsletters, and member benefits include website design and hosting, listing your herb business in the Herbal Green Pages Online, and discounted rates for product liability insurance. Membership prices start at $40/yr, and higher.

Books-General:

The Bootstrap Guide to Medicinal Herbs in the Garden, Field, & Marketplace. by Lee Sturdivant and Tim Blakley. 1999. San Juan Naturals, PO Box 642, Friday harbor, WA. Great guide to herb growing and marketing by two individuals who are actually doing it.

The Complete Book of Herbs - A practical guide to growing and using herbs, by Lesley Bremness. 1988. Penguin books. N.Y. Lots of information about growing herbs here.

Complete Illustrated guide to the Holistic Herbal. by David Hoffmann. 1996. HarperCollins Publishers, London. Nice photographs, good listing of herbs.

The Complete Medicinal Herbal, by Penelope Ody. 1993. Dorling Kindersley, N.Y. Great photos, some history, nice reference tables in second section.

Field Guide to Medicinal Wild Plants. by Bradford Angier. 1978. Stackpole Books. Cameron and Kelker Streets, Harrisburg, PA.

Flora of the Great Plains. by R.L. McGregor, T.M. Barkley, R.E. Brooks, and E.K. Schofield. 1986. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.

The Green Pharmacy, by James A. Duke. 1997. St. Martin's Paperbacks. St. Martin's Press, New York, NY. This very affordable book offers scientific insight and practical herbal remedies for everything from baldness to bad breath. Dr. James Duke was a career research scientist for the USDA in Beltsville, Maryland.

The German Commission E Monographs, translated by Mark Blumenthal, available through American Botanical Council. Recommendations of a scientific council, based on published research, for herbal supplements that may be prescribed by physicians in Germany.

Growing 101 Herbs That Heal, by Tammi Hartung. 2000. Storey Books, Schoolhouse Road, Pownal, VT. Good section on germination and growing requirements for 100+ herbs.

Handmade Medicines - Simple Recipes for Herbal Health, by Christopher Hobbs. 1998. Interweave Press, Inc. Loveland, Colorado.

Herbs for First Aid - Simiple Home Remedies for Minor Ailments and Injuries, by Penelope Ody. 1997. Keats Publishing, Los Angeles.

The Honest Herbal, by Varro E. Tyler. 1993 (third edition). Haworth Press, Inc. New York. Provides some information about using herbs, some well researched, and some anecdotal. This book is written by a skeptic, but is fairly balanced.

Medicinal Wild Plants of the Prairie, an Ethnobotanical Guide. by Kelly Kindscher. 1992. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence. KS.

Peterson Field Guides: Eastern/Central Medicinal Plants and Herbs. by Steven Foster and James A. Duke. Second Edition, 2000. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

Physicians Desk Reference for Herbal Medicines, 2000. Second Edition, Medical Economics Company, Montvale, New Jersey. The most thorough reference weve found yet for describing herbs, supplements derived from herbs, summarizing the known efficacy, and warning about side-effects and drug/herb interactions.

The Village Herbalist, by Nancy and Michael Phillips, 2000, Chelsea Green Publisher, see www.HerbsAndApples.com for more information. A great book. Discusses the how of herbalism at the home and village scale, as well as providing some information about the plants.

Books- for large-scale growers:

Herb and Spice Production Manual, 1999. by Connie Kehler. Produced by the Saskatchewan Herb and Spice Association, printed by Print It Centre, Regina, Sask. (available through Richters Catalog).

Growers Crop Monographs. Frontier Organic Research Farm, Norway, IA. (available through Frontiers website).

Appendix A. Specific growing requirements and field data from herb in the KSU test plots.

Common Name

Latin Name

Fact Sheet Number 2605 2606 2607 2608 2609 2610 2612 2613 2614 2611 2636 2615 2616

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Bee Balm Blue Vervain Boneset Borage Burdock Calendula Chinese Milkvetch Dandelion Feverfew Evening Primrose Heal All/Self Heal Joe Pye Weed Licorice

Monarda fistulosa Verbena hastata Eupatorim perfoliatum Borago officinalis Arctium lappa Calendula officinalis Astragalus membranaceus Taraxacum officinale Tanacetum parthenium Oenothera biennis Prunella vulgaris Eupatorium purpureum Glycyrrhiza uralensis Glycyrrhiza glabra Althea officinalis Silybum marianum Verbascum thapsus Echinacea pallida Echinacea angustifolia Origanum vulgare Asclepias tuberosa Echinacea purpurea Trifolium pratense Lespedeza capitata Rumex acetosella Scutellaria lateriflora Hypericum perforatum Stevia rebaudiana Urtica dioica Valeriana officinalis Salvia apiana Achillea millefolium

14 15 16 17

Marsh Mallow Milk Thislte Mullein Narrow-Leaved Coneflower

2617 2618 2619 2620

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Oregano Pleurisy Root Purple Coneflower Red Clover Round Head Lespedeza Sheep Sorrel Skullcap St. Johns Wort Stevia Stinging Nettle Valerian White Sage Yarrow

2621 2623 2624 2625 2626 2627 2628 2629 2630 2631 2632 2633 2634

The plants described in the following fact sheets were grown in KSU test plots in either Hays, Colby, Wichita, or Olathe, KS. Four replications of each species were generally included at a site, though not all species were screened at each site, or screened each year. The number of replications of location-years is included in the summary table with each fact sheet, and the detailed data can be found at www.oznet.ksu.edu/ksherbs. All plants were grown from seed in the greenhouse, and transplanted in the field in May or June. Depending on the location/year, either 5 or 10 plants per plot were established. All plants at each location were used to determine the percent survival, vigor rating, and insect and disease ratings. Three plants per plot were measured for height, and only one plant per plot was harvested for yield each year. Since there were 4 plots, this allowed us to estimate yield from 4 plants at each location/year.

The plants were dried and weighed, and top and root weights are recorded in grams. The grams per plant are converted to kg/ha, and also lb/a for purposes of estimated field scale yield. The population density used to calculate field yields was the optimal population density (determined by the average size of the plants) times the actual percent survival as measured in the field. There was generally some loss due to transplant shock, and for some species, significant winter loss as well. The plant spacing recommendations on each sheet are for within a row. The distance between rows will depend on your farming operation and equipment used. The minimum row spacing will be the same as the plant spacing recommendation. For example, if plants need to be 12" apart, the rows should be a minimum of 12" apart as well. However, if your cultivator, or your root harvesting equipment is on 5' centers, plant the rows 5' apart to facilitate cultivating and harvesting. Adjust your estimated plant density per acre on the worksheets, if you are trying to estimate gross yield and net income.

In addition to yield, some semi-quantitative ratings were done on plants in the field, including: Vigor Rating (1 = very poor, 3 = slightly above average, 5 = very good, well adapted), Maturity Rating (1=vegetative, 2= early bud, 3=early flower, 4= full flower, 5=seed production, 6=senscence), .Insect Damage Ratings (scale of 0-5, with 0 = no damage, 5= severe) and Disease Ratings (scale of 0-5, with 0 = no damage, 5= severe). Height was recorded in centimeters.

The prices listed on each fact sheet are from Appendix B. To calculate a rough gross income potential for each herb, the estimated yield is taken times the lowest and the highest retail price, divided by two. This is a rough estimation of wholesale price. Actual prices should be determined if one enters into a contract, and small on-farm plots can be used to determine yield, before investing money in large scale herb production.

In our field trials, only organic production methods were used. None of the land was certified organic, but compost was used as the fertility source, and weeds were controlled mechanically, by hand, or with the use of fabric and straw mulches. Insects and diseases were not controlled, to enable us to see if there was significant pest pressure on these species in Kansas. Higher prices are often offered for herbs that are grown organically, and in the future, non-organic herbs may be difficult to sell to a health-conscious consumer. For these, and other reasons, our test plots used only organic methods. In the greenhouse, standard seed starting peat mix, pots, and greenhouse conditions were used. However, compost was added to the transplant soil mix, fish emulsion used for fertility, and biological predators and soap were used for pest control.

The medicinal benefits section of each fact sheet is not intended to be a guide for use, but to help growers understand more about what consumers might want the herb for, and to give a general idea of the usefulness, and potential market for the herb. It may be confusing in some places to find that a single species could have many, and varied uses. At first this seems somewhat contradictory...how can an herb be used for the liver, and also for a head cold, for example? However, as clinical trials catch up to folklore, researchers find a lot of crossreactivity, that is, plants that were used by Native Americans for snake bite also have activity in anti-cancer screening trials.

MF-2605: Beebalm/Monarda

(also called bergamot, horsemint, Oswego tea)

Monarda spp.

Several Monarda species are native to North America. They are in the mint family, and have a square stem, and pleasant fragrance. All have been used medicinally historically, but only M. fistulosa is currently found in the retail herb trade. This Monarda is native to much of N. America, from the Great Plains and eastward. It is 2-3 feet tall, with pink/lavender flowers. M. didyma can have reddish flowers, and many cultivated varieties of M. didyma are found in garden catalogs. It is native to wetter areas of the eastern N. America. M. punctata is a biennial or short lived perennial, found on drier soils in the eastern half of N. America. It has yellowish, purple-dotted flowers in tiered whorls. M. bradburiana, common name White Horsemint, has white/rose flowers with prominent purple dots, and is found on rocky wooded hills in the Great Plains and midwestern states. Only two of the species, M. fistulosa, and M. didyma, were compared in our field trials.

Family: Mint family

Life cycle: herbaceous perennial (Zones 4-9)

Native: North America.

Height: 2-4 feet.

Sun: Prefers full sun, will tolerate partial shade.

Soil: M. fistulosa likes dry, well-drained soil, and M. punctata prefers loose, sandy, drier soil, while M. didyma prefers rich soil and fair moisture. Note: our field trials included M. fistulosa and M. didyma, but not M. punctata, though it is also grown as a medicinal herb.

Water: M. fistulosa appears to handle drought well, but M. didyma does not.

Flowers: Red, lavender, pinkish lavender, yellow, or pink- and purple spotted flowers bloom early to late summer in most regions. Depends on the species and bio-type.

Propagation: Can grow from seeds, cuttings, or root divisions. Monarda seed does not require any cold treatment. Cover seeds 2 times their thickness. Will take about 9 days to germinate.

Pests: Significant pest pressure was not identified in the field, but M. didyma declined rapidly under field conditions. It is possible that some of this was due to disease, but also simply that this species is not well adapted to the hot, dry conditions of this part of the Great Plains.

Harvesting: Harvest aerial parts at any time during the growing season.

Parts used: Above ground aerial parts, fresh or dried.

Used as: Can be used as a culinary substitute for Greek Oregano. An oil derived from Bergamot adds the distinctive flavor to Earl Grey tea. Most commonly prepared as an infusion (tea).

Medicinal Benefits: The Herbal PDR lists M. punctata and M. didyma, but not M. fistulosa, which is the Monarda species most used by the Native Americans, and probably the best one to grow in the Great Plains. M. punctata contains volatile oils, and has a carminative, stimulant, and emmenagogic effects. Folk uses for digestive disorders, flatulence, and to regulate menstruation. M. didyma also contains volatile oils, and also flavonoids and anthocyans, and is used for the same things as M. punctata, and is also used for PMS. The essential oil may also be used as part of the treatment for chronic bronchitis. The Lakotas drank a tea from the flower clusters of M. fistulosa as a remedy for fevers and colds. A tea from the leaves was also used for whooping cough, and also considered good for people who had fainted. Boiled leaves, wrapped in a soft cloth and placed on sore eyes overnight were used to relieve pain.

Market Potential: Low to moderate, but increasing. Current retail price ranges from $9.79 to $23.61 per lb dw for tops.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

MONARDA FISTULOSA 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) 3 77.7 2nd Year 2 66.5 3rd Year 2 89.0 Average Comments

Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant)

3.1 41.7 36.4

4.2 1025 56.2

4.5 110.5 70.3

Tested in Wichita and Olathe for 3 years. 77.7 Clumps were spreading by year 3, and so individual plants were probably over-counted in the survival estimates. 3.9 Above average ratings in years 2 and 3. 84.9 Yield per plant continues to go up, even as plant numbers also go up, as clumps increase in size. 4.2 Plants were past full flower when harvested in the fall. Optimal biomass and quality would probably be in June or July. 0.6 0.9 1 x 2 plant spacing assumed

DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating)

10.9 2.3

22.8 5.0

37.9 5.3

Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high

0.3 0.1 21,780 16,923 616 1357

1.2 2.2 21,780 14,484 814 1793

0.4 0.4 21,780 19,384 1363 3002

$6649 $16,026

$8786 $21,175

$14,710 $35,454

price

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

MONARDA DIDYMA (var. Panorama Red Shades 1st Year Location/Years 1 2nd Year 1 3rd Year 1 Average Comments

Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating)

53.0 2.5 20.0 1.9 1.9 1.2

13.0 1.3 48.0 3.4 34.6 5.0

6.0 ----6.0

Only planted in Wichita, in same test plots with M. fistulosa in 2000. 24.0 Stand declined each year. 1.9 Rated below average. 34.0 Very small plants. 4.1 The few plants that were left in year 3 had already senesced, and so we didnt rate insects or disease that year. 1.0 0.9

Insect (rating) Disease (rating)

0.5 0.4

1.4 1.3

---

Summary of field trial data: Only two species were tested in field trials, primarily due to the availability of seed. The wild type of Bergamot - M. fistulosa, did well at both test sites, and over the three years increased in plant number as the clumps spread, and also increased in weight per plant. Insect and disease ratings were low, and the vigor ratings, especially after the first year, were above average; 4.2 and 4.5 for the 2nd and 3rd years respectively. This appears to be a crop well adapted to the Great Plains. The yield estimate of 3000 lb dw per acre may be a little bit high, as this assumes cutting off the plant at ground level, and a marketable crop may be limited to more leaves, and fewer stems. However, this is a crop that appears to have potential, as long as a market is obtained.

On the other hand, M. didyma, which is native to eastern North America, and often cultivated in flower gardens, did not appear to be well adapted to field conditions. Vigor ratings were 2.5 and 1.3 in years one and two, and the plants had basically died by the end of year three. This species was only tested at one

site, Wichita, which is a sandy soil, but had some irrigation. Another problem with M. didyma is that though local herbalists recommend it over M. fistulosa for certain uses, there appears to be no market price listed in any of the retail sources checked so far. In fact, M. Fistulosa was only listed by two companies, so Bergamot does not to be a widely used herb at this point. M. bradburiana and M. punctata were not tested in our field trials, and would probably be considered wild flowers, so seed would need to be obtained from the wild, or from wildflower catalogs. These two species also did not show up on any retail herb price lists.

MF 2606: Blue Vervain

Verbena hastata

The blue vervain, or Verbena hastata, is the most popular Verbena in the market place today, but its European cousin, V officinalis, known simply as vervain, also has medicinal properties and is used widely. If you are collecting seed locally for your blue vervain planting, get a positive identification on the plant, since it also has several wild relatives in the Great Plains, including hoary vervain (V. stricta), narrow-leaved (V. simplex), pink (V. pumila), nettle-leaved (V. urticifolia), fanleaf (V. plicata), etc...The Dakota name for blue vervain translates as the word medicine, and the Omaha and Ponca nmae translates as herb medicine.

Family: Verbenaceae

Life cycle: Perennial; herbaceous (Zones 3-7)

Native: North America, including Great Plains region. Found in prairies and meadows, low open woodlands, stream banks, springs, seepage areas and roadsides.

Height: 3 to 5 feet

Sun: Sun, partial shade

Soil: Prefers well drained soil high in organic matter

Water: Moderate

Flowers: Flowers are blue to purple spikes that stretch from spike base to the tip bloom from mid to late summer.

Seeds: Stratify seeds for 2 weeks then sow indoors. Germination in 14-21 days. Transplant the flowers by mid to late spring, spacing 12 inches apart.

Pests: In some locations/years, this plant appears to be riddled with insect damage, and the leaves were quite discolored from this, and from possible foliar diseases. During this past growing season, insect and disease damage were both quite low. More research needs to be done on the effect of seed source, weather, and timing on these factors.

Harvesting: Harvest the aerial parts while the plant is in bloom.

Parts used: Flowering aerial parts, fresh or dried.

Used as: Infusion, traditional tincture, cider vinegar tincture, syrup, elixir, lozenge, ointment, salve, cream, balm, foot soak, bath herb, honey.

Medicinal Benefits: The European vervain (V. officinalis) is listed in the PDR, and mentions a variety of folk uses ranging from relief for sore throat, coughs, asthma, whooping cough, treatment for nervous disorders, digestive disorders, and to promote lactation. It is not to be taken during pregnancy, as it is a uterine stimulant. The Peterson Field Guide (Foster and Duke) also list these effects, and then suggest that the European vervain is said to be milder than the blue vervain, or North American type. They also mention that animal studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, cough-suppressing and milkstimulating activity of V. officinalis. Blue vervain, or V. hastata was used by Native Americans for colds, coughs, fevers, bowel complaints, dysentery, and stomach cramps. The root was considered more active than the leaves.

Market Potential: Moderate. Prices range from $4.50 - $22.25. Certified organic blue vervain should bring a higher price in the market than wild-harvested.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

VERVAIN 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price 2 92.0 4.6 60.5 81.3 25.6 4.8 2.4 1.0 21,780 20,038 1629 3588 2nd Year 1 43.0 4.3 98.0 48.8 58.5 5.1 1.8 1.9 21,780 9365 457 1007 3rd Year 0 --------Average Comments

67.5 4.4 79.3

5.0 2.1 1.5 Assume 1 x 2 spacing.

$8073 $39,934

$2266 $11,208

Summary of field trial data: This species was planted at two locations in 2001; Wichita and Olathe, and did relatively well at both of them, with an average survival rate of 92%, and vigor rating of 4.6 on a 5 point scale. The above ground biomass, which would be the marketable yield, was estimated at over 3000 lb/acre dw. Insect and disease pressure, as noted above, was relatively high that year though, with a 2.4 insect rating, largely due to heavy insect feeding by an undetermined pest, or by generalist leaf eaters (like grasshoppers). In the second year of the trial, plants only were evaluated at Wichita, with a 2nd year survival rating of only 49%. Above ground biomass yields were also down, possibly because of the extremely hot weather in 2002. Evaluations are continuing in 2003 in old, and in new plots, as we think that this species has some potential as a crop in Kansas. New biotypes need to be examined, and some of the related species of vervain should be tested for biological activity and medicinal components. At this point, we can cautiously recommend this as a cash crop, especially based on the first year data, but more screening is needed. MF-2607: Boneset

Eupatorium perfoliatum

The name Boneset come from the fact that the leaves of this herb were once used to treat break-bone (or dengue) fever. Boneset was a common home remedy of both Native Americans and early settlers in the 1800s, and was widely used for flue epidemics in N. America and Europe. Though little research has been conducted on this plant recently, compounds in the plant have been shown to stimulate the immune system. A European cousin of this plant, E. cannabinum, also appears to stimulate the immune system. However, both also contain potentially liver-harming pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and so are only to be used with caution.

Family: Composite/Asteraceae

Life cycle: Herbaceous perennial (Zones 3-9)

Native: Can be found wild on wet sites from Nova Scotia to Florida, and throughout the eastern of North America.

Height: 2-5 feet.

Sun: Full sun to partial shade.

Soil: Prefers a rich, moist soil.

Water: Natural habitat is on wet sites, and plant prefers regular, deep watering. However, Boneset also appears to withstand Kansas heat and drought fairly well.

Flowers: White to pale purple flowers, in flat clusters, July-Oct.

Propagation: Easily propagated from seeds or cuttings. Take cuttings before the plant has flowered. Seeds will germinate without stratification, but will germinate better with stratification. Germination time is typically 2-3 weeks, with up to 80-90% germination. Older plants can be divided and replanted in the spring. Recommend planting on 18 to 24 inch centers, with row spacing of 24 to 30 inches, as each plant will form a clump.

Pests: No major pests mentioned in the literature or observed in the field.

Harvesting: Harvest above ground portion when flowers are starting in early or mid-summer. Dry quickly, or it will start to decompose. A second, fall harvest may be possible.

Parts used: Aerial parts.

Used as: tea, tincture, homeopathic remedy

Medicinal Benefits: The herb acts as an antiphlogistic, a diaphoretic, and a bitter, in addition to stimulating the immune system.

Market Potential: Low to medium. This was a once popular herb for colds and flu. Most is wildcrafted now, but buyers may prefer to buy from a known, organic source. Warnings of liver toxicity may limit its popularity or wide-spread use. Current retail prices range from $10.36 - $23.15 per lb dw.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

BONESET 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) 3 88.7 3.1 37.3 21.0 2nd Year 2 77.5 4.8 95.5 310.7 3rd Year 2 69.5 3.3 94.0 30.8 Average Comments

78.6 3.7 75.6 The low 3rd year yield as compared to the 2nd year is because the plants had begun to senesce prior to harvest (see maturity index of 5.9 vs. 4.9), even though fall harvest was at

about the time, in early/mid Sept. DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) 12.0 2.3 1.1 230.9 4.9 1.2 62.5 5.9 4.5 4.4 2.3 The high insect rating in year 3 was also due to the late stage of growth, and feeding by opportunistic insects. 1.3 Assume 2 x 2 spacing.

Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price

0.4 10,890 9659 203 447

2.2 10,890 8440 2622 5776

* 10,890 7569 233 513

$2315 $5176

$29,920 $66,886

$2657 $5941

Summary of field trial data: This is an attractive plant, that held up well under drought/dryland conditions, though its preferred habitat is rich, moist soil. On a small scale, this plant could be added to a flower bed border, and on a larger scale, since the above ground portion is harvested, this has potential for mechanized harvest. However, demand is projected to be small, so this isnt a cash crop that everyone should jump into all at once.

The vigor rating was fairly high on this species, averaging 3.7 on a 5 point scale, and insect and disease ratings were fairly low, with the exception of the year 3 insect rating of 4.5. Note also that the maturity rating that year was a 5.9, on a 6 point scale, where 6.0 is a dead, or senesced plant, so the insect feeding on nearly dead plants is not surprising. The yield of the tops in year 3 is also very low, due to harvesting after the plant had peaked. If we had harvested in mid-summer, we may have obtained yields similar to year 2 plants. Interestingly, the harvest in year 3 was actually slightly earlier than in year 2 (Aug. 26 and Sept. 5 for Wichita and Olathe, respectively in year 3, vs. Sept, 14 and Sept. 21 in year 2). This indicates that the plants flowered and/or declined faster in year 3, possibly due to the maturity of the plants, or the exceptionally hot, dry conditions present in year 3 (summer of 2002).

