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UNIT ONE

Simple Past Tense


El pasado simple se utiliza para describir acciones que han sucedido en un tiempo anterior y que ya han finalizado.

Affirmative Sentences
Existen dos tipos de verbos para formar el pasado simple: los verbos regulares y los verbos irregulares. A continuacin observemos las conjugaciones con los dos tipos de verbos: Sujeto I You He She It We You They Verbo en pasado worked went ate walked had called came watched Complemento in a company last year. to a bank last week. a sandwich yesterday. in the park with her dog. a nice view. the doctor two days ago. late last Tuesday. TV two days ago.

Rules for Regular Verbs:


Para la formacin de una oracin en pasado con los verbos regulares se siguen las siguientes reglas: 1. Generalmente se aade ed a la raz del verbo. Ejemplo: listen listened work worked 2. Si un verbo termina en e, se aade nicamente la d Ejemplo: arrive- arrived dance- danced 3. Si un verbo termina en y precedido por una consonante, este se cambia por i y se aade - ed Ejemplo: cry cried study studied

A continuacin se presenta una lista de verbos bsicos en los que se aplican las reglas detalladas en la parte superior:

Regular Verbs
INFINITIVO arrive ask call clean close cook cry dance die happen like love listen open play study talk travel visit wait walk want wash watch work PASADO arrived asked called cleaned closed cooked cried danced died happened liked loved listened opened played studied talked traveled visit waited walked wanted washed watched worked SIGNIFICADO arribar preguntar, pedir llamar limpiar cerrar cocinar llorar bailar morir ocurrir gustar amar escuchar abrir jugar / tocar estudiar hablar viajar visitar esperar caminar querer lavar mirar trabajar

TIME EXPRESSIONS FOR THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE Las expresiones de tiempo que generalmente se utilizan con oraciones en el pasado simple son las siguientes: yesterday (ayer) last week/ year/ month (el mes anterior) one week / two days ago (hace dos das) Ejemplos: - Steven visited Jennifer last month. - Claudia worked yesterday. - Jennifer talked to me three days ago.

Steven visit a Jennifer el mes pasado. Claudia trabaj ayer. Jennifer habl conmigo hace tres das.

EJERCICIO 1 I. Cambie los siguientes verbos regulares al pasado aplicando las reglas establecidas previamente a. fry ____________ f. invent ____________ b. live ____________ g. move ____________ c. carry ____________ h. share ____________ d. like ____________ i. try ____________ e. look ____________ j. copy ____________ II. Use las palabras en parntesis, ordnelas de ser necesario y forme oraciones afirmativas en pasado simple a. ( Amy / clean / the windows/ last night) b. ( arrive / Jerry / late / yesterday) c. ( listen to / classical music / Jason) d. ( cry / a lot / last morning / Jane) e. ( My teacher/ want / to talk / with me) f. ( angrily/ He/ the door/ close) g. ( wash / Margaret/ her hair/ last Monday) _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

h. ( died/ My grandmother/ because of cancer/ four days ago) ____________________________________________________________________________ i. (cook/ Maggie/ yesterday/ delicious food) __________________________________________ j. (Byron and George/ on a big project / work/ hard) ____________________________________ III. Complete los siguientes dilogos usando last, ago o yesterday SOPHIA: What time did you arrive home a) __________ night? DANIEL: At 11:50 p.m. I had a party with my friends b) _____________. It was fun. Why mum? SOPHIA: Because I was worried about you and as far as I can remember you said the same thing one week c) __________. DANIEL: Sorry mum! I promise I wont do that again. SOPHIA: I hope so ANDREW: I visited our grandmother d) ____________ Monday. ROBERT: Was she fine? ANDREW: Yes, she was fine but she wanted to see you. ROBERT: I wanted to visit her one month e)__________ but I had too much work. ANDREW: I think you should visit her. PATTY: Where did you go f.) _______________? SALLY: I went to the church because I couldnt go there g.) __________ Sunday.

BRYAN: Did you watch your favorite soap opera h.) ________ night? VICKY: No, I didnt. I had to work on a project two days i.) ________, so I went to bed early because I was tired. BRYAN: The same happened to me one week j.) ________ and I know it is tiring.

Irregular Verbs:
Estos verbos cambian radicalmente pues no siguen ninguna regla en particular, por lo que se considera necesario memorizar dichos verbos. A continuacin una lista bsica de verbos irregulares en el pasado simple. IRREGULAR VERBS INFINITIVE be begin break buy come do drink drive eat find forget get give go grow have know make meet pay take think speak swim write PAST SIMPLE was/were began broke bought came did drank drove ate found forgot got gave went grew had knew made met paid took thought spoke swam wrote SIGNIFICADO ser / estar empezar romper comprar venir hacer beber conducir comer encontrar olvidar coger/obtener dar ir crecer tener saber hacer conocer/encontrar a alguien pagar coger/ tomar pensar hablar nadar escribir

EJERCICIO 2 I. Una las siguientes oraciones con sus respectivas frases para que la oracin tenga sentido. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. She came I wrote She bought He drove They broke My husband forgot Katherine did Tony began Sophia grew up Peter drank _____1. her homework by herself. _____2. late to class so the teacher was upset . _____3. his car fast. _____4. school when he was five. _____5. a lot of beer last night. _____6. her new dress at the mall. _____7. a letter to my best friend. _____8. in a small village. _____9. the window with a ball. _____10. about my birthday. Im angry with him

II. Cambie el siguiente prrafo a pasado simple utilizando la forma correcta de los verbos (regulares e irregulares). Son diez los verbos que tienen que ser transformados. RICHARD My best friends name is Richard. He lives in a quiet residential suburb but he works in a big company downtown, so he drives to work. He has three children; their names are Jack, Joshua and Peter. They go to a public school near their house. They have many abilities. They speak three languages: French, German and English and they also play the piano beautifully. RICHARD _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ III. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Realice oraciones personales en pasado simple usando los siguientes verbos. be born : _________________________________________________________________ grow: ____________________________________________________________________ study: ______________________________________________________________ travel: ___________________________________________________________________ write: ___________________________________________________________________ watch: ___________________________________________________________________ give: ____________________________________________________________________ go: _____________________________________________________________________ take: ____________________________________________________________________ eat: _____________________________________________________________________

UNIT TWO
Simple Past Tense
En el captulo anterior observamos la formacin de las oraciones afirmativas en pasado simple y el nico cambio a efectuarse en las oraciones es el verbo. Sin embargo, en la formacin de oraciones negativas y preguntas se necesita del auxiliar did y la forma base del verbo.

Negative Sentences
Para formar oraciones negativas necesitamos del auxiliar did not + la forma base del verbo ya sea para los verbos regulares o irregulares.

Estructura:

Claudia Sujeto +

did not did not +

write forma base del verbo +

a letter to her mother. (*) complemento

* (Note que el verbo no cambia al pasado por tener el auxiliar did) Subject I You He She It We You They didn't did not Auxiliary Base form of the verb buy like have take work visit take write Complement anything yesterday soup. a son. the bus well. our friend. the taxi that letter.

Ejemplos: They did not play soccer after school. Ellos no jugaron ftbol despus de la escuela. Joel didnt listen to his teacher. Joel no escuch a su profesora. Katherine and Andrew didnt come to the meeting. Katherine y Andrew no vinieron a la reunin.

Yes/No Questions
Para formar preguntas de si/no empleamos el auxiliar DID antes del sujeto y el verbo. Este auxiliar no tiene ningn significado, nicamente nos indica que se trata de una pregunta en el pasado simple. Al igual que en las oraciones negativas, al tener el auxiliar el verbo no se conjuga en el pasado. Estructura: Did Auxiliar (Did) Auxiliary Subject I you he she Did it we you they you + Sujeto + open the window? Verbo (Forma base del verbo) Complement you my phone number? the party? to the swimming pool? a boyfriend? a long distance? soccer? in a small town? souvenirs? Short answers Yes, I did Yes, I did / No, I didnt Yes, he did / No, he didnt Yes, she did / No, she didnt Yes, it did / No, it didnt Yes, we did/ No, we didnt Yes, we did / No, we didnt Yes, they did / No, we didnt

Base form verb give like go have take play grow buy

Ejemplos: - Did you open the window? - Did she buy anything for me? - Did they have a nice day?

T abriste la ventana? Ella compr algo para m? Ellos tuvieron un bonito da?

Wh- Questions
Para formar preguntas de informacin en el pasado simple aplicamos la misma estructura empleada en las preguntas de si/no. Estructura Where Wh-word + did Aux (did) you + Subject Auxiliary + go ? (forma base del verbo)? Base form of the verb live? buy his car? do last night? pay for that sweater? - To a party.

Whquestions Where When What How much

Subject She

did

He You They

Ejemplos: What did you do yesterday? Where did she live? When did he have a party? EJERCICIO 3

Qu hiciste ayer? Donde viva ella? Cando tuvo l una fiesta?

I. Cambie las siguientes oraciones al negativo en pasado simple. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Jennifer bought a small dog yesterday. Tanya came late to school yesterday morning. Joseph studied hard for the exam last month. They made a delicious cake for my birthday . We ate some sandwiches for lunch. He did his homework late at night. Sue knew the answer. Robert wrote a letter to his brother. My grandfather listened to classical music George was absent last Monday. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

II. Realice oraciones en pasado simple con las frases en parntesis en afirmativo, negativo y preguntas de si/no. Example: o. (Marge/ pay / the bills/ last week) Affirmative: Marge paid the bills last week. Negative: Marge didnt pay the bills last week. Yes/ No Question: Did Marge pay the bills last week? a. ( Liza/ have / a small dog) Affirmative: ______________________________________________________ Negative: ______________________________________________________ Yes/ No Question: ______________________________________________________ b. ( Martin and Susan / arrive/ at 7:00 a.m) Affirmative: ______________________________________________________ Negative: ______________________________________________________ Yes/No Question: ______________________________________________________ c. ( Lorena / find / her cell phone/ at home) Affirmative: ______________________________________________________ Negative: ______________________________________________________ Yes/No Question: ______________________________________________________ d. ( My children / play / soccer / last week) Affirmative: ______________________________________________________ Negative: ______________________________________________________ Yes/ No Question: ______________________________________________________

e. ( Tania / take / the bus / yesterday) Affirmative: ______________________________________________________ Negative: ______________________________________________________ Yes/No Question: ______________________________________________________ f. ( I / go / to the mall/ four days ago) Affirmative: ______________________________________________________ Negative: ______________________________________________________ Yes/No Question: ______________________________________________________ g. ( Elizabeth / drink / beer last Friday) Affirmative: ______________________________________________________ Negative: ______________________________________________________ Yes/no question: ______________________________________________________ h. ( Joseph / clean the apartment / yesterday) Affirmative: ______________________________________________________ Negative: ______________________________________________________ Question: ______________________________________________________ i. ( Laura/ begin/ a new ESL class/ five days ago) Affirmative: ______________________________________________________ Negative: ______________________________________________________ Question: ______________________________________________________ j. ( Wendy/ give / Thomas / a t-shirt) Affirmative: ______________________________________________________ Negative: ______________________________________________________ Question: ______________________________________________________ III. Una las preguntas con sus respectivas respuestas. a. When were you born? b. What time did you begin classes yesterday? c. Where did you go last Sunday? d. What did he eat for dinner last night? e. When did she come to visit you? f. Why were you absent last week? g. How many students were there? h. How much water did you drink yesterday? i. How long were you away? j. Did you like my new shoes? 1. Yes, they were pretty. 2. There were twenty-five 3. I was born in Canada. 4. I drank two bottles of water. 5. I was away for three days. 6. I began at 8:00 o clock. 7. I went to the park. 8. He ate some French fries. 9. She came last week. 10. Because I was sick

IV. Realice preguntas con Wh- en el pasado simple para las respuestas subrayadas a. ___________________________________ Peter lived in Colorado last year.

b. ___________________________________ Samuel paid $200 for his shoes. c. ___________________________________ Silvia was absent because she was sick. d. ____________________________________ Steven called me yesterday. e. ____________________________________ I bought some shoes yesterday. f. ____________________________________ Alexander had a meeting at 4:00 p.m. g. ____________________________________ George had three cars last year. h. ____________________________________ Manuel bought his suit at Macys. i. ____________________________________ Linda went to Argentina by bus. j. ____________________________________ Arthur invited me to the party two days ago.

