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UNIVERSITATEA SPIRU HARET

RODICA ŞTEFAN RUXANDRA VASILESCU


SANDA MARCOCI ELENA BELDEA

COME ALONG
Curs practic de limba engleză
– nivel mediu –

EDITURA FUNDAŢIEI ROMÂNIA DE MÂINE


Bucureşti, 2004
Universitatea SPIRU HARET
Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naţionale a României
Come along: curs practic de limba engleză / Ştefan Rodica,
Vasilescu Ruxandra, Marcoci Sanda, Beldea Elena. –
Bucureşti: Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine, 2004
228 p.; 23,5 cm.
ISBN 973-582-903-7

I. Ştefan, Rodica
II. Vasilescu, Ruxandra
III. Marcoci, Sanda
IV. Beldea, Elena

811.111

Cursul se adresează studenţilor de la facultăţile cu profil economic

© Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine, 2004

ISBN 973-582-903-7

Redactor: Janeta LUPU


Tehnoredactor: Jeanina DRĂGAN

Bun de tipar: 20.01.2004; Coli tipar: 14,25


Format: 16/70 x 100

Editura şi Tipografia Fundaţiei România de Mâine


Splaiul Independenţei nr. 313, Bucureşti, Sector 6,
O.P. 83, Tel./Fax: 410.43.80 www.spiruharet.ro
e-mail: contact@edituraromaniademaine.ro

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CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE

În contextul actual în care procesele economice şi culturale tind spre


globalizare, cunoaşterea unei limbi străine de circulaţie internaţională, a limbii
engleze în special, reprezintă nu doar un avantaj, ci o necesitate pentru o
bună integrare profesională şi socială.
Ne-am propus în acest scop să oferim studenţilor noştri (cursuri de zi,
cu frecvenţă redusă de la facultăţile economice, dar şi de la celelalte
specialităţi nefilologice) un Curs practic de limba engleză, pe care l-am
gândit şi realizat ca pe un instrument de lucru util ţinând cont de cerinţele şi
aşteptările lor.
Dată fiind această largă diversitate tematică, textele şi exerciţiile au
fost special adaptate preocupărilor studenţilor, combinând elemente ale limbii
engleze generale cu acelea specifice limbajelor specializate. Ele se adresează
studenţilor care au studiat limba engleză în liceu dobândind un bagaj de
cunoştinţe gramaticale şi lexicale de nivel mediu.
Dorim să exprimăm mulţumiri asist. univ. Despina Chirimbu pentru
citirea atentă a manuscrisului, pe marginea căruia a făcut observaţii
pertinente şi sugestii preţioase, precum şi prep. Mihaela Pricope pentru
redactarea glosarului.

Autoarele

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CONTENTS

UNIT 1
ENGLISH, MY LOVE (Rodica Ştefan) ………………………………. 7
Grammar: (a) General revision
(b) Tag questions, Yes/No questions, Wh-questions

UNIT 2
SAYING HELLO! (Ruxandra Vasilescu) …………………………….. 22
Grammar: (a) Possessives; Personal and reflexive pronouns
(b) The Article; Some/Any

UNIT 3
COMPANIES (Sanda Marcoci) ………………………………………. 39
Grammar: (a) Present tenses
(b) Conjunction structures

UNIT 4
GOING TO COLLEGE (Rodica Ştefan) ……………………………… 55
Grammar: (a) Past simple and present perfect
(b) Comparison of adjectives; Irregular adjectives and adverbs

UNIT 5
GETTING IN TOUCH (Ruxandra Vasilescu) ………………………... 73
Grammar: (a) Modal verbs

STOP AND CHECK ………………………………………………… 88

UNIT 6
LOOKING AHEAD (Rodica Ştefan) …………………………………. 98
Grammar: (a) Future; Prefixes and suffixes
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UNIT 7
INTERESTS AND HOBBIES (Sanda Marcoci) ……………………… 116
Grammar: (a) Past perfect; Gerunds
(b) Subjunctive

UNIT 8
GOING PLACES (Ruxandra Vasilescu) ……………………………… 139
Grammar: (a) Sequence of tenses
(b) Direct and indirect speech

UNIT 9
LET’S GO SHOPPING! (Elena Beldea) ……………………………… 156
Grammar: (a) Expressing quantity
(b) Passive voice

UNIT 10
MEDIA/COMMUNICATIONS (Sanda Marcoci) ……………………. 171
Grammar: (a) Conditional
(b) Phrasal verbs; Adjectival phrase

STOP AND CHECK ………………………………………………… 192

LISTA ABREVIERILOR …………………………………………… 213

GLOSSARY ………………………………………………………….. 214

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UNIT 1

ENGLISH, MY LOVE Comment [L1]:

SECTION A

LEAD-IN

¾ Here are some words from English which are used in Romanian. Put them in
columns under these headings: business, politics, technology, sports,
entertainment and various. There are five words in each column.

dealer mouse pullover fan leader rating


poster VIP second-hand lobby hit software
jogging western broker CD player weekend
offside summit manager single skateboard meeting
penalty rugby job fast-food laser show chip

READING

1. Complete the sentences with a word from the box below:

1. Although she was speaking English, her…………….…… was so strong we


could hardly understand what she was saying.
2. I went to a lawyer but when he started using all the legal ………..……… I got
completely lost.
3. Young people use a lot of…….……….. . For instance, they could say copper
instead of policeman.
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4. She never studied English but she managed to ……………it…………… by
living in America for a couple of years.
5. Even though the language is basically the same, there are several
…………..…… . In the south some of the words and structures are different
from those in the north.
6. English is Andrew’s first language. In other words, it’s his ……….………
Andrew is an English native speaker.
7. TURBO PASCAL and JAWA are two computer …….……………………
8. A person who speaks two languages fluently is…………………………….

pick up jargon mother tongue slang


dialects bilingual languages accent

2. Read each text quickly and find out who:

1. uses English for work. 4. studies in English.


2. uses English as an official language. 5. speaks English as a mother tongue.
3. enjoys studying English. 6. obviously doesn’t like English.

I’m Angela Maria Gutierrez from Cartagena in Colombia. I love listening to


English pop music which is a great way of learning new words and everyday
expressions! It is six years since I started to learn English and still, my biggest
problem is pronunciation. My dad is a businessman and he uses English all the
time. He speaks it fluently. He managed to pick it up while he was working in the
States. He wants me to speak it well enough so that I can join his company. I’d
rather work in public relations.

I’m Faryal Ahmed and I’m from Pakistan. I’ve been studying business
administration in Nottingham for the past two years. I felt really homesick to begin
with because I’d never been away from home. I’ve got fairly used to it but I still
miss my parents. They brought me up to speak English and I was sent to an
English-speaking school. When I got there though, I still had a few problems with
people’s accents and the slang that lots of other students used. Some of the
lecturers were hard to understand at first and then there were lots of business jargon
to pick up too.

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*
I’m Gerhard Richter from Frankfurt am Main in Germany. I’m a consultant in a
large software company. I need English because lots of materials are written in it
and I travel a lot. Next month I’m going to visit Egypt. I hope I’ll be able to make
myself understood. I’ve found it is often easier to speak English to other foreigners
than to the native speakers! One American colleague doesn’t speak slowly enough
for me to understand him. It is useful to know English but one thing I don’t like is
the way English expressions have been incorporated into other languages.

*
I’m Abedayo Omere from Nigeria and I’m a railway engineer. English is the
official language because there are so many different languages and dialects
spoken in Nigeria. I have to travel all round the country and often English is the
only way to communicate. It is a pity because it used to be the colonial language.
However, if we had chosen a tribal language, it would have caused political
problems. So we will just have to put up with it!

Good day! My name’s Nick Andreotti. I’m sixteen years old and I come from
Sydney in Australia. I’m second generation Italian. My parents came over about 20
years ago. I’m bilingual because we still speak Italian at home. Dad speaks much
better English than Mum. Sometimes her mistakes are really embarrassing and her
accent is so strong that some people can’t understand her. I’m still studying but I
always spend my spare time out in the tennis court. I’ve won a few local
tournaments and I’d really like to turn professional.

Hi! My name is Yvonne Binoche and I come from Montréal, which is the French-
speaking part of Canada. I’m a sales manager in a big department store. I deal with
foreign customers, so most of the time I have to use English. In Canada everything
is supposed to be bilingual but I don’t like the way English seems to be taking
over. We had a real fight here, you know, to keep hold of our French past and
identity.
(adapted from 3rd Dimension, Longman)

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3. What are the countries where English is spoken as:
♦ native language?
♦ official language?
♦ international language?
Which language in the world is spoken by most people?
How many people are English native speakers?
Which language might become the language of the future?