MF-2608: Borage

Borago officinalis

Bees enjoy the prolific flowers of this green but prickly plant. Young leaves taste like cucumbers. Celtic warriers drank borage-flavored wine to give them courage. Modern research has shown that the plant stimulates the adrenal glands, encouraging the production of adrenaline. The pretty blue flowers have been added to salads since Elizabethan times to make the mind glad.

Family: Boraginaceae

Life cycle: Herbaceous annual

Native: Mediterranean region/Europe

Height: 3 feet.

Sun: Full sun to partial shade.

Soil: Any soil. Well drained, moist is best.

Water: Moderate. Does not tolerate drought.

Flowers: Blue to pink star shaped flowers that bloom all summer long.

Propagation: Sow indoors or plant seed directly outdoors in late spring. Seed is easy to start and needs no special treatment. Cover seed and space seed 15 inches apart. Will reseed itself very readily. Seed does not mature all at once.

Harvesting: Leaves, stem, flowers and seed are harvested when plant is in flower with seed beginning to form. Bee hives are needed for pollination if this crop is grown for seed.

Parts used: Leaves and flowers used fresh or dried. Due to high water content, some recommend drying at a higher temperature than most herbs (40 C). Seeds are harvested for their oil content.

Used as: Infusion, tincture, juice, syrup, lotion, crystallized, elixir, lozenge, capsules.

Food uses: Use young leaves as a boiled pot herb, finely shredded in spring salads, fresh or candied flowers.

Medicinal Benefits: Borage oil used as an astringent and as a sequestering agent. The oil contains gamma-linolenic acid (17-25%) and linoleic acid. The tannins in Borage leaves have an astringent effect and the mucins a sequestering effect. In folk medicine, used for coughs and throat illnesses an as a bronchial treatment, and anti-inflammatory for kidney and bladder disorders, and as anstringent to treat rheumatism. Warning: like comfrey, borage leaves contain potentially liver-toxic and carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Risk may outweigh benefits for internal use.

Market Potential: Moderate. Prices range from $4.70 to $30.42 per lb dw for leaves. No wholesale or retail price found for seeds.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

BORAGE

1st Year

2nd Year

3rd Year

Average

Comments

Location/Years

Survival (%)

53.5

Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating)

3.7 53.4 180.0 7.2 4.8 2.3

4.5 * 98.3 5.8 4.0 0.5

* * * * * *

Disease (rating)

2.1

2.0

Borage is an annual crop. 2nd yr were measurements of a volunteer crop. 53.5 Better survival could probably be obtained if one was more attentive to irrigation needs early in the season. 4.1 53.4 139.5 6.5 4.4 1.4 Significant leaf damage is observed late in the season due to insects and disease. 2.1 Early summer harvest could avoid most of this damage.

Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price

27,787 14,915 2685 5913

$13,896 $89,937

Summary of Field Trial Data: This plant appears to have good vigor at most locations in Kansas, but leaves are easily damaged by wind, insects, and disease. Early summer harvest would be recommended for optimizing quality. Irrigation would be required in dry areas of the state. Seed yield was not estimated in this trial. Market potential is not high, with new warnings related to liver toxicity of this herb.

MF-2609: Burdock

Arctium lappa

The name comes from the Greek arktos, or bear, suggesting rough-coated fruits, and lappa, to seize. Burdock, also known as gobo, is a main (root) vegetable in Asian cooking and also used as a medicinal herb. Burdock is common along streams in the shade. It is also common in waste grounds with alkaline soil. The wild relative is Arctium minus.

Family: Compositae

Life cycle: Herbaceous biennial (Zone 3)

Native: Eurasia; introduced to N. America and elsewhere.

Height: 2-9 feet

Sun: Full sun, partial shade, shade.

Soil: Loamy soil is preferred, neutral to alkaline pH.

Water: Moderate water is preferred. Likes damp places.

Flowers: Late in the summer of the second year. Flowers are green immature burs with a pink center. As the seed matures the pods turn a tan/ brown color.

Propagation: Stratified seed will have a 80-90% germination rate; unstratified seed will be less. Germinates in 1-2 weeks. Seed can be sown directly in the field in the spring, or they can be started indoors planted 1/8 deep, and transplanted out in the late spring. Seedlings grow very rapidly. Space plants 18 inches apart and water moderately. Burdock will reseed itself readily so spreading will occur.

Pests: No significant pests (insects or diseases) noted. Some general leaf feeding noted in field plots.

Harvesting: Roots are harvested in the fall of the first year growth or in the spring of the second year. Burdock has a very deep long taproot that require a needle nose spade or a garden fork to dig. The seed pods should be harvested in the fall of the second year.

Parts used: Roots, leaves, and seed, either fresh or dried.

Used as: Medicinal food, decoction, tincture, syrup, compress, poultice, elixir, ointment, salve, cream, balm, foot soak, bath herb, infused oil, tea (cancer treatment - seed).

Medicinal Benefits: In vitro, burdock shows mild anti-microbial activity. Folk uses include ailments of the gastrointestinal tract and for blood purifying. Externally used for many skin and scalp problems, sores and infections. In China, seeds are used for common colds and cough..

Market Potential: Moderate to high for root and seed. Moderate to low for leaves. (?) In addition to medicinal market, fresh root may be sold as a vegetable (check local market for prices). Prices found include leaf (only 1 site) for $10.05, root for $3.60-33.60, and seed (only 3 sites) for $26.13-95.34 (all prices per DW lb).

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

BURDOCK 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year Average Comments

Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Estimated Seed Yield (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - roots) kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - seeds) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre roots) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre seeds) Yld x of price tops

6 77.3 4.1 54.5 123.8 60.8

2 59.3 4.8 104.0 175.7 102.0 8.8

0 * * * * *

68.3 4.4 79.3 Leaves loose condition in 2nd yr. Usually sold in fall of 1st yr. (Est. as 5% of top biomass)

1.0 1.7 0.2 19,360 14,965 1852

5.4 0.5 0.5 19,360 11,480

* * * 1.1 0.4

Note: this is a biennial (2 yr) crop.

If planted 1.5 x 1.5 spacing

910

101

4081

2004

223

$20,526

Yld x of low price - roots Yld x of high price - roots Yld x of low price - seeds Yld x of high price - seeds

$3607 $33,667 $2913 $10,630

Summary of Field Trial Data: This is a vigorous, hardy plant in Kansas, whose only limitation may be harvesting technique and securing a market for the products. Plots were transplanted in our research trials, but the seed is large enough that direct seeding should be possible.

MF-2610: Calendula Calendula officinalis

Calendula is also known as pot marigold, but is not related to the common garden marigold, Tagetes spp.. Historically, calendula blossoms have been used to color broth, rice, and other foods as a substitute for saffron, but now is primarily used topically as skin cream, oil, or lotion.

Family: Asteraceae

Life cycle: Herbaceous annual. (Zone 3-9?)

Native: Europe to Africa

Height: 12-15 inches

Sun: Full sun. Tolerates hot conditions.

Soil: Well drained to poor, not overly moist. Prefers loam.

Water: Moderate

Flowers: Flowers are bright yellow and orange, single or double , and bloom from early summer until a killing frost. Flowers close up at night and reopen in the morning. Calendula will bloom from summer to early fall if deadheaded in a timely manner. Flowers attract beneficial insects.

Propagation: Sow seed directly in the field, they need no treatment. Seed can also be started indoors and transplanted out. Seed will germinate in about 1-2 weeks and will have around 80% germination. Space 10-12 inches apart. Reseeds itself readily.

Pests: Calendula will attract whitefly, aphids, and thrips. Another source also reported cucumber beetles and blister beetles. Damping off can be a problem in the greenhouse.

Harvesting: Harvest flowers by hand when they are fully open. Avoid flowers that have gone to seed because medicinal properties are not as active. If plants are allowed to go to seed they will quit growing. If harvesting for essential oil, (process?) 3 weeks after harvesting for flowers. One source reported that flowers need to be picked at least 3 times per week for optimal quality. It is estimated that one acre of calendula could keep a crew of 3 to 4 people busy every day for 3 or 4 months, with dry flower yields of 400 to 600 lb per acre. Flower petals dry quickly, but the rest of the head requires at least a week in the drying oven.

Parts used: Flowers primarily, fresh or dried.

Used as: Medicinal food, food coloring, infusion, tincture, compress, poultice, ointment, salve, cream, balm, foot soak, bath herb, infused oil, liniment, cosmetics, insect repellent. Petals have a nutty flavor.

Medicinal Benefits: Several clinical studies have been conducted on calendula, and show antimicrobial activity against several organisms, antiviral activity, and wound healing promotion in skin tissue. Calendula was also shown to induce the formation of new blood vessels, also important in wound healing. Approved in Europe for inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, and wounds and burns. Typical forms are as gel, ointment, tincture, tea, shampoo, and hand cream.

Market Potential: Moderate to high, preferred in dry form. Prices range from $4.80 to $39.00 per lb dw for flowers.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

CALENDULA

1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) 7 84.7 3.7 45.0 73.0 7.5 4.6 1.8

2nd Year 0

3rd Year 0

Average

Comments

Disease (rating)

1.1

Calendula is an annual crop. 84.7 3.7 Did not do as well on nonirrigated sites. 45.0 73.0 7.5 4.6 1.8 Damage from thrips and whiteflys noticed, especially with high resin varieties. 1.1 Some leaf spotting, probably related to the thrips damage.

Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price

43,560 36,895 673 1483 Rough assumption of 25% of top dry weight becomes flowers.

$3559 $28,919

Summary of Field Trial Data: Though the plants were in full flower most of the years when we harvested in the fall, to get the full yield data, one must conduct repeated harvests, at least weekly, if not more often. This was beyond the capabilities of this project. A rough estimate might be 25% of the top dry weight as flowers over the growing season. For optimal quality, and repeated harvests, this crop must be harvested by hand, but mechanization might be possible for a one-time harvest. This would imply some specialization in this crop, and/or other flowering crops, in order to pay for the infrastructure/equipment needed. A definite contract and/or market should be secured before taking on this debt. In our field plots, the calendula was surprisingly robust, even in our hot, dry, windy summers. However, some irrigation is needed for optimal yields. This makes a nice plant for the flower garden.

MF-2612: Chinese Milkvetch/Huang qi

Astragalus membranaceus

This plant is widely (and apparently safely) used in Chinese medicine, but is related to many species from N. America, including Missouri milkvetch (A. missouriensis) and woolly loco (A. mollissimus), which are known to have poisonous effects on livestock.

Family: Fabceae Life cycle: Herbaceous perennial, zone 5-11

Native: Northeastern China.

Height: 3 to 4 feet, will sprawl as it matures.

Sun: Partial shade to full sun

Soil: Well worked, sandy, dry to moist soil.

Water: Moderate, will not do well in poorly drained soil.

Flowers: Pale yellow, blooms from midsummer until frost.

Propagation: Stratify seed for at least 3 weeks before sowing, then scarify and soak in warm water for 1 hour before planting seed. Sow directly in field or start indoors and transplant out after last frost date. Susceptible to transplant shock. Plant 15 inches apart and water moderately.

Harvesting: The roots are harvested in the fall after at least 2 years growth. Harvest between the third and fifth year depending on your location and how fast the plants grow. Dig roots using a needle-nose spade or a garden fork to extract all of the root. Appears to be a tap root with branches. Could be partially mechanized.

Parts used: Roots, fresh or dried.

Used as: Medicinal food, tonic, decoction, traditional tincture, syrup, elixir, lozenge, honey and powder.

Medicinal Benefits: Immune system stimulant; also an antioxidant, with demonstrated antiviral activity, cardiovascular effects, and immuno-modulating effects.

Market potential: High, used in many Western and Chinese herbal formulations. Profits and volume up. Prices range from $7.50/lb to $56.00/lb. Often sold as ground dried root, or root slices.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

CHINESE MILKVETCH 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - roots) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre roots) Yld x of low price - roots Yld x of high price - roots 4 64.3 2.9 34.0 4.8 1.7 0.7 0.5 0.1 27,878 17,926 31 67 2nd Year 3 41.7 4.3 73.0 95.4 26.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 27,878 11,625 303 668 3rd Year 2 42.5 4.5 115.0 195.0 32.3 4.4 1.2 0.5 27,878 11,848 383 843 Average Comments

49.5 3.9 74.2

4.2 0.7 0.4

$251 $1876

$2505 $18,704

$3161 $23,604

Summary of Field Trial Data: This is a pleasant looking, if sprawling leguminous plant, that could work in the back row of a perennial flower bed, as well as a field crop. Though we had high hopes for this crop, the root yields in year 3 are not large. Potential demand is still high however, as this is a very widely used herb with many properties. Digging and drying the root can be a lot of work, but mechanization may be possible. The plant does not appear to have many insect or disease pests, but appears to like a well-drained soil, and needs a bit of coddling during the first couple of months after transplanting, as it grows slowly the first year. It may not work as a direct seeded crop, due to the stratification and scarification required to get good seed germination. This is a fairly competitive crop, once it gets established, but the percent survival in the second and third years was below 50%, so once might want to start out with a higher planting density initially. Some of the native Astragalus species in

the Great Plains may also have potential as medicinal plants, but medical research has not addressed this question yet.

MF-2613: Dandelion

Taraxacum officinale

Dandelion is a relatively recent addition to the medicinal repertoire, and wasnt mentioned in Chinese herbals until the 7th century, or in Europe until 1486. The name dandelion was apparently invented by a 15th-century surgeon, who compared the shape of the leaves to a lions tooth, or dens leonis. Dandelion is considered weed in most yards and gardens but we should rethink the dandelion dilemma. They are high in nutrition and minerals, as well as having medicinal qualities. The Colorado cities of Aspen and Carbondale have declared it illegal to spray herbicides to eradicate dandelions. They are suggesting that people eat the health-giving plants instead.

Family: Asteraceae

Life cycle: Herbaceous perennial. Zone 3-9.

Native: Europe and Asia, but it is now one of the few plants that can truly claim pan-global dissemination.

Height: 8-24 inches

Sun: Full sun to partial shade.

Soil: Any soil. Responds to fertility.

Water: Low to moderate. Will respond to increased water, and lack of competition from other plants.

Flowers: Bright yellow flowers bloom continuously throughout the season but primarily in the early spring, and again in the fall. Flowers attract bees. Likes cool temperatures.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed. No treatment needed, but stratification of 1 week will raise the germination rate to 90%. Sow directly in the field or start seed indoors and then transplant out in mid-late spring. Plant deep, four days to germination. Space 10-12 inches apart. Reseeding will be vigorous. Seed only maintains viability for one year or less.

Pests: No major insect or disease pests observed in the field, but human intervention is always a possibility. Numerous herbicides have been developed to take dandelions out of lawns, and even helpful neighbors may think you have a weed growing in your garden, and take it out.

Harvesting: Harvest leaves any time, and roots in the fall or early spring. One source recommends leaf harvest in the spring of the second year, and roots in the fall of the second year. Can dig with a needle nose spade or other mechanical digging device. In the home garden, harvest leaves by hand at any time for fresh salads or tea. Some people develop skin sensitivity to the white, milky sap, but one of the folk uses of dandelion was to apply the sap to warts.

Parts used: Whole plant fresh or dried. Leaves and roots also used separately. Dandelion wine is made from the fresh blossoms, with the green calyx removed. The medicinal herb market focus is on the leaf and root of the plant, and there doesnt appear to be any medical literature about the flowers or wine.

Used as: Infusion, decoction, elixir, extract, infused oil, honey, tincture, and medicinal food.

Medicinal benefits: Whole body tonic. Benefits the liver, urinary tract, and the skin. Approved for use in Europe for dyspeptic complaints, infections of the urinary tract, liver and gallbladder complaints, and loss of appetite. Folk use included for disturbance in bile flow, inflammatory conditions of the urinary tract, gout, rheumatic disorders, eczema and other skin disorders. The high potassium, vit. A, and vit. C content of the leaves makes this a valuable food.

Market Potential: High. Prices range from $4.10-$21.60 for leaf, and $4.10-$30.85 for root, per lb dw. However, local markets can also be tapped, and Ive seen the greens sold for $5.00 per lb fresh weight in a grocery store in eastern Kansas, and they came from California!!

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

DANDELION 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - roots) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre roots) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price 5 65.0 3.7 22.2 15.1 17.9 1.8 0.3 0.6 29,040 18,876 285 628 2nd Year 2 38.5 3.6 20.5 18.7 31.5 1.0 1.5 0.3 29,040 11,180 209 461 3rd Year 0 --------1.4 0.9 0.4 Assume 1 x 1.5 spacing. Average Comments

51.8 3.7 21.4 Range of 5-35 g/plant in yr 1, and 9-28 g/plant in yr 2. Range of 11-23g/plant in yr 1, and 16-46 g/plant in yr 2.

$1287 $6782 338 744

$945 $4979 352 776

$1525 $11,480

$1591 $11,974

Summary of field trial data: Though literature values of up to 3,000 lb/acre dw (tops or leaves?) have been reported, our values were far below that, at 400-600 lb/acre leaves, and around 700 lb/acre roots

(dw). A yield of 3000 lb/A should be achievable however, since at a planting density of 29,000 per acre, plants would only need to weigh 47 g. This species was tested at 5 sites for one year, and is in its second year of testing at 2 sites. We found a lot of site-to-site variability in the plant, mainly due to access to moisture; for example drip irrigated plants at Colby yielded 35 g/plant in year 1 as compared to 5 g/plant at Olathe, a dryland site. We also observed rabbit feeding at some locations, and were not able to quantify losses due to rabbits. Our fairly low survival rate is probably not accurate, as many times our enthusiastic volunteer help did not realize that the dandelion was a crop in this experiment, and not a weed.

You may be wondering, as you read this, why plant dandelions at all, when they are in the lawn already? The main reason is that when dandelions are planted at 12 or more spacing, weeded, watered, and fertilized, they can get as big as basketballs. This cuts down on harvesting costs, which are a big input in the medicinal herb business. It would take about 100 or more dandelions from my lawn to weigh as much as one of the dandelions from our best field plots. Yes, seed will be produced on these plants, but it is only viable for one year, and arent there plenty of other sources of dandelion seed in your neighborhood already? You could also harvest the blossoms prior to seeding for a batch of dandelion wine, and then give some to the neighbors to help appease their dand-de-phobia.

MF-2614: Feverfew

Tanacetum parthenium

With a name like feverfew, you would expect this herb to have something to do with colds, the flu, or some other contagious ailment. Instead, the name is a corruption of the word feather few, referring to the plants fine petals. Historically, this plant was used for various uterine disorders, or applied externally to ease headaches. It has been only recently that laboratory research and clinical trials have shown the usefulness of this plant as a prophylactic, or preventative treatment for migraine headaches.

Family: Composite

Life cycle: Tender herbaceous perennial. Zone 4-7.

Native: Europe, Balkan Peninsula, escaped from cultivation in N. and S. America. Widely grown as a garden ornamental and in herb gardens. Highly varied in looks and chemistry.

Height: 1-3 ft.

Sun: Full sun to partial shade.

Soil: Any soil, but prefers a rich loam, dry location. Adaptable to a wide variety of soil, grows in wild meadows, roadsides, mountains and rocky soils.

Water: Moderate.

Flowers: Daisy like white flowers with a yellow center. Blooms in midsummer and continues until fall.

Propagation: Stratify seed at least 1 week before sowing. Plant either indoors and transplant out later, or plant directly in the field in midspring. Seed needs light to germinate. Germination will occur within 2 weeks, and about 70 percent germination rate. Can also propagate through cuttings and root divisions. Space 12 inches apart in the row. Feverfew reseeds readily.

Pests: Trials in Iowa identified several pests, including aphids, aster yellow disease, fusarium crown and root rot, and septoria leaf spot. In our trials in Kansas, we observed very few insect or disease problems, with the exception of an occasional plant that could be infected with aster yellows, and poor overwintering ability of the plants in general.

Harvesting: Harvest aerial parts or flowers only, usually the to 6-8 inches of the plant. More research has been done on the leaf tissue so some prefer to use the leaf.

Parts used: Leaves and flowering aerial parts, fresh or dried.

Used as: Tincture, infusion (tea), powder in capsules, syrup, medicinal food (fresh leaf).

Medicinal benefits: This plant has been widely studied for its use in treating migraine headaches. Research has shown that sesquiterpene lactones, especially parthenolide, are the active compounds in feverview. Parthenolide, although a key determinant of biological activity, and often used to standardize, or test batches of feverfew, is not the only pharmacologically active constituent. Feverfew extracts have been shown to inhibit human blood aggregation and serotonin secretion by platelets. An undetermined substance in a chloroform extract was capable of producing selective, open-channel block of voltagedependent potassium channels in cells, which resulted in an anti-spasmodic effect. Several double-blind, placebo controlled studies have determined that both dried, chopped, and dried feverfew capsules were effective in preventing migraine headaches, and/or lessoning their severity if the feverfew was taken prrophylactically. Feverfew was not effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis, though it has been used that way in folk medicine. It is also used as a shash for inflammation and wounds, tranquilizer and antiseptic following tooth extraction as a mouthwash. Some individuals report skin sensitivity, or allergic dermatitis, to feverfew, especially with frequent exposure.

Market Potential: Moderate to high. Prices range from $6.75 - $40.00/lb dw for herb with flowers. Other growers are getting into this market, and the University of N. Carolina is doing research on this herb as a cash/transition crop for former tobacco growers in their state.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

FEVERFEW 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price 8 90.0 3.7 41.0 55.7 16.0 4.6 0.4 0.6 29,040 26,136 1456 3207 2nd Year 4 1.0 3.6 50.3 49.3 13.7 4.6 0.3 0.3 29,040 290 14 32 3rd Year 0 --------Average Comments

3.7 45.7

4.6 0.4 0.5 Assume 12 x 18 spacing.