V. Encuentre los errores en las siguientes oraciones. Identifquelos y corrjalos. a. She did went to the market. b. He hadnt a car. c. Thomas bought flowers for you? d. Did Michael came to visit you? e. Where Sheila lived? f. He didnt his homework. g. Bertha didnt be at home last night. h. Victor didnt broke the window. i. When she went to school? j. Did Arthur invited you to his party? VI. Responda los siguientes enunciados. a. Where were you born? b. What was your best friends name in school? c. What games did you play when you were a child? d. What did you have for lunch yesterday? e. What did you do last night? f. What time did you go to bed last night? g. How much did you pay for your last pair of shoes? h. Did you watch TV yesterday? i. Where did you go on your last vacation? j. When did you finish your homework? _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ ________________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

UNIT THREE
Used to
Used to significa sola y por lo tanto se utiliza para referirse a hbitos del pasado. Situaciones del pasado que ya no existen en el presente. Ejemplos: Jessica used to live in a small town. They used to work long hours. Jessica sola vivir en una ciudad pequea. Ellos solan trabajar largas horas.

Affirmative Sentences:
La estructura para formar oraciones afirmativas es la siguiente: I Sujeto + used to used to + read forma base del verbo + a lot when I was in high school. complemento

Ejemplos: Dave used to work in a supermarket 7 years ago. Dave sola trabajar en un supermercado hace 7 aos. I used to watch La Abeja Maya when I was 8 years old. Yo sola mirar La abeja m aya cuando tena 8 aos de edad.

Negative Sentences:

La

forma negativa es did not use to / didnt use to (no sola)

seguido de la forma base del verbo. didnt use to + didnt use to +

I Sujeto

play forma base del verbo +

basketball. complemento

Ejemplos: When I was a child, I didnt use to eat onions. I didnt use to go bowling some years ago. Our parents didnt use to have LCDs at home. Cuando era nia no sola comer cebolla. Yo no sola ir a jugar a bolos hace algunos aos. Nuestros padres no solan tener pantallas LCD en casa.

Yes /No Questions: El auxiliar empleado para formular preguntas de si/no o de


informacin es DID. La estructura para formular preguntas de si/no es la siguiente:

Did

she

use to use to +

work

in a bank? complemento?

Did (Auxiliary) + sujeto +

forma base del verbo +

Ejemplos: Did you use to sing in church? Did she use to have long hair? Did Louis use to play soccer? Solas cantar en la iglesia? Sola ella tener cabello largo? Sola Louis jugar ftbol?

Wh- Questions
Mientras que para formular preguntas de informacin, la estructura es: Where Wh- Word + did did + she sujeto + use to live when she was a child?

use to + forma base del verbo?

Ejemplos: Where did you use to work before you came here? Dnde solas trabajar antes de llegar aqu? What did she use to do when she was 15 years old? Qu sola hacer ella cuando tena 15 aos? What time did you use to sleep when you were a child? A qu hora solas dormir cuando eras nio?

EJERCICIO 4 I. Complete las siguientes oraciones utilizando used to + un verbo del cuadro, de tal manera que la oracin tenga sentido.

be
a. b. c. d. e.

have

work

swim

take

dance

go

write

eat

watch

Andrea ___________________ the bus to go to school. My brother ___________________ a lot of fast food, thats why he has heart problems. We ___________________ Full house when were children. We loved those series. I __________________ fat when I was a teenager. Jennifer _________________ long hair, but now she has short hair.

f. g. h. i. j.

Tony __________________ in a factory while he was studying at school. They _______________ in the river three times a week. George ________________ me letters to tell me that he loved me. Arthur _________________ to work by train. Christian ________________ to some disco music when he was young.

II. Forme oraciones afirmativas, negativas o preguntas, utilizando used to. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. (Liz / cook/ Japanese food/ for everybody) _________________________________________ (They / visit / their grandmother/ every weekend) _____________________________________ (Peter/ not/ have/ classes/ on Fridays) _________________________________________ (Bryan / not/ watch TV/ on the weekends) _________________________________________ (? / Sophia/ cry / for her little child) _________________________________________ (? / Victor/ drink / beer at school) _________________________________________ (Sarah/ walk / long distances) _________________________________________ (Diana / not / be/ pretty) _________________________________________ (?/ your children/ eat/ candies) _________________________________________ (Henry/ not / do / exercise) _________________________________________

III. Escriba 10 oraciones afirmativas o negativas utilizando used to sobre actividades que usted sola realizar despus de su escuela. I used to play video games in the afternoon. Yo sola jugar video games en las tardes. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

Modal Verbs
Have to
Este modal se utiliza en presente o pasado para actividades que expresan obligacin o necesidad. Ejemplos: They have to finish their homework today. She has to arrive on time. You had to take out the garbage. Ellos tienen que terminar su deber hoy da. Ella tiene que llegar a tiempo. (*) T tenas que sacar la basura.

* Note que al utilizar las terceras personas (he/she/it) en el presente simple, el verbo have to cambia por has to

A continuacin una tabla de transformacin del verbo modal have to: PRESENT Affirmative
I have to study You have to work. He has to pay the bills She has to read that book. It has to be perfect. We have to finish our project. You have to do your homework. They have to sleep early.

Negative
I don't have to study You don't have to work. He doesn't have to pay the bills. She doesn't have to read that book. It doesn't have to be perfect We don't have to finish our project. You don't have to do your homework. They don't have to sleep early.

Questions
Do I have to study? Do you have to work? Does he have to pay the bills? Does she have to read that book? Does it have to be perfect? Do we have to finish our project? Do you have to do your homework? Do they have to sleep early?

Ejemplos: Affirmative sentence: Negative sentence: Yes/No question: I have to leave early. She doesnt have to wear a uniform. Does he have to buy anything? Tengo que salir temprano. Ella no tiene que usar uniforme. Tiene l que comprar algo?

Es importante recordar que: En las oraciones afirmativas en el presente simple have to/ has to indica obligacin o necesidad. En las oraciones negativas dont have to/ doesnt have to hace referencia a actividades que no son obligatorias.

Had to
Las oraciones afirmativas en el pasado simple usando had to hace referencia a actividades que eran obligatorias o necesarias. En oraciones negativas para referirse a actividades que no fueron necesarias u obligatorias PAST Affirmative
I had to study. You had to work. He had to pay the bills. She had to read that book. It had to be perfect. We had to finish our project. You had to do your homework They had to sleep early

Negative
I didn't have to study. You didn't have to work. He didn't have to pay the bills. She didn't have to read that book. It didn't have to be perfect. We didn't have to finish our project. You didn't have to do your homework. They didn't have to sleep early

Yes/No questions
Did I have to study? Did you have to work? Did he have to pay the bills? Did she have to read that book? Did it have to be perfect? Did we have to finish our project? Did you have to do your homework? Did they have to sleep early?

Ejemplos: Affirmative: Negative: They had to take the driving test. He didnt have to wear a uniform. Ellos tuvieron que rendir el examen de manejo El no tena que usar uniforme. Tena el que pagar las facturas?

Yes/ No questions: Did he have to pay the bills? EJERCICIO 5

I. Complete los siguientes enunciados usando has to + un verbo que d sentido a las oraciones. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Peter ___________________________ the dentist. He has a toothache Lisa ____________________________ her dog for a walk every afternoon. Jenny __________________________ to Machala because of her job. Dave ___________________________ a nap. He is so sleepy Danny __________________________ a haircut for the meeting Edward__________________________ lots of water. Richard _________________________ the dishes after dinner. Margaret_________________________ English because she is a tourist guide. Sarah ___________________________ hard for the final exams. John ____________________________ the computer. Its broken.

II. Complete las siguientes oraciones usando dont have to/ doesnt have to/ didnt have to + un verbo del cuadro. go take pay wear work get take forget be eat

a. Its Christmas Day tomorrow, so I ____________________ at the office. b. They ___________________ a uniform when they were in school. c. He could arrive late at the party. He ________________ on time. d. Its Saturday tomorrow so I _______________________ up early. e. You _____________________ too much fast food. Its bad for your health. f. We __________________ the bus to go to work yesterday because Danny gave us a ride. g. He ___________________ for our dinner. We have enough money to do it. h. Richard __________________ about his wifes birthday; otherwise, she will get angry. i. You ______________ out the garbage yesterday because there are several dogs trying to eat it. j. She _______________ to the doctor because she feels better now. III. Escriba 10 oraciones sobre las actividades que su compaero tiene o no tiene que realizar en el trabajo. Use has to / doesnt have to Por ejemplo: My workmate doesnt have to reply emails a. _______________________________________________________________ b. _______________________________________________________________ c. _______________________________________________________________

d. _______________________________________________________________ e. _______________________________________________________________ f. _______________________________________________________________ g. _______________________________________________________________ h. _______________________________________________________________ i. _______________________________________________________________ j. _______________________________________________________________

Must
Al igual que el modal have to, este modal tambin expresa obligacin. En ocasiones have to o must tienen el mismo significado. AFFIRMATIVO I You He She It We You They AFFIRMATIVE: Se utiliza must para expresar una obligacin personal en el presente o futuro pero jams para referirse al pasado, en ese caso solo had to puede ser empleado. Ejemplos: - You must answer the telephone. - She must study English. - He must study today. - We must study next week. must go now. mustn't smoke here. NEGATIVO

T debes contestar el telfono (yo entiendo que es tu obligacin) Ella debe estudiar ingls (sta es mi opinin) El debe estudiar hoy da. Nosotros debemos estudiar la prxima semana

NEGATIVE: Mientras que la negacin mustnt implica una prohibicin. Ejemplos: -You musn't go there. - He mustnt sell his house. - Students musnt smoke in classroom. T no debes ir all. El no debe vender su casa. Los estudiantes no deben fumar en el aula.