4. Decide whether the following statements are true ( ) or false ().

1. Nick’s parents were born in Australia.


2. Nick’s mother doesn’t speak English as well as his father.
3. Faryal still feels homesick.
4. Faryal’s problems with English weren’t too serious.
5. Gerhard likes everything about English.
6. Yvonne is ashamed of her French origin.
7. Angela hasn’t decided about her future career.
8. Abedayo accepts that English was probably the best choice for his country.

LANGUAGE WORK

V Work in pairs and talk about your answers to the following questions:

• Have you ever spoken English with a native speaker?


• Where can you read English journals/ magazines/ books outside the classroom
in your town?
• How often do you listen to English on the radio or watch films on TV?
• Have you ever written in English (to a pen-friend)?
• Have you ever been to an English-speaking country?

In pairs ask each other questions to find out the missing information in the
following:

1. My partner has been learning English for ………….years.


2. In English he/ she is the best at ……………

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3. (grammar/ vocabulary/ speaking/ writing/ reading/ listening/
pronunciation)
1 In English he/ she is not the best at ………….. because …………….. .
2 He/ She finds ………………. most difficult to learn.
3 He/ She thinks …………………… is most important for him/ her in learning
English.

GRAMMAR FOCUS
1. Match sentences A-O taken from the text above with the constructions 1-15.

A I’ve been studying business administration in Nottingham for the past two
years.
B He managed to pick it up while he was working in the States.
C …if we had chosen a tribal language, it would have caused political
problems.
D I’m still studying but I…
E My parents came over about 20 years ago.
F …he uses English all the time.
G I love listening to English pop music…
H He managed to pick it up…
I I’ve won a few local tournaments.
J My biggest problem is pronunciation.
K I hope I’ll be able to make myself understood.
L Dad speaks English much better than Mum.
M I’d never been away from home before.
N … I was sent to an English-speaking school.
O Next month I’m going to visit Egypt.

1 present perfect 9 superlative


2 past perfect 10 past continuous
3 past 11 verb + infinitive
4 verb + gerund 12 comparative
5 future 13 going to future
6 present 14 present perfect continuous
7 third conditional 15 present continuous
8 passive

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When do we use the auxiliary verbs be, have, will? Complete the tense charts. Use
the verb wait for the active and mend for the passive.

ACTIVE Simple Continuous


Present
Past He was waiting
Future We will wait
Present perfect
Past perfect
Future perfect They will have been waiting

PASSIVE Simple Continuous


Present It is mended
Past It was being mended
Future
Present perfect
Past perfect
Future perfect

Remember!

Use be with verb + ing to You’re listening to my explanation.


make continuous verb forms They were admiring the landscape.
I’ve been studying history for two years.
Use be with the past participle Paper is made of wood.
(-ed, V3) to make the passive The first books were printed in Germany.
voice The house had been built before 1900.
The fax will be sent tomorrow morning.
Use have with the past He has worked in several countries.
participle to make perfect verb They were upset because they had missed the plane.
forms By the end of the year, he’ll have moved house.
Use will with short infinitive We will know the results tomorrow.
to make future forms At this time next Sunday she will be flying to London.

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SECTION B

LEAD-IN

Look at these statements about English and decide if you agree with them. Work in
pairs and compare your answers.

• You can learn a language outside the classroom.


• You should always use the dictionary if you don’t understand a word.
• Don’t worry about making mistakes; it’s more important to make yourself
understood.
• Learning about grammar is very useful.
• Listening, especially to native speakers, is the most difficult skill to develop.

READING

Q: Alice, how many languages do you speak and which ones are they?
A: Well, I can speak two languages besides English: French and Spanish.
Q: Quite interesting! How did you learn them?
A: You see, I had to learn French when I was in school. And Spanish I chose to
learn later, I thought it would be, you know, useful to learn it.
Q: What was the most difficult aspect of learning it?
A: Well, I was very embarrassed when we had to speak French in front of the rest
of the class, you know - the terrible pronunciations and things. Also, I think
listening comprehension was very difficult because it was always so fast…
Q: Oh, yes. A common complaint. Now, what is the most useful thing to do?
A: I think the grammatical system is the most useful.
Q: Have you had the opportunity to use it since then?
A: Actually, I work in a software company. As a sales manager, I have to deal
with our Canadian suppliers.
Q: That’s wonderful! Do you find it difficult to understand them?
A: Certainly! Their accent is quite strong but in the end I manage it.
(adapted from Reward, Heinemann)

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VOCABULARY

1. Look at the dictionary entry of the word company. Match the sentences a-h
with a definition.

company ('kΛmp@ni) n,[C] pl.-nies 1. A number of people gathered together;


assembly. 2. The fact of being with smb.; companionship. 3. A guest or guests.
4. A business enterprise. 5. The members of an enterprise not specifically
mentioned in the enterprise’s title. Abbrev: Co., co. 6. A group of actors. 7. A
small unit of troops. 8. The officers and crew on a ship. ‹ keep company to
accompany (smb.), especially for the sake of companionship ‹ part company to
go different ways after being together; to cease associating.

a The company marched all day long.


b Robert enjoys his uncle’s company.
c Unfortunately, he has got into bad company lately.
d The company is going to produce children’s garments.
e A new play is being staged by the company.
f What a surprise! We were not expecting company.
g The company had been sailing for weeks before they reached their
destination.
h Warner & Co. are well known among the film distributors.

2. Choose the most suitable word or phrase given:

1 I succeeded in my job through hard …………… .


a) work b) labour c) effort
2 Mark works for a/an ……………. engineering company.
a) main b) leading c) outgoing
3 I’m thinking to change my job because there are few ………… of promotion.
a) prospects b) opportunities c) chances
4 It’s not a very interesting work, but at least it’s a ……………….. job.
a) continuous b) firm c) steady
5 In our company I am afraid there is very little …………… to work hard.
a) advantage b) gain c) motivation

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LANGUAGE WORK

1. Ask questions to the words underlined. Remember that the particle goes to the
end of the sentence.
Who do you work
Example: I work for a computer company.
for?
1 I am thinking about my next holiday.
2 He is waiting for his sister.
3 We worked with an important company.
4 They were talking to our major customer.
5 I am interested in their new project.
6 She is proud of her children.

2. Make questions with you from the sentences:

Example:
Where do you come
I come from Wales. (Where?) from?

a I speak two languages (How many?)


b I live in a house near the centre of the town. (Where?)
c I’m wearing jeans and a T-shirt. (What?)
d I was born in Edinburgh in 1981. (Where? When?)
e I’m studying English because I’d like to travel. (Why?)
f I’ve been to France and Canada. (Which countries?)
g I have one brother. (How many?)
h I’ve been learning English for seven years. (How long?)
i I’ll be 20 years old in November. (How old?)
j I’ve got £10 in my pocket. (How much?)
k I went to the seaside last summer. (Where?)
l I’m going to visit my grandparents next holiday. (Whom?)

3. Make questions about the subject, and the object in each, as shown in the
example.

Example: Ann likes her new colleagues.


Who likes her new colleagues? (Ann)
Who does Ann like? (her new colleagues)

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1 The teacher will bring our papers next week.
2 The inspector interviews the candidate.
3 Stress causes headache and pain.
4 The manager invited his partner to visit the company.
5 The president offers Michael a medal. (pay attention!)

4. Write questions for the answers:

Example:

How many films did you see on holiday?


Four.

a What …………………….. your father do?


He works in a museum.
b What ……………. the English teacher ………………….. ?
She’s checking this exercise.
c How long ……………………. it ……………... you to go to college?
It takes me about twenty minutes. I go by bus.
d What ………………. you last weekend?
I went backpacking in the mountains.
e What sort of music ………..… you …………… listening to?
I prefer opera and classical music.
f ………….. you ever ……………. to Athens?
Yes, I have. I went there last year. I really enjoyed it.
g What schools ……………….. you attend?
The high school in my town.
h What ……………. you ….………… next holiday?
I don’t know. I haven’t got any plans yet.
i ……….. you …………… a CD player at home?
No, I haven’t. Just a tape recorder.
j Who ……………… you about this college?
My best friend.

In pairs, answer the questions about you.

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5. Contradict sentences a-j by giving the right information.

It doesn’t boil at 75º C!


Example: Water boils at 75º C. It boils at 100º C.

a My father has got ten brothers and sisters.


b I live in the desert.
c We’re learning Portuguese.
d I had an elephant when I was young.
e It’s snowing today.
f We went to New Zealand last year.
g The Pope comes from Italy.
h We’ll get to work by helicopter next year.
i Tourists visit Antarctica.
j Fish can fly.