$10,840 $64,140

$108 $640

Summary of field trial data: Feverfew appears to be well adapted to Kansas conditions during its first year of growth, with a survival rate of 90% for transplants, a vigor rating of 3.7, and gross yield of tops of over 3000 lb per acre dw. However, winter survival was extremely poor, averaging only about 1%. The plant readily self seeds however, and in some cases we measured the volunteer plants in the second and even third yea (data not shown), but these plants were invariably smaller than the original parent plants, scattered in the plot (would be difficult to mechanically weed), and though acceptable, and even desirable in a home garden setting, these volunteers would probably not make a viable cash crop for a field herb grower. We arent sure why this plant does not overwinter here, but we got this result at several locations over several years, so we are fairly confidant that it wasnt just a fluke, or particularly bad winter. One

problem in Kansas, that states north of us dont experience, is relatively warm spells in January and February, that can trick plants into breaking dormancy, and then suffering from frost and/or wind desiccation damage later. This is possibly what is going on with feverfew. Our final recommendation for this plant as a crop is that it may be a viable cash crop, if a niche market can be obtained, and if it is treated like an annual crop, rather than a perennial. In the home garden, this is a beautiful and tangy/aromatic addition to a flower bed, as well as to the herb garden.

MF-2611: Evening Primrose

Oenothera biennis

The common name refers to the habit of the plant to open its flowers only in the evening, and the light yellow color of the flowers is similar to, but should not be confused with the European primrose, Primlua spp. The Lakota called the plant rattle weed, and the Potawatomi name was yellow top. The plant forms a rosette and tall flowering stalk, and also should not be confused with other plants with the common name primrose. The medicinal product from this plant this is most common currently is the oil derived from the seed, which is a good source of gamma-linolenic acid, but historically the leaves and roots were also used by Native Americans.

Family: Evening Primrose/Oenagracea

Life cycle: herbaceous biennial (Zones 3-8)

Native: Great Plains and eastern North America. Naturalized throughout most of Europe and parts of Asia.

Height: 2-6 feet.

Sun: Full sun optimal, will tolerate partial shade.

Soil: Does best on well drained soil, but will tolerate some wet soils. Can be grown with low fertility, but will do better with some compost and/or mulch.

Water: Has low to moderate water requirement.

Flowers: Bright yellow flowers, 4 petaled, that bloom at dusk each day and fade by midmorning the following day. Begins blooming in midsummer of the second year of growth usually, but we have observed a few that will bloom in late summer of the first year.

Propagation: Seeds should be stratified for 3 to 4 weeks to improve germination, then sow directly outdoors, or in seedling flats for transplants. Seed is extremely small, so controlling the seeding rate would be difficult outdoors. Seed can also be saved from your own plants, and this plant will reseed. Space plants at least 12 inches in the row, with 2 to 3 feet between rows.

Pests: No major pests insect or disease pests were observed in our field trials, though the plants appeared to lack winter hardiness, and/or succumb to root diseases in the second year.

Harvesting: The flowering tops are clipped when in the early flowering stage. Seed is harvested at full maturity.

Parts used: Seed and/or above ground herb.

Used as: Oil extracted from seed, herb used as infusion (tea), tincture, syrup.

Medicinal Benefits: The gamma-linolenic acid in the oil has anti-inflammatory and cell membrane stabilizer activity in the body. It has been postulated that the oil may be beneficial to neural development in breast-fed infants. Capsules of Evening Primrose oil have been approved for use in Germany in the treatment of atopic eczema. Approved in Britain for treatment of atopic eczema, premenstrual syndrome, and prostatitis. One precaution listed in the PDR is that the oil has the potential to lower the seizure threshold in patients with seizure disorders or those being treated with drugs that lower the seizure threshold. Native Americans used root tea for obesity, bowel pains, poulticed root for piles, bruises, and was rubbed on muscles to give athletes strength.

Market Potential: Unknown. The seed is extracted for oil, but we dont know if there is a market for U.S. grown seed. Seed products, but not raw seed was found in the herb catalog sources. There appears to be a small market for the above ground portion of primrose, with prices ranging from $7.50 to $34.96 per lb dw.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.


EVENING PRIMROSE 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price 3 74.7 4.2 47.3 147.5 11.5 2.6 0.7 0.7 14.520 10,846 1560 3524 2nd Year 0 0.0 -------3rd Year 0 --------Average Comments

4.2 47.3

2.6 0.7 0.7 Assumed 1x 3 spacing.

$13,215 $61,600

Summary of field trial data: This plant appeared to have few insect or disease pests in its first year of growth, and scored 4.2 vigor rating on a scale of 1-5, and so appeared to be well adapted to Kansas conditions. A few plants bloomed the first year, which would have produced a seed crop. However, no plants survived in the field at our 3 field test sites to the second year, and a few plants in a demonstration garden survived, but some of those appeared to suffer from a root disease. We dont know if our seed source lacked winter hardiness, or if root disease will be problematic for Kansas growers in general. We did not harvest the crop for seed the first year, and so at this time, we cant really recommend it as a crop for Kansas. In future trials, we should see if enough seed is produced in the first year to make this a commercially viable crop. There appears to be a small market for the above ground portion of primrose, though little information on medicinal use of the herb was found in the literature.

MF-2636: Heal All/Self-Heal

Prunella vulgaris

Also called Woundwort, Heal-All, and Carpenters Herb. Widely regarded as European wound herb, widely used to stop bleeding. As the flower spikes resemble the throat, the herb was also used to treat inflammations of the mouth and throat. In Chinese medicine, the flower spikes are regarded as being very specific for the liver and gallbladder, cooling an over-heated liver condition, call gan hao, or liver fire, from which the phrase gung-ho is thought to be derived. In western herbalism, leaves and young shoots applied to fresh wounds to stop bleeding and as first aid for clean cuts.

Family: Mint Family

Life cycle: perennial; herbaceous (Zones 4-9)

Native: Indigenous to Europe and Asia, and practically all temperate regions of the world. Naturalized in parts of N. America as an Eurasian alien.

Height: 6 - 18

Sun: This is a common woodland and forest plant, also found in mountain meadows. Will do well in partial shade, will tolerate full sun.

Soil: Prefers a humus soil.

Water: Moderate water requirement. Will survive, but not thrive, under dryland conditions in Kansas.

Flowers: Vary in color from pinks and purples to while, bloom in the early and midsummer. Attractive perennial flower that acts as a well-behaved ground cover in the garden; will bloom for nearly 2 months.

Propagation: Stratify seed for at least 1 month before sowing, start indoors and watch for germination within 3 weeks. Transplant outdoors in mid to late spring, plant 10 to 12 apart in rows or beds.

Pests: Few observed or reported.

Harvesting: Harvest the aerial parts of self-heal while it is in flower. This may have to be hand harvested with snips or scissors, as the plant is very low growing. May also have to rinse dust from the leaves after harvesting, as the plants can get quite dirty from rain splash

Parts used: The medicinal part is the whole flowering plant.

Used as: Primarily used as a crude drug, extract, and as a gargle solution, and as a tea. Can also be made into tincture, syrup, compress, poultice, elixir, ointment, slave, balm, etc.

Medicinal Benefits: Un-proven uses include for inflammatory diseases and ulcers in the mouth and throat, gastrointestinal catarrh, and as a remedy for diarrhea, hemorrhage and gynecological disorders. Recent research suggests the plant possesses antibiotic, hypotensive, and anti-mutagenic qualities. Contains the anti-tumor and diuretic compound ursolic acid. Also rich in natural antioxidant compounds, containing more rosmarinic acid than Rosemary.

Market Potential: Moderate. Seek companies that make topical preparations and flower essences. Only two sources listed prices of the nine websites checked; prices range from $20.35 - $56.80 per lb dw for herb.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

SELF-HEAL

1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price 3 85.0 3.6 18.3 36.4 12.2 4.7 0.6 1.2 29,040 24,684 898 1979

2nd Year 0 ---------

3rd Year 0 ---------

Average

Comments

85.0 3.6 18.3

4.7 0.6 1.2 Assume 1 x 1.5 spacing

$20,136 $56,204

Summary of field trial data: This plant had very good survival from transplants in replicated plots at three locations in Kansas (Olathe, Wichita, and Hays). First year yield of the above ground portion was not bad (estimated at close to 1 ton), considering the hot, dry conditions of 2002, the first summer it was planted at these sites. The 2003 data is still being evaluated, but it looks as though the plant had moderate/fair survival as a perennial species. It also had a vigor rating of 3.6, or above average, which is a little bit surprising since this is traditionally more of a woodland herb, but was grown under field conditions with full sun. When harvested in its prime, this plant appears to have few insect or disease pests, but when harvested in the fall, past its prime blooming time, the plants leaves appear to be prone to attack by various pests. The potential for this crop in Kansas will depend on whether there is a market for the herb that justifies hand harvesting (and washing) this low growing, but leafy crop.

MF-2615: Joe Pye Weed

Eupatorium purpureum

Named after a New England medicine man who used it induce sweating in typhus fever. Another common name is Gravelroot, because a common folk use is as a diuretic, and for clearing urinary stones.

Family: Composite/Asteraceae

Life cycle: Herbaceous perennial (Zones 3-9)

Native: Found in thickets throughout the eastern of North America.

Height: 3-12 feet.

Sun: Full sun to partial shade.

Soil: Prefers moist soil.

Water: Natural habitat is on wet sites, and plant prefers regular, deep watering. However, Joe Pye also appears to withstand Kansas heat and drought fairly well.

Flowers: Pale pink-purple flowers, in a some-what rounded cluster, July-Sept.

Propagation: Propagated from seeds or cuttings. Germination time is typically 2-3 weeks (???), with up to 80-90% germination (???) [Jeanie...any more info here? Couldnt find it in the books]. Older plants can be divided and replanted in the spring. Recommend planting on at least 24 inch centers, as the plant will form large clumps.

Pests: No major pests mentioned in the literature or observed in the field.

Harvesting: The root is the primary part of the plant sold today, though historically the whole plant was used. Harvest root in the fall with spade or mechanically. The somewhat fibrous root system will be most dense right under the plant, and so it isnt too hard to get most of it with one shovel-full. Harvest above ground portion when flowers are starting in early or mid-summer. Dry quickly, as it is a succulent plant, and it may start to decompose.

Parts used: Roots, primarily.

Used as: tea, tincture, decoction.

Medicinal Benefits: Not currently listed in the PDR, but folk uses include as diuretic, for urinary tract and kidney stones, prostate problems, menstrual pain, and to ease childbirth.

Market Potential: Low to medium. Probably most of the herb on the market is wild crafted. This crop appears to have a large biomass production potential, so it wouldnt take much to saturate the market, unless the market grows significantly. Current retail prices range from $9.50 - $28.00 per lb dw for the root.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

JOE PYE WEED 1st Year Location/Years 2 2nd Year 1 3rd Year 1 Average Comments

Survival (%)

89.0

75.0

91.0

Vigor (rating) Height (cm)

3.8 45.0

5.0 133.0

5.0 147.0

DW Herb (g/plant)

41.0

347.4

216.0

DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price

14.9 3.5 0.7 1.5 10,890 9692 144 318

252.9 5.0 1.5 1.8 10,890 8168 2066 4550

264.5 5.4 1.4 0.0 10,890 9910 2621 5773

85.0 The higher % survival in year 3 as compared to year 2 probably represents clumps that are multiplying, and getting doublecounted. 4.6 This was one of the highest vigor ratings of the herbs tested. 108.3 This plant can get quite tall, even under only semi-irrigated conditions. Lower above ground dry weight in year 3 is probably due to a combination of the plant being more mature, and the hot, dry weather in 2002. Root biomass only increased slightly from year 2 to year 3. 4.6 1.2 Only moderate insect feeding was noted. 1.1 Assume 2 x 2 spacing.

$1511 $4452

$21,613 $63,700

$27,422 $80,822

Summary of field trial data: Though Joe Pye Weed was only tested on one site (Wichita) as a second and third year crop, it shows promise as a crop for Kansas. We have data from two sites as a first year crop, and it seems to do well on both sandy and silt loam soils. It appears to do best when water is plentiful (i.e. rain or irrigation), but can take some drought. The plant can get very tall, and form large clumps, so dont plant adjacent to smaller plants or crops that would be crowded out. The flowers are very nice, and this would do well as a background plant, or up against a fence in a backyard flower garden.

MF-2616: Licorice

Glycyrrhiza glabra and Glycyrrhiza uralensis

The earliest use of Licorice was recorded in 2100 B.C.,and Glycyrrhiza is a Greek word meaning sweet root. In Chinese traditional medicine, licorice is the most used herb after Ginseng. The compound, glycyrrhizin, is responsible for the sweet flavor of licorice roots. The herb has uses ranging from as a cough suppressant to an anti-inflammatory for ulcers. It also stimulates the adrenal glands, and in Chinese medicine is often used to balance other herbs in a prescription. People at risk for high blood pressure should not use licorice, however. Most licorice candy is now flavored with anise, not G. glabra, though the herb is still used to flavor tobacco products.

Family: Pea/Legume

Life cycle: Perennial (Zone 6-11 for G. glabra, 4-11 for G. uralensis?)

Native: G. glabra is native to SW Asia and the Mediterranean region, cultivated in Europe since at least the 16th century, while G. uralensis is native to central Asia, China and Japan. A third species, G. lepidota, is native to North America, found mostly in the Great Plains and west.

Height: 2-5 feet

Sun: Full sun to partial shade.

Soil: Well drained soil, seems to prefer a pH of 6.5 to 8.

Water: Moderate

Flowers: Flowers bloom in mid-late summer, lavender and white flowers. However, we rarely observed G. glabra or G. uralensis blooming in our field plots here in Kansas.

Propagation: Seed must be stratified for several weeks, and must be scarified and soaked for 2 hours in warm water before sowing. Treated seed will germinate at a rate of about 80 percent compared to untreated seed at 20 percent germination rate. Germination takes about 2 weeks. Direct planting in the field can be done but the germination rate is about 20 percent. Space 2 feet apart, plant will spread. Possible to plant from rhizome cuttings also. This plant will re-sprout from harvested roots/rhizomes, so dont plant it in a spot unless you are prepared to have it there more or less forever.

Harvesting: Harvest roots in the 2nd or 3rd year using a needle nose spade or other digging tool. Harvest in the spring or fall. The plant will form a sturdy taproot, several branch roots, and also send out runners up to 8 meters (26 feet) long.

Parts used: Rhizome/root, fresh or dried.

Used as: Decoction, tincture, syrup elixir, lozenge, medicinal food, fluid extract, tonic wine.

Medicinal benefits: In Europe, G. glabra is approved for use by physicians for cough/bronchitis, and gastritus. In laboratory studies, licorice has demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects, and is protective against gastric ulcers. It also has anti-viral and anti-fungal effects, but can increase the retention of water, and induce high blood pressure. Common folk uses include winter tonic for immune, digestive tract, respiratory tract, and adrenal gland support. Native Americans have used G. lepidota root tea to reduce fevers in children, and a poultice of the leaves to treat earaches. Some would also chew the root to keep the mouth moist, and to strengthen the throat for singing.

Market potential: High. Buyers need good organic sources for this herb. Much of the G. glabra is now imported from Europe and the G. uralensis is imported from Asia. Domestic, organic sources should be popular. G. glabra root sells for $3.35 - $25.60/lb dw, and G. uralensis sells for $18.20 - $46.40/lb dw.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) 5 85.2 2nd Year 3 171.7 3rd Year 2 126.0 Average Comments

Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant)

3.6 38.4 12.1 8.7

3.9 54.7 46.0 53.2

3.7 75.5 49.9 50.8

127.6 Survival numbers higher than 100% indicate that the plant was spreading via rhizomes. 3.7 56.2 These roots appear to be less affected by the drought in 2002 than the G. uralensis (see next table) 1.1 Observed blooms in late summer of 2001 only. 0.5 0.7 Assume 1 x 2 spacing Assumed 100% survival in 2nd yr, then 126% in 2nd year.

Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - roots) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre roots)

1.0 0.5 0.1 21,780 ----

1.3 0.5 1.5 21,780 21,780 1159 2552

1.0 0.5 0.6 21,780 27,443 1394 3071

Root biomass of 5000 lb/A has been estimated by Tim Blakely. This might be possible if a larger areas was harvested. For data purposes, we only harvested the root and rhizome attached to one plant, without extracting all the rhizomes that had spread.

Yld x of low price Yld x of high price

---

$4287 $32,666

$5159 $39,309

GLYCYRRHIZA URALENSIS 1st Year Location/Years 2 2nd Year 2 3rd Year 2 Average Comments

Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant)

72.5 3.5 30.5 6.8 4.6

69.0 4.0 53.0 64.0 41.8

158.0 3.8 60.0 28.2 20.5

98.8 3.8 47.8 Yields probably lower in 3rd year due to drought effect on crop, and also difficulty in digging the root from a very dry soil. 1.0 0.7 0.7 Assume 1 x 2 spacing

Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - roots) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre roots)

1.0 0.6 0.2 21,780 ----

1.0 0.8 1.3 21,780 15,028 628 1384

1.0 0.7 0.5 21,780 34,412 705 1554

The dry weight harvest of this species appears to be lower than that of G. glabra, even when taking the higher plant density in year 3 into account. Higher high-end prices could make up for the lower yields, if they are obtained in the market.

Yld x of low price Yld x of high price

---

$12,594 $32,109

$14,140 $36,053

Summary of field trial data: Neither species seemed to be affected by insects or disease pressure, and at the time of harvest, early fall, both were primarily in the vegetative stage (see maturity rating of 1.0 to 1.1, or vegetative). If the plants had flowered at all, there didnt appear to be any seed set or flowers left by late Aug./early Sept. Both plants spread prolifically, G. glabra by the 2nd year (survival rating of 171%!) and by the 3rd year, the survival rating of G. uralensis was 158%. These numbers were obtained by taking the number of plants observed at the time of data collection divided by the number of plants transplanted in year one, minus those harvested for data the year before. We also observed many licorice plants of both species in neighboring rows of plots, not simply a few inches or a foot away, but commonly 3 to 6 or more feet away from the original planting. Both species appear to be winter hardy in Kansas, though one reference claimed that G. glabra was only hardy to zone 9. Most of Kansas is in zones 5 and 6.

The main difficulty in growing and harvesting licorice might be in successfully and easily digging and washing roots and rhizomes. Both can be dug and sold, though the tap root can be pretty firmly rooted,

and difficult to get out of the ground. Some of the rhizomes are easy to pull up by hand, as they will run for several feet, just a few inches above the ground. This makes harvest largely a hand-labor task, and we arent sure whether the economics justify the hand harvesting. As another side note, the G. glabra that we have grown so far does not have a particularly sweet root, especially as compared to G. uralensis, and is even a bit bitter tasting, so one might want to check the biotype, or find a superior biotype before planting a whole field to this crop. Also, once you plant, it will probably be there forever. This advice would go for flower gardens too. However, it isnt like mint, that takes over absolutely everything. It will spread out its somewhat airy looking fronds throughout the bed every one to three feet, and be a pretty, if un-predictable crop in the flower garden.

Weve begun trials with G. lepidota in the field, but dont have multiple years of data yet to report. So far, it also appears to be doing well, but we havent found any retail prices for this herb, so specialized contracts may be required to sell it.

MF-2617: Marsh Mallow Althea officinalis

Its botanical name is from a Greek word, altho, meaning to heal. Has been used since ancient Egyptian times. Many members of the mallow family have similar properties, including domesticated garden hollyhocks and common mallows. Some believe (??) marsh-mellows were originally made from the root of this plant; cooked with sugar and whipped until they were fluffy.

Family: Malvaceae

Life cycle: Herbaceous perennial (Zones 5-8)

Native: Originally indigenous to Asia, then spread to southeast Europe and east to China.

Height: 2-5 feet

Sun: Sun, partial sun, shade.

Soil: Prefers a moist, loamy soil. Naturalized in salt marshes along Mid-Atlantic States.

Water: Moderate to high

Flowers: Pale pink flowers bloom from the bottom of the stalk in mid-to-late summer.

Seed: Stratify seed for several weeks. Plant directly outside as soon as the soil is workable. Or sow inside then transplant outside in mid to late spring. Germination of 70 to 80 percent of seeds planted. Takes 2 to 3 weeks for sprouting to occur. Will grow in clumps. Space about 12-24 inches apart.

Pests: No significant pests to note.

Harvesting: The roots should be harvested in spring or fall. Roots are large and deep so use a garden fork or needle nose spade. Flowers and leaves can be hand picked at any time.

Parts used: Leaves, roots, and fresh or dried flowers

Used as: Decoction, infusion, tincture, syrup, elixir, lozenge, compress, poultice, medicinal food, ointment, salve, cream, balm, infused oil, powder.

Medicinal Benefits: Root (up to 30%) and leaves (up to 16%) high in mucilagin, responsible for demulcent or soothing effect to irritated mucous membranes and skin. Marsh Mallow is a soothing herb for the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, and throat. Often used for winter illnesses and to alleviate skin conditions. Approved in Europe for cough and bronchitis.

Market Potential: Moderate. Prices range from $5.00-$28.00/DW lb for root, and $3.90-$36.00 for tops, as retail bulk dried herb.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2002-2002.

MARSHMALLOW 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) 5 94.8 2nd Year 3 94.7 3rd Year 0 * Average Comments No 3rd year plants available yet. 94.8

Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - roots) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre roots) Yld x of low price - tops Yld x of high price - tops Yld x of low price - roots Yld x of high price - roots

4.3 80.6 193.8 99.9 3.9 0.8 0.6 19,360 18,353 3557 1833 7835

4.9 121.3 470.9 497.5 4.8 1.4 0.4 19,360 18,334 8633 9121 19,016

* * * * * * *

4.6 101.0 Plants were sig. larger in 2nd year.

4.3 Flowering occurred earlier in 2nd yr. 1.1 Some leaf feeding noted in late season. 0.5 Plants/acre at 1.5 x 1.5 ft. spacing.

4038

20,091

$19,585 $109,690 $10,095 $56,535

$47,540 $266,224 $50,228 $281,274

Summary of field trial data: This appears to be a well adapted plant to Kansas. It survived on both wet and dry site/years, but did best under well-watered conditions. Both top and root biomass was heavy in the second year. Obviously, if the plant is harvested for the root market, tops could not be harvested the following year. Drying this much plant material could be a problem for large scale growers, and the demand for this crop does not appear to be high at this time. Some insect feeding on leaves was noted, but there did not appear to be significant yield loss to insects or disease. MF-2618: Milk Thistle

Silybum marianum

Milk thistle is a spiny white veined plant with sharp spiny flowers and a purple center. This thistle looks quite different from the common thistles we consider weeds in Kansas, is actually quite attractive in the flower garden, and the blooms attract butterflies. It is not found in the wild in Kansas. The most feared thistle in Kansas, the musk thistle, is Carduus nutans, and another common thistle, the bull thistle, is Cirsium vulgare, are not closely related to the milk thistle. Milk thistle is one of the top selling herbs world-wide. Used clinically in Europe for many years, it has only recently become known in the U.S. The seed is used as supportive treatment for many forms of chronic inflammatory liver disorders, varying from hepatitis to severe Amanita mushroom poisoning (in Germany).