Es importante mencionar que must no tiene una forma interrogativa. EJERCICIO 6 I. Complete los enunciados usando must o mustnt + verbo en parntesis, de tal manera que las oraciones tengan sentido.

a. They_______________ (pay) the rent at the end of the month. b. People_____________ (cross) the street when the light is red. c. She________________ (show) her identification to the teacher. d. He_________________ (wear) a tuxedo for the party. e. You________________ (go) through the tunnel. Its closed f. Kids________________ (get in) this room. They are full of knives. g. Henry_______________ (tell) anyone. Its a secret. h. Tanya ______________ (be) late. Its a really important meeting. i. Laura _______________ (go) now. She is late for classes. j. Julia ________________ (smoke) in class. Its forbidden. II. Piense en las cosas que NO SE DEBE HACER en el hospital. Complete las oraciones usando mustnt + un verbo que d sentido a las mismas. a. Relatives ____________________loud in the hall. b. Children _____________________at the emergency area c. Patients _____________________fast food in their rooms d. All visitors ___________________pets to the hospital e. All family members __________________doctors. f. Relatives _____________________to music in high volume. g. Patients _______________________ cigarettes in their rooms. h. All family members _________________ patients any time they want. i. Patients _______________________ alcohol. j. All visitors ______________________ too much noise. III. Escriba 10 oraciones sobre la Universidad usando must o mustnt + las frases en parntesis. a. (arrive/ on time): ______________________________________________________________ b. (smoke/ in class): ______________________________________________________________ c. (wear / uniforms): ______________________________________________________________ d. (eat/ in class): ______________________________________________________________ e. (skip / clases): ______________________________________________________________ f. (cheat / on exams):_____________________________________________________________ g. (use / cell phones): _____________________________________________________________ h. (listen to / loud music):__________________________________________________________ i. (do/ homework): ______________________________________________________________ j. (study / for the exams):__________________________________________________________

UNIT 4
Adjectives
El adjetivo es una palabra que califica un sustantivo; es decir, lo describe. Ejemplo: The old house in my neighborhood is green.

En esta oracin tenemos el adjetivo OLD que est calificando al sustantivo HOUSE. En ingls los adjetivos van ubicados adelante del sustantivo. Los adjetivos en ingls tienen una nica forma, por lo que no varan ni en funcin del gnero (femenino o masculino), ni del nmero (singular o plural) del sustantivo al que acompaan: Ejemplos: The happy boy The happy girl The happy boys The happy girls El nio feliz La nia feliz Los nios felices Las nias felices

El adjetivo en ingls se sita delante del sustantivo: Ejemplos: An old person A big car Un carro grande Una persona mayor

EJERCICIO 7 I. Ordene las siguientes oraciones. Ejemplo: has/ orange/ an / she / towel She has a blue towel in her purse

1. old/ live in / department / we / an ______________________________________________ 2. love/ shirt / you/ that / green _________________________________________________

3. music / love / we / classical __________________________________________________ 4. 5. had/ nice /she / great/ a / holiday______________________________________________ food / Chinese / eat / they / Fridays / on ________________________________________

6. 7. 8. 9.

some / are / pink /garden / the / in / there / flowers________________________________ delicious / cooks/ she / apple pies _____________________________________________ blouse / this / silk / is / the / bed / on ____________________________________________ the/ closet /gray / sweater /in / is _______________________________________________

10. wooden / has / some/ figures / the / table_________________________________________ II. Complete los siguientes enunciados utilizando las opciones del recuadro blue desk dangerous street wide street beautiful kitten nice card slow driver careful driver fast car Mexican food rainy day

1. I got a __________________ for my birthday. 2. The folders are on the_______________________. 3. They cook _______________________on weekends. 4. Mr. Lara is a _________________________at night, especially when it rains. 5. What a _____________________! I need to take a photo. 6. Be careful because this is a _______________________. 7. Mazda 323 is a ________________________. 8. It was a _____________________________.Yesterday it was so cold. 9. They walked on the _____________________all day long. 10. She is a _____________________. She just learned how to drive.

Adverbs
Un adverbio tiene como propsito calificar al verbo. Los adverbios pueden derivarse de un adjetivo. Ejemplo: Slowly quickly Carefully lentamente rpidamente cuidadosamente. Ella conduce su auto lentamente

She drives her car slowly.

Reglas para formar Adverbios


1. Muchos adverbios en ingls se forman aadiendo la terminacin "-ly" al final del adjetivo: Intelligent = inteligente intelligently = inteligentemente bad = malo badly = de mala manera 2. Si el adjetivo termina "-y", esta se cambia por "-i" y se aade la terminacin "-ly": Happy = feliz happily = felizmente heavy = pesado heavily = fuertemente

3. Si el adjetivo termina "-l", se aade ly: careful = cuidadoso natural = natural

carefully naturally

= =

cuidadosamente naturalmente

4. Excepcin- Memorizar Good = bueno well = bien

5. Los siguientes adjetivos y adverbios se escriben de la misma manera. No es posible aumentar -ly a ningn de los adverbios de este grupo. Adjetivo hard fast late early wrong Ejemplos: They drive fast She works hard Ellos manejan rpidamente Ella trabaja arduamente Adverbio hard fast late early wrong

EJERCICIO 8 I. Transforme los adjetivos en parntesis en adverbios. 1. Can you speak ________________________? (Slow) 2. She reads in French____________________? (Good) 3. He was in the office but he left____________________? (Sudden) 4. Dont eat fruits so________________________. (Quick) 5. Pay attention and listen ____________________. (Careful) 6. The assistant talked ____________________ (Quiet) that I couldnt hear her. 7. I waited ___________________ (Nervous) for the date. 8. I understand my sister ________________ (Perfect) 9. She sings ____________________ (Beautiful) in church 10. They took the problem____________________ (Serious) II. Escriba oraciones utilizando los adverbios en parntesis. 1. (easily) 2. (quickly) 3. (well) 4. (logically) ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

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5. (softly) 6. (slowly) 7. (carefully) 8. (wrong) 9. (perfectly) 10. (suddenly)

____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

III. Complete las siguientes oraciones utilizando el adverbio que corresponda. Heavily reasonably unexpectedly safely patiently quietly easily seriously badly regularly

1. We didnt go out because it was raining ___________________________________________. 2. Our team lost the game because we played ________________________________________. 3. I had little difficulty finding a place to live. I found a flat quite ___________________________. 4. We had to wait for a long time but we didnt complain. We waited ________________________. 5. Nobody knew George was coming to see us. He arrived _______________________________. 6. Mike keeps fit by playing tennis __________________________. 7. The driver was __________________injured. 8. Please speak __________________! 9. Dont go up that ladder. It doesnt look _____________________. 10. I thought the restaurant would be expensive but it was _______________cheap.

Comparative Adjectives
El comparativo es una estructura que compara dos cosas, animales, personas, ideas, etc. Ejemplo: - My sister is taller than I am. - My brother is thinner than my father. Mi hermana es ms alta que yo Mi hermano es ms delgado que mi pap

En la formacin del comparativo, es importante usar la palabra THAN despus del comparativo.

Reglas para la formacin del comparativo


1. Si el adjetivo es de una slaba, aada er al final del adjetivo. bald = balder thin = thinner tall = taller strong = stronger 2. Si el adjetivos es de dos o ms slabas, aada la palabra more adelante del adjetivo. Intelligent = more intelligent elegant = more elegant well-built = more well-built attractive = more attractive

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3. Si el adjetivo termina en y, sustituya la y por una i y aumente er. happy shy ugly dirty EJERCICIO 9 I. Escriba los adjetivos comparativos en el cuadro. Tome en cuenta las reglas del comparativo. Adjetivo 1. friendly 2. old 3. polite 4. responsible 5. pretty 6. impatient 7. patient 8. ugly 9. young 10. aggressive Adjetivo Comparativo __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ = = = = happier shier uglier dirtier

II. Complete las siguientes oraciones con el comparativo de los adjetivos parntesis. Recuerde aadir than. 1. Johns house is _____________ (big) mine. 2. My English class is _______________ (exciting) Rafaels class. 3. Colombian things are _______________ (expensive) Ecuadorian things. 4. Cristina Aguileras voice is _______________ (nice) Britney Spear voice. 5. Learning French is _______________ (difficult) learning English. 6. Miss Universe is _______________ (attractive) Miss Peru. 7. My aunt Sofy is ________________ (young) my uncle Steve. 8. I would like to have a __________________(reliable) car. 9. It is too noisy here. Can we go somewhere ______________ (quiet)? 10. Last night I went to be _____________(early) than usual. III. Compare las dos personas o cosas presentadas, use el adjetivo en parntesis. Ejemplo: Brad Pitt, Danny De Vito (handsome) Brad Pitt is more handsome than Danny De Vito

1. San Francisco University, Central University (expensive) ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Guayaquil, Riobamba (large) ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Chevrolet cars, Lexus cars (elegant) ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Amazon river, Machngara river (polluted) ______________________________________________________________________________

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5. Ecuador, the United States (developed) _______________________________________________________________________________ 6. Pavarotti, Michael Jackson (thin) _______________________________________________________________________________ 7. Ibarra, Riobamba (cold) _______________________________________________________________________________ 8. Luis, Miguel (tall) _______________________________________________________________________________ 9. My older sister, my uncle (old) _______________________________________________________________________________ 10. Lesson 8, lesson 9 (easy) _______________________________________________________________________________

Superlative Adjetives
Esta es una estructura que se usa para comparar o enfatizar un elemento dentro de un grupo. Ejemplo: - She is the most intelligent student in the classroom. Ella es la ms inteligente de la clase. - Jim is the strongest guy I know. Jim es el muchacho ms fuerte que conozco El superlativo siempre va precedido del artculo THE. - This building is the highest in the city. - She is the shortest student in her class. Este edificio es el ms alto en la ciudad Ella es la estudiante ms pequea de su clase

Reglas para la formacin del superlativo:


1. Para los adjetivos de una slaba se aade la terminacin est para formar el superlativo. short = shortest strong = strongest old = oldest tall = tallest 2. A los adjetivos de dos o ms slabas se les tiene que agregar la palabra the most adelante para formar el superlativo. intelligent = the most intelligent attractive = the most attractive impatient = the most impatient aggressive = the most aggressive 3. Para los adjetivos que terminan en y se reemplaza la y por una i y se agrega est. happy = happiest friendly = friendliest early = earliest ugly = ugliest

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Irregular Adjectives
Adjetivo good bad far little much EJERCICIO 10 I. Escriba el superlativo de los siguientes adjetivos Adjetivo 1. friendly 2. old 3. polite 4. responsible 5. pretty 6. impatient 7. patient 8. ugly 9. young 10. aggressive Adjetivo Superlativo __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Forma Comparativa better than worse than farther / further less more Forma Superlativa the best the worst the farthest / the furthest the least the most

II. Complete las oraciones con el superlativo del adjetivo entre parntesis. 1. Paula is _______________ (old) girl in this classroom. 2. My father is _______________ (patient) person Ive ever met. 3. Karinas dog is _________________ (aggressive) animal in this block. 4. Ecuadorians are __________________ (friendly) in Latin America. 5. Toyota is ________________ (reliable) car Ive had. 6. Yesterday was ______________ (hot) day of the year. 7. She is of ______________ (nice) people I know. 8. This hotel is _______________ (cheap) in town. 9. It was ________________ (boring) film I have ever seen. 10. Mr. Smith is _______________ (serious) person I have ever known. III. Utilice la forma comparativa o superlativa de los adjetivos en los siguientes ejemplos. 1. We stayed at ___________________ (cheap) hotel in the town. 2. The U.S.A. is very large but Canada is____________________ (large). 3. He was a bit sad yesterday but he looks ___________________ (happy). 4. What is_____________ sport in your country? (popular) 5. I prefer this chair to he other one. Its ________ _____________(comfortable) 6. Mr and Mrs Brown have got three daughters.___________________ ( old) is 14 years old. 7. Whats ____________way of getting here to the station? (quick) 8. It was an awful day. It was _________________ (bad) day of my life. 9. Whats _____________ (good) film you have ever seen? 10. This hotel is ______________(cheap) all the others in towns.