6. Match a question in column A with an answer from column B.

A B
1 What does your sister look like? a. To get promoted.
2 What’s your aunt like? b. She’s fine, thanks.
3 How’s your mother? c. It means ‘good-looking’.
4 Whereabouts do you live? d. It’s mine.
5 How do you spell your name? e. It’s a quarter past ten.
6 What does ‘handsome’ mean? f. Poetry.
7 What did you do that for? g. Go down and take the first right.
8 Whose file is this? h. I’ll have some coffee.
9 What sort of literature do you like? i. How do you do?
10 What kind of car have you got? j. It’s the third of October.
11 What time is it? k. A sports one.
12 What is the date? l. She’s generous and caring.
13 How do you do? m. M-O-R-R-I-S-O-N
14 How do I get to the station? n. Near Central Park.
15 There’s some coffee and tea. Which o. She’s tall, slim, with dark hair.
do you prefer?

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GRAMMAR FOCUS

¾ TAG QUESTIONS
1. Underline the tag questions in the text:

Peter: You speak French, don’t you?


Dan: Yes, I do. Actually, I speak French and Russian.
Peter: Russian? You didn’t learn Russian at school, did you?
Dan: Yes, when I was twelve. I did Russian for a couple of years.
Peter: Then, say something in Russian, will you?
Dan: No, I’ve almost forgotten it. It’s easy to forget a language if you don’t
practise.
Peter: And what about your French? You haven’t forgotten that as well, have
you?
Dan: No, I practised it a lot when I did some interpreting for the tourists in our
town.
Peter: I’ve got an idea. Let’s go to Paris, shall we?
Dan: To Paris?!
Peter: Yes, to Paris, why not? It only takes three hours by train now, doesn’t it?
Dan: Does it? I didn’t know that. Aren’t you worried about the cost?
Peter: No, it’ll be good fun. And there’ll be plenty of opportunities to speak
French, won’t there?

2. Fill in the blanks with the right positive or negative question tag:

Example:
It’s an interesting film, isn’t it?
You don’t live with your parents, do you?

a) We are having a meeting today, ………………. ?


b) You finished all your tests in time, ……….………?
c) He isn’t quite a nice guy, …………………..…..?
d) The train arrives at 6.30 p.m., ………………………?
e) She has found a new job, ……………………….?
f) Oh, I’m so late, ………………………………?
g) You will call me as soon as you arrive, …………..…….?
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h) Catherine left on a trip to Rome last summer, ……………….?
i) Let’s have one more look at this plan, ………………..?
j) I’m not too intruding, I hope, ………………..?
k) You aren’t too enthusiastic about my idea, …………………….?
l) People sometimes overreact in stressing situations, ……………..?
m) There are lots of students wishing to learn foreign languages, ……………… ?

Remember!

You form questions in the following ways:

Yes/No questions
 With the auxiliary verb – be, have, will
Are you coming with us to the library?
Have you even been to Italy?
Will you come back later?
 With the modal verb – can, may, must
Can you understand this rule?
May I sit down?
Must I do this exercise?
 With the auxiliary do followed by short infinitive when the verb has no
auxiliary
Do you look up every new word you come across?
The answer is generally short, containing just the personal pronoun and the
auxiliary verb.
Have you got some paper? Do you like going out?
Yes, I have./ No, I haven’t. Yes, I do./ No, I don’t.

Wh questions
 With the question words – what, who, which, how, when, where, why, how
many, how much, how long, to ask about the object of the sentence. They are
followed by the auxiliary or the modal verb.
What did you study last year?
I studied Economics. ( Economics = object)

 With the question words who, what to ask about the subject of the sentence.
They are not followed by the auxiliary do.
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What gives you most information, the papers or the radio?
The papers give me most information. (The papers = subject)

The word order is:


Question Auxiliary/ Subject Verb Object, adjective, Short answers
word Modal adverbial, etc.
Is the seat taken? No, it isn’t
Has Robert written the report yet? No, he hasn’t.
Will it be fine tomorrow? No, it won’t.
Can we leave now? Sure you can.
Does his father run a company? Yes, he does.
did you arrive in Berlin? Yesterday.
Why are they behaving like that? I don’t know.
What have you decided to do now? I’ll see.
Who wrote this fax? She did.

Tag questions
They turn a statement into a question, containing just the auxiliary verb and the
personal pronoun, accordingly.
 If the statement is affirmative, you use a negative tag.
Marion lives in Birmingham, doesn’t she? Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t.
 If the statement is negative, you use an affirmative tag.
They don’t accept credit cards, do they?
Yes. (They don’t accept)/ No. (They accept)

To ask for real information, you use a rising intonation on the tag.
To show you expect agreement, you use a falling intonation on the tag.
Let’s have some fun!

Questions and riddles

1 Where does August come before July?


2 Who invented the five-day week?
3 What did the big telephone say to the little telephone?
4 Why was the strawberry so sad?
5 What did one wall say to the other?

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Answers: 1) In the dictionary. 2) Robinson Crusoe – he had all his work done by
Friday! 3) You are too young to be engaged. 4) Because its mother and father
were in a jam. 5) Meet you at the corner.

CHECKLIST

1.Name: i) 3 countries in which English is spoken as a mother tongue.


ii) 3 countries in which English is spoken as a second official language.
iii) 3 countries in which English is spoken as a foreign language.
2. Give two synonyms for the noun COMPANY (~ business entreprise).
3. DO, BE, HAVE, WILL are auxiliaries placed first in an interrogative sentence.
Give examples of such interrogative sentences.
4. What intonation do you use in a TAG QUESTION i) to ask for information ?
ii) to show you expect agreement?
5. What is the WORD ORDER in an English i) affirmative sentence?
ii) interrogative sentence?

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UNIT 2

SAYING HELLO!

SECTION A

LEAD-IN

¾ Meeting someone, when do we say: “It’s nice to meet you”?


• while we shake hands?
• before we shake hands?
• after we have shaken hands?

¾ What would you discuss the first thing after introductions:


• the weather
• business
• Mr. X’s trip?

READING

INTRODUCTIONS

¾ Robert Black comes to the office of Sigma Computers. Mrs. Albu comes down
to the reception area and introduces herself.

Albu: Mr. Black?


Black: Yes, that’s right.
Albu: Let me introduce myself. I’m Sanda Albu. I work for Mr. Pop.
Black: Mrs. Albu. How do you do? I’ve been looking forward to meeting
you. (They shake hands.)
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Albu: It’s nice to meet you, Mr. Black. You’ve come a very long way on
this trip, so I hope things are going well. Welcome to Bucharest!

NOTE: We use different expressions to greet people. Study the table below:

INTRODUCING RESPONDING TO AN INTRODUCING


SOMEONE INTRODUCTION YOURSELF
• I’d like to introduce you • How do you do? (formal) • Let me introduce myself.
to Dr. Johnson (formal) • Pleased to meet you. (formal)
• May I introduce you to (formal) • Allow me to introduce
Mrs. Samson (formal) • Nice to meet you. (formal/ myself. (formal)
• Mr. Brown, this is Ms. informal) • How do you do?
Attkinson (formal) (formal)
• I’d like you to meet
Stephen Cox. (formal/
informal)
• Have you met Dan?
(informal)
• Sue, this is Mike. (informal)

GREETING SOMEONE RESPONDING TO GREETING


• Hello! It’s good to see you. (formal) • Not bad, thanks. What about you? (formal)
• Hi! How are you? (formal) • Fine, thanks and you? (informal)
• Hi, how are things? (informal)

¾ Ms. Rotaru, who is organizing Mr. Tanaka’s stay at central office, is greeting
him and explaining his programme. Read the dialogue and put the verbs in
brackets in the correct form:

Ms. Rotaru: Hello, Mr. Tanaka. Welcome back to Spiro Chemicals. It’s nice to
see you again.
Mr. Tanaka: Hello, Ms Rotaru. I’m delighted to be back.
Ms. Rotaru: (have) you a good trip?
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Mr. Tanaka: Yes, it (be) long, but it (be) fine, thanks.
Ms. Rotaru: How many hours is it from Tokyo?
Mr. Tanaka: I (come not) from Tokyo. I (come) from Singapore. I (leave)
Tokyo six days ago. I (have) appointments in Hong Kong and
Singapore on the way.
Ms. Rotaru: I see. But it’s still a long flight. You must be exhausted. When
(get) you in?
Mr. Tanaka: Last night at half past eight.
Ms. Rotaru: So (have) you a good night’s sleep?
Mr. Tanaka: Yes, I (sleep) very well, thanks.

LANGUAGE WORK

ROLE-PLAY
Work in groups of three. Take turns role-playing parts A, B and C below.

Part A Part B Part C


You are Mr. Blake. You You are Mr. Rosu. You are Mr. Voicu.
had a good time with B Introduce C to A, and Welcome A to
yesterday, and you are act as the host. You Bucharest and ask
looking forward to have made reserva- questions about A’s
meeting C. tions for lunch. trip.