Family: Asteraceae/Composite

Life cycle: Annual or biennial

Native: Mediterranean/Europe

Height: 2-6 feet

Sun: Full sun

Soil: Any soil, does well in rocky and dry soil.

Water: Low water requirement

Flowering: Flowers are very spiny with purple center and will bloom in mid summer if planted the fall before, and late summer if spring planted. (June-Sept.).

Seed: No treatment is needed and germination rates are very good. Seed can be planted directly into field in fall or very early spring, or start seed inside and transplant out in late spring. Transplants are difficult to handle because of the spines. Transplants probably not worth the trouble as a cash crop, but would work for a garden setting. Reseeds itself readily, but hasnt become weedy in our plots, even after several generations of volunteer plants.

Spacing: Plant 12 to 15 inches apart.

Harvesting: Seed should be harvested when it is brown for maximum medicinal quality. Using scissors cut off seed head and place into basket, then remove seed from pods and hairs. Screen out debris. Can also be mechanically harvested with a wheat combine, but one would want to clean out the combine well after this operation, or have a designated machine for milk thistle harvest.

Parts used: Seeds, fresh or dried.

Used as: Tincture, medicinal food, powder, infusion (tea) and capsules.

Food uses: Stalks can be boiled as a vegetable, young leaves used in salads, and the root is also eaten. Roasted seed can be used as a coffee substitute.

Medicinal benefits: Although there are some interesting flavonoids and steroids in the leaves of the plant, the main active ingredient in this plant, silymarin, is found only in the seed case. Silimarin has been shown in laboratory studies to block toxins from entering liver cell membranes, to detoxify liver cells, and even to promote regeneration of liver cells through increased ribosomal protein synthesis. Clinical studies have not always shown improvement in patients with severe liver damage, but a study of patients with subacute liver disease showed positive results. Approved in Europe for treatment of upset stomach, liver, and gallbladder complaints. Used for toxic liver damage, adjunctive treatment in chronic inflammatory liver disease and hepatic cirrhiosis. Unproven uses include as an antidote to death-cap mushroom poisoning.

Market Potential: Very High. This is becoming a very popular herb in the treatment of hepatitis and other liver ailments, and is one of the top selling herbs in the world. However, prices for the seed may not justify growing the crop and cleaning the seed, with a range of $3.20-$26.50/lb. Most of milk thistle seed now is imported from Europe and South America.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

MILK THISTLE 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - seeds) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre seeds) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price 4 75.6 3.6 57.5 144.7 32.0 4.7 0.9 0.7 21,780 16,466 ??? 2000 2nd Year 0 --------3rd Year 0 --------Average Comments

----

---Assume 1 x 2 spacing.

$3200 $26,500

Summary of field trial data: The milk thistle appeared to be relatively healthy on our field trials, but we didnt grow it under optimal conditions. The ideal timing for this plant is to direct seed it in the fall or very early spring (February or March) in Kansas, it will flower in June, and set seed in July. As a winter annual/biennial, it would be similar in timing to wheat, but doesnt appear to have a chilling requirement to bloom, as wheat does. Our plants were greenhouse grown, and transplanted in May, so only had a month or two in the field before flowering and seed set. Our data at this point consists of top and root dry weight, and we are working on getting an estimate of seed weight as a ratio of the total top dry weight. For now, we dont have accurate yield data for the seed for this plant under Kansas conditions.

Estimates from the literature range from lb of seed per plant, when hand harvested, which would result in about 4000 lb of seed from a crop density of 21,780 and a survival rate of 75%. Another literature estimate was closer to 2000 lb of seed dw per acre for machine harvesting. The seed heads dont mature at all the same time, so hand harvested yields will be higher than those with a machine, which would be harvested all at once. With a yield of 2000 lb per acre (which would be similar to 33 bushel wheat), one would probably not make money at the low end price of $1.60/lb (1/2 of lowest price in Appendix B), but could possibly make money if the price were closer to $13.25 (1/2 of the high end price). Other questions would have to be answered though, such as whether one has the right planting window in February or March to get the seed in the ground, and the proper equipment to harvest the seed. From our observations in the field, this plant self-seeds, but doesnt seem to become weedy, or spread from the immediate vicinity of seed drop. However, in some places this plant has become weedy, so one would want to be careful where they seeded it, and clean out any harvesting equipment thoroughly before moving on to other crops.

MF-2619: Mullein

Verbascum thapsus

Medieval Europeans dipped this plant in suet and used as a torch. The leaves make a mild flavored tea, which is soothing to the throat during the winter cold season. Science has confirmed mild expectorant and antiviral activity of mullein. The plant also contains verbascoside, which has antiseptic, antitumor, antibacterial, and immunosuppressant activity. Boy Scouts and other avid campers sometimes know this plant as toilet paper plant, because of its large, soft, furry leaves.

Family: Scrophulariaceae/Figwort

Life cycle: Biennial, Zones 3-9

Native: Europe, naturalized in N. America

Height: 1-8 feet.

Sun: Full sun

Soil: Well drained soil, but does better with moderate water. pH 6.5-7. Doesnt require much fertility.

Water: Low to moderate

Flowers: Flowering does not occur until the second year. The flowers are a spike or spikelike panicle with small yellow flowers along the upper portion of the stalk will bloom in mid- to late summer.

Propagation: Sow seed directly in the field or start indoors for better germination rate. Seed is very small so do not cover with soil. Germination occurs in about 2 weeks, at a rate of around 80 percent. Space 15 inches apart in the row, mullein takes up a lot of space because of the size of the lower leaves.

Harvest: Leaves can be harvested by hand any time, preferably in the late spring or early summer when in bloom. For the largest crop, leaves would be harvested in the fall of the first year or the spring of the second year, as quality deteriorates after that. The lower leaves may need to be discarded, as they may be covered with dust, and have more insect and wind damage than the middle and upper leaves.The roots are harvested with a needle nose spade in the fall of the first year growth or in the spring of the second years growth. Flowers can be harvested individually or by cutting a stalk in heavy flower/bud stage. Lay on screens to dry in a shady location or in forced air oven. Make sure to dry leaves long enough, as weve had some mold in the bags after we thought they were dry.

Parts used: Flowers, leaves and roots. Fresh or dried. Most of the market seems to be for leaves. One source recommends growing V. olympicum for flower harvest, as they are easier to pick.

Used as: Tincture, infusion, syrup, ointment, salve, cream, balm, infused oil.

Medicinal benefits: Flowers and leaves are used for skin, ears, and the respiratory tract. The roots are used for the urinary tract. Approved for use in Europe for cough and bronchitis. The plant contains up to 3% mucilage, in addition to saponins, flavonoids, and other biologically active compounds. The mullein alleviates irritation and has an expectorant effect due to its mucin and saponin content. The flowers are infused in olive oil over a period of weeks, which is then used traditonally for earache, eczema of the auditory anal, middle ear infection and inflammatory skin diseases.

Market potential: Moderate for leaves, to high for flowers. Prices range from $3.50 - $20.43 for leaves. No prices found for flowers or roots. Flowers are often sold fresh, not dried.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

MULLEIN 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year Average Comments

Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price

6 81.7 4.2 47.0 237.4 75.7 1.0 1.1 0.5 14,520 11,863 2816 6203

1 8.3 5.0 90.0 --4.8 0.5 0.5 --

-----------

0.5 0.5 Assume 1 x 3 spacing.

$10,855 $63,395

Summary of field trial data: Mullein does very well under Kansas growing conditions, and is seen growing in healthy stands near roadsides, ditches, river banks, and other non-mowed areas. The growing condition mullein does not appear to like is too much mulch, especially if the mulch is applied over the top of the plant, or gets into the inner whorl, as we saw in one set of plots where we applied wood chip mulch as weed control. Many of the whorls began to rot from the center, and the plants in general did not do well if there was too much water retention close to the base of the plant. The optimal time to harvest leaves seems to be in the fall of the first year. In the second year, the plant begins to put its energy into the flower stalk, and the leaves were much smaller. This would be a good crop to grow in Kansas, as long as there is enough of a market for the leaves. The flowers would be very labor intensive to harvest, and might be good for a market to local herbalists, or for home use. This is a lovely plant for the home garden, and some seed sources seemed to grow exceptionally large plants, with multiple flower stems, which would be very impressive in the backyard garden. We dont recommend harvesting this plant from wild stands along roadsides, as they may be contaminated with road dust, car fumes, and other environmental pollutants.

MF- 2620: Narrow-Leaved/Pale Purple Coneflower

Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea angustifolia var. pallida

For years taxonomists have debated about whether these are two species or one. The morphology of the two species is quite different, with the E. angustifolia appearing shorter, with shorter flower petals, and is found in the dryer regions of the Great Plains (western KS, Nebraska, Dakotas, etc.). E. pallida is much taller, with a generally larger root, long drooping petals, and tends to be found in the wetter regions of the Great Plains, including eastern, and particularly south-eastern KS. The chemical markers in the two species also provide some distinguishing characteristics, with the E. angustifolia having more isobutylamide, the tongue-numbing component that is often used to distinguish this root. However, other compounds in the plant appear to be responsible for the medicinal qualities, including polysaccharides. Currently, taxonomists have named E. pallida a sub-species of E. angustifolia (as written above), but these will be abbreviated in this fact sheet as if they were two species.

Family: Asteraceae

Life cycle: Herbaceous perennial

Native: Great Plains, North America

Height: 2 feet for E. angustifolia, 2-4 feet for E. pallida.

Sun: Full sun

Soil: Any soil, can survive on poor soil.

Water: Low to moderate.

Flowering: Pink/purple flowers bloom from mid to late summer.

Propagation: Seed MUST be stratified between 1 and 3 months to germinate, or sow outdoors in the fall or winter for natural stratification Germination is very erratic and can take several weeks. Germination rates will vary greatly, and are usually less than 50%. E. angustifolia seed in particular has a light requirement to germinate, and should not be covered with soil.

Harvesting: Roots are harvested in the fall or spring of the 2nd or 3rd year. These are both taprooted species, are fairly easy to harvest, at least the top 6 to 12 inches. However, it is difficult to get the entire root. In some cases, root remnants can resprout, so dont abandon the field right away. Use needle nose spade to dig roots, or special digging tool that resembles a flattened crow-bar. A chisel plot or lister can also be used to loosen and expose roots, which are then picked up by hand and washed, either with a power sprayer or root washer. Occasionally the tops of these plants are marketed, but most of the market is for the roots or seed crop. If harvesting seed, keep other species of Echinacea at least mile away, to avoid cross pollination.

In Kansas, these species are often harvested in the wild. In years of high prices, this species can be overharvested. However, the species is also in danger of becoming a rare plant from the use of broadleaved herbicides used in pastures, and overgrazing. A sustainable harvest has been estimated as about 5% of the adult plants, with the rest left to re-seed. Even better, dont harvest from the wild at all, but grow this crop as a cultivated species.

Parts used: Primarily the root, fresh or dried.

Used as: Infusion, decoction, tincture, syrup, compress, poultice, elixir, lozenge, ointment, salve, cream. Root can also be simply chewed, fresh or dry.

Medicinal benefits: Echinacea pallida has been approved for use by European physicians for use against fevers and colds. E. angustifolia is more in demand however, has been more extensively used historically, but ironically, much of the research done on Echinacea in Europe prior to 1988 was done on E. pallida, which had been mis-identified as E. angustifolia. All three species (E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea) are generally accepted as having immune system stimulating and wound-healing properties. Some of the more rare Echinacea species (such as E. paradoxa, E. atrorubens, or E. tennesseensis) may also share these traits, but have not been researched yet.

Market potential: Moderate to very high. Root price is $20.00 - 99.99 per lb dw for E. angustifolia, and $14.00 - 22.47 per lb dw for E. pallida. Echinacea is one of the top selling herbs in the U.S., but the supply side of the market is becoming very competitive, with large players entering the market.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

ECHINACEA ANGUSTIFOLIA 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - roots) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre roots) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price 6 53.2 2.0 11.5 6.6 3.3 1.1 1.2 0.5 2nd Year 4 26.3 2.2 28.0 19.7 7.8 4.2 1.3 1.7 21,780 5728 45 98 3rd Year 1 30.0 1.8 47.0 33.4 23.0 5.5 0.8 1.3 21,780 6534 150 331 Average Comments

36.5 Apparently some root resprouting between years 2 and 3. 2.0 A vigor rating of below 3 is below average. 28.8

3.6 The plants appeared to flower earlier each year. 1.1 Observed some misc. leaf feeding, but no specific pests. 1.1 1 ft between plants in row, rows 2 ft apart.

$980

$3310

There is a huge price range out there for E. angustifolia roots, which makes budgeting difficult.

$4900

$16,550

ECHINACEA

ANGUSTIFOLIA VAR. PALLIDA 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) 3 86.0 3.0 25.0 9.4 5.3 2nd Year 2 55.5 3.3 81.0 62.3 35.1 3rd Year 2 54.0 3.9 91.5 128.4 59.9 Average Comments

65.2 3.4 65.8 Root weights similar to E. purpurea in year 3, but easier to clean. 3.9 1.4 1.2 1 ft between plants in row, rows 2 ft apart.

Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - roots) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre roots) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price

1.1 1.0 0.1

5.0 2.2 1.7 21,780 12,088 424 935

5.5 1.0 1.7 21,780 11,761 704 1552

$6545 $10,509

$10,864 $17,444

Summary of Field Trial Data: Though the market sometimes pays a premium price for E. angustifolia, and there appear to be fewer buyers and less name recognition for E. pallida (only two of the 9 retailers in Appendix B. listed it), from our field data, we cannot recommend planting, or at least transplanting E. angustifolia at this time. Survival was poor, at 53% the first year (as compared to 86% for E. pallida), and only 30% survival by year 3, as compared to 54% for E. pallida. Yields were also low, at 23 g/root dw in year three for E. angustifolia, as compared to 60 g/root dw for E. pallida, and 59 g/root dw for E. purpurea.

We have been told that E. angustifolia prefers high pH soils, and well drained, even stony sites. All of our sites have neutral to high pH, and all soils were reasonably well drained. Because it is taprooted, it could be one of those plants that suffers from transplant shock, and just never fully recovers. In discussions with colleagues from western KS and from North Dakota, we are also getting the impression

that one of the reasons those areas report larger plants than the ones we dug from our plots is not just due to optimal pH and drainage, but also cooler night temperatures on the high plains.

In two observations not included in these data sets, strips of plots were broadcast seeded at Olathe and Wichita at the experiment fields in January of 2001. Preliminary data suggests that if seed germination is successful, and weeds are moderately under control, yields from direct seeding may equal, or even exceed yields from transplanted, weeded, and coddled plots. Farmer experience with direct seeding is that germination can be successful, but controlling weeds is difficult to impossible, as this species does not compete well with weeds. Future research will address some of these questions, but for now, we recommend that growers only try E. angustifolia on a small scale, though E. pallida and E. purpurea show some promise, if the price can justify the harvest/labor costs.

MF 2610: Oregano

Origanum vulgare

Oregano is used as both a culinary and a medicinal herb. O. vulgare, is generally known as Oregano, while its cousin, O. majorana, is usually called Sweet Marjoram, and the two are similar in scent. Greek Oregano, popular in many dishes, is a subspecies of common Oregano, O. vulgare hirtum. The dried leaves of oregano are commonly used in many folk remedies, which have not been tested for efficacy at this time. However, the essential oil is a powerful anti-microbial, and has even been tested and used at KState to sterilize plant cell cultures in tissue-culture experiments. In these trials, oregano oil was as strong as the chlorine bleach. (citation?)

Family: ??

Life cycle: perennial; herbaceous/slightly woody (Zones 4-9)

Native: Oregano is native to the Mediterranean regions of the world. It enjoys a hot, but not too wet, climate. Is common throughout Asia, Europe, and northern Africa, and cultivated in gardens in N. America.

Height: 6 - 24

Sun: Full sun preferred, tolerates partial shade.

Soil: Well drained is ideal, does not require fertile soil, but will respond well to additions of compost or mulch.

Water: Low to moderate water requirement.

Flowers: Small lavender flowers, throughout the summer months. Plant tends to be more leafy prior to flowering, and again in the fall, after main flowering season.

Propagation: Stratify seeds for 1 week and then sow indoors, for germination near 70%. Seeds take 1 to 2 weeks to sprout. Transplant outside once spring weather has settled. Can also propagate through stem/tip cuttings. Space 12 in the row. Plant will bush up, and spread slightly, but not rampant spreader like mints.

Pests: No major pests noted in field plots or in the literature about Oregano.

Harvesting: Clip above ground portion prior to full flower. Could be mechanized?

Parts used: Above ground portion, leaves, before or during flowering, and the oil obtained through steam distillation of above ground parts.

Used as: Leaves used as infusions (teas), gargles, and bath additives. Essential oil for external use only.

Medicinal Benefits: A strong medicinal food, recommended during winter illnesses and to support healthy digestive system function. Un-proven folk medicine includes use for respiratory disorders, coughs, inflammation of the bronchial mucous membranes, and as an expectorant. In China, used for colds, fever, vomiting, dysentery, jaundice and malnutrition for children. Oil is strongly antiseptic for skin concerns.

Market Potential: Medium, competitive? Prices range from $3.83 - 25.42 per lb dw for tops/herb.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

OREGANO

1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price 1 100.0 4.1 44.0 47.8 29.9 1.8 0.0 0.0 21,780 21,780 1041 2293

2nd Year 1 100.0 5.0 61.0 134.0 46.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 21,780 21,780 2919 6428

3rd Year 0 ---------

Average

Comments

100.0 4.6 52.5

3.4 0.0 0.0

$4403 $29,144

$12,342 $81,700

Summary of field trial data: We only had this plant at one location (Wichita), and in fact, the plot was not even replicated, so the data presented is observational based on 5 plants from this plot. However, we felt that it was worth including here, as the results were very positive (more than 3 tons dw per acre estimated in the second year of growth), and the potential for growth of the market for this plant is there. Traditionally, tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia)essential oil was the main antiseptic recommended for skin disorders, but recent research, including research at KSU shows that oregano oil is just as effective. For this market to be available to Kansas growers however, we would need to have access to a steam distillation plant, within driving distance of the oregano fields (1/2 day drive). There are small distillation units available for test batches, but no commercial units that Im aware of at this time. The other positive attribute with oregano is that it is a culinary herb, so a grower may be able to sell to a local or regional market, though quantities may be limited, and competition from international markets may undercut the price. Since this is an above ground herb, mechanization may be possible.

Observations in the field is that this is a vigorous plant under Kansas hot, windy conditions, with few pests or diseases. There was no mortality of the 5 plants in our observation plant, and the plants continued to spread into the 2nd (and now 3rd) year of growth.

MF-2623: Butterfly Milkweed/ Pleurisy Root

Asclepias tuberosa

This is a beautiful plant that is a standout on the prairie. It produces a bright orange flower and then gorgeous fruit pods in the late summer. The common name, pleurisy root, comes from the use of this herb by both the Native Americans and Pioneers to treat lung inflammations, or pleurisy.

Family: Milkweed

Life cycle: Herbaceous perennial, zone 4-9.

Native: Great Plains of North America; frequently seen in the Flint Hills of Kansas, though the plant is now on the United Plant Savers at-risk list. This plant should not be wild harvested.

Height: 24 inches

Sun: Full sun

Soil: Well drained soil. Tolerates dry, sandy, and rocky soil.

Water: Low to moderate.

Flowers: Brightly colored orange flowers bloom in midsummer.

Propagation: Stratify seed for at least 1 month then sow indoors. In 2-3 weeks seedlings will appear at around 40-50% germination. Transplant out in mid-late spring. Sow directly in the field in late winter or early spring. Plant 12 inches apart. Grows in mounding clumps.

Harvesting: Harvest the root in the fall after the plant has gone to seed. Roots may be dug with a garden fork or needle nose spade.

Parts used: Roots, dried. Do not ingest any other part of this plant.

Used as: Tincture, elixir, syrup, found in some medicinal tea blends.

Medicinal benefits: Recommended for respiratory conditions, coughs, as an analgesic and to ease breathing. Also used as a diaphoretic and expectorant.

Market Potential: Low to moderate. Price range $8.50 to $46.40 for retail, bulk dried (cut and sifted) herb (see Appendix B.).

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002. (Note: two bio-types were grown in the field - one more adapted to silt or sand soils, and one selected by the seed company for sites with more clay. Both types have been averaged in this table, but performed slightly differently at our different sites. For detailed site information, see Appendix C.)

BUTTERFLY MILKWEED 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) 6 66.9 2nd Year 4 47.3 3rd Year 4 52.0 Average Comments

Vigor (rating)

3.1

3.4

3.5

55.4 We arent sure how to explain the increase in % survival from year 2 to year 3, except that some plants apparently re-grew from the roots after harvested as data plants. 3.3

Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - roots) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre roots) Yld x of low price - roots Yld x of high price - roots

28.4 6.3 4.3 2.5 0.6 0.2 43,560 29,142 125 276

49.5 89.1 42.7 5.0 1.0 1.7 43,560 20,604 800 1938

60.5 104.7 61.9 4.0 0.7 1.0 43,560 22,651 1402 3088

46.1

3.8 Plants were in full flower during harvest in years 2 and 3. 0.8 Aphids. 1.0 Assume 12 x 12 spacing.

$1173 $6403

$8237 $44,962

$13,125 $71,642

Summary of Field Trial Data: This plant germinates fairly well in the greenhouse, once the seed is stratified. However, plants seem to lack vigor when young, and are easily attacked by various greenhouse pests. Once in the field, the plants seem to need extra attention the first year to get started, as they are quite small. By the second year, plants that have survived become more vigorous. Insect and disease pressure were not severe, but small, first-year plants seemed to host a large number of bright yellow aphids, which weakened the plant, but usually did not kill it.

This may be a good long-term crop for growers seeking some diversification, as the roots generally wouldnt be large enough to dig until the second or third year, or later. Prospects for sales are moderate, but the root is found in some commercial cold remedy tea formulas. Ironically, as a native plant to central Kansas and the Great Plains, one would expect exceptional vigor, but this plant only rated a slightly above average rating of 3.3 averaged over all years and sites.