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Modal Verb - Should


El verbo modal "should" se utiliza para indicar conveniencia, consejo, sugerencia. Ejemplo: - You should come with us. - I should study German. - He should work harder.

T deberas venir con nosotros Yo debera estudiar alemn El debera trabajar ms

Su forma negativa es "should not" (o la forma corta/contraccin "shouldn't"). Ejemplo: - She shouldn't go alone. - You shouldn't be so disagreeable. - He shouldn't come back so late. EJERCICIO 11 I. Complete las siguientes oraciones afirmativas. Use should y un verbo del recuadro. wear go do watch look visit brush go take hit

Ella no debera ir sola T no deberas ser tan desagradable El no debera volver tan tarde

1. If you have time, you ______________the cathedral. Its so pretty. 2. You_________________ your teeth twice a day. 3. When you are driving fast, you _________________a seat belt 4. You are very tired. You ______________ to bed now. 5. It is too far to walk from here to the bus station. You ______________ a taxi. 6. When you play pin-pon, you ________________the ball. 7. It is rainy. These children _______________the umbrella. 8. She is so tired. She _______________ away for a few days. 9. Your salary is so low. You ________________for another job. 10. I think the government ________________more to help homeless people. II. Lea cada situacin y escriba el consejo respectivo. Use should o shouldnt. 1. I have a terrible stomachache. _______________________________________________ 2. My eyes hurt so bad. _______________________________________________ 3. I forgot my folder _______________________________________________ 4. I need a full-time job _______________________________________________ 5. I dont want to see him _______________________________________________ 6. My legs are sore _______________________________________________ 7. I sprained my ankle _______________________________________________ 8. I have a sore throat, I cant talk anymore ___________________________________________ 9. I am always late for these meetings _______________________________________________ 10. I lost my wallet in the park _______________________________________________

END OF FIRST PARTIAL


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UNIT 5
Imperatives
Cuando usted desea dar una orden es preciso utilizar un verbo en presente seguido del complemento. No se debe aadir sujeto. Ejemplos: Close the door Turn off the radio Come quickly Wash your clothes Bring your ID Do you homework Cierre la puerta Apague el radio Venga pronto Lave su ropa Traiga su identificacin Haga su deber

Para formular un comando negativo usted debe aadir DONT = DO NOT que significa NO + el verbo en presente con el respectivo complemento. Ejemplos: Dont smoke in class Dont copy on the exam Dont throw garbage Dont park here Dont use this computer Dont write on the page No fume en clase No copie en el examen No bote basura No parquee No use sta computadora No escriba en la pgina

EJERCICIO 12 I. Traduzca los siguientes comandos. 1. Enva el dinero rpido 2. Prende la lmpara 3. Espera un momento 4. Deja tus libros en la mesa 5. Ponga sus pies en la silla 6. Regresa temprano 7. Gira a la derecha 8. Cierre la ventana 9. Responda la pregunta 10. Corte los vegetables ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________

II. Complete los siguientes comandos que un maestro le da a su estudiante. 1. __________ the books on page 67. 2. __________ your homework, please.

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3. __________ quiet! 4. __________ to me. 5. __________ your hands. 6. __________ the ball. 7. __________ on the dvd! 8. __________ the window, please 9. __________ for your quiz, its the last chance 10. __________ after me. III. Complete los siguientes comandos entre un doctor y un paciente. Utilice DONT y un verbo. 1. __________ seafood. 2. __________ to work. 3. __________ Voltaren 4. __________ your car. 5. __________ the computer. 6. __________ coffee for 3 days 7. __________ too much. 8. __________ for more than 30 minutes 9. __________ chocolate for a week 10. __________ alcohol

Modal Verb Can


El verbo modal CAN o CANT expresa habilidad o permiso en el presente. Ejemplos: I can go to the concert She can speak 3 languages They can swim in the river You can cook traditional food He cant ride a horse They cant understand Japanese We cant dance tango Yo puedo ir al concierto Ella puede hablar 3 idiomas Ellos pueden nadar en el ro T puedes cocinar comida tpica. El no puede montar a caballo Ellos no pueden entender Japons Nosotros no podemos bailar tango

Como puede observar en los ejemplos, despus del modal can - cant debe aadir un verbo en forma base.

Modal Verb Could


Se puede utilizar COULD o COULDNT cuando se exprese habilidad o permiso en tiempo pasado. Ejemplos: - When I was young, I could run very fast. - He could play soccer when he was 10. - When she was 17, she couldnt go dance. - They could eat candy after lunch time. - We couldnt take the quiz last night.

Cuando yo era nia, yo poda correr muy rpido El poda jugar ftbol cuando l tena 10 aos Cuando ella tena 17, no poda bailar. Ellos podan comer caramelos despus del lunch Nosotros no pudimos rendir la prueba anoche.

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EJERCICIO 13 I. Utilice can o could segn el tiempo de la oracin. 1. She _____________ sing well when she was a teenager. 2. They _____________type 50 words per minute. 3. We______________ dance salsa without any problem. 4. He_______________ read his fairy tales when he was 5 years old. 5. I________________ cook sushi. I just finished my cooking lessons 6. You______________ sing nicely some weeks ago. What happened? 7. They ______________ speak Italian perfectly. 8. She _______________ write her name when she was 6 years old. 9. According to the doctor, we _______________ eat 5 meals a day. 10. She ______________ play the piano but she has forgotten it all II. Utilice cant o couldnt en las siguientes oraciones. 1. She _________lift 100 pounds. She keeps going to the gym. 2. He__________ smell the roses when he was in high-school. 3. They_________ exercise for more than 20 minutes a week ago. 4. You__________ speak French when you took the first level. 5. We__________ translate words into 3 languages. Its too hard. 6. Children__________ read at the age of 3. 7. She ___________ cook any kind of food. 8. When she was in high school, she _____________put on her make-up. 9. He _____________ eat so many candies because he had a few cavities 10. We ______________ go to Canada. We havent got the visa.

Modal Verb May


El verbo modal "may" se utiliza para indicar que algo puede ser posible o no (posibilidad) Ejemplos: - He may be lost. You may find a good hotel. She may want to come with you. They may not buy a new car I may not travel this week

El puede estar perdido T puedes encontrar un buen hotel Ella puede querer venir contigo Ellos no podrn comprar un carro nuevo Yo no podr viajar sta semana

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EJERCICIO 14 I. Complete las siguientes oraciones con may ms uno de los verbos del recuadro.

Go Buy

play come

cut get

answer wear

see get in

1. The children______________ in this area. 2. The doctor_______________ the phone calls. She is busy. 3. Mr. Smith_______________ to the meeting. He is in the United States 4. You___________________ jeans for the meeting 5. She____________________ the photos. They are on the table 6. Students_______________ the book at Mr. Books. 7. He ____________________ his hair. Its too long. 8. They___________________ to the doctor. They are so sick. 9. We____________________ this CD for the class. 10. She __________________ to this conference II. Escriba una posibilidad utilizando may o may not seguido de un verbo. Ejemplo: - A person isnt eating as much as usual. 1. A baby is crying 2. A woman found a watch 3. A man only wears a suit to work 4. A student is smiling 5. A person is walking fast 6. A patient is feeling bad 7. A girl is laughing 8. This doctor is answering the phone 9. That student is writing so fast 10. These ladies are so happy

The person may be sick or depressed

______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________

Would you like.?


Utilizamos Would you like.? Cuando se desea hacer un ofrecimiento a manera de pregunta. Ejemplos: Would you like? seguido de un sustantivo Te gustara una taza de t? Te gustara un snduche de queso ?

Would YOU like a cup of tea? Would YOU like a cheese sndwich? Would you like to ..? - seguido de un verbo

Would you like to go to the cinema? Would you like to read this book?

Te gustara ir al cine? Te gustara leer ste libro?

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EJERCICIO 15 I. Use Would you like to. Para formular un ofrecimiento para Sam.

1. You want to go to the movies tonight. Perhaps Sam will go with you. ___________________________________________________________ 2. You want to play soccer tomorrow. Maybe Sam will play too. __________________________________________________________ 3. You have some holiday photos and Sam wants to see them. __________________________________________________________ 4. Its raining and Sam doesnt have an umbrella. You have an extra one ___________________________________________________________ 5. You have an extra ticket for a concert tonight. Sam likes the Singer ___________________________________________________________ 6. Your friend looks so thirsty. ____________________________________________________________ 7. You have prepared a delicious meal for your father. ____________________________________________________________ 8. Your teacher seems to be tired _____________________________________________________________ 9. You have bought a delicious apple pie for this breakfast ______________________________________________________________ 10. You want to take a break. Ask your teacher for a break. ______________________________________________________________ II. Formule el ofrecimiento de acuerdo a la respuesta. 1._____________________________________Yes, please. Im so thirsty. 2._____________________________________ No, thanks. I dont like sweets. 3._____________________________________ Sure. I dont have any plans for this week. 4._____________________________________Thank you, I love horror movies. 5._____________________________________Im sorry, I am alle rgic to caffeine. 6._____________________________________You are so kind. I love candy. 7._____________________________________ Yes, please. I am starving. 8._____________________________________No, thanks dear. I just had a snack. 9._____________________________________Im afraid I cant. 10.____________________________________That would be great. Its so hot.