1. Introduce the following people to each other:

a. NAME Dr. Malkovitch Mr. Simu


POSITION Human Resources Manager Training Manager
COMPANY Delta Enterprises Café de Colombia

b. NAME Ms. Shields Mrs. Coman


POSITION Purchasing Officer Sales Manager
COMPANY TEXACO PECO

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2. Complete the dialogue, using the phrases from the box:

I’m sorry to hear that Unfortunately I certainly will


How are you How do you do May I introduce you to
Pleased to meet you I’d like to keep in touch I’m afraid I’m not
... nice to meet you I really have to go Fine, thanks
I’d like you to meet How do you do

Brown: Oh, hi, Bob! ________________________ today?


Goldberg: ________________________________Charles. ______________
our Vice-President, Elisabeth Powers. Elisabeth, ______________
Charles Brown from Sumitomo Company Ltd.
Powers: _________________________________, Mr. Brown.
Brown: ___________________________, Ms. Powers.
Powers: Bob tells me that you would like to see our plant while you are in
New York, wouldn’t you?
Brown: That’s very kind of you. _____________________, my schedule is
booked up all next week.
Powers: _________________________. Well, _________________ I may
be in London next month.
Brown: I see. Please give me a call then.
Powers: _________________.
Brown: It was _________________________.
Powers: _________________________, too.
Brown: ___________________. May I have your business phone number?
Powers: Of course. Here is my business card.
Brown: Thank you. And here is mine. Now, I __________________. Good
bye.
Powers: Good bye.

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GRAMMAR FOCUS

¾ POSSESSIVES
¾ PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

You use a possessive pronoun (mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs) or a
possessive adjective (my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their) to show that something
belongs to someone:
e.g. I like your suit. It fits better than mine. (mine = my suit)
Yours is a nicer colour, though. (yours = your suit)
Where did Jane buy hers? (hers = her suit)
We usually get ours in Marks & Spencer (ours = our suits)
Theirs are very good quality, aren’t they? (theirs = their suits)

You use an object pronoun (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them) as the direct
object of a verb:

e.g. Her teacher wants her to study science at university.


My cousin has invited us to his place on Sunday.

or as the indirect object of a verb:

e.g. The President gave him a medal for bravery.


Did John tell you the answer?

or after a preposition:

e.g. Can Jane look after it for me this afternoon?


He won’t lend his car to them any more.

You use a reflexive pronoun (myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves,
yourselves, themselves) to talk about the same person or thing as the subject:

e.g. I told myself not to be so silly.


Frank has hurt himself.
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and when you want to emphasize that one person, and no other, does something:

e.g. And did you build the whole house by yourself?


Yes, we had to do it by ourselves because we didn’t have enough money to
pay a builder.

in some special phrases:

e.g. Does she live by herself? - No, her sister lives with her.
Enjoy yourself at the dance tonight!
Help yourself to some more cake!
Make sure those children behave themselves and don’t make too much
noise.

Remember!

Personal Object Possessive Possessive Reflexive pronoun


pronoun pronoun pronoun adjective
I me mine my myself
you you yours your yourself
he him his his himself
she her hers her herself
it it - its itself
we us ours our ourselves
you you yours your yourselves
they them theirs their themselves

1. Use the possessive pronoun instead of the possessive adjective:


a. He is one of my friends. b. Is this one of your little schemes? c. She played
one of her old records. d. That’s one of our favourite topics. e. Here, John, meet
one of your well-known commentators. f. He took a fancy to one of my cousins.
g. Some of their computers got out of order. h. I gave him one of my CDs.
i. Was it one of her applications? j. Do you have one of my copies?

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2. Choose the right pronoun:
a. We’re much stronger than (they/them) at football.
b. Just between you and (me/I), it’s (him/he) I’m afraid of, not (she/her).
c. Let (we/us) all go for a walk except (she/her), since (she/her) is tired.
d. I know you’re bigger than (I, me), in fact you’re bigger than (we/us) both,
but we’re not afraid of you.
e. You’re as tall as (I/me), so you can easily ride my bike, but you’re much
fatter than either (I/me) or my brother, so we can’t lend you a sports jacket.
f. Do you think (he/him) is stronger than (I/me)?
g. How can you talk to a woman such as (she/her)?
h. It’s only (we/us), (I/me) and my girl-friend Maisie!
i. Help (I/me) carry (she/her), (she/her) has fainted.

3. Insert the missing possessives:


a. This doesn’t look like .......... book; it must be ..........
b. Tell him not to forget ......... tickets; she mustn’t forget ....... either.
c. “Tell me, isn’t that ... girl-friend Mary over here?” “Oh, no, she was .... last
week, but ... dog doesn’t like me!”.
d. It was very good chocolate, but I’ve eaten up .....; can you give me a little
piece of ...?
e. They have two of ......... houses in this street, and the house on the corner is
also ...
f. I see that he has lost ... pencil; perhaps you can lend him ....
g. ........ is a very bad one, what’s ......... like? (all persons).
h. You can take ........ and give me .........
i. John has come to see me; ........ father and ...... were school friends.
j. We’ve taken ......... share, has she taken .......... ?

" Translate into English:

a. Mie şi mamei mele nu ne plac foarte tare dulciurile. b. Mai e mult de aşteptat
până la cină. c. Spune că e tot atât de înaltă ca el. d. Ei ne-au convins să trecem
de la GSM la DIALOG. e. Dacă aş fi în locul ei, aş face cerere să obţin acest
post. f. I-am explicat cum stau lucrurile cum m-am priceput mai bine. g. Cu ei
eşti nedrept, nu cu mine. h. Odihneşte-te puţin; te aşteaptă o călătorie lungă.
i. Maşina se îndrepta direct spre ei. j. Ia prea multe asupra lui. k. Sper ca tot ce
am vorbit să rămână între noi. l. Au ceva bani asupra lor? m. Cineva ca tine ar
trebui să dicteze moda (to set the fashion). n. Uite-te şi tu în jur, toate locurile
sunt ocupate!

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SECTION B

LEAD-IN

¾ What country would you like to live in? Why?


¾ Where would you like to live: an apartment in the city center, a house in the
suburbs, a house in the country?
¾ Do you like to socialize a lot or prefer your intimacy?

READING

HOUSES & FLATS


Estate Agents
LOCATION Suburbs
PRICE $ 55,000
BEDROOMS 1 large
2 small
RECEPTION ROOMS A living room with space for a table and a dining
room
NURSERY Regular
BATHROOM With bathtub
KITCHEN Large
PANTRY Adequate
GARDEN Small
GARAGE For two cars
SHOPS 5 minutes away
TIME TO GET TO
THE CENTER 30 minutes
DESCRIPTION Semi-detached house in a leafy suburb. Quiet
residential street close to schools and park. Best of
both worlds.

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Estate Agent: Would this house suit you. Mr. Windfield?
Mr. Windfield: Well, I’m not sure. You see, I have a big family: besides
myself and my wife, we have three kids, and it is also my
mother-in-law ... I think my kids would like to have their
grand-mother nearby to take care of them, while their
Mom and Dad are out, working.
Estate Agent: Then, I think it is exactly what you need.
Mr. Windfield: Oh, I don’t know ... Maybe one more bedroom ... But what
about guests? My cousins and my wife’s sister and brother
are usually checking in every Christmas! I’ll definitely
need more bedrooms!
Estate Agent: O.K. Don’t worry! We’ll find something else.

THE AVERAGE BRITISH FAMILY

The average British family lives in a semi-detached house with a garden in the
south of England. They own their house, which is situated in the suburbs of a large
town. The house has three bedrooms. On average they have two children and a pet.
The family drives a two-year-old Ford Cortina.
He works in the office of an engineering company for 40 hours a week and earns
Ł200 per week. He starts at 9:00 in the morning and finishes at 5:30 in the evening.
He goes to work by car, which takes him 20 minutes. He doesn’t particularly like
his job, but there are chances of promotion.
She works in a service industry for three days a week and earns Ł95. She works
locally and goes there by bus. She quite likes her job as it gets her out of the house,
she meets people, and it is close to the children’s school.
The children go to a state school which is a few miles from home. A special bus
comes to pick them up every day. They are at school from 9:00 to 3:30.
The most popular evening entertainment is watching television or video, which the
average person does for two and a half hours a day. After that, the next most
popular activity is visiting friends, going to the cinema or a restaurant, or going to
the pub. The most popular hobby is gardening and the most popular sports are
fishing, football and tennis.
(from Headway Intermediate, OUP)

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Compare the British family with the average family from Romania. Think
of the following: house/jobs/hours of work/school/transport/entertainment.

LANGUAGE WORK

ROLE-PLAY:
Work in pairs. Prepare a dialogue together, then act it out. Student A is letting
his apartment in a central position. He asks for a high rent and yet he has solid
arguments and is optimistic about letting. Student B would like to rent an
apartment in a central position, but the supply is rather generous, so he is difficult
to persuade.

What does knowing a new word mean?