MF-2624: Purple Coneflower

Echinacea purpurea

Purple coneflower (E. purpurea) is the domesticated cousin of E. angustifolia and E. pallida. It is also native to N. America, but hails from the more humid regions of the southeast and Appalachia. Garden cultivars range from the intensely pink/purple Blaze,(?) to a pure white flowered White Swan. This plant is rare in the wild, and so should not be wild-crafted. So far, research shows that the garden varieties have medicinal properties, along with their wild cousins, so this can actually be a dual purpose crop, as the flowers are also in demand in the floral industry and local flower markets.

Family: Asteraceae

Life cycle: Herbaceous perennial

Native: North America

Height: 3-4 feet.

Sun: Full sun to partial shade.

Soil: Fairly rich soil.

Water: Moderate. Can tolerate some drought, but responds to irrigation.

Flowering: Pink/purple flowers bloom from mid to late summer.

Propagation: Sow seed directly in the field in spring, or sow seed indoors in very early spring and transplant out to the field in late spring. No seed treatment is required for this Echinacea. In a garden setting, the plants re-seed fairly prolifically, and daughter plants can be transplanted each year.

Harvesting: Roots are harvested in the fall or spring of the 2nd or 3rd year. Roots are fibrous and are fairly easy to harvest, but washing is more difficult than with the tap-rooted species. Harvest the aerial parts, flowers and seed from the 2nd season on while in full flower. Use needle nose spade to dig roots. Mechanization is possible using a chisel plow or lister to expose the root, then remove and clean roots by hand. A modified potato digger is also a possibility. Seed crops are possible, but the Echinaceas will hybridize over the distance of up to a mile, so only grow one species if you are saving seed to sell. Harvest seed once the heads are partially dry, and thresh by hand or mechanically. If seed is difficult to get out, freeze and thaw one or more times to loosen the seed in the head.

Parts used: Tops, leaves, and roots, fresh or dried. The highest concentration of active ingredient is found in the roots and flower buds. Used as: Primary forms are infusion (tea), tincture, juice, and capsules. Also found in many other products.

Medicinal benefits: Approved by physicians in Europe for common cold, cough/bronchitis, fevers and colds, infections of the urinary tract, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, tendency to infection, and topically for wounds and burns. Several clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of E. purpurea in activiating T-cells (immune system cells), and promoting wound healing. Historically used for everything from saddle sores to snake-bite, and also to promote healing following the bite of the brown recluse spider.

Market potential: Moderate to very high. Prices for tops range from $14.00 - 54.40 per dw lb, and for roots $12.00 - 65.60 per dw lb. Echinacea is the top selling herb in the U.S.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

ECHINACEA PURPUREA 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year Average Comments

Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - roots) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre roots) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price Yld x of low price Yld x of high price

5 89.8 3.2 39.8 41.7 6.0 3.2 1.0 0.9 21,780 19,558 816

2 48.0 2.7 56.0 88.4 26.1 4.9 2.1 4.6 21,780 10,454 924 273

2 44.5 2.9 58.5 95.3 59.3 4.9 1.8 3.8 21,780 9692 924 575 2036

60.8 2.9 51.4

4.3 1.6 3.1 1 plant spacing, rows 2 apart.

1796

2036

601

1266

$12,572 $48,851

$14,252 $55,379 $3606 $19,713

$14,252 $55,379 $7596 $41,525

tops tops roots roots

Summary of Field Trial Data: In field trials, we found that the seeds were easy to germinate, and seedlings for transplant were easy to grow in the greenhouse. Fairly good success was obtained with transplanting, and survival by the end of the first growing season averaged nearly 90%. However, this plant appears to be highly suceptible to the disease, Aster Yellows, which is a mycoplasma -like organism. The disease is spread by a leaf-hopper, and there are no known organic controls for this pest. The disease apparently doesnt always kill the plant, but symptoms include light green color to leaves and stems, multiple seed-heads, distorted, stunted growth, short inter-node stem length, and low vigor. By the end of the first growing season, some symptoms were visible, and by the end of the second growing season, 90 to 100% of plants appeared to be infected (data not shown). Survival was reduced to less than 50%, and the vigor rating dropped from over 3 in the first year, to less than 3 (below average) in years 2 and 3, largely because of the aster yellows disease. It is plausible that one could still harvest some of the plant, especially the root for market, but we dont have data yet on whether efficacy is affected by the disease, and whether it would be ethical to market roots known to have the disease. There wouldnt be an

effect of the plant disease on humans per se, just a reduction in the effectiveness of the medicinal qualities. Another possibility is to harvest the tops in year 1 for market, knowing that the entire stand will be affected by the second year.

Unfortunately, we observed this disease at all locations, and have had grower reports from several parts of the state as well, so this is not an isolated outbreak. We also have heard that some parts of the country are not affected by aster yellows, as the leaf hopper pressure is not as high, so those growers would have the competitive advantage over Great Plains growers in that respect. Our thoughts on this crop at this point is that it is not commercially viable on a large scale as an organic crop in Kansas at this time, given the difficulties of controlling the disease. However, if one were growing this crop small scale and/or for local markets, there is still some potential. Root weights per plant were as high with E. purpurea as with E. pallida, though both E. pallida and E. angustifolia seem to be much less susceptible to aster yellows (see E. angustifolia and E. pallida fact sheets for details).

MF-2625: Red Clover

Trifolium pratense

The word trifolium refers to the three leaves on this, and other clovers. There is a high demand for good quality red clover blossoms, but the price will also need to be high to pay for the labor intensive nature of harvesting this crop. Historically valued for its use in controlling coughs, bronchitis, and skin problems, red clover is now known to contain phytoestrogens, which have several important properties.

Family: Fabaceae/Pea

Life Cycle: Herbaceous, short lived perennial, zone 3-9.

Native: Indigenous to Europe, central Asia, northern Africa and is naturalized in many other parts of the world.

Height: 12 to 24 inches

Sun: Full sun to partial shade

Soil: Any soil. Will fix its own nitrogen, but will require some fertility; phosphorus and potassium, to yield well.

Water: Moderate

Flowering: Flowers are large, pink blossoms that appear throughout the summer months, with a particularly large flush in mid-spring/early summer.

Propagation: Some say that seed germinates readily in the field (is probably scarified first), while others suggest that seed must be stratified for several weeks before sowing directly in the field. Germination takes 7-10 days with a germination rate of about 75%. Space 12 inches apart in row. When grown as a forage crop, direct seed in early spring or fall, or broadcast seed into standing oats or wheat in early to mid-March for a clover crop, after the grain is harvested. Since red clover is a common forage crop, the seed wont be expensive (as compared to many other herb crops).

Pests: Pests were not a problem in our field plots, except for rabbit and deer feeding. With only 5 red clover plants per plot, scattered here and there, among other plants that are less delicious, we found that our four-legged friends liked to eat dessert first. In a larger, solid seeded field of red clover, this problem would probably not be noticed. One reference reported some powdery mildew on the leaves and flowers in the late summer and early fall. There is also a root weevil that is common in many parts of the country, that limits red clovers productive stand life to about 2 to 3 years, so plan on rotating this crop.

Harvesting: Harvest the flowers carefully by hand in the early morning while the dew is still on the plant. Clover will bruise easily so handle with care. Place the flowers on a screen in one layer and allow them to dry naturally. When fully dried they have a deep purplish red color. Store them in a glass jar or paper bags away from direct heat and light until they are ready to be used.

Parts used: Flowers, fresh or dried. Some use the dried herb, or leaves.

Used as: Infusion, tincture, syrup, elixir, lozenge, medicinal food, ointment, salve, cream, balm, honey.

Medicinal Benefits: Red clover is reported to have antispasmodic and expectorant effects, and also promotes the skins healing process, including use for athletes food, sores, burns, and ulcers. Traditional uses also include use for coughs, bronchitis, and whooping cough. It has also been used as an anti-cancer remedy. Science has not confirmed red clovers many traditional uses, but has identified many biologically active compounds, including phytoestrogenic isoflavones, which activate estrogen receptors in mammals. Standardized extracts of red clover are sometimes sold, which contain 8 times the amount of phytoestrogens consumed in the typical diet. These same phytoestrogens can cause physical problems with cattle fed late cut hay, and reduced fertility/conception rates in sheep that graze on red clover pasture. Red clover also contains volatile oils and cyanogenic glycosides. Though red clover leaves are sold by several herb companies, there is not much written about the medicinal value of the leaves, as compared to the flowers, which have been used and studied more.

Market Potential: High for good-quality flowers. Flowers sell for between $5.70 - $47.03/lb dw, and the herb (leaves) for $8.00 - $52.80. Because the harvesting is so labor intensive, one might want to secure a market, probably local, to obtain a return for your time investment.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

RED CLOVER 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) 4 57.3 3.5 37.0 67.5 2nd Year 2 48.3 3.5 38.0 140.8 3rd Year 0 ----Average Comments

52.8 3.5 37.5 Flower yield estimate: 25% of 2nd yr dry weight is flowers, or 35.2 g/plant. See price calculations below. 4.5 0.5 0.3 Assume a solid seeded stand, with at least 1 plant per ft2 (1 x 1 spacing). 21,039 741 (flowers) 1631 (flowers)

DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density

9.9 3.8 0.6 0.5 43560

38.6 5.2 0.4 0.2 43560

------

Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price

24,960 1685 3711

21,039 2962 6525

$14,844 $97,970

$26,100 $172,260

$4648 $38,361

Summary of field trial data: Red clover was grown under less than optimum conditions in our trials, and we didnt have the people-power (time) to harvest individual red clover blossoms for yield estimates.

We grew all of the herbs in the greenhouse in the spring, and transplanted them to the field, so that various species could be compared. Most growers would direct seed red clover. However, we did get some interesting numbers. Survival ranged from 20% to 85% for first year transplants, and biomass differed tremendously by location, ranging from 4 to 150 g/plant dw in the first year. The differences can be partially explained by irrigation, but rabbit and deer feeding at some locations were also a factor. Solid seeded, large stands of clover probably wouldnt have this problem, unless one was over-wintering a large herd of deer.

If we make some assumptions, such as that about 25% of the dry weight of the above-ground plant in the second year could be flower blossoms (especially if harvested over several weeks of repeated picking), then a yield of about 1600 lb dw of flowers per acre should be possible. However, one is more likely to be labor limited than land limited with this crop. One reference estimated that an experienced, fast picker can pick 1 lb dw flowers per hour, while a more average value is to lb per hour. A grower would certainly need a price closer to the $25 to $30 dollar range, than the $5 per lb, to make it worthwhile to grow and harvest.

Though prices were found for the herb (leaf), it isnt clear what their medicinal value is at this point. If you can find a buyer for leaf at these prices, go for it. Thats one valuable bale of hay!!!

MF-2626: Round-headed Lespedeza/Bush-clover

Lespedeza capitata

The Pawnee name for this plant is rabbit foot, while the Omaha and Ponca name is male buffalo bellow plant, as it blooms on hillsides during the bison rutting season. Use by Native Americans has been documented, but the herb is not widely used today. L. capitata is related to, but not to be confused with its aggressive and invasive cousin, Serecia Lespedeza. Another common cousin of this plant is grown in Kansas as a forage crop; Korean Lespedeza, which is a low growing, drought hardy annual.

Family: Fabaceae/Bean Family

Life cycle: herbaceous perennial (Zones 3-9)

Native: Great Plains and eastern North America.

Height: 2-3 feet.

Sun: Full sun optimal.

Soil: Appears to prefer well drained, hillside soils of the Great Plains. At Olathe, did well on neutral pH, silt loam soil.

Water: Plants did well without irrigation at the Olathe site. However, would probably benefit from some water.

Flowers: Creamy white in crowded, bristly heads, July-Sept.

Propagation: Can start from seeds...(*Jeanie...any details here?)

Pests: Appears to be resistant to most insect pests, though leaf spotting noted one year, that may have been mildew, due to wet conditions?

Harvesting: Harvest above ground portions of the plant with clippers or mower?

Parts used: Above ground stems and leaves.

Used as: infusion (tea), moxa.

Medicinal Benefits: The round-head lespedeza was not generally used in Anglo medicine, and is not currently listed in the Herbal PDR. It was listed in 1901 in the Preliminary List of Medicinal and Economic Kansas Plants as a diuretic and emetic. However, it was used by Native Americans as an antidote for poison, and a beverage tea was made from the leaves that was thought to be beneficial to sick people. The Omahas and Poncas used lespediza as a moxa for neuralgia or rheumatism. For this treatment they moistened one end of a short piece of stem so that it would stick to the skin, then lit the other end and allowed it to burn down to the skin. Similar treatments are often used in traditional Chinese medicine with other plants. Experiments with lespedeza have found that extracts have antitumor activitiy against Walker-256 carcinosarcoma, and it also reportedly lowers blood cholesterol levels. The plant contains sev eral biologically active compounds, and is worthy of more research. Pharmaceutical preparations are manufactured in Europe from this plant.

Market Potential: Unclear at this time. Only one company of those surveyed listed a price or product, so it is not widely recognized or used at this time, at least commercially. The price for Lespedeza tops was $19.52/lb dw (Richters).

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

ROUND-HEADED

LESPEDEZA 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) 1 73.0 3.5 2nd Year 1 82.0 4.5 3rd Year 1 111.0 3.5 Average Comments

Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant)

32.0 6.0

59.0 61.2

97.0 58.1

Only evaluated at Olathe, same plot, all 3 years. Plants apparently spread, either by seed, or rhizomes each year. 3.8 Above average vigor rating, especially in year 2, in spite of disease symptoms. 62.7 Yields did not decline in year 3 as much with this plant as with some others that suffered from the drought in 2002 at Olathe, which had no irrigation. 4.5 Plants were in full flower/seed set at the time of harvest. 0.8 1.2 Higher disease rating in year 2 than other years. May have been mildew or other leaf spotting disease. 3rd year plants did not show disease symptoms, and was a much drier year. Assume 1 x 2 spacing.

DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating)

6.7 3.6 0.8 0.0

26.7 5.0 1.0 3.0

29.2 5.0 0.5 0.5

Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price

21,780 15,899 95 210

21,780 17,860 1093 2408

21,780 24,176 1405 3094

-$2050

-$23,497

-$30,196

Summary of field trial data: Lespedeza is not a common herb in the commercial market, but we wanted to include it in our field screening trials, since it is one of the plants native to the Great Plains region of N. America. We only tried this plant at one location, Olathe, so it should also be tested at other sites, if it is determined that there is in fact a market for this plant. At Olathe, the plant appeared healthy (vigor rating average 3.8), though leaves were spotted with something like a mildew in year 2. Dry weight yields per plant appeared to level off in year 2, but the plants continued to propagate, and more

stems were counted each year. Survival of transplants was also ok, at 73% for first year plants. Yields were a respectable ton in year two, and ton and a half in year 3, so this could almost be considered a forage crop? In the flower garden, Lespedeza capitata is a graceful plant on a long stem, with greenishgrey foliage, and white flowers inside a light-brown, ball-like cluster.

MF-2627: Sheep Sorrel

Rumex acetosella

Sheep sorrel leaves have a tangy, lemony flavor, sometimes used as part of a salad greens mixture, though high tannin and oxalic acid content limit its use in large quantities. This is the little cousin to yellow dock, R. crispus, another naturalized European alien in N. America. Sheep sorrel is probably best known currently as a traditional ingredient in Essiac, an herbal formula, that is often used as a therapy for cancer patients. Folk cancer remedy. Related culinary species include French sorrel, R. scutatus, and garden sorrel, R. acetosa, best known for their use in soup.

Family: Buckwheat family.

Life cycle: Herbaceous perennial (Zones 3-9)

Native: Originally from Europe, now found throughout N. America, especially on acid soils.

Height: 4- 12 inches

Sun: Full sun

Soil: Any soil, does well on wetter, acid soils.

Water: Light to moderate

Flowers: Flowers are reddish purple and bloom from mid- late summer.

Propagation: Sow seeds indoors and transplant outside in mid-late spring, or sow directly outdoors. No treatment required. Germination in 7-10 days at a rate of 70%. This plant will spread, plant 12 inches apart.

Pests: No major pests reported or observed in field plots.

Harvesting: Harvest aerial parts with scissors in the early summer.

Parts used: Aerial parts, fresh or dried, also root.

Used as: Infusion (tea), tincture.

Medicinal benefits: Immune system and lymphatic system. Caution: may cause poisoning in large doses, due to high oxalic acid and tannin contents. Leaf tea traditionally used for fevers, inflammations, scurvy. Fresh leaves considered cooling, diuretic. Root tea used for diarrhea, excessive menstrual bleeding. Sheep sorrel is rich in cancer-preventative vitamins, also includes four anti-mutagenic and four anti-oxidant compounds.

Market potential: Moderate. Prices for herb range from $6.30 - $33.00/lb dw. Is a prominent ingredient in the well known Essiac cancer-treatment formula.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

SHEEP SORRELL 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) 4 85.8 3.5 2nd Year 3 99.0 4.3 3rd Year 0 --Average Comments

92.4 3.9

Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price

14.5 11.8 6.9 1.0 0.4 0.4 29,040 24,916 294 648

22.7 66.1 38.5 2.0 0.0 0.2 29,040 28,750 1900 4186

-------

18.6

1.5 0.2 0.3 Assume 1 x 1.5 spacing

$2041 $10,692

$13,129 $69,069

Summary of field trial data: This plant had very good survival from transplants in replicated plots at four locations in Kansas (Olathe, Wichita, Colby and Hays). First year yield of the above ground portion was small, but by the second year, the individual plants had spread quite a bit, and above ground biomass was estimated at over 2 tons per acre. This may even be an underestimate, as approximately one square foot was harvested, assuming this was the original dimensions of the plant, when in fact most plants had spread to a 2 x 2 or even 3 x 3 area. However, harvesting this biomass will be difficult, as the plant is low growing, and either hand harvesting with scissors, or mechanically harvesting and then washing the whole plant may be necessary.

The % survival goes up the second year, instead of down, because the plants are spreading, and filling in gaps. This is NOT a crop to grow as a companion crop, and can become weedy. We dont know yet if tillage will kill this plant, once we move on from these plots. By the third year, the plants had grown well out of their original rows, and had begun to invade neighboring plots.

MF-2628: Skullcap/Scullcap

Scutellaria lateriflora

Known as Mad-dog skullcap because the tea was once used as a folk remedy for rabies. The debate over the effectiveness of this plant was long running though, as it was listed in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia from 1863 to 1916, and in the national Formulary from 1916 to 1947, but the U.S. Dispensatory states that skullcap is destitute of medicinal properties. There are eight species of skullcap found throughout the Prairie Bioregion. The Mesquakies used the small skullcap, S. parvula in treatment of diarrhea. This plant is enjoying renewed interest from herbalists as a tincture for the treatment of nervous disorders.

Family: Mint/Lamiaceae

Life cycle: perennial; herbaceous (Zones 4-8)

Native: Native to N. America, found in rich woods, moist thickets, and along stream banks.

Height: 1-3 feet.

Sun: Full sun or partial shade.

Soil: Prefers well-drained, but moist soil. Will respond to fertility.

Water: Moderate. Though prefers moist sites in the wild, it survived in our dryland non-irrigated field sites. Responds to irrigation with increased growth.

Flowers: Violet, blue, hooded, lipped, from May - Sept. Beware of this plants ability to spread before putting in your flower garden.

Propagation: Stratify seeds for at least 1 week before sowing. sow indoors and look for germination in about 2 weeks. Transplant outside after danger of frost. This herb will grow in clumps, space 12 inches apart in the row. Can also propagate with cuttings or root divisions. Plants will begin to spread, once in the established in the field. Difficult to weed mechanically later on, due to the clumpiness of the plants.

Pests: No major pests noted in the field or in the literature.

Harvesting: Aerial parts are harvested when the herb is in full flower. Harvest about 3 inches above the ground.

Parts used: Aerial parts.

Used as: Tincture, tea, liniment.

Medicinal Benefits: Strong tea traditionally used as a sedative, nerve tonic, and antispasmodic for all types of nervous conditions, including epilepsy, insomnia, anxiety, and neuralgia. Scutellarin, a flavonoid compound in the plant, has confirmed sedative and antispasmodic qualities.

Market Potential: High. Prices range from $16.00 - $64.00. This is an herb with a fairly high lowend price, perhaps because it isnt competing yet with imports from Asia or Eastern Europe?

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

SKULLCAP 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year Average Comments

Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price

4 88.5 3.8 40.8 52.5 11.1 4.6 0.2 0.4 21,780 19,275 1012 2229

0 ---------

0 --------

88.5 3.7 40.8

4.6 0.2 0.4 Assume 1 x 2 spacing.

$17,832 $71,328

Summary of field trial data: Skullcap did relatively well under field conditions, and was tested in replicated plots at 4 locations (Wichita, Hays, Olathe and Colby), with average survival the first year of 88.5% and a vigor rating of 3.8. The lowest vigor rating was at Hays, with a 3.0, which represented the harshest field conditions in terms of dry weather, wind, and no irrigation. The lowest biomass harvest was also obtained at Hays (see Appendix C for details). For a woodland, water loving plant, this was an amazingly hardy field herb. Given the current high value in the market, and ease of harvest (this is an above-ground herb), we would recommend trying this as a field crop. Preliminary observation of this plant in year 2 are that we had fairly good winter survival, and higher yields in the second year than the first. The only reason that only first year data is presented here is that we didnt put this plant in the screening trials until 2002, and we are still collecting data on the 2003 yields.

MF-2629: St. Johns Wort

Hypericum perforatum

The species name, perforatum, comes from the fact that the leaves have translucent dots which appear to be holes when they are put up to the light. There are about 370 species of Hypericum, but H. perforatum is easy to identify. Native to Europe and Asia, it has naturalized in N. America, and is considered a weed in western range land. For many years, the USDA had a program to import insects as a form of biological control for this plant. Good thing it didnt work, eh? The common name of the plant is said to originate from the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, who used it to treat wounds on Crusade battlefields.

Family: Hypericacae

Life cycle: herbaceous perennial (Zones 3-8)

Native: Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa, naturalized in N. America, especially western states.

Height: 2-4 feet.

Sun: Full sun optimal, will tolerate partial shade.

Soil: Does best on well drained soil, but will tolerate some wet soils. Can be grown with low fertility, but will do better with some compost and/or mulch.

Water: Has low to moderate water requirement.

Flowers: Bright yellow flowers, 5 petaled, about inch across, bloom in mid- to late summer. Flower petals have small black dots on margins.