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Adjetives Ending in ed and ing


1. Los adjetivos que terminan en ED califican a la persona que realiza la accin, es decir el sujeto de la oracin. 2. Los adjetivos que terminan en ING califican al objeto-cosa. Mire con detenimiento las siguientes fotos con sus adjetivos terminados en ed y ing. Cada uno tiene la traduccin. aprndaselos

amazing asombroso

amazed asombrada/o

amusing gracioso

amused divertido

annoying Molesto

annoyed fastidiada/o

astonishing asombroso

astonished Asombrado

boring Tedioso

bored aburrida/o

confusing confuso

confused Confundido

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depressing Deprimente

depressed depresiva/o

disappointing desilusionador

disappointed Desilusionado

disgusting Repugnante

disgusted asqueada/o

embarrassing vergonzoso

embarrassed avergonzado

exhauting Agotador

exhausted agotada/o

exciting emocionante

excited Emocionado

fascinating Fascinante

fascinated Fascinado

frightening espantosa/o

Frightened Temeroso

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horrifying Horripilante

horrified Horrorizado

interesting interesante

Interested Interesado

Shocking conmovedora

Shocked Conmovido

tiring estresante

Tired Cansado

Terrifying Terrorfico Ejemplos: -

Terryfied Aterrado

worrying Preocupante

Worried Preocupado

Mike is bored because his job is boring

Miguel est aburrido porque su trabajo es tedioso

En este ejemplo Mike es el sujeto-la persona y su trabajo es el objeto-cosa. I am interested in politics, because I consider politics interesting Estoy interesado en poltica porque la considero interesante His designation is surprising, so we are all surprised Su designacin es sorprendente, por eso estamos sorprendidos.

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EJERCICIO 16 I. Escoja el adjetivo correcto para completar las siguientes oraciones. 1. Are you ________________in learning a foreign language? 2. The football match was real battle. It was really__________. 3. The kitchen was a mess! It was really _______________. 4. I was really _________when they offered me the job! 5. Its kind of______ when you have to ask for a favor. (interested / interesting) (excited / exciting) (disgusted / disgusting) (amazed / amazing) (embarrassed/embarrasing) (horrified / horrifying)

6. When we heard the bad news we were all _______________.

7. She wants to find a different job because she thinks its__________. (boring / bored) 8. We went for a very long walk. It was really_________________. 9. I really had a good time. The film was _______________. (tired / tiring) (amused / amusing)

10. He showed us his new invention and were all__________________. (fascinated / fascinating) II. Complete las oraciones utilizando adjetivos con ed oing de acuerdo a cada situacin. 1. The class bores the students. It is a ______________ class. 2. The students are bored by the class. They are _______________students. 3. The game excites the people. It is an _________________game 4. The people are excited by the game. They are _______________people. 5. The news surprised the man. It was ______________news. 6. The man was surprised by the news. He was a ________________man. 7. The child was frightened by the strange noise. The _________child started to cry. 8. The strange noise frightened the child. It was a _________________sound. 9. The work exhausted the men. It was _______________________work. 10. The men were exhausted. The ____________met sat down the rest under the shade of a tree.

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UNIT 6
Past Continuous
El Pasado Continuo, es un tiempo que describe acciones que estaban siendo realizadas en un momento del pasado al que se hace referencia y que luego continuaron, por ejemplo: Ejemplo: - Yesterday he was studying English. Ayer l estaba estudiando ingls. Comenz a estudiar antes de ese momento y continu estudiando posteriormente - John was playing tennis at 10 a.m. John estuvo jugando tenis a las 10 a.m. Comenz a jugar tenis antes de las 10 a.m. y continu hacindolo despus

Affirmative Sentences
Sujeto + Verbo To-Be(was-were) + Verbo (ING) + Complemento

Ejemplo: - My niece was doing her homework alone. - Henry and Linda were dancing all night. - I was watching TV while I was eating.

Mi sobrina estuvo haciendo sola su deber. Henry y Linda estuvieron bailando toda la noche. Estuve viendo tv mientras estaba comiendo.

Negative Sentences
Sujeto + Verbo To-Be(was-were) + Not + Verbo (ING) + Complemento Ejemplo: - Teresa wasnt listening to music in the room. Teresa no estuvo escuchando msica en el cuarto. - I wasnt washing the dishes with my sister. Yo no estuve lavando los platos con mi hermana. - His parents werent watching the soap opera. Sus padres no estuvieron viendo la telenovela

Yes / No Questions
Verbo To-Be(was-were) + Sujeto + Verbo (ING) + Complemento? Ejemplo: - Was his brother working in the office? Estuvo su hermano trabajando en su oficina? - Was Marisol reading the magazine in the bus? Estuvo Marisol leyendo la revista en el bus? - Were you singing during the concert? Estuviste cantando durante el concierto?

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Wh Questions
Wh + To-Be (was-were)+ Sujeto + Verbo (ING) + Complemento?

Ejemplo: - Where was your father working yesterday? - What were you doing yesterday morning? - Who was she chatting to in the class?

Dnde estuvo trabajando tu padre ayer? Qu estuviste haciendo ayer en la maana? Con quin estaba ella chateando en la clase?

Tambin se puede utilizar este tiempo para relatar dos acciones que sucedieron en el pasado y que una de ellas ya se ha completado. Para ello utilizamos el Pasado Simple para mencionar lo que ya finaliz y el Pasado Continuo para relatar lo que sigue ejecutndose. - When I left, he was studying the lesson. Cuando yo part, l estaba estudiando la leccin.

- They were singing when I broke the window Ellos estaban cantando cuando romp la ventana.

Rules for adding ING to a verb.


1. Si la forma simple de un verbo termina en y solo agrega la terminacin ing play study = = playing studying

2. Si la forma simple de un verbo termina en e elimina la e y agrega el ingtake = taking make see = = making seeing (excepcin)

3. Si la forma simple de un verbo termina en consonante-vocal-consonante repite la ltima consonante y despus agrega el ing. A excepcin de los verbos que terminen en x-z-w. sit + ing run + ing stop + ing = = = sitting running stopping

4. La i cambia por la y en los siguientes verbos tie = tying lie die = = lying dying

El pasado continuo lo utilizamos para una accin larga que ya en el pasado fue interrumpido. La accin que se interrumpe est en pasado continuo y la accin que provoca la interrupcin est en pasado simple. "When" y "while" sealan el uso del pasado simple y continuo. En general, usamos el pasado simple directamente despus de "when" y el pasado continuo despus de "while."

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- Jose called while I was watching the news. Jos llam mientras estaba mirando las noticias. - He was walking to work when he fell. Estaba caminando hacia su trabajo cuando se cay. - Was it raining when you left? Estaba lloviendo cuando te fuiste? Se usa el pasado continuo para dos acciones que estaban ocurriendo al mismo tiempo en el pasado. - My son was reading while I was cooking. Mi hijo estaba leyendo mientras que yo estaba cocinando. - They were talking very loudly while we were trying to watch the movie. Estaban hablando muy alto mientras nosotros estbamos

EJERCICIO 17 I. Coloque los verbos de las siguientes oraciones en pasado continuo o progresivo 1. The children (play) ____________ football during the week. 2. It (rain) _____________ hard during the soccer game. 3. I (study) ____________ English for five years in London. 4. Mary (be) ___________ always (borrow) ____________ my books. 5. Peter (practice) _____________ the guitar before the competition. 6. Susan (drive) ______________when the accident happened. 7. My friends (fight) _____________ during the whole night at the club. 8. Daniela (teach) ______________language for ten hours. 9. I (try) ______________ to get a new job. 10. Jane (plan) _____________to go to the cinema with her parents. II. Completa las siguientes oraciones. Use pasado simple o pasado progresivo. 1. Henry _____ (live) in New York for 3 years. 2. Yesterday was a long day. I _____ (work) all afternoon, _____ (go) to class in the evening and then _____ (have) dinner with my parents. 3. She _____ (make) dinner when the boys _____ (come) home. 4. In 1996, Bob _____ (work) in a hospital. 5. When I was young, we _____ (not/have) computers. 6. What _____ you _____ (do) last night when I _____ (call)? 7. It _____ (start) to rain while he _____ (walk) the dog. 8. My husband _____ (watch) the football game while I _____ (read) a book. 9. Steve _____ (buy) a new car last year. 10. I _____ (play) volleyball with my friends at 3pm yesterday.

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III. Escriba oraciones utilizando while. Qu actividades realiz simultneamente con algn miembro de la familia? I was cooking lunch while my husband was taking care of the baby 1.______________________________________________________________ 2.______________________________________________________________ 3.______________________________________________________________ 4.______________________________________________________________ 5.______________________________________________________________ 6.______________________________________________________________ 7.______________________________________________________________ 8.______________________________________________________________ 9.______________________________________________________________ 10._____________________________________________________________ IV. Conjugue el verbo en parntesis. Utilice pasado continuo o pasado simple de acuerdo al contexto de la oracin. 1. It _______________ (rain) when we _______________(go) out. 2. When I arrived at the office, Jane and Paul ________________(work) at their desks. 3. I_____________________ (open) the window because it was hot. 4. The phone _______________ (ring) while Sam___________ (cook) the dinner. 5. I_______________ (hear) a noise outside, so I ____________ (look) out of the window. 6 A: What ________________ (you/do) when the cell-phone_________ (ring)? B: I___________________ (watch) videos. 7. A: Was Luis busy when you went to visit her? B: Yes, she ___________________ (do) homework. 8. A: What time____________ (the post / arrive) this morning? B: It___________ (come) while I _______________(have) brunch. 9. A: Was Alejandra at work today? B: No, she ________________ (not / go) to the office. She was sick. 10. A: How fast ________________ (you/ drive) when the police__________ ________________ (stop) you? B: I dont know exactly but I __________________ (not / drive) fast. V. Complete las siguientes oraciones utilizando el pasado progresivo. Conjugue los verbos en parntesis. 1. They _____________ (wait) for us on the corner.

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Someone____________ (knock) at the door. John______________(eat) lunch at home They _____________ (do) exercise all this morning. All the big stores__________(have) sales this month Juan _______________ (talk) to Alice for an hour. The birds____________ (fly) south. We _________________ (laugh) at what you said. The cat_____________ (try) to climb that tall tree.

10. The maid____________ (clean) the room. VI. Imagine a Lisa haciendo varias cosas el da de ayer. Conjugue los verbos del recuadro usando pasado progresivo. Watch Cook read listen visit write talk wash eat work out

1. At 9:45 Lisa ________________________ her car. 2. At 11:40 she ________________________ the newspaper. 3. At 9 oclock she______________________ some music. 4. At 2pm she________________________ lunch with her friend. 5. At 4pm Lisa and her friend______________ one of their relatives. 6. At 4:30pm Lisas relatives__________________ on the phone. 7. At 6pm all of them_______________________ Italian food. 8. At 7pm Lisa_____________________________ some text messages. 9. At 8pm Lisa ____________________________ in the gym. 10. At 10pm Lisa__________________________ TV before she fell asleep.