• It is not enough just to know the meaning of a word. You also need to know:
a) what words it is usually associated with;
b) whether it has any particular grammatical characteristics;
c) how it is pronounced.
• Try to learn new words not in isolation but in phrases.
• Write down adjectives together with nouns they are often associated with and
vice versa (e.g. royal family; rich vocabulary).
• Write down verbs with the structure and nouns associated with them (e.g. to
add to our knowledge of the subject; to express an opinion).
• Write down nouns in phrases (e.g. in contact with; a train set; shades of
opinion).
• Write down words with their prepositions (e.g. at a high level; thanks to your
help).
• Note any grammatical characteristics of the words you are studying. For
example, note when a verb is irregular and when a noun is uncountable or is
only used in the plural.
• Make a note of any special pronunciation problem with the words you’re
learning.

GRAMMAR FOCUS

1. Work in pairs or groups. Put in missing articles and make any other changes
necessary to make complete sentences.
A note from Helen to Maggie, January 16.
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Mr. Briggs from restaurant supplies shop phoned. Said he can’t deliver fridge
and cooker until this afternoon. I’ve got to go to the butcher’s. Can you stay in
restaurant, let restaurant supplies man in and wait by phone? Have taken
booking for Saturday. It’s in reservation book.

Remember!

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE


Usage Examples
a – before a consonant or a semivowel a man a hat a watch a university a European
an – before a vowel or mute h an apple an egg an uncle an island an hour
The indefinite article is used:
with singular nouns when mentioned I live in a nice flat.
for the first time She has a daughter.
with singular nouns which represent a A fridge is a very useful thing in our homes
class of things A child needs love
after the verb to be:
- with man, woman, child, etc. Don’t shout at him! He’s only a child.
- to express nationality, profession I am a Romanian. He is an architect.
(but He is elected director – temporary position)
in expressions of price, speed, ratio 15p a kilo 65 km an hour six times a day
(a/an = per) £11,000 a month
with certain numbers a dozen a hundred a thousand
1½ kilo = one and a half kilos or a kilo and a half
(but half a kilo)
in some expressions and It’s a pity. It’s a shame.
exclamations What a nice man! Such a long way!

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THE DEFINITE ARTICLE
Usage Examples
The definite article is used:
before objects that are unique or well-known the earth the stars the sea the wind
before a noun defined by a phrase or clause the shop round the corner
the place where I met him
before a singular noun which represents a The washing machine has made life
class of objects easier for housewives.
with adjectives to represent a class of people The old have to be respected.
collectively The English have many hobbies.
before superlatives, ordinal numbers the best results the first place
with proper names:
- seas, rivers, group of islands the Pacific the Thames the Azores
- chains of mountains, deserts the Carpathians the Sahara
- certain countries and cities the Netherlands the Hague
- newspapers, ships, hotels the Times the Titanic the Ritz
- organisations the European Union the BBC
(but Kodak IBM – names of companies)
- plural surnames (= the whole family) The Johnsons will go on holiday.
- names consisting of noun + of + noun the Tower of London the Gulf of Mexico
or adjective + noun the British Museum the Far East

after prepositions He laid his notebook on the table.


ZERO ARTICLE
Usage Examples
There is no article (& article):
before plural nouns I bought apples and grapes.
before uncountable and abstract Money does not bring happiness.
nouns (but: The happiness of the young married was great.)
before names of meals He has bacon and eggs for breakfast.
(but: The breakfast I had in that hotel was
excellent.)
before names of subjects History studies past events.
(but: The history of that country is fascinating.)
before home, work, school/ He arrived home. She is at work now. He went to
college/ university, church, university (to study). She goes to church on Sundays
(to pray). He was taken to hospital (as patient). He is
hospital, sea, town
at sea (as sailor). I went to town to buy clothes.
(but: This is the new home for orphans. I’ll wait for
you outside the university. The church is a very old
building. The hospital was renovated. He goes to the
sea every summer.)

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with some proper names:
names and surnames Uncle David Mr Norfolk
continents, countries, regions Asia North America Canada Central Europe
islands, mountains, lakes Madagascar Everest Lake Ontario
cities, towns, streets, parks London Venice Regent Street Hyde Park
before noun + numbers chapter 5 page 123 room 476 bus 19 gate 5

1. Which is the correct, (a) or (b)?


a. Julie goes to (a) church (b) the church every Sunday.
b. Go straight ahead to (a) church (b) the church, then turn left.
c. I’m a bit upset. Lee’s in (a) hospital, (b) the hospital. He’s quite ill.
d. My sister works at (a) hospital, (b) the hospital. She’s a cleaner.
e. In Britain, children go to (a) school (b) the school from nine o’clock until
four o’clock every day.
f. My wife is away on business in (a) Far East (b) the Far East.
g. The highest mountain in (a) the Himalayas (b) Himalayas is (a) Mount
Everest (b) the Mount Everest.
h. She’s travelling in (a) the Europe (b) Europe and (a) Middle East (b) the
Middle East.
i. (a) Spaghetti (b) The spaghetti you ate yesterday was for today’s dinner.
j. I like (a) spaghetti (b) the spaghetti.

2. Fill in the blanks with a or an where necessary.


a) My neighbour is ….. photographer.
b) They’ll pay him ….. thousand ….. week. It’s ….. enormous salary, but he is
….. managing director after all.
c) I have ….. hour and ….. half for lunch.
d) ….. friend of mine is expecting a baby. If it’s ….. girl she’s going to be called
Etheldreda. What ….. name to give …. girl!
e) The lamp is broken. Do you have ….. screwdriver?

3. In each pair of sentences, fill in one blank with the, and the other blank with &
(no article).
1 A I am not motivated by _____ money.
B When are you going to pay back _____ money I lent you?
2 A The scientist could not work out _____ age of fossils.
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B We never refuse to give someone a job on the basis of _____ age.
3 A _____ mistakes you have made cost us a great deal of money.
B Don't worry. Everybody makes _____ mistakes.
4 A This book will give you _____ information you need.
B CD-ROMs can store large quantities of _____ information.
5 A _____ visitors must be accompanied at all times.
B _____ visitors are on a fact-finding mission from Brazil.
6 A _____ Japanese imports are currently at very high levels.
B It is very difficult to sell to _____ Japanese.

THE PLURAL OF NOUNS


Regular nouns Irregular nouns
- you make the plural by adding - you change nouns ending in a consonant + -y to
-s to the singular noun: day - consonant + -ies: party - parties, baby - babies, story –
days, price - prices stories)
- you add -es to a noun ending (but: you add -s to a noun ending in vowel + -y: boy -
in -s, -ss, -sh, -z, -x, -ch, -tch: bus – boys, donkey - donkeys, storey – storeys)
buses (or: busses), buzz - buzzes, - the nouns: calf, half, knife, life, loaf, shelf, thief,
fox - foxes, wish - wishes, church wife, wolf, scarf, hoof change -f or -fe into -ves in the
- churches, match - matches plural: life - lives, knife - knives, leaf - leaves
you add -es to nouns ending in - (but: roof - roofs, cliff – cliffs, handkerchief –
o: tomato - tomatoes, potato - handkerchiefs)
potatoes (but: radio - radios, photo - photos, piano – pianos)

4. Rewrite the sentences, making the words in brackets plural:

Example:
Television and newspapers are the mass (medium) of advertising.
Television and newspapers are the mass media of advertising.

1. He wished to place certain (memorandum) before the committee.


2. The (mouse) were caught by the neighbour's cat.
3. Piano (solo) will be played by Ian Smith.
4. He arranged that his books should contain detailed (appendix).
5. Due to heavy snowfall, (bus) are late.
6. University faculties expect to receive completed (thesis) by the beginning of June.
7. The (thief) broke into the shop but were caught by the (passer-by).
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8. The ships were unloading their (cargo) on to the (wharf).

9. He agreed that these were strange (phenomenon).


10. Many people think that (parent-in-law) should not live alongside the young couple.

5. Which of the nouns below are followed by a singular verb and which are
followed by a plural verb?
police, news, people, politics, clothes, pyjamas, shoes, economics, trousers,
glasses, scissors, mathematics, goods, savings, premises.

6. There are three countable nouns in this list. Which are they? (The rest are all
uncountable):
book knowledge
bread love
cream progress
gold weather
jam work
oil accommodation
snow cupboard
wind English
wood equipment
advice furniture
football match homework
fun luggage
help music
travel rubbish
health traffic
information

7. Fill in the blanks with some or any:


Note that some is typically used in affirmative sentences, while any is typically
used in interrogative sentences, conditional clauses and sentences with a negated
verb or containing words of the type: never, neither, nor, hardly, seldom; adjectives
like reluctant, hard, difficult or other adjectives with too; verbs like to prevent, to
deny, to fail.
Some can replace any in interrogative and negative sentences or conditional
clauses when the basic meaning is assertive or when one makes an offer or an
invitation.