Propagation: Seeds should be stratified for 3 to 4 weeks to improve germination. Germination occurs in about 2 weeks, and is approximately 70%. Can sow directly outdoors, or in seedling flats for transplants. Seed is extremely small, so controlling the seeding rate would be difficult outdoors. Seed germination is also light dependent, so only cover the seed very lightly. Transplants are pretty tough to kill. Plant also spreads via short rhizomes, so larger plants can be propagated via root divisions in the spring or fall of the 2nd or 3rd year. Seed can also be saved from your own plants if some flowers are left to go to seed. Space plants about 12 inches in the row, with 2 to 3 feet between rows.

Pests: No major pests observed in our field trials, though the Klamath Beetle (Chrysolina spp.), introduced into California by the USDA in 1944, continues to be a problem for growers west of the Rockies.

Harvesting: The flowering tops are clipped when in full flower. For the absolute best quality, individual blossoms are picked the day they open, but this option would probably only be used if you are making oil or tincture for yourself or your family. Sold fresh or dried.

Parts used: Flowering tops, when in peak flower. Check with buyer as to how much plant material may be included with flowering tops.

Used as: Infusion, tincture, herb powder, liquid, wash, cream, infused oil.

Medicinal Benefits: Clinical studies have shown St. Johns Wort preparations to be an effective anti depressent, sedative, and anti-anxiety treatment. Oily Hypericum preparations demonstrate an antiinflammatory action, though no antiviral properties of the herb have been proven. However, antibacterial effect has been demonstrated, including against penicillin-resistant Staph. In Europe, St. Johns wort has been approved for use by physicians in treating anxiety, depressive moods, inflammation of the skin, blunt injuries, wound, and burns.

The herb can cause increased skin sensitivity to the sun when taken internally. For many years, manufactured products from St. Johns Wort were standardized to the hypericin content of the herb. However, it was later found that the efficacy of this herb is due to synergy of several compounds, so now

hypericin is simply considered an indicator compound, that may or may not actually be linked to how effective the product might be.

Market Potential: High. However, much St. Johns Wort now wild crafted in California and other western states. Can be hand harvested, but some mechanization should be possible. This herb has received much positive national publicity as an alternative treatment for mild depression. It also have value for skin healing, and other medicinal uses, so demand for this herb should be good for quite a while. In Europe, St. Johns Wort is prescribed 20 times more often for depression than Prozac. Prices range from $4.50 - 25.75 /lb dw for tops with flowers.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

JOE PYE WEED 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) 4 86.3 2nd Year 2 72.5 3rd Year 2 96.0 Average Comments

Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant)

4.0 30.8 41.0

4.5 69.5 428.5

4.7 83.0 60.5

84.9 The higher survival in yr 3 as compared to yr 2 is due to clumps spreading, and being over-counted in year 3. 4.4 High vigor ratings overall. 61.1 Lower biomass yields in yr 3 due to decline of stand, drought in 2002, and late harvest relative to bloom time. The same sets of plots were evaluated in yrs 2 and 3. 4.4 Plants flowered prior to fall harvest in years 2 and 3. Harvest for maximum floral bloom would occur in June or July. 0.3 Little or no insect or disease damage observed. 0.3 Assume 1 x 2 spacing.

DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating)

13.8 2.8

299.2 5.0

32.3 5.3

Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x

0.0 0.1 21,780 18,796 77

0.5 0.7 21,780 15,791 677

0.3 0.3 21,780 20,909 126

Assume that 10% of the top DW

# of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price

170

1490

279

will be harvested with flowers. The 2nd yr dw estimate is not too far off Blakelys estimate of 1250 lb/A dw per acre.

$383 $2190

$3353 $19,191

$627 $3594

Summary of field trial data: Overall, St. Johns Wort seems to be one of the better adapted plants that we evaluated in our plots. Transplants held up well under transplant stress, and mature plants appear to have few insect or disease pests. Our results appear to agree with the recommendations of Sturdivant and Blakley (1999), who suggest that 2nd yr plants yield more than 3rd year plants. Our stands also declined in year 3, but this was also confounded with a drought in 2002 at both locations, and fall harvest of these plants, which was not the optimal time of harvest for maximum biomass (which would have been June or July).

If a good price can be obtained for either fresh or dried material, this may be a crop to try in Kansas. Since buyers are willing to accept some green matter in with the flowers, say 8 - 12 inches, it seems that this crop could be partially mechanized, with a hedge trimmer, if not with a tractor mounted tool. The tops still need to be dried carefully and cleanly however, or shipped immediately as a fresh product. A recent e-mail from Europe confirmed that buyers are still looking for this crop.

MF-2630: Stevia

Stevia rebaudiana

Stevia has only recently gained attention and become available in health food stores in the U.S. as a natural non-sugar sweetener. It is a tropical plant, native to Paraguay and Brazil, but it does very well in Kansas, and probably in other Great Plains states. An herb company in Missouri has recently begun a breeding a selection program to improve Stevia germplasm, and select for even sweeter plants. Stevia was originally used in eastern Parguay to sweeten the local tea, Yerba Mate, but also used the plant medicinally.

Family: Compositae

Life cycle: annual; herbaceous

Native: Paraguay/Brazil

Height: 12-15

Sun: full sun, partial shade, shade?

Soil: will respond well to rich, high organic matter soil.

Water: Prefers an environment that is hot and humid, but did well in our field trials in hot, windy Kansas. Will tolerate drought, but if possible, supply moderate to high rates of irrigation.

Flowers: flowers are delicate and white, and bloom on and off throughout the growing season. Flowers are more abundant in the fall.

Propagation: plant is easily propagated from cuttings, especially if taken before the plant blooms. Seed propagation is also possible. Keep seeds moist and warm, and expect about 30% germination over a 2-3 week period. This plant can be grown outdoors year-round in tropical regions, and in Kansas could be brought inside as a house plant for the winter. One could also collect cuttings in the fall for rooting and spring re-planting. Will not be winter hardy in Kansas outdoors.

Pests: No significant insect or disease pests noted in our plots. Rabbit and deer feeding also does not appear to be a problem. However, in one set of test plots, 4 of 5 plants disappeared between field day and harvest, without a trace, and our primary suspects are two-legged plant eaters.

Harvesting: Clip leaves, or above ground portion any time during the growing season. One source recommends fall harvest for the sweetest plants.

Parts used: Leaves.

Used as: The leaves of the plant are powdered and used as a non-sugar based sweetener. In some cases, an extract of Stevia is sold as a concentrated white powder to sprinkle on food.

Medicinal Benefits: This plant has been used in folk medicine to treat hypertension, diabetes, and as a contraceptive. However, it is currently popular in the market as a sugar substitute, and the glycosidal diterpens present in the leaves are 30 times sweeter than sugar, and the concentrated extract is 300 times sweeter. One recipe conversion chart suggests that 3/8 tsp of Stevia is equivalent to 1 Tbl. of sugar, and that 2 Tbl of Stevia could substitute for 1 cup of sugar.

Market Potential: Moderate to high. Prices range from $6.50 - $36.77 per lb dw for the herb.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

STEVIA 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price 2 95.0 4.2 60.5 51.9 8.7 2.0 0.6 0.4 21,780 20,691 1074 2365 2nd Year 0 --------3rd Year 0 --------Average Comments This is an annual crop.

Assume 1 x 2 spacing.

$7686 $43,492

Summary of field trial data: This species did well under Kansas conditions, especially considering its tropical origins. It appeared healthy and vigorous, even in the hot wind, but of the two sites tested, the Hays site (non-irrigated, central/western KS) yielded about half (32 g/plant) the dry weight as the Wichita site, which was irrigated (72 g/plant). This trial took place during the 2001 growing season, and another trial this year (2003) seems to be showing similar results, with larger plants in Wichita, under irrigated conditions, as compared to Olathe, which was not irrigated. The vigor rating is 4.2 on a 1-5 scale, and no significant insect or disease pests were noted. Since this is an above-ground herb, harvesting could potentially be mechanized, as long as quality control was maintained. The price spread is a bit disconcerting, and with the high-end price more than 5 times the low end price, one wonders how to get that high price in order to make money with this crop.

MF-2631: Stinging Nettles

Urtica dioica

There are over 50 species of nettle that grow world-wide, many of which are harvested for food or medicine. This is an over-looked medicinal plant, that has been mistaken for a weed by the uninformed.

Family: Urticaceae

Life cycle: Herbaceous perennial, Zones 2-9.

Native to: North America (U. dioica spp. gracilis), has male and female flowers on separate branches or plants, and Eurasia (U. dioica spp. dioica) which has male and female flowers on separate plants. In the wild this plant grows near streams, ponds, rivers, and lakes in a disturbed area. The stems of nettle are square . Nettles leaves and stems are covered with sharp spines that sting when touched. It is best to wear gloves when handling this herb when fresh.. The sting is caused by histamine, small amounts of formic acid, and other compounds. These are deactivated when the plant is dried or cooked.

Habit: Grows 2 to 4 feet and will spread, so plant at least 12 inches apart.

Sun: Nettles can grow in full sun, partial shade, or full shade.

Soil: Plant in soil with high organic matter content. (4-5%). Will respond to increased fertility.

Water: Provide moderate to heavy amount of water, but will survive under dryland conditions.

Flowering: Cream colored, pearl like, tiny flowers bloom from early summer to late fall.

Propagation: Stratify seed and sow directly in the garden or plant indoors and transplant to the garden in late spring. Germination rates of about 50% are to be expected. Propagate by root division in early spring. The individual plants will spread into large clumps in years 2 and 3.

Harvesting: Harvest aerial parts any time during the growing season. Best when harvested prior to flowering. Can harvest several times a year once the plant is established. Wear gloves and cut with scissors or clippers. Dried nettles will not cause stinging.

Pests: Many caterpillars like to feed on nettles, but the plant usually outgrows the leaf feeding damage. These caterpillars will eventually turn into butterflies, so this isnt always a bad thing.

Parts used: Aerial parts fresh or dried. Roots have recently been shown to be effective for prostrate inflammation.

Used as: Infusion, tincture, elixir, food, ointment, cream, salve, balm, foot soak, bath herb, infused oil, honey, liniment, and dye.

Medical Benefits: Whole body tonic. Nettles are great for the reproductive health of both males and females. Benefits immune system, urinary tract system, and respiratory system. Good for skin, hair, and provides allergy relief. Nettles are an astringent and good for facial steams. Approved in Europe for infections of the urinary tract, kidney and bladder stones, and rheumatism. The root has been approved in Europe for prostate complaints and irritable bladder. Research with animals has demonstrated a local anesthetic and analgesic effect, as well as antirheumatic and anti-arthritic effect.

Food uses: Young shoots are a great source of vitamins and minerals. Use in salads (blanched), as a tea and boiled as a vegetable. Good source or iron. The plant looses its sting once cooked or steamed.

Market potential: Moderate. Prices for tops range from $3.25 - $19.52, roots $4.50 $18.50.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

NETTLES 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants roots) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre roots) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price 5 75.0 3.8 52.0 243.7 26.6 3.4 0.8 0.4 14,520 10,890 2654 5846 2nd Year 3 66.0 4.2 61.0 424.3 185.8 4.7 0.5 0.2 14,520 9583 4066 8956 3rd Year 0 ---------Average Comments

70.5 4.0 56.5

4.1 0.6 0.3 Assume 1 x 3 spacing.

$9529 $57,057 290 638

$14,598 $87,411 1781 3922

$1436 $5902

$8824 $36,279

Summary of field trial data: Under our field conditions, the plants were subjected to full sun, and limited water at 3 of the 5 sites. Though it preferred irrigation, it survived well when water stressed. Though it can be wild harvested, it might be a good crop to grow if you dont have access to a wild stand. The time to harvest should be taken into account when planting this crop. One local grower harvested about 1 lb of root and 1 lb of tops in about an hour. The plant will have more leaves if harvested prior to flowering. After that, it is stemmy, but a second flush of leaves will come out during a wet fall. Repeated

harvests may keep the plant from getting stemmy, and allow for more harvests. Our data are based on one harvest in late summer/early fall, so the above ground biomass estimates are probably on the low side.

MF-2632: Valerian

Valeriana officinalis

Most commercial valerian is from a plant that is native to Europe, but a related species, V. sitchensis, is native to the western U.S, and is thought to have higher levels of valepotriates, and stronger medicinal activity. However, this plant should be cultivated, not wild harvested, and is entering the market in small quantities now. Valerian tincture was used in WWI and WWII to treat shell shock and nervous stress. The root of valerian has a very strong odor, which apparently attracts cats, in a way similar to catnip. According to folklore, in 18th century apothecaries, the quality of Valerian root was determined by the way in which cats reacted to it.

Family: Valerianaceae

Life cycle: Herbaceous perennial (Zones 3-10)

Native: Europe, Western Asia. Naturalized in the northeastern N. America, where it is found in ditches, damp meadows, marshy thickets, and near stream banks.

Height: 4-5 feet (in bloom)

Sun: Full sun, shade, prefers partial shade.

Soil: Prefers a nutrient rich, high humus soil. pH 6.-7. Seems to have a high phosphorus requirement.

Water: Moderate to heavy. Grows along ditches, rivers and damp woods. Can grow in soil too wet for other species.

Flowers: Very fragrant white flowers (slightly pink), in a dense head of several stalked clusters bloom in late spring and early summer.

Propagation: No treatment needed for seed germination. Seed directly in the field in early spring or start indoors to transplant in late spring. Press into soil, do not cover, needs light to germinate. Optimum germination temperature is 68 F. Germination occurs in 7-14 days with a rate of 60-70%. Space 12-24 inches apart. Seed will loose viability after the first year, so dont save old seed. Fresh seed reported by Frontier only 30% viable. Another option is to take root divisions in fall or spring. Recommended seeding rate is 2-3kg/ha (or xxx lb/A).

Pests: Trials in Iowa reported some foliage diseases; powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygani) and peronospora (Peronospora valerianae). Other diseases encountered included adema, root rot and white mold. In our field trials, first year plants appeared quite healthy, but during the second year, the foliage appeared stunted, purple and yellow, and a root rot (xxx) was identified on some plants.

Harvesting: Harvest the root in the fall of the first or second year. Two references suggested harvesting in the 2nd year, but another reference reported that the roots will deteriorate in quality by the fall of the second year so harvest accordingly. Use a needle nose spade and dig when the soil is moist but not wet. Good weed control is recommended for optimizing crop yield. Cut tops prior to harvest for easier digging. Carefully dry root with circulating air at temperatures lower than 40 C (110 F). This are somewhat fibrous roots, and difficult to wash.

Parts used: Root, fresh or dried.

Used as: Infusion (tea) decoction, expressed juice from fresh plants, tincture. Oil is used in flavoring, pharmaceutical and fragrance industry.

Medicinal benefits: Valerian is used as a strong sedative and pain reliever. It is approved for use in Europe to treat nervousness and insomnia, and many research studies support its effectiveness. Also used to treat hypochondria, nervous headaches, irritability, mild spasmodic affections, depression, despondency, as well as insomnia. Warning: Do not use in large doses over a long time period. Side effects include headache and palpitations. It is not recommended that valerian be combined with other central nervous system depressants or with alcohol.

Market potential: High. This is one of the top selling sedatives in Europe, and is still growing in popularity in the U.S. However, there are large growers in this market too. Prices range from $2.95 $31.65.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

VALERIAN STANDARD 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - roots) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre roots) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price 4 78.0 2.9 35.8 41.0 18.6 1.0 0.8 1.2 21,780 16,988 316 969 2nd Year 2 3.7 2.3 -36.0 33.0 1.0 0.5 0.3 3rd Year 0 --------21,780 16,988 586 1291 Average Comments

34.5 (Average yield of 2 best sites in the field trial)

$1434 $15,339

$1911 $20,436

VALERIAN VARIETY: Artener auchtung 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year Average Comments

Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - roots) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre roots) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price

1 100.0 3.4 31.0 21.8 4.4 1.0 0.0 0.0 21,780 21,780 96 211

1 13.0 0.1 ---1.0 0.0 0.0

----------

Plants were too small to dig in the second year.

$312 $3340

Summary of field trial data: Though literature values suggest potentially high yields with this crop, ranging from 1500-2500 dry lb/acre to 5 tons/A, and few pests, our experience in the field was quite different. First year plant survival and vigor was relatively good, but observations in the spring and fall of the second year found plants that barely emerged from winter dormancy, showed severe discoloration, deformed leaves, and failed to produce much the second year. In the field, this affected nearly all the plants, but in a garden setting, with wind breaks and more regular water, fewer plants were affected. Field sites for year 1 plants included Wichita, Hays, Olathe and Colby, with the first 3 trials taking place in 2001, and the Colby trial in 2002. Yields varied a lot, ranging from root dw yield of only 3.4 and 2.0 g/plant at Wichita and Hays, and 31.5 an 37.5 g/plant at Olathe and Colby, respectively. Though Olathe was not irrigated and Colby was, the Olathe site apparently did better than Wichita and Hays due to the heavier soils and having enough rain in 2001. A second column of data is presented in the comments section of the first table, to calculate yields and net return from the average of the better performing sites. Even using only the best sites, per acre yield was only about 1200 lb dw. Better yields could perhaps have been obtained the second year, if more plants had survived.

Two valerian varieties were compared; the standard or common variety sold by Richters, and a named, improved variety, Artener auchtung. Unfortunately, the named variety was only tested at one site, Hays, and this was one of the harsher sites for valerian, so the yields were disappointing. The vigor rating and

survival was better for the named variety however, so future research on this and other herbs should include as many cultivars as possible.

Future research on valerian in Kansas should also include wetter, higher fertility sites. Under our field conditions, each transplant receives compost, and Wichita has occasional irrigation from an overhead sprinkler system, and Colby has drip irrigation. However, all are exposed to full sun and wind. Symptoms in second year plants could have been due to many things, or a combination of factors. Some of the things we suspected included winter stress (including wind desiccation of young leaves), phosphorus deficiency (leaves were quite purple), herbicide drift damage, or disease. The only stress factor weve confirmed so far is the presence of a root disease, xxx, from one of the plants that died in our demonstration garden, that had been growing under fairly ideal conditions.

Until we get better survival in the field, we do not recommend this as a crop in Kansas at this time, though it does make an attractive and fragrant addition to the home flower/herb garden.

MF-2633: White Sage

Salvia apiana

This herb has been over harvested for ceremonial products. White sage is now on the United Plant Savers at-risk list. Growers are needed to ensure the survival of this herb. This sage is quite different than the common garden sage, S. officinalis, more known for its culinary as well as medicinal use. White sage is rarely used internally, but more often in ceremonies, and the bundles of sage are sometimes used with cedar to smudge or to purify through exposure to smoke. Another plant with the common name white sage, was also used medicinally and ceremonially by Native Americans, but this plant is Artemisia ludoviciana, and more closely related to mugwort, or Artemisia vulgaris, than to garden sage.

Family: Lamiaceae

Life cycle: Tender herbaceous perennial (Zones 8-11)

Native: Southern California and northern Baja regions.

Height: 12-24 inches

Sun: Full sun.

Soil: Well drained soil. Good tolerance to hot, dry weather.

Water: Low to moderate

Flowers: Pale blue/purple flowers bloom in late summer.

Seeds: Stratify seed for at least 1 week and then sow indoors. Night time temperature of 70 F and hot daytime temperatures between 80 and 90 F. Germination around 40% and will take 2- 3 weeks to germinate. Keep evenly moist until seedlings are up and then cut back on watering . Do not over water at this stage. Transplant out in late spring. Space 12 inches apart.

Pests: No major pests observed.

Harvesting: Harvest aerial parts in late summer.

Parts used: Aerial parts, fresh or dried.

Used as: Tincture, insect repellent, smudge stick, incense.

Medicinal benefits: Womens health, digestive tract conditions, respiratory illness, skin and throat conditions. Insect repellent. Not listed in the Herbal PDR or many other herb books, so exercise caution before using medicinally.

Market potential: High. Prices range from $7.85 - $32.00.

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

WHITE SAGE 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density Plant density x survival. kg/acre DW (g/plant x # of plants - tops) Est. Marketable Yld (DW lb/acre tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price 3 86.7 4.1 56.3 99.5 21.4 1.0 0.5 0.6 21,780 18,883 1879 4139 2nd Year 3 0.0 -------3rd Year 0 --------Average Comments

-4.1 56.3

1.0 0.5 0.6 Assume 1 x 2 spacing

$16,266 $66,224

Summary of field trial data: This plant did very well the first year it was transplanted, with an 87% survival rate and vigor rating of 4.1 on a 5 point scale. Above ground biomass was also high, yielding an estimated 2 tons per acre, though we didnt observe much if any flowering in our test plots. Of the three sites tested, the least successful was the drip irrigated field in Colby, indicating that this plant prefers the dryland sites over the irrigated. None of the plants over- wintered in Kansas, so though it is a perennial, it would need to be treated as an annual crop here.

MF-2634: Yarrow

Achillea millefolium

The name Achillea comes from the tale of Achilles using this plant to heal many of his warriers, as it staunched blood flow. It was also used in the US Civil War; and was known as soldiers woundwort. It has a long tradition of use both by Native Americans on this continent, and by European healers. Few species are native to both sides of the Atlantic.

Family: Asteraceae

Life cycle: Herbaceous perennial (Zones 3-9)

Native: North America/Europe. Common in overgrazed pastures.

Height: 2 to 3 feet

Sun: Best in full sun. Will tolerate partial shade.

Soil: Well drained soil

Water: Low to moderate

Flowers: White flowers begin to appear in mid to late summer.

Propagation: Stratify seeds for a month before sowing them. Sow indoors and then transplant outside mid to late spring, or sow directly outdoors in early spring. Germination is about 70 percent and occurs in about 1 to 2 weeks. Another easy way to propagate yarrow is root divisions; in spring or fall. Space 12 inches, yarrow will spread as the clumps enlarge.

Pests: Susceptible to diseases if grown in wet soil. Looses condition in later summer after flowering.

Harvesting: Harvest aerial parts in mid to late summer while plant is in early or full flower.

Parts used: Flowering aerial parts, fresh or dried.

Used as: Infusion (tea), tincture, tincture, syrup, compress, poultice, elixir, lozenge, ointment, salve, cream, balm, foot soak, bath herb, infused oil, honey, liniment.

Medicinal Benefits: Approved for use in Europe for loss of appetite, upset stomach, liver and gallbladder complaints. Folk use for healing wounds, hemorrhoids, menstrual complaints, and in preparations for varicose veins.

Market Potential: Moderate. Price range $3.40-24.65/DW lb, retail bulk dried herb (see Appendix B.).

KSU Field Trial Data - 2000-2002.