VII. Lea los siguientes enunciados y conjugue los verbos en parntesis. Use el pasado simple o pasado progresivo segn sea el caso. 1. I ____________(read) a magazine when it _________(start) to rain. 2. Some friends___________ (arrive) while we___________(watch) television. 3. He___________ (cook) dinner when he_________ (receive) a text message from his girlfriend. 4. They __________ (play) football when the storm___________ (begin). 5. What ______________ (you/do) yesterday at 3 pm? 6. ___________ (you/study) when I____________ (ring) you last night? 7. He ___________ (can) sleep because the baby___________ (cry). 8. She__________ (arrive) as the train was _____________ (leave) the station. 9. The children__________ (listen) while the teacher __________ (explain) the answers. 10. I____________ (listen) to the radio when I__________ (receive) your email.

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UNIT SEVEN
Sustantivos Contables y No Contables
Sustantivos Contables
Los sustantivos contables son aquellos que se pueden contar; esto quiere decir que existe un singular y un plural. Si el sustantivo es singular tiene que ir precedido de los artculos a/an que significa un, uno, una. Ejemplo: - She has a pet. - She has two pets. Ella tiene una mascota Ella tiene dos mascotas (singular) (plural)

A continuacin algunos ejemplos de sustantivos contables. SUSTANTIVOS CONTABLES Singular girl desk chid person book exercise student idea decisin Plural girls desks children people books exercises students ideas decisions

Sustantivos No Contables
Los sustantivos no contables son los que no se pueden contar. Estos sustantivos no se pueden pluralizar. Ejemplo: - She needs butter for the cake. - Butter is essential for cakes. Ella necesita mantequilla para la torta La mantequilla es esencial para las tortas

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A continuacin algunos ejemplos de sustantivos no contables. FOOD rice bread butter rice cheese meat chicken fish salad pasta pie soup sugar salt DRINKS water coffee juice milk soda tea lemonade wine WEATHER sunshine fog ice rain snow MATERIALS glass plastic wool metal leather OTHERS work culture liberty friendship peace information education knowledge progress experience time

Quantifiers
Los cuantificadores o determinantes de cantidad, nos dicen de cuntas cosas o personas hablamos o a qu cantidad se refiere el sustantivo al que acompaan. A pesar de que expresan cantidad, no lo hacen con precisin. A continuacin una lista de cuantificadores: SUSTANTIVOS CONTABLES How many many few a few SUSTANTIVOS NO CONTABLES How much much little a little PARA LOS DOS some any

Some
Se utiliza en oraciones afirmativas y significa algunos, algunas, algo. Este cuantificador se lo usa tanto con sustantivos contables como con sustantivos no contables. Ejemplo: She needs some oranges. My sister has some money in her purse. There are some new students. Ella necesita algunas naranjas). Mi hermana tiene algo de dinero en su cartera. Hay algunos estudiantes nuevos.

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Any
Se utiliza en oraciones negativas y preguntas y significa ningn, ninguna, nada. Se lo usa con sustantivos contables y no contables. En el caso de ser un sustantivo contable, tiene que ser en su forma plural. Ejemplo: She doesnt need any oranges. Does she need any oranges? I dont have any money. Ella no necesita ningunas naranjas. Necesita ella algunas naranjas? No tengo nada de dinero.

How much?
Significa Cunto? / Cunta? y se utiliza con sustantivos no contables en preguntas. Ejemplos: How much sugar do you need? How much water do you drink every day? How much information do you have? How much does it cost? Canta azucar necesitas? Canta agua toms cada da? Canta informacin tienes? Cunto cuesta?

Much
Significa mucho / mucha y se utiliza en oraciones negativas y preguntas con sustantivos no contables Ejemplos: I dont have much time. Do you usually buy much food? There isnt much orange juice. No tengo mucho tiempo. Compras usualmente mucha comida? No hay tanto jugo de naranja.

How many?
Significa Cuntos? / Cuntas? y se utiliza con sustantivos contables en preguntas. Ejemplos: How many books do you need? How many children do you have? How many chairs are there? Cuntos libros necesitas? Cuntos hijos tienes? Cuntas sillas existen?

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Many
Significa muchos / muchas / varios / algunos / algunas. Se utiliza para oraciones negativas y preguntas con sustantivos contables en plural. Ejemplos: I dont know many people. Does she buy many books? He has many friends. No conozco a mucha gente. Ella compra algunos libros? El tiene muchos amigos.

EJERCICIO 18 I. Complete las siguientes oraciones con a, an, some. 1. Id like _________ coffee, please. 2. I want __________ peanut butter sandwich. 3. They are having _________ apple for breakfast. 4. When people come over, I offer them ________ soda. 5. There are ________ problems with the system. II. Complete las siguientes oraciones usando some o any 1. I think you need ________ food. 2. The cat doesnt have ________ food. 3. Is there ________ soda in the refrigerator? 4. There are ________ books you need to read. 5. Do you have ________ homework? III. Escriba much o many antes de los siguientes sustantivos. a. How _________ homework? b. How _________ desks? c. How _________ water? d. How _________ butter? e. How _________ sugar? f. How __________ children? g. How __________ museums? h. How __________ money? i. How __________ buses? j. How __________ time?

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A Few
Significa pocos / pocas, nicamente se puede utilizar con sustantivos contables. Ejemplo: - She buys a few apples per week. - He has a few friends in the class - I need a few books for my research. Ella compra pocas manzanas a la semana El tiene pocos amigos en la clase. Necesito pocos libros para mi investigacin.

A Little
Significa poco / poca. Se puede utilizar con sustantivos no contables Ejemplo: - She puts a little oil in the salad - They drink a little water every day - There is a little milk for the cake. Ella pone poco aceite en la ensalada. Ellos beben poca agua cada da. Hay un poco de leche para la torta.

EJERCICIO 19 I. Complete las siguientes oraciones con a few o a little. 1. I like _____________ sugar in my tea. 2. There are ____________students eating lunch now 3. There are _____________chocolates left in the box 4. I usually only eat _______________at lunch time 5. There are only ________________chips left over. 6. ____________people were waiting for the bus 7. Can I have ______________jam on my toast, please? 8. __________children enjoy getting up at 5am. 9. I have ____________pennies left to spend at the shop 10. She has ____________money in her wallet. II. Complete las siguientes oraciones, utilice some o any. 1. I dont have_______________money with me. 2. Please give me _____________more coffee. 3. Im sorry but there isnt ________________more coffee. 4. The baby is asleep. Please dont make___________noise. 5. We need__________oranges for breakfast.

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III. Complete las siguientes oraciones. Utilice much o many. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. There arent _____________large factories in this town. This child doesnt drink_________milk. There isnt _______________snow on the ground. He doesnt make ____________mistakes in spelling. This factory produces__________ different kinds of products.

IV. Complete las siguientes oraciones. Utilice a little o a few ms una palabra del recuadro. AIR FOOD ITALIAN MILK LETTERS TIMES

1. Last night I wrote ________________ to my family and friends 2. Can I have ______________in my coffee, please? 3. I can speak _________________ 4. Im so stressed. I need _____________fresh__________. 5. There was _________________food in the fridge. V. Complete las siguientes preguntas con How much o How many. 1. __________ birds are there? 2. __________ money is there? 3. __________ dolphins are there? 4. __________ pencils are there? 5. __________ books are there? 6. __________ milk is there? There are two birds. There are three thousand dollars. There are two dolphins. There are thirteen pencils. There are three books. There are four liters of milk

Too
Esta palabra sirve para demostrar exceso de un sustantivo, adjetivo o adverbio en una oracin. Significa demasiado y se utiliza siempre delante de los adjetivos o adverbios que modifica. Ejemplos: This exercise is too easy. I arrived too late. He's too young to drive. Este ejercicio es demasiado fcil. Llegu demasiado tarde. Es demasiado joven para conducir.

Too Many
Significa demasiado/a/os/as. Va seguido de sustantivos contables. Ejemplos: There are too many people in the room. I have too many things to do. Paula eats too many candies. Hay demasiada gente en la habitacin. Tengo demasiadas cosas que hacer. Paula come demasiados caramelos.

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Too Much
Significa mucho / mucha / demasiado / demasiada. Va seguido de sustantivos no contables. Ejemplos: There is too much shadow. My coffee has too much sugar. There is too much space. Hay demasiada sombra Mi caf tiene demasiada azcar. Hay demasiado espacio.

Enough
Significa lo sufucientemente. Se utiliza siempre despus de los adjetivos o adverbios que modifica. Ejemplos: I arrived early enough. He isn't old enough to drive. He isn't strong enough to lift it. Llegu lo suficientemente temprano. No es lo suficientemente viejo como para manejar. No es lo suficientemente fuerte como para levantarlo. Si se usa con sustantivos, significa "suficiente/s" y va siempre antes. Ejemplos: There aren't enough chairs. There isn't enough light. I have enough space in my house. No hay suficientes sillas. No hay suficiente luz. Tengo suficiente espacio en mi casa.

EJERCICIO 20 I. Utilice enough ms una palabra del recuadro para completar las oraciones. CHAIRS MONEY TIME WIND PEOPLE SUGAR

1. There werent ______________ for seminar. Thats why it was postponed. 2. Is there ________________ in your coffee? 3. Mike cant fly his kite. There isnt ____________! 4. There arent _____________________for everybody in this class! 5. There wasnt______________________ so I couldnt finish my work. 6. She doesnt have ________________________. She must go to the bank.

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II. Complete las siguientes oraciones usando too o enough y el adjetivo en parntesis. 1. This laptop is (slow) _____________ to do this calculation. 2. Elizabeth is (old) _____________ to enter here. 3. These suitcases are (heavy) _____________ to carry. 4. It isn't (sunny) _____________ to sunbathe. 5. Are you (tall) _____________ to reach that shelf? 6. You're (young) _____________ to drive. 7. You aren't (old) _____________ to drive in this country. 8. That sweater is big. It's (big) _____________ for you. 9. The patio isn't (big) _____________ to play football. 10. This cup of coffee is (strong) _____________ for me.

III. Complete el siguiente ejercicio. Utilice TOO seguido de una palabra del recuadro. low big crowded heavy fast loud

1. The cafeteria is _____________.Everybody is waiting. 2. The ball is _________________for the kids. 3. Hes driving ________________.He is on the high-way 4. The net is ________________ for the players 5. The bag is _______________for her to lift it. 6. The radio is _____________. I cant hear you!

IV. Utilice un adjetivo del recuadro seguido de ENOUGH: tall long strong old good big

1. He isnt __________________ to reach it. 2. My son isnt _______________ to go to the disco. 3. His legs arent ______________ to ride the bicycle. 4. They arent _________________ to lift those weights. 5. Is your English ______________ to have a conversation? 6. The box is __________________to keep all these things.

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UNIT EIGHT
Future: Be going to
1. Be going to se utiliza para hablar sobre planes en el futuro, es decir algo que va a ocurrir. Ejemplo: - I am going to have a meeting tomorrow. - James is going to buy some food. Tendr una reunin maana. James comprar algo de comida.

2. Se utiliza adems para hablar de predicciones basadas en evidencia. Ejemplo: - Look! That tree is going to fall down. Mira! Ese rbol se caer.

A continuacin observemos como se forma oraciones afirmativas, negativas y preguntas.