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Any can be used in affirmative sentences, but with a change of meaning:

a. If he gives ........ trouble, we will call his parents.


b. I have hardly ............ doubt that he did it.
c. If you would lend me .......... money I should buy myself a dictionary.
d. I had ........... pills recommended to me the other day.
e. If you find us ....... chairs, we’ll sit on the terrace.
f. They failed to turn out ....... nice dress.
g. ......... of the sketches are very good.
h. He has scarcely .... friends in this town.
i. Are you sure you don’t want me to make ......... coffee?
j. She denied that she had sold ............ CDs to him.
k. Would you like ............ more salmon?
l. If you have ......... doubts, ask for further explanations.
m. May we have ........... entertainment, too?

8. Put in a/an, some, any or a lot of only where necessary.


a. Peter and Alison haven’t got ______ children.
b. ______ children would be ____ problem for them at the moment as they
have ________ work to do and they don’t have _____ money.
c. Unfortunately they don’t have _______ interesting hobbies either. I think
one of them should have _____ hobby.
d. Their lives consist entirely of ______ work. _____ people live like that.
e. They aren’t even interested in ______ travel. Sad, isn’t it?

9. Supply some, (a) little, (a) few, much, many:


Note that much and many are typically used in interrogative and negative
sentences, while in affirmative sentences they may form part of the subject come
after too or very:

a. As she was still hungry, she asked for ....... more ham and eggs.
b. Last year I spent the New Year’s Eve at the seaside; there were ..........
people on the beach.
c. Are there .......... lions at the Zoo?
d. Have ..... salmon!
e. Did you have ........ difficulties in translating the text?
f. The tea is too sour, you have put too .......... lemon in it.

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g. There are ........ letters for you today.
8. ............. Europeans spend their holiday in Brasil.
h. There are ........... fine shops in this street.
i. His lectures provide ........... opportunities for discussion.
j. There’s very .......... accommodation near the colleges.
k. Very ......... ideas get farther than the inventor.

Words of Wisdom
Comment on the following:
• Home is where the heart is.
• There is no place like home.
• East, west, home is best.

Let’s learn a new word!

bungalow – a bungalow was originally the house of a European in India, which


usually had only one storey. It would have a veranda all around it and a thatched
roof to protect the people who lived there from the hot sun. Today, many houses in
Britain also have only one storey, and these are known as bungalows.
“My grandmother has moved to a bungalow, because she finds it difficult to get up
and down the stairs.”

CHECKLIST

1. Introduce: i) your cousin to a friend of yours.


ii) your boss to a foreign business partner.
iii) yourself to a new teacher.
2. Use in contexts the following: i) How do you do?
ii) What do you do?
iii) How are you?
3. What do you use in front of a noun: a possessive adjective or a possessive
pronoun?
4. Which of thes nouns can be accompanied by an indefinite article and why?
butter, news, pity, John.
5. Name ten nouns having an irregular plural form.

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UNIT 3

COMPANIES

SECTION A
LEAD-IN
What is a company?
What do companies deal with?
What companies do you know?
Are they success companies or bankrupt companies?
What does the success of a company consist in?

READING

A SUCCESS LIFE STORY IN BUSINESS


A wartime bomb is exploding in front of Guido Borghi’s electric-appliance shop in
Milan. That means that his 40 years of hard work are wiped out. Borghi is telling
his three sons, “We have to go back to being hired workmen. I am too old to start
all over again.”
Today at Comerio, some 30 miles north of Milan, stand the headquarters of the
multi-million-pound Borghi complex, Italy’s largest refrigerator manufacturer.
Giovanni Borghi keeps everything going with his own boundless energy. He
works together with his sons. They are making now hot plates, water heaters
and electric irons as well as cookers. From now on there is nowhere for the
Borghis to go but up. By day Giovanni and his sons run the business and make
deliveries, at night they take products apart to find ways of improving them.
They now have more than 4,000 employees. They cooperate with their
customers. With the Italian standard of living constantly rising, a mass market
is developing for their refrigerators and all their other household and industrial
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products. To mass-produce successfully at the right price, to cut costs, Borghis
make new investments of most of their fortune. The output rises constantly.
Day by day they prove to be more efficient.
Despite the success of their business, the Borghis live a simple life. All they
earn is put back into the business, either to develop new products and new
factories or to improve the employees’ welfare. Giovanni’s greatest pride and
joy is the six-storeyed ultra-modern home built on the factory premises for
450 apprentices between 16 and 21. A luxury apartment block in appearance,
the hostel has dormitories, study and game rooms, an assembly hall where
films are shown, and athletics facilities together with many other company
facilities for employees. Giovanni Borghi always plays to win, whether in his
business or in his other undertakings. His favourite remark to his younger
employees is: “Every one of you can become like me. The important thing is
never to treat success like a comfortable armchair”.
(based on Indro Montanelli, Italy’s Biggest Enterprises)

LANGUAGE WORK

1. Why are the Borghis ruined? Do they really go bankrupt?


2. Where are their company’s headquarters?
3. What do they manufacture and what do they expand their products to?
4. Why are their products efficient? What contributes to the efficiency of their
products?
5. Which is the key of Giovanni’s success in business?

1. Fill in the gaps with suitable words from the text:

The Borghis have to …… everything because a …… bomb is exploding in front of


their shop. The company’s …… are at Comerio. They are making refrigerators,
cookers, electric irons, washing-machines ……. They put back into the business all
they …… because they want to …… new …… and new …… and to improve their
employees’ ……. The company’s …… between 16 and 21 live in beautiful and
well-equipped ……. Giovanni’s success key is to work ceaselessly and not to treat
…… like a comfortable …….

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2. Italian is the adjective from the proper noun of country Italy. Give the
adjectives from these nouns:
Portugal Romania
Hungary Thailand
Belgium Holland
Switzerland Vietnam
Iceland Mexico
France Chile
Wales Pakistan

3. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences:


Example: Juan comes from Spain. He is a Spaniard and he speaks Spanish.

a. Birgit comes from Denmark. She is a ……………….… and she speaks ……


b. Zafer comes from Turkey. He is a …………………….. and he speaks …….
c. Michael comes from Athens. He is a …..……………… and he speaks …….
d. Anita comes from Sweden. She is a ……………….….. and she speaks …….
e. Eleanor comes from Scotland. She is a ……………….. and she speaks ……
f. Shuhei comes from Japan. He is a ….……………….… and he speaks …….
g. Iris comes from Finland. She is a …………………...… and she speaks ……

4. Mr. Scott, a company’s manager, is offering a 15,000 interest-free loan. An


interest-free loan is a loan that is free of interest. Use similar compound adjectives
to express the following ideas:

a. a job that consumes a lot of time ………………………………………………..


b. an event forgotten for a long time ………………………………………………
c. a flower that smells sweet ………………………………………………………
d. a suit made by a tailor …………………………………………………………..
e. a plane that flies high ………………………………………………….………..
f. goods that are free of tax ………………………………………………………..
g. a child who is seven years old …………………………………………………..

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5. Look at the words in the box, which have certain similarities in meaning. Put
each word into its appropriate sentence:

trade job business profession vocation


practice living craft industry commerce

1. He qualified as an economist in 1995, and set up in ……………... in Sheffield.


2. After leaving school, he……………………………….… in a solicitor’s office.
3. I like my son to take over the ………………………………….… when I retire.
4. Nursing is not just a job; it is a …………………………..…, calling for much
self-sacrifice and devotion.
5. She earns her ………………………………... by telling fortunes at the seaside.
6. The ancient …………………………………. of weaving has been carried on
in these islands for centuries.
7. My uncle Joshua has worked in the local Chamber of …………………….…
since he graduated from Oxford.
8. Our …………………………… mark is a circle with the letters “G L” inside it.
9. There are a lot of Scotsmen in the medical …………………………………..…
10. It’s a dirty, smoky city, as there is a lot of heavy ………..…… on the outskirts.

6. Read the following text about “BICC” and make the company profile:

BICC is a large multinational with about forty thousand employees world-wide and
a turnover of approximately three billion pound. The group’s main activities are
construction and manufacture of cables. The group has five different divisions.
“Balfour Beatty” is Britain’s leading construction company with a turnover of
around $ 1,700 m. The company is famous for its work constructing motorways,
buildings and of course, the channel tunnel.
Another division is “BICC Cables”. They are the largest manufacturer of fibre
optic cables in Europe and they now own the Italian company “Ceat Cavil”,
“CelCat” in Portugal; part of “CGC” in Spain and “KVC” in the former East Germany.
“BICC Cables” is expanding fast in Asia too and it has a turnover of $ 1,103 m.

Make also a profile of each division of the multinational company “BICC”.

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7. Fill in the spaces using the words below:

divided into retail subsidiary manufactures


division employs

“ICL” is a ……. of Fujitsu, which is a an 82% shareholder in the parent company.