YARROW 1st Year Location/Years Survival (%) Vigor (rating) Height (cm) 3 85.3 4.4 56.7 2nd Year 2 78.0 4.8 77.5 3rd Year 0 * * * Average Comments No 3rd yr plants available yet. 81.7 4.6 67.1 2nd year plants were noticeably

larger (taller, and bigger clumps) DW Herb (g/plant) DW Root (g/plant) Maturity (rating) Insect (rating) Disease (rating) Est. planting density (plants/acre at 12 spacing) Plant density x survival (# plants) kg/acre DW(g/plant x number of plants) Est. Marketable Yld ( lb/acre DW tops) Yld x of low price Yld x of high price 83.5 27.4 4.5 0.6 0.5 43,560 130.2 74.3 5.7 0.3 0.3 43,560 * * * * *

5.1 Flowering was earlier in 2nd yr plants. 0.4 0.4

37,157 3103 6834

33,977 4424 9744

$ 11,618 $ 84,229

$ 16,565 $ 120,095

Summary of field trial data: Yarrow grew well at all the locations planted, and seems to be well adapted to Kansas heat, wind, and drought. Disease and insect pressure were low, up until well after flowering, at which time quality goes down quickly, and insect feeding and some plant decomposition are noted. The vigor ratings were high at all locations, indicating that this is a relatively easy plant to grow, and is well adapted to Kansas. The harvested yield on a per acre basis is fairly large, and has the potential to be partially or fully mechanized. Drying this much material, and maintaining quality would be challenges to large-scale production. Yarrow is a generally useful herb, but is not used nationally in large quantities. Domestic named varieties of yarrow, often found in floral colors of yellow, orange, and red, are not found in the medicinal herb market, but are suitable for home use.

Appendix B. Introduction

Market research is very difficult in the herb business. There are no governmental statistics, and the industry is reluctant to reveal quantities, prices, or even exports vs. imports purchased. Many companies require growers to sign a confidentiality agreement when making purchases, and brokers dont like to reveal the price they are getting from the company, or the company making the purchase.

So, what we are left with, if we want to do market research, is data on retail, but not wholesale prices. A number of major (and some minor) companies catalogs and web-sites were gleaned for price information for many of the herbs we think we can grow in Kansas. Some of these herbs are plants we already have in abundance, like walnut trees. Some are already on our flower gardens, like Lavender and lilly of the valley. A few may not be welcome in our yards, such as stinging nettle, burdock, and dandelion, but they all have a value in the medicinal herb market. The price list can help you to know if it is worth the effort to gather, clean, dry, and then market the plant or plant part on the list. A fair assumption is that the price you get will be at least half, or maybe even less, than the retail price (unless you are retailing it yourself). Some of the prices are for whole herb, but many are for cut and sifted (coarse ground), or powdered. Ironically, in some cases the whole herb was worth more than the processed, which means that equipment purchased for grinding would not pay for itself!! Some of these details are not on the table, as it is already xx pages long, with just the bare minimum of price info.

When there were organic options, the organic price is in bold type. Some companies ONLY offer organic herb. See table B1 for this information. Pricing information, by definition, is outdated almost as soon as it is compiled. This particular table was put together using spring 2003 catalogs and websites. We recommend using these tables only as a starting point. As you can see, the range for herb prices is huge....even within a particular species. In many cases, there is a 10 fold difference between the highest and lowest price for an herb. The difference is partly explained by quality. The lower price probably represents imported herb, of unknown source, and unknown quality. The higher prices are for organically grown, ethically wildcrafted, and probably marketed by a small company with a good reputation among herbalists. If you find yourself thinking about growing a particular herb for the market, go back to these sources, find some current prices, and then see if you can find a market. You wont always be able to lock in a market or prices without sending in some sort of sample, but it will give you a taste of the market, and a way to get started.

Appendix B. Herb Price Research: Sources of bulk herb products, followed by tables of herb prices.

Table B1. Bulk Herb Sources

Name
AmeriHerb, Inc.

Comments

Address

Website
not on line at this time

Mentioned as a P.O. Box 1968 reasonable source of bulk herbs by Ames, IA 50010-1968 another website, catalog only, no 1-800-267-6141 website. See racehorseherbal.co m for ref.

Blessed Herbs

Bouncing Bear Botanical

Bulk botanicals, sold as (w) wildcrafted, (org) certified organic, and (h) high quality herbs whose growing conditions we cannot verify. Purchase from a network of wildcrafters and organic growers, and only sell herbs that are not fumigated, irradiated, or treated w/ syn. chem. Over 600 products on list. Sell about 24 herb products, most not on our KSU trial

109 Barre Plains Road Oakham, MA 01068 1-800-489-4372 blessedherbs@blessedherbs.c om

www.blessedherbs.com

P.O. Box 3895

www.bouncingbearbotanicals.c om

list. Not listed as organic. Sell about 6 locally desert wildcrafted herbs.

Olathe, KS 66063-3895 orders@bouncingb.com Desert Bloom Herbs 505 N. Bullard St. Silver City, NM 88061 1-800-583-2976 Frontier Cooperative Herbs 3021 78th St P.O. Box 299 Norway, IA 319-227-7996

Desert Bloom

www.desertbloom

Frontier Herb Coop

Herbal Advantag e, Inc.

Products include organic bulk herbs, also many other products in recent years. Can find bulk herbs with common name search, latin name also available. Source of herb not listed. Sells several herbal products in addition to bulk herbs. Appear to make their own tinctures. Also, the farm grows a new variety of Stevia, sweeter and less bitter than older varieties.

www.frontiercoop.com

131 Bobwhite Rd Rogersville, MO 65742 417-753-4000 800-753-9199

www.herbaladvantage.com

Jeans Greens

Horizon

Bulk herbs by the oz. or by the pound, maximum order 2 lb. List of herbs notes if organic or wildcrafted. Source of herb not listed. Offers growing guide and catalog

119 Sulphur Spring Road Norway, NY 13416 315-845-6500

www.jeansgreeens.com

Horizon Herbs, LLC

www.horizonherbs.com

Herbs

of many herb seeds. Also offers many books by founder, Richo Cech. Sells herb extracts, but not bulk herbs. Certified organic by Oregon Tilth. In Harmony 250 dried herbs, Herbs and many certified Spices organic. Prices not listed on website however.

PO Box 69 Williams, OR 97544 541-846-6704

P.O. Box 7555 San Diego, CA 92167 619-223-8051

www.inharmonyherbs.com

Mountain Rose Herbs

Pacific Botanicals

Planet Herbs

Bulk herbs, essential oils, other herbal products, and equipment to make your own. Bulk herbs are either certified organic, or sustainable wildcrafted/grown, no chemicals. Oregon Tilth Certified Organic. Carries 175 medicinal herbs and spices in whole, cut, tea-bag and powder. Grown on 114 acre Cert. Org. farm and 8 contract growers. Herbs, roots, barks, and Native American ceremonial and ritual items. Lists common and latin names, not necessarily organic.

PO Box 50220 Eugene, OR 97405 800-867-3337

www.mountainroseherbs.com

4350 Fish Hatchery Rd Grants pass, OR 97527 541-479-7777

www.pacificbotanicals.com

815 2nd Ave. Marlinton, WV 24954 1-888-480-4372

www.planteherbs.net

Prairie Moon Nursery

Richters herbs

San Franciso Herb and Natural Food Company

Catalog and cultural guide for many herb species, but they specialize in native plants for wetland, prairie, savanna, and woodland. Seeds only, no bulk herbs. Established company for diverse herb seeds and plants, new species each year. Some bulk herbs, but primary business is seeds. Great website with photos, growing tips, etc. Bulk herbs offered, listed by common and latin name, source (country), only a few available as organic.

Route 3 Box 163 Winona, MN 55987-9515 507-452-1362

www..prairiemoonnursery.com

Richters Herbs, 357 Hwy 47, Goodwood Ontario LOC 1AO, CANADA 1-905-640-6677

www.richters.com

47444 Kato Rd. Fremont, CA 94538 510-770-1215

www.herbspicetea.com

Snakeroot Man

Sells only wildcrafted Echinacea angustifolia roots, cut and sifted.

The Snake Root Man P.O. Box 242 Bison, KS 67520 elfenquarters@yahoo.com P.O. Box 1001

www.snakerootman.com

Trinity House

Whole-sale only supplier, supporting herbal retailers, Graton, CA 95444 practitioners and manufacturers. 707-824-2040 Does not sell to individuals. 888-874-4372 Website offers links to companies that

www.trinityherb.com

Wild Weeds

Years to Your Health

carry their products. Family run, mail order business. Offer organically grown herbs when available. Since 1987. Catalog includes common name only, priced by the ounce, a few listed as organic. Source not listed.

233 Red Rock Lane Fieldbrook, CA 95519 800-553-9453 (ph/fax) 503 E. 2nd Street Irving, TX 75060 972-579-7042

www.wildweeds.com

www.eatmoreherbs.com

Other Herb Price Info Sites

Agriculture Canada www.agr.gc.ca/misb/infohort/data/herbs_spices

Herbal Green Pages www. herbworld.com www.HerbNet

Local Health Food Stores Peoples Grocery, 17th and Yuma, Manhattan, KS Community Mercantile, 9th and Iowa, Lawrence, KS Several in Wichita, see yellow pages in phone book.

Local Broker David Hall Future in Herbs Wichita, KS 316-775-1613

Kansas Center for Sustainable Agriculture and Alternative Crops (includes links to many other sites) www.oznet.ksu.edu/KCSAAC

Table B2. Trees with market as medicinal species

Commo n Name

Species

Her b Part

YT YH

San Franc isco

Mt n Ro se 7.5 0 7.0 0 ----

Richt ers

Fron tier

Jean s Gre ens 13.0 0 9.00 ---9.00

Wil d We eds -12.0 0 --5.50 --

Bles sed Her b -12.1 0 14.3 0 ---

Peop les Groc ery ------

Black Walnut Butternu t Cedar

Juglans nigra Juglans cinerea Thuja occidenta lis

leaf hull pwd bark inner bark chips tips

17.6 0 14.4 0 -21.6 0 10.4 0

-3.50 4.90 -2.50

-----21.79

-11.00 --7.00 16.75

Chaste Tree Cherry wild

Vitex agnuscastus Prunus virginian a/ (P. serotina) Castanea sativa/de ntata Ulmus rubra

20.0 0 berry 28.8 0 bark 16.8 0

4.40

11. 00 9.0 0

25.42

12.60

17.0 0 12.0 0

16.0 0 14.0 0

12.7 0 10.4 5

na

5.10

17.25

16.25

13.35

Chestnut

leaf

6.40

3.25

--

--

15.50

--

--

--

--

Elm slippery

inner bark

45.6 0

12.95

22. 00

28.60

39.79 / 30.15 --

27.0 0

25.0 0

15.1 5

28.05

Fringe tree Ginkgo

Chionant hus virginicus Ginkgo biloba

bark

--

--

--

--

68.0 0 30.0 0

--

--

--

leaf

21.6 0

3.50

9.5 0

46.31

26.85

30.0 0

17.6 0

25.85

/ 13.95 13.45

Horsech estnut

Aesculus hippocast unum Tilia europaea

nut/s eed leaf leaf & flow er bark

-20.0 0 38.4 0

9.50

24. 00

--

28.0 0

--

13.2 0

--

Linden

7.65

16. 00

31.78

24.35

25.0 0

25.0 0

17.0 5

--

Oak White

Quercus alba

14.4 0

2.75

9.0 0

36.32

22.25 / 12.75 --

10.0 0

11.0 0

10.4 5

--

Persimm on

Pine white Poplar

Willow black Willow white

Diospyro s virginian a Pinus strobus Populus tremuloid es Salix nigra Salix alba

leaf (trad. bark) bark bark

--

6.90

--

--

--

--

--

--

13.6 0 32.0 0 42.4 0 16.8 0

3.00 --

---

19.52 20.43

15.90 --

---

6.00 --

9.70 --

---

bark bark

-5.20

-13. 50

-36.32

-17.00 / 11.15

-10.0 0

-11.0 0

10.3 0 9.90

-15.95

Table B3. Shrubs and vines with a market as medicinal species

Commo n Name

Species

Her b Par t

YT YH

San Franci sco

Mt n Ro se

Richt Front Jean ers ier s Gre ens

Wil d Wee ds

Bles sed Her b

Peopl es Groc ery

Barberry

Berberis vulgaris

root bark

32.8 0

4.75

9.0 0

--

17.70

21.0 0

21.0 0

13.2 0

--

Bayberry Myrica cerifera Bilberry Vacciniu m myrtillus

root bark fruit

48.8 0 69.6 0 21.6 0 54.4 0

7.80 16.50

15. 00 32. 50 21. 00 na

34.50 44.49

42.65 42.55

40.0 0 na

na na

18.1 5 25.4 0 16.5 0 na

na na

leaf

5.85

na

19.15

20.0 0 na

na

na

Bittersw eet

Solanum dulcama ra

Blackber ry

Rubus fruticosu s (villosus )

leav es and ste ms leaf

na

na

na

na

na

20.0 0

4.05

11. 00

--

--

16.0 0

--

--

--

root 29.6 0 26.4 0 22. 00 18. 25

20.43

-23.0 0 20.0 0

--

10.4 5 --

--

Black haw

Viburnu m prunifoli um Blueberr Vaccinu y m spp. Buckthor Rhamnu n s frangula

bark

--

--

--

23.0 0

--

leaf bark

28.8 0 16.0 0

4.90 --

9.5 0 9.0 0

-22.25

-12.80

25.0 0 11.0 0

24.5 0 --

-11.3 0

---

Cascara sagrada

Cramp bark Elderber ry

(catharti ca) Rhamnu bark s purshian a Viburnu bark m opulus Sambucu berr s nigra y

19.2 0

7.50

9.2 5

22.25

17.25

17.0 0

17.0 0

10.3 0

--

52.8 0 17.6 0

14.00 4.60

21. 00 10. 00

---

45.00 21.65 / 12.50 20.40 --

40.0 0 19.0 0

40.0 0 --

18.1 5 12.6 5

49.69 --

flow er leaf

27.2 0 50.4

9.00 --

10. 00 --

25.42 --

20.0 0 --

20.0 0 --

15.1 5 --

---

Forsythi a (Chinese ) Hawthor n

Forsythi a suspensa Crataeg us laevigat a/ monogyn a

root fruit ?

0 54.4 0 ??

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

leaf & flow er

28.0 0

na

11. 00

na

21.45

24.0 0

na

17.6 0/ 15.1 5

na

berr y

9.60

5.00/ 3.50

10. 50

17.71

12.50

20.0 0

18.0 0

13.6 0/ 11.5 5 -18.1 5/ 12.7 0 11.4 0

9.15

Honeysu ckle Hops

Lonicera flow japonica er Humulus flow lupulus er Hallerta uer Hydrang root ea arboresc ous Jasminu flow m er officinal e Juniperu berr s y communi s Ziziphus spinosa/ jujuba who le date s/ seed s

53.6 0 27.2 0

-6.00

16. 00 23. 00

-25.42

oil only 34.90

24.0 0 26.0 0

-26.0 0/ 16.5 0 --

-na

Hydrang ea

30.4 0

--

10. 00

23.61

18.35

16.0 0

--

Jasmine

30.4 0

7.90

9.0 0

--

17.60

--

--

18.1 5

Juniper

19.2 0

5.50

10. 00

25.42

26.85

17.0 0

17.0 0

20.3 5/ 12.1 0 12.6 5

14.45

Jujube Chinese

21.6 0

--

--

9.00

--

--

13.25 34.4 0

363.2 0

Oregon Grape Passion FlowerAmer. Raspberr y, Red

Mahonia root aquifolia Passiflor herb a incarnat a Rubus leaf idaeus

26.4 0 26.4 0

9.50 4.25

9.0 0 14. 75

19.52 20.43

-2-.30

24.0 0 18.0 0

-17.0 0

14.8 5 11.5 5

27.95 17.35

14.4 0

2.95

10. 00

30.42

24.75 / 13.13 25.10

18.0 0

18.0 0

15.1 5

21.65

Red Root/

Jersey Tea Sassafras Sassafra s albidum Schisand ra

Ceanoth us america nus

root

30.4 0

--

14. 00

--

21.0 0

--

14.8 5

--

root bark leaf berr ies

56.8 0

12.75

25. 00

34.96

47.00 26.25

36.0 0

32.0 0

24.7 5

47.05

Schisand ra chinensi s Seabuckt Hippoph berr horn ae ies rhamnoi des SumacRhus root sweet bark aromatic a Wahoo Euonym leav ous es atropurp urea root bark Witch Hamma bark Hazel melis virginian a leav es Wolfberr Lycium berr y, barbaru ies Chinese m

34.4 0

6.00

18. 00

23.61

17.80

15.0 0

18.0 0

10.9 0

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

55.39

--

--

--

--

--

150. 40

--

--

44.49

--

--

--

-21.4 5

--

20.8 0

5.90

11. 00

20.43

22.50

15.0 0

20.0 0

10.4 5

--

32.0 0 39.2 0

---

13. 00 10. 00

20.88 --

23.90 37.50

16.0 0 24.0 0

-24.0 0

12.1 0 13.7 5

---

Table B4. Woodland herbs with a market for medicinal species (difficult to grow in Great Plains)

Commo n Name Black Cohosh

Species

He rb Pa rt roo t

YTY H

San Franc isco

Mt Richt n ers Ros e 16.0 19.07 0

Fron tier

Jea ns Gre ens 22.0 0

Wil d We eds 22.0 0

Bles sed Her b 18.1 5/ 11.5 5 10.4 5

Peop les Groc ery 28.65

Cimicifug a racemosa

28.8 0

4.70

41.63 / 31.63

Blue Cohosh

False Unicorn

Caulophyl lum thalictroid es Chamaelir um luteum

roo t

21.6 0

6.50

12.5 19.07 0

26.25

19.0 0

18.5 0

--

roo t

225. 60

only tinctur e 53

94.0 146.1 0 9

na

na

96.0 0

82.5 0

na

Ginseng America n

Panax quinquefol ius

roo t

Ginseng Korean/ Asian Ginseng Siberian (Eluther o) Goldens eal

Panax ginseng (P. pseudogin seng) Eleuthero coccus senticosus

roo t

280 (Do m) 1896 (Wld ) 200634* *

70

309

360/ 180

128

--

163 (wo) 825 (wld ) 50

93

16-34

--

--

62144

--

--

--

roo t

41.6 0

3.70

12.0 15.89 0

18.75

17.0 0

9.50

18.1 5/ 16.5 0

--

Hydrastis canadensi s

roo t

186. 40

19.10

144. 280.0 00 0

240.0 0

160. 00

144. 00

142. 69/ 72.6

280.2 5

Gotu Kola (trop. annual) Pipsisse wa

Centella asiatica

top her b

105. 60 20.0 0

31.00 3.50

127.1 2 12.0 72.64 0

--

81.00 25.10

56.0 0 22.0 0

-24.5 0

0 35.7 5 17.5 5/ 14.8 5 15.1 5 19.2 5 17.3 5/ 14.8 5

-na

Chimaphil a umbelatta Spikenar Aralia d racemosa Uva Aretostap Ursi hylos uva ursi

her b roo t lea f

29.6 0 40.0 0 31.2 0/ 26.4 0

--

19.0 27.24 0 22.2 30.42 5 11.0 12.72 0

--

34.0 0 28.0 0 16.0 0

32.0 0 ---

--

12.25 7.50

31.95 21.35 / 19.15

-17.95

Table B5. Weedy sun-loving perennials with a potential for medicinal herb market

Common Specie Name s

Herb Part

YT YH

San Franci sco

Mt n Ro se 9.0 0

Richt Front Jean ers ier s Gre ens 19.07 20.40 14.0 0

Wil d Wee ds 14.5 0

Bles sed Her b 13.5 9

Peopl es Groc ery 20.40

Burdock

Articu m lappa

root

33.6 0/ 18.4 0 10.0 5

3.60

leaf

Chickwe ed Chicory

Stellari a media Chicori um intybus

herb

25.6 0 16.0 0

4.35

8.0 0 7.5 0

25.42

14.90

13.0 0 6.00

13.5 0 --

12.7 0 12.1 0

13.95

root

3.90

24.06

11.25

16.05 (roast ed)