Affirmative Sentences
Este futuro se forma con el verbo TO BE conjugado (am, is, are) para la persona correspondiente, seguido de GOING TO y el verbo base. Fjese en la estructura que se utiliza para formar oraciones afirmativas y memorcela.

SUJETO + To Be I'm You're He's She's It's We're You're They're

GOING TO going to going to going to going to going to going to going to going to

VERBO (forma base) study play have work rain prepare finish play

COMPLEMENTO for the English exam tonight. soccer with my family next week. dinner with his friends today. until midnight all this week. in the afternoon. a delicious dinner for Christmas. the project next Friday. cards in the meeting tonight.

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Negative Sentences
Para expresar la negacin, se debe usar el verbo TO BE en su forma negativa, seguido de GOING TO ms el verbo base. SUJETO + To Be + not I'm not You're not He's not She's not It's not We're not You're not They're not GOING TO going to going to going to going to going to going to going to going to VERBO (forma base) study play have work rain prepare finish play COMPLEMENTO for the English exam tonight. soccer with my family next week. dinner with his friends today. until midnight all this week. in the afternoon. a delicious dinner for Christmas. the project next Friday. cards in the meeting tonight.

Yes / No Questions
Las preguntas simples empiezan con el verbo TO BE, conjugado de acuerdo al sujeto que usemos, seguido de GOING TO y el verbo base. To Be + Subject + GOING To Are you going to Are you going to Is he going to Is she going to Is it going to Are we going to Are you going to Are they going to VERBO (forma base) study play have work rain prepare finish play COMPLEMENTO for the English exam tonight. soccer with my family next week. dinner with his friends today. until midnight all this week. in the afternoon. a delicious dinner for Christmas. the project next Friday. cards in the meeting tonight.

Para responder a las preguntas, se usa Yes / No, seguido de la persona y el verbo To-Be de acuerdo al sujeto que estemos utilizando. Are you going to travel to Mexico next Monday? Yes, I am. No, Im not. Are the students going to have the exam next month? Yes, they are. No, they arent. Is Paul going to buy a new car next year? Yes, he is. No, he isnt.

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Wh Questions
Para hacer este tipo de preguntas, se agrega la 'question word' al inicio y memorizamos la siguiente estructura:

Wh + To-Be + Sujeto + GOING TO + Verbo (forma simple) + Complemento


What are you going to do in May? Im going to travel to Orlando. Where are they going to stay in their holidays? They are going to stay in a nice hotel. How is she going to travel to her town? She is going to travel by airplane. Que vas a hacer en Mayo? Viajar a Orlando. Donde se van a hospedar en el feriado? Ellos se quedarn en un hotel bonito. Como va ella a viajar a su pueblo? Ella viajara en avin.

Para referirnos al futuro generalmente usamos las siguientes expresiones de tiempo. TIME EXPRESSIONS FOR THE FUTURE Tomorrow next week/year/month Tonight in (two) weeks, months, years

EJERCICIO 21 I. Observe los siguientes cuadros y escriba oraciones usando going to + verbo

type / letter Shes going to type a letter

teach/ Math a.______________________

drive / a new car b.________________________

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play / golf c. _____________________

go /camping d._____________________

read/ a novel e.________________________

II. Realice oraciones negativas y preguntas. 1. They are going to buy food tomorrow. Negative: Yes/no question: Wh- question: ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

2. Thomas is going to live in New Zealand. Negative: Yes/no question: Wh- question: ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

3. It is going to start at 10:00 a.m. Negative: Yes/no question: Wh- question: ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

4. He is going to buy two new computers. Negative: Yes/no question: Wh- question: ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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5. Andy and Sophia are going to take French lessons. Negative: Yes/no question: Wh- question: ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

III. Complete el siguiente prrafo usando Be going to + el verbo en parntesis Sarah 1.___________________ ( go) to Canada tonight. She 2.________________ (live) with her best friend called Andrea. They 3.______________ __(study) French and English in a language school. She is excited because she 4._____________(meet) new people and she

5.____________________ (learn) new languages.

IV. Coloque las siguientes palabras en el orden correcto para poder formar oraciones o preguntas. a. she/ going to / what / is / do / next week/ ? ________________________________________________________________ b. going to / isnt / Steven / buy / a / new cell phone. ________________________________________________________________ c. they/ where/ go/ are/ going to / vacations/ on? ________________________________________________________________ d. going to/ we/ rent/ are /a car /drive/ to / across the country. ________________________________________________________________ e. it / what time / going to / is / start / ? ________________________________________________________________

V. Complete las siguientes oraciones usando be going to + un verbo del recuadro.

sleep

make take

drink

go

wash

1. Im hungry. Im __________________ a sandwich. 2. I have a toothache. Im ______________________ to the dentist. 3. Its raining. Im ______________________ my umbrella. 4. The dishes are dirty .Im _____________________ them. 5. She is thirsty. Shes ___________________some water. (drink) 6. They are tired. Theyre ___________________.

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VI. Realice preguntas de si o no y responda en forma completa. Ejemplo: Is George going to read this book? No, George isnt going to read this book.

a. Andrea / fix the computer ________________________? b. your brothers / play soccer ________________________? No, _________________________ Yes, _________________________

c. Laura and Thomas / do their homework ________________________? d. your father/ lend you money ________________________? e. you / drive tomorrow ________________________? No , _________________________ No, _________________________ Yes, _________________________

VII. Responda los siguientes enunciados. Use be going to + verbo 1. What are you going to do after work tomorrow? _________________________________________________________ 2. What time are you going to sleep tonight? _________________________________________________________ 3. What are you going to do on the weekend? _________________________________________________________ 4. Are you going to wash your clothes on the weekend? _________________________________________________________ 5. Are you going to study English next week _________________________________________________________

END OF SECOND PARTIAL


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RESPUESTA
UNIT ONE
EJERCICIO 1 I. a. b. c. d. e. II. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

fried lived carried liked looked

f. invent ed g. moved h. shared i. tried j. copied

Amy cleaned the windows last night. Jerry arrived late yesterday. Jason listened to classical music. Jane cried a lot last morning. My teacher wanted to talk with me. He closed the door angrily. Margaret washed her hair last Monday. My grandmother died because of cancer four days ago. Maggie cooked delicious food yesterday. Byron and George worked hard on a big project

III. a) last b) yesterday c) ago d) last e) ago EJERCICIO 2 I. a. b. c. d. e. II. 2 7 6 3 9

f) yesterday g) last h) last i) ago j) ago

f. g. h. i. j.

10 1 4 8 5

RICHARD My best friends name was Richard. He lived in a quiet residential suburb but he worked in a big company downtown, so he drove to work. He had three children; their names were Jack, Joshua and Peter. They went to a public school near their house. They had many abilities. They spoke three languages: French, German and English and they also played the piano beautifully.

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III. Las respuestas pueden variar. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. I was born in Australia. I grew up in a small island. I studied Science. I traveled to Japan and China. I wrote a poem to my boyfriend yesterday. I watched Malcom in the Middle yesterday. I gave my mother a sweater for her birthday last week. I went to the beach last year. I took a taxi last night. I ate a sandwich for lunch last Monday.

UNIT TWO
EJERCICIO 3 I. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. II. a. Liza had a small dog. Liza didnt have a small dog. Did Liza have a small dog? b. Martin and Susan arrived at 7:00 a.m Martin and Susan didnt arrive at 7:00 a.m Did Martin and Susan arrive at 7:00 a.m? c. Lorena found her cell phone at home. Lorena didnt find her cell phone at home. Did Lorena find her cell phone at home? d. My children played soccer last week. My children didnt play soccer last week. Did my children play soccer last week? e. Tania took the bus yesterday. Tania didnt take the bus yesterday. Did Tania take the bus yesterday? f. I went to the mall four days ago. I didnt go to the mall four days ago. Did I/you go to the mall four days ago? g. Elizabeth drank beer last Friday. Elizabeth didnt drink beer last Friday.

Jennifer didnt buy a small dog yesterday. Tanya didnt come late to school yesterday morning. Joseph didnt study hard for the exam last month. They didnt make a delicious cake for my birthday. We didnt eat some sandwiches for lunch. He didnt do his homework late at night. Sue didnt know the answer. Robert didnt write a letter to his brother. My grandfather didnt listen to classical music George wasnt absent last Monday.

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Did Elizabeth drink beer last Friday? h. Joseph cleaned the apartment yesterday. Joseph didnt clean the apartment yesterday. Did Joseph clean the apartment yesterday? i. Laura began a new ESL class five days ago. Laura didnt begin a new ESL class five days ago. Did Laura begin a new ESL class five days ago? j. Wendy gave Thomas a t-shirt. Wendy didnt give Thomas a t-shirt. Did Wendy give Thomas a t-shirt? III. a. b. c. d. e.

3 6 7 8 9

f. g. h. i. j.

10 2 4 5 1

IV. a. Where did Peter live last year? b. How much did Samuel pay for his shoes? c. Why was Sylvia absent? d. When did Steven call me? e. What did you buy yesterday? V. a. b. c. d. e.

f. g. h. i. j.

What time did Alexander have a meeting? How many cats did George have last yea?. Where did Manuel buy his suit? How did Linda go to Argentina? When did Arthur invite me to the party?

She went to the market. He didnt have a car. Did Thomas buy flowers for you? Did Michael come to visit you? Where did Sheila live?

f. g. h. i. j.

He didnt do his homework. Bertha wasnt at home last night. Victor didnt break the window. When did she go to school? Did Arthur invite you to his party?

VI. Las respuestas pueden variar. a. I was born in Quito. b. His name was Carlitos. c. I played soccer. d. I had a sandwich for lunch yesterday. e. I watched TV.

f. g. h. i. j.

I went to bed at 9:00 p.m I paid $ 65 Yes, I did. I went to Manta. I finished it yesterday evening.

UNIT THREE
EJERCICIO 4 I. a. b. c. d. e.

used to take used to eat used to watch used to be used to have

f. g. h. i. j.

used to work used to swim used to write used to go used to dance

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II. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. III. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

Liz used to cook Japanese food for everybody. They used to visit their grandmother every weekend. Peter didnt use to have classes on Fridays. Bryan didnt use to watch TV on the weekends. Did Sophia use to cry for her little child? Did Victor use to drink beer at school? Sarah used to walk long distances. Diana didnt use to be pretty. Did your children use to eat candies? Henry didnt use to do exercise.

I used to walk long distances to go back home. I used to eat lunch as soon as I arrived home. I used to do my homework by myself. I used to play basketball in the afternoons. I used to read fairy tales. I didnt use to watch soap operas. I didnt use to smoke but now I do. I didnt use to eat candies. I didnt use to make my bed. I didnt use to go to the disco.