The company ……. a total of 12,000 people. “ICL” group consist of twenty-nine
autonomous companies. Each company has its own Managing Director. The group
is ……. three divisions. The first is Industry Systems. This division produces
business solutions (software) for ICI’s customers. The second is Technology,
which …… computers and components. The third ……. is Services, which sells
computer services, like maintenance and training. ICL operates in six different
target markets: ……. - that’s shops, supermarkets and so on; financial services;
local and central government; healthcare; manufacturing; travel and transport.

1. What is a holding or parent company?


2. What is a subsidiary?
3. What is a division?
4. What does the group consist of?
5. What is a company made up of?
6. Where do the companies of a group operate in?
7. What is a target market?

8. Ask questions about the building and the facilities of a company, using the
words below and beginning with:

Is the building ……? There is a/an …… There are …….


Is there a/an …….? Are there ……..? Are they any ….?
There isn’t a/an…. There aren’t any…. There are no …
modern separate rooms for smokers
staff restaurant large car park
facilities for disabled staff near a railway station
lifts bus stop nearby
noisy crèche
air conditioning system sport or recreational facilities
cold in winter nice to work in
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Practice: Make comments in your own words about each of the qualities of a
company building and about its facilities.

9. Study the organization of a company:

Human Production Marketing Finance


resources
Training Production Marketing Buying
or
Purchasing
Personnel Packaging After-Sales Customer
Account
Wages Distribution Research Financial
and or and Services
Salaries Dispatch Development

Quality Advertising Maintenance

Now read attentively the definitions below and specify which department:
1. puts the products in boxes and crates?
2. places ads in magazines?
3. pays the staff?
4. purchases supplies?
5. sells the products to customers?
6. plans how to sell new products?
7. services the machines and equipment?
8. arranges courses for the staff?
9. recruits new employees?
10. manufactures the products?
11. invoices customers?
12. looks after customers’ problems and complaints?
13. dispatches the products and sends them to customers?
14. organises control systems to prevent mistakes?
15. deals with taxation, investment and cash management?
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GRAMMAR FOCUS
¾ PRESENT TENSES
Read the following paragraph about the company Marks & Spencer:

“Marks & Spencer”, the British food and clothes company, is the most famous
British shop in the world. At the moment, there are M & S shops in Britain, and
other shops in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain and Portugal. Currently,
they are building a large new store in Paris on the Rue de Rivoli. In North America,
the company owns Brooke Brothers and there are about fifty stores in Canada.
More and more people, from Hong Kong to Lisbon, are buying their clothes and
food from M & S. The clothes vary from country to country. Food departments sell
typically British food: tea, cakes, biscuits etc., and shops in Paris are very popular
at lunchtime as they sell sandwiches.

¾ SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


1. Use simple present tense in the following sentences, to show permanent
activities:

Example: M & S sells food and clothes.


Does M & S sell food and clothes? It does not/doesn’t sell food
and clothes.

1. Steve, an engineer, works for an oil company.


2. Monika, a journalist, writes for an Italian newspaper.
3. Louisa, an airhostess, travels all over the world with an American airline.
4. Juan, a businessman from Madrid, exports Spanish antiques, an unusual job.
5. Mikis, and Yiannis, architects, design houses in Athens.

2. Simple present tense is also used with time adverbials to express frequent,
actions, habitual.

Example: Steve, to watch television, every day


Does Steve watch television every day?

1. They, to drink coffee, every morning;


2. You, to cook Chinese food, on Sunday;
3. We, to visit friends, at the weekend;
4. She, to go to work, daily;
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5. They, to visit a foreign country, every summer;
6. Steve, to run to his office, every day.

3. The adverbs of frequency (always, usually, often …) are often used with simple
present tense. Their place is either between subject and predicate or after the verb
to be.

Example: I, an umbrella, carry, often;


I often carry an umbrella.
He, late, always, is.
He is always late.
1. The English, breakfast, at, speak, seldom;
2. He, never, to be, in, interested, conferences;
3. They, punctual, their, morning, in, the, at, normally, be, offices;
4. Generally, she, own, her, forget, age;
5. We, play, sometimes, Sunday, morning, on, tennis.

4. Simple present is also used in Time Clauses to express the future after when,
before, till, until, as soon as, immediately, by the moment…

Model: When you come, I’ll be ready.

1. These gates will remain shut until the train …………………………..…..(pass).


2. By the time he ……………………….. (get back) from his business trip, his
wife will have cleaned the house.
3. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another till they ……………..
(be introduced).
4. I’ll ring you up whenever I …………………………... (have) time.
5. As soon as she …………………………….... (learn) to type I’ll get her a job.

¾ PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE


1. We use present continuous tense to express a temporary action, to indicate a
temporary behaviour and an action which annoys the speaker.

Example: She is not writing now, she is speaking on the phone.

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1. I usually teach literature, but ….. (teach) grammar this year.
2. Why ……(be) so upset? What’s the matter with you?
3. You ….. (be) very unrealistic, life is not such.
4. She ….. (always, talk) on the phone when I come to see her.
5. He ….. (continually, lose) his glasses and (ask) me to look for them.

2. Use present continuous tense to describe personal fixed plans and appointments
in the near future:

1. I ….. (fly) to Paris on Friday.


2. They ….. (have dinner) with the sales team tonight.
3. ….. you ….. (do) anything this evening? No, I’m not.
4. We ….. (have breakfast) at 7.00 tomorrow because Tom doesn’t want to miss
the early train.
5. Where ….. you (go) at the weekend? Don’t you want to pay me a visit?

3. Use simple present or present continuous:

1. I …. (hear) music. It ….. (sound) fine.


2. I ….. (think) he is a good man.
3. You ….. (hear) from your daughter?
4. I ….. (think) of his parents. How are they now?
5. You ….. (be) rude today!
6. You can’t see the manager now, he ….. (to have) an interview.
7. He ….. (usually, speak) so quickly. I ….. (not understand) what he ….. (say) now.
8. You ….. (enjoy) yourself or you ….. (like) to leave now?
9. I ….. (enjoy) myself very much. I ….. (want) to stay to the end.
10. ….. (come) with me for a walk? …..(mind) if I bring my dog?

" Translate into English:

Ce-i determină pe oameni să muncească? Pare evident că oamenii muncesc


numai pentru a se hrăni şi a se îmbrăca. Dar există căi de a-i determina să
muncească pentru mai mult decât atât. Dar mai mulţi bani şi mai multe beneficii nu

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duc automat la o productivitate crescută. Primul lor efect este să încurajeze oamenii
să rămână în slujbă, nu să producă mai mult sau să fie fericiţi.
Managerii se gândesc să dea oamenilor slujbe potrivite talentelor
individuale. În cazul banilor ca stimulent, oamenii muncesc pentru ei până la un
punct - să-şi satisfacă concepţiile personale de viaţă bună. Există teoreticieni care
pretind că banii şi beneficiile sunt “stimulente negative”, absenţa lor îi face pe
oameni nefericiţi, dar prezenţa lor nu-i face mai productivi. Aceiaşi teoreticieni
spun că banii contează doar împreună cu performanţa individuală. Pentru a stimula
angajaţii, multe companii îi atrag în procesul de luare a deciziilor, aşa încât ei să-şi
poată raporta ţelurile personale la cele ale companiei. În multe cazuri sugestiile
salariaţilor sunt aplicate de către patroni cu succes.

Remember!

The following verbs cannot be used in the continuous aspect. Some of these verbs
can be used in the continuous aspect with different meanings:

VERBS VERBS WITH DIFFERENT EXAMPLE


MEANINGS IN THE
CONTINUOUS ASPECT
Verbs of senses when Verbs of senses: to smell, to I’m feeling the material to
they show an invo- taste, to feel, when they see if it is real silk.
luntary action: to see, to express a voluntary action;
hear, to smell, to taste,
to feel, to sound, to look; The verb to see = to visit, the I’m seeing my family on
verb to hear = to hear from (to Sunday.
have news from somebody); Are you hearing from your
sister?
Verbs of mental activity: The verb to think when it doesn’t I’m thinking about my
to think, to understand, express ideas but recollections; summer holidays.
to believe, to expect, to
remember, to suppose; The verb to expect = to wait I’m expecting a present from
for; Santa Claus.
Verbs of feeling: to The verbs to like, to love, to I’m loving/enjoying this
like, to dislike, to love, enjoy when they don’t express party.
to hate, to loathe, to permanent states but a short I’m liking school better
mind; period of time; now.
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Verbs expressing will:
to want, to wish, to
refuse, to prefer;
Verbs of possession: to The verb to have in different Don’t disturb him! He’s
have, to belong to, to expressions. having lunch.
own, to possess, to con-
tain, to hold, to consist
of;
Other verbs: to matter,
to depend upon, to
deserve, to resemble…
To be The verb to be when it ex- I can’t understand why you
presses a temporary beha- are being so rude today!
viour.