Cleavers

Clover sweet

Clover red

Galium aparin e Melilot is officina lis Trifoliu m pratens e

herb

20.0 0 --

5.50

9.0 0 --

22.25

13.45

17.0 0 --

16.5 0 --

11.5 5 11.2 0

--

herb

--

24.06

--

--

flow ers herb

29.6 0 52.8 0/ 16.0 0 20.8 0

5.70

42. 00 8.0 0

15.44

24.70 / 19.55

12.0 0

14.5 0

47.0 3 10.2 1

16.65

Coltsfoot

Tussila go farfara

leaf

4.75

9.0 0

25.42

20.55 / 16.15

18.0 0

17.0 0

14.8 5/ 12.1 0 16.5 0 15.5 3 15.5 3 9.90

--

Couchgra Triticu ss m repens Dandelio Taraxa n cum officina le Dock yellow/ curley Goldenro d Rumex crispus

rhizo me leaf root

--

3.90

10. 00 8.0 0 10. 00 18. 00

--

--

36.0 0 19.0 0 20.0 0 28.0 0

--

--

21.6 0 23.2 0 16.8 0

4.10 4.10

-30.42

20.40 23.45

16.0 0 19.0 0 13.0 0

19.65 30.85

root

3.20

20.88

19.80

--

Horsetail

Solidag o virgaur ea Equiset um arvens e/ hyemal e Puerar ia lobata

herb

13.6 0

3.50

11. 00

--

--

14.0 0

--

10.3 0

herb

16.8 0

3.25

11. 00

22.25

17.20

24.0 0

16.5 0

15.4 0/ 10.7 5

16.05

Kudzu

root

33.6 0

4.90

--

25.42

14.80

17.0 0

--

12.1 0

--

Lettuce wild Marshma llow

Lactuc a verosa Althea officina lis

herb

29.6 0 28.0 0

6.95

11. 00 12. 00

38.14

--

20.0 0 19.0 0

--

13.5 5 13.0 6 18.45

root

8.80/5. 00

19.07

27.30

19.0 0

leaf

36.0 0

3.90

11.5 0

Mullein

Nettles

Verbas cum thapsis Urtica dioica

leaf

3.50

3.90

15. 00 10. 00 11. 00 9.0 0 --

20.43

19.95

19.0 0 14.0 0

19.5 0 18.0 0

10.4 5 11.5 0 12.5 4 --

9.95

leaf root

3.25

3.25 4.50

19.52 --

18.90 18.50

15.95

Plantain

Pokewee d

Puncture vine

Shepards purse

Sorrell

Planta go major Planta go lanceol ata Phytol acca americ ana Tribulu s terrestr is Capsell a bursa pastori s Rumex acetosa

leaf

17.6 0 --

5.15

--

--

16.0 0 --

12.0 0 --

--

leaf

--

22.70

19.15

12.7 0

--

root

21.6 0

8.50

--

20.43

--

15.0 0

15.0 0

9.90

--

weed

--

7.50

--

317.8 0

--

--

--

--

--

herb

18.4 0

3.50

8.0 0

20.43

14.80

13.0 0

16.0 0

12.6 5

--

herb

31.2 0

6.30

11. 00

15.89

33.00

30.0 0

30.0 0

22.4 7/ 15.6 8 13.7 5

--

Yucca

Yucca glauca

root bark

34.4 0

8.50

14. 25

54.48

35.00 /

18.0 0

--

--

24.90

Table B6. Other sun-loving perennials with a potential for medicinal herb market

Commo n Name

Species

Herb Part

YTYH

San Mt Franc n isco Ro se 1.90 4.75 4.00 6.0 0

Rich ters

Fron Jea tier ns Gre ens

Wil d We eds

Bles sed Her b 8.50 -22.5 5/ 15.1 5 16.5 0 9.79

Peop les Groc ery 8.85 9.19 --

Alfalfa

Medicag o sativa

leaf seed

23.20 10.40 29.60

Angelic a

Angelica archange lica

root

13.80 8.00 13.2 0 -10.50 12.0 -0 -16. 34.96 24.88 21.0 23.5 50 0 0

--

Ashwag andha Bergam ot Wild Blessed Thistle

Withania somnifer a Monarda fitulosa Cnicus benedict us

root

33.60

8.90

25. 31.33 28.95 44.0 00 0 -23.61 ---

--

--

herb

--

--

--

--

herb

13.60

4.00

9.0 18.61 22.05 14.0 17.0 0 / 0 0 12.60 10. 23.15 15.00 14.0 25 0

11.4 0

10.8 5

Boneset

Eupatori um perfoliat um Borage Borago officinali s Bupleur Bupleure um um chinense Burdock Articum lappa

herb

19.20

--

--

10.3 6

--

herb

23.20

4.70

7.0 30.42 0 8.0 38.14 0

--

25.0 26.0 0 0 30.0 0 --

17.2 4 19.4 0 13.5 9

--

root

48.00

9.75

--

--

root

33.60/ 18.40 10.05

3.60

9.0 19.07 20.40 14.0 14.5 0 0 0

20.4 0

leaf

Butterfl y Milkwe ed Calamus (sweetfl ag) Calendu la

Asclepia s tuberosa Acorus calamus Calendul a officinali s Chelidon ium majus Matricar ia recutita

root

46.40

8.50

22. 25.42 00

--

25.0 28.0 0 0

15.6 8

--

root

22.40

5.75

12. 22.25 21.50 17.0 18.5 00 0 0 27. 36.77 18.50 39.0 32.0 00 0 0/ 8.00

12.4 0 25.8 9/ 10.9 7 --

na

flowe r

24.00

4.80

23.7 5

Celandi ne Chamo milie German

herb

31.20

6.25

15. 25.42 25

--

31.0 0

--

--

flowe rs

21.60

9.90/3 .50

12. 30.42 25.10 12.0 23.0 00 0 0/ 11.0 0 17. 54.03 38.00 56.0 52.0 00 / 0 0 20.80 10. 36.32 19.63 12.0 13.5 00 / 0 0 12.45 11. 36.32 24.75 18.0 18.0 25 / 0 0 13.35 12. 34.96 29.05 17.0 8.90 00 0 47.75 40.0 0 --32.15 --20. 73.09 70.00 80.0 50.0 00 0 0

16.5 0

25.2 5

Chinces Astragal Milkvet us ch membran aceus Comfre Symphyt y um officinale

root

40.00

7.50

16.5 0

35.2 5

leaf

27.20/ 1.20

8.90/3 .90

12.1 0

13.8 5

root

36.80/ 17.60

8.70/3 .95

14.0 5

13.9 5

Dong Quai

Angelica polymor pha

root pwd/ slice

31.20

8.75

18.1 5 27.5 0 14.3 9 38.4

-43.0 5 -99.9 9

Echinac ea Narrow leaf Echinac ea - Pale Purple

Echinace a angustifo lia Echinace a pallida

leaf root leaf root

-95.20

-21.00

--

14.00

--

--

--

--

--

22.4 7

--

Echinac ea Purple coneflo wer Elecamp ane Evening Primros e Feverfe w

Echinace a purpurea

leaf root

54.40 65.60

-18.50

Inula helenium Oenother a biennis Tanacetu m partheni um

root

20.00

4.75

17.71 16.00 14.0 -0 12. 63.56 40.15 28.2 00 46.0 0 0 10. 25.42 14.20 22.0 14.6 50 0 0 -34.96 ----

--

-18.2 9 11.8 5 --

-38.6 5 --

herb seed herb w/ flowe rs root

--

7.50 -6.75

--

40.00

9.0 27.69 22.55 16.0 16.0 0 0 0

14.3 9

--

Fo-Ti (plant)

Polygon um multiflor um Heal-all Prunella vulgaris Horehou Marrubi nd um vulgare Hyssop Hyssopu s officinali s Joe Pye Eupatori Weed um pupureu m Ladys Alchemil Mantle la vulgaris Lemon Melissa Balm officinali s Lemon Aloysia Verbena triphylla Lespede Lespedez za a Round captiata Headed

20.80

4.75

11. 29.06 16.15 15.0 16.5 00 0 0

14.5 0

--

herb herb

56.80 16.80

-4.00

--

--

--

--

---

13. 25.42 24.35 18.0 00 0

20.3 5 14.0 5 12.6 5

-24.3 5 --

herb

17.60

3.80

10. 25.42 23.65 21.0 19.7 00 0 0

root

28.00

9.50

14. 25.42 21.95 19.0 23.0 00 0 0

10.3 0

--

herb

24.80

6.25

12. 34.96 22.05 38.0 00 0

--

18.1 5 13.7 5 ---

--

herb

22.40

6.25

13. 25.42 28.70 22.0 22.0 00 0 0 13. 72.64 28.30 26.0 26.5 00 0 0 -- 19.52 ----

19.8 5 23.0 5 --

herb herb

36.80

8.90 --

Licorice

Glycyrrh iza glabra

root

14.40 cs 25.60 wh 28.00 wh 46.40 sl 43.20

9.65/3 .35

10. 22.25 16.70 00

--

20.0 0/ 9.50

13.0 6/ 9.79 --

16.7 0

Licorice Chinese Lobelia

Glycyrrh iza uralensis Lobelia infata

root

--

--

--

18.20 20.0 0

--

--

herb

5.40

30. 31.33 24.63 40.0 00 0

--

18.1 5

34.5 5

Lungwo rt

Marshm allow

Pulmona ria officinali s Althea officinali s Silybum marianu m

herb

32.00

--

--

30.42 24.65

--

--

--

--

root

28.00

8.80/5 .00

12. 19.07 27.30 19.0 19.0 00 0 0

13.0 6

18.4 5

Milk Thistle

seed

20.00

3.20

12. 19.07 24.65 22.0 26.5 00 0 0 / 11.95

14.0 5/ 11.8 5 13.3 0

24.6 5

Mother wort

Leonurus cardiaca

herb

20.00

4.50

17. 26.79 21.25 22.0 21.0 00 / 0 0 18.13 12. 28.15 24.13 14.0 16.0 50 / 0 0 14.63 15. 20.43 19.95 19.0 19.5 00 0 0 10. 19.52 18.90 14.0 18.0 00 0 0 -18.50 11. 00 18. 38.14 22.50 -16.0 00 0

19.0 5

Mugwor Artemesi t a vulgaris Mullein Verbascu m thapsis Urtica dioica

leaf

16.00

4.50

12.1 0

--

leaf

3.50

3.90

10.4 5 11.5 0 12.5 4 18.1 5

9.95

Nettles

leaf root

3.25

3.25 4.50

15.9 5

Patchoul Pogoste i mon cablin

leaf

44.80

oil only

--

Pennyro yal Prairie clover

Menthe pulegium Petaloste mum candidu m/

herb roots and flowe ring tops

16.80 --

3.60 --

8.0 22.70 15.63 17.0 17.0 0 0 0 ------

15.1 5 --

---

Red clover

purpureu s Trifolium flowe pratense rs herb

29.60 52.80/ 16.00

5.70

42. 15.44 24.70 12.0 14.5 00 / 0 0 8.0 0 19.55

47.0 3 10.2 1

16.6 5

Rue

Rutus herb graveolu ns Skullcap Scutellar herb / ia lateriflor Scullcap a Soapwo Saponari root rt a officinali s Spilanth Spilanthe herb es/ s acmella Toothah ce Plant St. Hypericu tops Johns m w/ Wort perforatu flowe m rs Tansy Tanacetu m vulgare Valerian Valerian a officinali s Vervain - Blue Verbena herb

67.20

6.67

17. 29.06 30.45 00

18

--

14.0 5 17.2 4

18.1 5 26.0 5

64.00/ 33.60 --

16.00

16. 33.59 34.25 24.0 25.0 00 / 0 0 30.00 --

10.00

20. 00

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

39.95

--

39.0 0

--

27.5 0

--

20.00

4.50

10. 24.06 25.70 22.0 00 0

--

16.7 2/ 13.0 6 11.5 5 14.3 9

25.7 5

21.60

9.00

--

15.89

--

25.0 0

--

--

root

2.95

4.50

9.0 31.33 31.65 26.0 22.0 0 0 0/ 11.5 0 14. 22.25 20.30 17.0 17.0 50 0 0

30.8 5

herb

4.50

10.4 5

--

Wormw ood

Yarrow - Proa

hastata Artemisi a absinthiu m Achillea millefoli um

herb

16.80

3.50

17. 25.42 20.00 18.0 18.5 00 0 0 / 11.25 16. 20.88 24.65 22.0 18.0 00 / 0 0 12.90

14.8 5

17.5 5

flowe r

20.00

3.40

12.0 2

11.0 5

Table B7. Medicinals also grown as culinary species (annuals and perennials) [and fruit/veg?]

Common Name

Species

Herb Part

YT YH

San Franc isco

Mt n Ro se --

Rich ters

Fron tier

Jea ns Gre ens --

Wil d We eds --

Bles sed Her b --

Peop les Groc ery --

Asparagu s tuber

Basis sweet Catnip

Asparagu s cochinchi nensis Ocimum basilicum Nepeta cataria

root

44.0 0

5.90

--

--

Chervil

Chives

Anthriscu s cerefoliu m Allium schoenop rasum Coriandr um sativum

11.2 0 leaf & 43.2 flowe 0/ r 25.6 0 leaf 32.8 0

leaf

4.60 5.50

8.0 0 9.0 0

26.79 13.80 11.35 20.40 / 18.20

16.0 14.0 0 0 24.0 20.5 0 0

15.4 0 13.3 0

7.69 17.5 5

9.75

18. 75

--

27.70

--

--

--

25.8 5

Cilantro

leaves 81.6 11.50 0 (rings ) leaf -14.40/ 4.20

40. 00

--

79.30

--

--

--

32.0 5

17. 00

41.31 35.00 / 24.05

17.0 0

--

22.5 5

26.8 5

Corn silk

Zea mays

silk

25.6 0

4.95

13. 00

--

13.25

14.0 0

--

14.2 0

12.3 5

Corriande r

Coriandr um sativum Anethum graveolen s

seed

6.40

4.25/ 1.95

7.0 0

12.71 10.55 / 4.80 31.78 26.25 / 18.50 17.71 12.00 / 6.00 16.50 / 8.50 16.50

16.0 11.0 0 0

14.0 5

4.85

Dill

leaf

32.0 0

4.70

14. 00

24.0 0

--

18.1 5

23.0 5

seed

7.20

3.30

8.0 0

--

--

--

12.8 5

Fennel

Foenicul um vulgare Allium sativum

seed

9.60

4.95/ 3.60

6.5 0

6.36

12.0 13.0 0 0

12.6 5

11.2 5

Garlic

bulb/r oot (gran ules) root

10.4 0

3.40

8.0 0

--

15.0 15.5 0 0

13.6 0

--

Ginger tropical

Zingiber officinale

12.8 0

3.50

9.7 5

30.42 18.75 / 8.75 39.04 20.30

20.0 18.0 0 0/ 8.50 --

15.1 5

8.35

Horseradi sh

Armoraci a rustocana Lemongra Cymbopa ss gon citratus

root

34.4 0 24.0 0/ 12.0 0 32.8 0 12.0 0 12.8 0

5.90

--

--

--

--

leaf

3.25

8.0 0

25.42 15.25

12.0 12.5 0 0

13.3 0

13.9 5

Lovage

Ligusticu m levisticu m Avena sativa

root leaf

6.50

12. 00

--

21.05

--

--

--

--

Oat straw

straw

2.50

7.0 0

20.43 19.50

8.00 9.00

9.10

--

Oregano

Origanu m vulgare Petroseli num crispum Mentha piperita

leaf/h erb

16.0 0

3.85

9.5 0

25.42 15.00 / 11.00 22.70 26.25 / 18.88 21.25 13.65 / 8.50 15.40

13.0 14.0 0 0

12.7 0

13.4 5

Parsley

leaf

20.8 0

6.50/ 4.10

14. 00

16.0 0

--

16.3 5

18.6 5

Peppermi nt

root leaf

24.0 0 23.2 0/ 11.2 0

6.50 2.75

14. 00 10. 00

---

15.0 -0 10.0 14.0 0 0

14.8 5 10.4 5

-13.9 5

Rhubarb common RhubarbTurkish/C hinese

Rheum officinalis Rheum palmatum

root root 17.6 0 4.75 10. 00

31.78 20.30

13.0 0 27.0 20.0 0 0

--

18.1 5/ 17.0 5 12.1 0

--

Sage common

Salvia officinalis

leaf

27.2 0

4.50

10. 00

14.07 21.25 / 14.38 19.52 15.80 / 7.80 --

16.0 18.0 0 0

12.0 5

Spearmint Mentha cardiaca

leaf

10.4 0

2.50

8.0 0

14.0 15.0 0 0

15.1 5

14.3 5

Strawberr y Stevia

Tarragon

Thyme

Fragaria vesca Stevia rebaudia ne Artemesi a drauncul us Thymus vulgaris

leaf herb

18.4 0 24.0 0 --

3.50 6.50

8.0 0 12. 00 11. 00

--

36.77 19.15

15.0 15.0 0 0 18.0 17.0 0 0 25.0 0 --

-17.2 4 27.2 5

-31.7 5 33.0 5

leaf

--

55.39 55.00 / 35.40 30.42 18.20 / 12.25

leaf

8.80

--

13. 00

26.0 23.0 0 0/ 7.00

17.6 0

18.2 5

Table B8. Flowers sold as medicinals

Comm on Name

Species

Her b Par t root

YT YH

San Mtn Franci Ros sco e

Richt ers

Front Jean ier s Gree ns -48.0 0

Wil d Wee ds --

Bless ed Her b 24.2 0

Peopl es Groc ery --

Blue Flag Iris Blue Malva Butterf ly Milkw eed Califor nia Poppy Calend ula

Iris Versicol or Malva sylvestris Asclepia s tuberosa Eschsch olzia californi ca Calendul a officinali s Oenothe ra biennis Fumaria officinali s Hibiscus sabdariff a

54.4 0

--

44.0 0

--

flo wer root

24.0 0 46.4 0

12.90/ 6.75 8.50

15.0 0 22.0 0

--

--

--

36.0 0 28.0 0

--

--

25.42

--

25.0 0

15.6 8

--

herb

--

--

33.0 0

43.13

--

48.0 0

--

33.0 0

--

flo wer

24.0 0

4.80

27.0 0

36.77

18.50

39.0 0

32.0 0/ 8.00

25.8 9/ 10.9 7 --

23.75

Evenin g Primro se Fumito ry Hibisc us

herb seed herb

--

7.50 --

--

34.96

--

--

--

--

24.0 0 20.8 0

4.80

12.0 0 11.0 0

--

--

--

--

--

--

flo wer

4.75

--

15.25

21.0 0

20.0 0/ 10.5 0 --

15.9 5

26.25

Hydran Hydrang gea ea arboresc ens

root

30.4 0

--

10.0 0

23.61

18.35

16.0 0

11.4 0

--

Jasmin e

Jasminu flo m wer officinal e Lavend Lavendul flo er a wer officinali s (angustif olia) Lilly of Convalla herb the ria Valley majalis Orris Iris root Root germani ca Passio n Flower -Amer. Peony Passiflor herb a incarnat a Paeonia root officinali s Rosa fruit canina

30.4 0

7.90

9.00

--

17.60

--

--

18.1 5

32.8 0

6.95

16.0 0

44.49

--

20.0 0

32.0 0/ 22.0 0

22.0 0/ 16.3 5 18.1 5 --

25.55

--

--

--

31.33

--

--

--

--

35.2 0

6.10

10.0 0

24.06

21.30

17.0 0

17.0 0

25.05

26.4 0

4.25

14.7 5

20.43

2-.30

18.0 0

17.0 0

11.5 5

17.35

32.8 0 12.0 0

7.50

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Rose hips

2.50

9.00

--

10.55 / 8.75 11.80

14.0 0

14.0 0

12.1 0

6.95

Rose petals

Violet Violet - Blue

Rosa gallica, R. centifoli a Viola odorata Viola tricolor

peta ls, bud s leaf leaf

--

4.50

9.00 120. 00

24.06

8.00

10.0 0

18.1 5

--

43.13 41.6 0 4.80 22.7 5 43.13 28.95 27.0 0 25.0 0

22.4 0 22.4 0

--

Table B9. Possible herbs for medicinal animal feed market

Comm on

Specie s

He rb

YTY H

San Franci

Mt n

Richt ers

Front ier

Jean s

Wil d

Bless ed

Peopl es

Name

Par t

sco

Ro se

Gree ns

Wee ds

Herb

Groc ery

Fenugr eek

Trigon ella foenum graecu m Galega officina lis

see d

6.40

3.10/ 1.90

6.0 0

30.42

11.75/ 4.30

15.0 0

--

11.00

11.05

-her b? her b

---

--

---

--

--

--

Goats Rue

32.0 0

7.00

--

--

--

--

--

--

Table B10. Alpine Herbs - probably very difficult to grow in KS

Commo Specie n Name s

Her b Par t

YT YH

San Mtn Franci Ros sco e

Richt Front Jean ers ier s Gree ns 63.56 38.13 2400. 00? 24.00

Wil d Wee ds 20.0 0 19.0 0

Bless ed Her b 36.3 0 19.8 0/ 18.1 5 21.4 5 49.5 0/ 33.0 0

Peopl es Groc ery --

Arnica

Eyebrig nt**

Arnica flo montan wer a Euphra herb sia officina lis Gentia na lutea Ligusti cum porteri root

23.2 0 29.6 0

15.00

112. 00 13.0 0

--

38.14

29.90 / 21.45

24.05

Gentian

29.6 0 74.4 0

13.50

14.0 0 40.0 0

17.71

28.50

24.00

--

--

Osha

root

--

54.03

--

44.00

44.0 0

--

** parasitic annual, attaches to grass roots

Table B11. Herbs with essential oil and fragrance markets

Comm on Name

Species

Her b Part

YT YH

San Franci sco

Mt n Ro se 12. 00

Richt Front Jean ers ier s Gre ens 22.25 21.50 17.0 0

Wil d Wee ds 18.5 0

Bles sed Her b 12.4 0

Peopl es Groc ery na

Calamu s (sweetf lag) Chamo mile Roman

Acorus calamus

root

22.4 0

5.75

Chamaem elum nobile (Anthemis nobilis)

flow ers

--

--

--

95.34

--

--

--

35.2 0/ 26.9 5

--

Clary Sage

38.4 0

Lavend er

Patcho uli White Sage

Lavendul a officinalis (angustifo lia) Pogostem on cablin Salvia apiana

flow er

32.8 0

6.95

16. 00

44.49

--

20.0 0

32.0 0/ 22.0 0 16.0 0 21`. 00

22.0 0/ 16.3 5 18.1 5 --

25.55

leaf herb

44.8 0 32.0 0

oil only 7.85

18. 00 17. 00

38.14 --

22.50 23.10

-20.0 0

---

Notes on prices, Spring 2003, $/lb Dry Weight (some whole, some C/S, a few powder)

Notes: priced for cut and sifted product in most cases (a very coarse grind), in a few situations, for whole item (espec. berries). Powdered product generally runs $1 to $3 more per lb than cut and sifted. In a few cases, powdered products bring a lower price. For some roots, the whole

root (licorice) or sliced root (astragalus) brings a better price than cut and sifted. Check individual catalogs for details. When an organic and a conventional source were listed side by side in the same catalog, both prices are listed divided by a slash. The first price is the organic price (in bold) and the second price is non-organic. In all of these cases, organic means certified organic. In some catalogs, it is assumed that all herbs are wildcrafted and/or non organic, and in some it is stated that most are organic, and in some, each item is coded. Again, check individual catalogs for details. This list is not meant to be exhaustive, complete, or up-to-date. It was accurate at the time it was compiled (April 2003), but even during the 2-3 weeks from beginning to the end of this project, some prices changed. Also, not everything makes sense, for example, the Peoples Grocery Price, a local health food retailer, should be linked to Frontiers price, the wholesale supplier for Peoples (at least according to the labels on the bulk jars). However, the price at the time they bought the herb may have been different than the day I was checking the prices at the store.

[1]

Medicinal Herbs Agricultural Notes Series No AG0673

The US Market for Medicinal Herbs Rural Agricultural Incomes with a Sustainable Environment, March 2001.
[2] [3]

HerbalGram 41, 51, 53

Market Report on Herbs and Spices Herb Market Report April 2000. Agribusiness in Sustainable Natural African Plant Products.
[4] [5]

Conversations with herb buyers

Commercial Medicinal Herb Enterprise Alberta Agriculture Food and Rural Development. Available online at http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca/agdes/200/263_830-2.html
[6]

The US Market for Medicinal Herbs Rural Agricultural Incomes with a Sustainable Environment, March 2001.
[7] [8]

Medicinal Herbs Agricultural Notes Series No AG0673 Articles of Incorporation of Great Plains Herb Growers Association

[9]