EJERCICIO 5 I. a. b. c. d. e. II. a. b. c. d. e. III. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

has to see has to take has to go has to take has to have dont have to work. didnt have to wear didnt have to be dont have to get dont have to eat

f. g. h. i. j.

has to drink has to wash has to speak has to study has to fix f. g. h. i. j. didnt have to take doesnt have to pay doesnt have to forget didnt have to take doesnt have to go

My workmate has to teach English. She has to check students homework. She has to answer mails. She has to plan classes. She has to make exams She has to arrive on time. My workmate doesnt have to be rude to students. She doesnt have to let students cheat during exams. She doesnt have to eat in classes. She doesnt have to use her cell phone.

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EJERCICIO 6 I. a. b. c. d. e. II. a. b. c. d. e. III. a. b. c. d. e.

must pay mustnt cross must show must wear mustnt go

f. g. h. i. j.

mustnt get in mustnt tell mustnt be must go mustnt smoke

mustnt speak mustnt run/play mustnt eat mustnt take mustnt bother

f. g. h. i. j.

mustnt listen mustnt smoke mustnt visit mustnt drink mustnt make

Students must arrive on time. Students mustnt smoke in class Students mustnt wear uniforms. Students mustnt eat in class Students mustnt skip classes

Students mustnt cheat on exams. Students mustnt use cell phones Students mustnt listen to loud music. Students must do their homework. j. Students must study for the exams. f. g. h. i.

UNIT FOUR
EJERCICIO 7 I. 1. We live in an old department 2. You love that green shirt 3. We love classical music 4. She had a great holiday 5. They eat Chinese food on Fridays II. 1. nice card 2. blue desk 3. Mexican food 4. careful driver 5. beautiful kitten EJERCICIO 8 I. 1. slowly 2. well 3. suddenly 4. quickly 5. carefully

6. There are some pink flowers in the garden 7. She cooks delicious apple pies. 8. This silk blouse is on the bed 9. The gray sweater is in the closet 10. The wooden table has some figures

6. dangerous street 7. fast car 8. rainy day 9. wide street 10. slow driver

6. quietly 7. nervously 8. perfectly 9. beautifully 10. seriously

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II. Posibles respuestas 1. The baby sleeps easily after taking his bottle 2. She speaks French fast 3. We play soccer well 4. He writes his speech logically 5. You must put these things softly in the bag III. 1. heavily 2. badly 3. easily 4. patiently 5. unexpectedly

6. She types some reports slowly. 7. They drove carefully 8. He answered wrong some questions 9. She speaks Italian perfectly 10. They came in the classroom suddenly

6. regularly 7. seriously 8. quietly 9. safely 10. reasonably

EJERCICIO 9 I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

friendlier older more polite more responsible prettier

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

more impatient more patient uglier younger more aggressive

II. 1. bigger than 2. more exciting than 3. more expensive than 4. nicer than 5. more difficult than

6. more attractive than 7. younger than 8. more reliable 9.quieter 10. earlier

III. 1. San Francisco University is more expensive than Central University. 2. Guayaquil is larger than Riobamba. 3. Lexus cars are more elegant than Chevrolet cars. 4. Machngara river is more polluted than Amazon river. 5. The United States is more developed than Ecuador. 6. Michael Jackson is thinner than Pavarotti. 7. Ibarra is colder than Riobamba 8. Luis is taller tan Miguel 9. My older sister is older tan my uncle 10. Lesson 8 is easier than lesson 9

EJERCICIO 10 I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

the friendliest the oldest the most polite the most responsible the prettiest

6. the most impatient 7. the most patient 8. the ugliest 9. the youngest 10. the most aggressive

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II. 1. the oldest 2. the most patient 3. the most aggressive 4. the friendliest 5. the most reliable III. 1. the cheapest 2. larger 3. happier 4. the most popular sport 5. more comfortable EJERCICIO 11 I. 1. should visit 2. should brush 3. should wear 4. should go 5. should take II. Posibles consejos de acuerdo a cada situacin. 1. You should take some pills 2. You shouldnt watch TV 3. You should write a reminder 4. You should type a new resume 5. You should tell him

6. the hottest 7. the nicest 8. the cheapest 9. the most boring 10. the most serious

6. The oldest 7. the quickest 8. the worst 9. the best 10. cheaper

6. should watch 7. should take 8. should go 9. should look 10.should do

6. You should put some ointment 7. You should go the doctor 8. You shouldnt buy ice-cream cones 9. You should set the alarm ahead of time 10. You should ask for a reward

UNIT FIVE
EJERCICIO 12 I. 1. Send the money fast 2. Turn on the lamp 3. Wait a moment 4. Leave your books on the table 5. Put your feet on the chair II. Posibles respuestas 1. Open 2. Do 3. Be 4. Listen 5. Wash III. 1. Dont eat 2. Dont go 3. Dont take 4. Dont drive 5. Dont use

6.Come back early 7. Turn to the left 8. Close the window 9. Answer the questions 10. Cut the vegetables

6. Kick 7. Turn 8.Open or close 9. Study 10. Repeat

6. Dont drink 7. Dont work 8. Dont turn 9. Dont walk 10. Dont drink

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EJERCICIO 13 I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

could can can could can

6. could 7. can 8. could 9. can 10. could 6. cant 7. cant 8. couldnt 9. couldnt 10.cant

II. 1. cant 2. couldnt 3. couldnt 4. couldnt 5. cant EJERCICIO 14 I. 1. may play 2. may answer 3. may come 4. may wear 5. may see II. 1. The baby may be hungry-sick 2. The woman may wear this new watch 3. The man may have an important meeting 4. The student may remember a joke! 5. The person may have an emergency EJERCICIO 15 I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Would you like to go to the movies? Would you like to play soccer tomorrow? Would you like to see the photos? Would you like to take my umbrella? Would you like to go to the concert?

6. may get 7. may cut 8. may go 9. may buy 10. may get in

6. The patient may have the flu 7. The person may be happy 8. This doctor may talk slowly 9. That student may be in a hurry 10. These ladies may send the applications.

6. Would you like to drink some juice? 7. Would you like to taste this sauce? 8. Would you like to have a cup of coffee? 9. Would you like to have some? 10. Would you like to take break?

II. 1. Would you like some juice? 2. Would you like a chocolate? 3. Would you like to go to the movies? 4. Would you like to watch Paranormal Activity? 5. Would you like to have a cup of coffee? EJERCICIO 16 I. 1. interested 2. exciting 3. disgusting 4. amazed 5. embarrasing

6. Would you like a bar of chocolate? 7. Would you like to have a sandwich? 8. Would you like to taste this cake? 9. Would you like to come earlier? 10. Would you like to have an ice cream?

6. horrified 7. boring 8. tiring 9. amusing 10. fascinated

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II. 1. boring 2. bored 3. exciting 4. excited 5. surprising

6. surprised 7. frightened 8. frightening 9. exhausting 10.exhausted

UNIT SIX
EJERCICIO 17 I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

were playing was raining was studying was borrowing was practicing

6. was driving 7. were fighting 8. was teaching 9. was trying 10. was planning

II. 1. lived 2. worked, went / had 3. was making / came 4. worked 5. didnt have

6. were you doing / called 7. started / was walking 8. was watching / was Reading 9. bought 10 .was playing

III. Posibles respuestas. 1. My husband was reading his novel while I was baking a cake. 2. My sister was watching TV while I was doing my homework. 3. I was taking a shower while my brother was playing some music. 4. My pet was barking while I was talking on the phone. IV 1. Was raining /went 2. Were working 3. Opened 4. Rang/ was cooking 5. Heard / looked 6. A: were you doing/ rang B: was watching V. 1. Were waiting 2. Was knocking 3. Was eating 4. Were doing 5. Were having VI. 1. Was washing 2. Was reading 3. Was listening 4. Was eating 5. Was visiting

7. B: was doing 8. A: did they arrive B: came / was having 9. A: didnt go 10. A: were your driving / stopped B: was driving

6. Was talking 7. Were flying 8. Were laughing 9. Was trying 10. Was cleaning

6. Was talking 7. Was cooking 8. Was writing 9. Was working out 10. Was watching

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VII. 1. was reading / started 2. Arrived / were watching 3. Was cooking / received 4. Were playing/ began 5. Were you doing

6. were you studying / rang 7. Couldnt / was crying 8. Arrived / was leaving 9. Were listening / was explaining 10. Was listening / received

UNIT SEVEN
EJERCICIO 18 I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. III. a. b. c. d. e. II. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

some a an some some

some any any some any

much many much much much

f. g. h. i. j.

many many much many much

EJERCICIO 19 I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. II. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

a little a few a few a little a few III. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. A few 7. a little 8. A few 9. a few 10. a little IV. 1. a few letters 2. a little milk 3. a little Italian 4. a little fresh air 5. a little food

any some any any some

many much much many many

V. 1. How many 2. How much 3. How many

4. How many 5. How many 6. How much

EJERCICIO 20 I.

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1. enough people 2. enough sugar 3. enough wind II. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

4. enough chairs 5. enough time 6. enough money

too slow old enough too heavy sunny enough tall enough

6. too young 7. old enough 8. too big 9. big enough 10. too strong IV. 1. tall enough 2. old enough 3. long enough 4. strong enough 5. good enough 6. big enough

III. 1. too crowded 2. too big 3. too fast 4. too low 5. too heavy 6. too loud

UNIT EIGHT

EJERCICIO 21

I. a. He is going to teach Math. b. He is going to drive a new car. c. She is going to play golf. d. She is going to go camping. e. He is going to read a novel. II. 1. Negative: Yes/no question: Wh- question: 2. Negative: Yes/no question: Wh- question: 3. Negative: Yes/no question: Wh- question: 4. Negative: Yes/no question: Wh- question: 5. Negative:

They arent going to buy food tomorrow. Are they going to buy food tomorrow? When are they going to buy food? Thomas isnt going to live in New Zealand. Is Thomas going to live in New Zealand? Where is Thomas going to live? It isnt going to start at 10:00 a.m. Is it going to start at 10:00 a.m? What time is it going to start at 10:00 a.m? He isnt going to buy two new computers. Is he going to buy two new computers? How many computers is he going to buy? Andy and Sophia arent going to take French lessons.

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Yes/no question: Wh- question:

Are Andy and Sophia going to take French lessons? What lessons are Andy and Sophia going to take?

III. 1. is going to go 2. is going to live 3. are going to study 4. is going to meet 5. is going to learn IV. a. What is she going to do next week? b. Steven isnt going to buy a new cell phone. c. Where are they going to go on vacations? d. We are going to rent a car to drive across the country. e. What time is it going to start? V. 1. going to make 2. going to go 3. going to take

4. going to wash 5. going to drink 6. going to sleep

VI. a. Is Andrea going to fix the computer? Yes, shes going to fix the computer. b. Are your brothers going to play soccer? No, they arent going to play soccer. c. Are Laura and Thomas going to do their homework? Yes, theyre going to do their homework. d. Is your father going to lend you money? No, he isnt going to lend me money e. Are you going to drive tomorrow? No , Im not going to drive tomorrow VII. Posibles respuestas. 1. Im going to buy some food. 2. Im going to sleep at 10 p.m. 3. Im going to go to the swimming pool. 4. Yes, I am. 5. No, I am not

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