Let’s have fun!

It’s the first day at university.


Lecturer: “What’s your nationality?”
Student: “It’s difficult to say.”
Lecturer: “What do you mean?”
Student: “Well, you see, my father is Polish, my mother Lithuanian, and I was
born on a Russian ship, in Romanian waters, under the Turkish flag.”

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SECTION B

LEAD-IN

¾ Do you believe in good luck or in hard work?


¾ Which are the qualities of a hard-working person?
¾ Do you think that work is always rewarded?
¾ Why? Why not? Give examples from your personal experience.
READING

NOTHING TO SELL AND NOTHING TO BUY


Patricia: They say that everyone lives by selling something. I’m sure this is true.
Jeffrey: So am I. In the light of this statement, teachers live by selling knowledge
and priests by selling spiritual comfort.
Patricia: I think the value of material goods may be measured in terms of money,
but it’s extremely difficult to estimate the true value of the services which
people perform for us.
Jeffrey: So do I. There are times when we willingly give everything we own to
save our lives, but we bear a grudge against doctors as we have to pay
them. I don’t agree with grudge-bearing persons.
Patricia: Neither do I. I neither like that kind of persons, nor want to meet them. The
conditions of society are such that skills have to be paid for in the same
way that goods are paid for at a shop. Everyone has something to sell.
Jeffrey: Yes, you’re right! But what about tramps? They seem to be the only
exception to this general rule. I don’t mean beggars, who almost sell
themselves as human beings to arouse the pity of passers-by.
Patricia: I don’t like them either. But real tramps are not beggars.
Jeffrey: Yes, they only seek independence. They deliberately choose to lead the
life they lead and are fully aware of the consequences.
Patricia: Then why do we often speak with contempt of? I think there are a lot of
people who can’t honestly admit they feel a little envious of their simple
way of life.
Jeffrey: So do I, you’re right!
(based on Alexander, Developing Skills, Longman)

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¾ What do teachers and priests sell?
¾ How do we measure the values of material goods?
¾ Are skills paid for in the same way as goods are?

LANGUAGE WORK

1. Speak about ways of earning one’s living through hard work and ways of
earning one’s living through other ways. Explain the difference among these
verbs, all of them including the idea “to make money”: to earn, to gain, to get,
to win, to cash, to economize, to invest, to save, to speculate, to transact.
2. Make two columns: employed and unemployed. Which of the following words
and phrases have to belong to each column: dismiss, fire, hire, promote,
resign, retire, suspend, sack, kick out, strike, employment, industrious, fail,
profit, inactive, on the dole, out of work, scrupulous, idle, serious, thorough,
indolent, make someone redundant?

GRAMMAR FOCUS

1. Read these ads about used cars sale. Then use so is … and neither:

Audi Quattro Renault Megane Porsche GT3 Hyunday Accent


2000, blue, 2001, automatic, 1996, red, 2000, dark blue,
5-door, radio, red, 4-door, 4-door, 4-door, radio,
excellent sunroof, radio, sunroof, excellent excellent
condition, taxed taxed until condition. condition.
until December. September. £ 4,875 £ 6,125
£ 4,725 £ 8,525

Example: The Audi is a 2000 model. So is the Hyunday.

1. The Audi is in excellent condition.


2. The Hyunday is blue.
3. The Porsche isn’t taxed.
4. The Renault isn’t a 5-door model.
5. The Porsche is red.
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2. Read these ads about “Job vacancies”. Then write sentences using so do/does
… or neither do/does…

A B C D
Secretary/PA Legal Personal Audio Secretary for Secretary (Audio),
with good Assistant, 8800 overseas Dept. of City 8,000 pound,
shorthand/typing pound. Busy Bank. Previous required for Fashion
skills and fluent solicitors’ office in banking experience, Company with
French required West End. Good spoken and written offices in Mayfair.
for Sales Manager shorthand/typing French essential. No previous
on international and legal Some travel involved. experience in
company. The job experience Salary negotiable. fashion necessary.
involves travel essential. Excellent Excellent working The job involves
and a lot of working conditions, conditions. travel in UK.
organization 5 weeks’ holiday. 5 weeks’ holiday. Current driving
work. Excellent Please contact Telephone licence essential. If
salary, modern Mr. J. Banks. Michael Hill you have good
offices in Tel. 01-629-9923. 01-453-9785. typing and audio
Victoria, five skills and an ability
weeks’ holiday. to organize, contact
Ring Susan Gill Jane Weathers
01-636-0239. 01-34-7111. We
offer 4 weeks’
holiday and
luncheon vouchers.

Example: Job A requires French. So does Job C.


Job A doesn’t offer flexible working hours. Neither do Jobs B and C

1. Job A requires good shorthand.


2. Job C doesn’t state the salary.
3. Job A offers 5 weeks’ holiday.
4. Job B requires previous experience.
5. Job A doesn’t offer luncheon vouchers.
6. Job B offers excellent working conditions.
7. Job A doesn’t require a driving licence.
8. Job D requires ability to organize.
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3. Translate into English:

Jeffrey: Nu merg la petreceri prea des.


Patricia: Nici eu. Urăsc încăperile aglomerate.
Jeffrey: Şi eu. Nu sunt un amator de petreceri, într-adevăr.
Patricia: Nici eu. Nu mă pricep la conversaţie.
Jeffrey: Nici eu. Sunt un gen de persoană liniştită.
Patricia: Şi eu. Locuiesc singură într-o garsonieră.
Jeffrey: Şi eu. Şi nu am mulţi prieteni.
Patricia: Nici eu. Şi vreau foarte mult un prieten bun, într-adevăr.
Jeffrey: Oh, şi eu.

Remember!
Conjunctions Structures

The conjunctions either, neither, nor and so express emphatic alternatives in


addition to remarks.

REMEMBER EXAMPLE
When a negative verb is repeated with a He doesn’t go. She doesn’t go.
new subject, either may be placed at the He doesn’t go and she doesn’t go either.
end of the sentence.
This can be more clearly expressed by He doesn’t go. Neither does she.
using neither/nor + auxiliary verb in the He doesn’t go and nor does she.
affirmative + subject.

The same construction can be expressed in He goes and so does she.


the affirmative with so.

Let’s have fun!


Story

This is a story about the well-known millionaire, John D. Rockefeller and is


told by a friend of his. This friend said that though Rockefeller gave away millions,
Rockefeller himself was very mean about small sums of money.

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One day he went to stay at a hotel in New York and asked for the
cheapest room they had. Rockefeller said “What is the price of the room?”.
The manager told him. “And which floor is it on?”. Again the manager told
him. “Is that the lowest priced room you have? I am staying here by myself
and only need a small room.” The manager said, “That room is the smallest
and cheapest we have”, and added, “But why do you choose a poor room
like that? When your son stays here he always has our most expensive
room; yours is our cheapest.” “Yes”, said Rockefeller, “but his father is a
wealthy man; mine isn’t.”

CHECKLIST

1. Comment an the following statement: „Never treat success like a confortable chair”.
2. State the difference between wages and salaries.
3. Choose the correct verb form: i) The Prime Minister meets/is meeting the
foreign delegation at 10 a.m.
ii) I meet/am meeting my friends at 10 p.m.
4. What important information should a job vacancy ad contain?
5. What is a holding company?

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UNIT 4

GOING TO COLLEGE

SECTION A

LEAD-IN

V In groups discuss the following questions:

• Do you think that the number of students should be greater?


• Do you think education should be free?
• Are there advantages in a private educational system?
• Is a diploma necessary to get well-paid jobs?
• What other ways are there to get qualifications?

¾ Complete these sentences with a word or expression to do with education from


the box below:

1 Margaret had left school and was anxious to go to ………………… to study


architecture.
2 The ……………………………….. are preparing their first exams.
3 Joan attends the business courses regularly, so she is a ………..…………
student.
4 When he finished the law studies, Christian was awarded a ……………….
to become a lawyer.

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5 In order to go on to …………………..…. or vocational training, pupils
usually take two or three ‘A’ level examinations.
6 Frank is among the best students and he is going to receive a
……………………..
7 In the States the ……………………………. are quite high, so private
colleges and universities are rather expensive.

grant college full-time


tuition fees undergraduates
higher education qualification

READING

Work in pairs. Student A should use the information below and Student B should
look at the information in File 1 on page 190.

HIGHER EDUCATION IN UK
There are forty-seven universities in Britain and thirty polytechnics, plus 350
colleges and institutes of higher education. Undergraduate courses normally
take three years of full-time study, although a number of subjects take longer,
including medicine, architecture and foreign languages (where courses include
a year abroad). They lead in most cases to a Bachelor’s degree in Arts or
Science (BA or BSc). Students of law, architecture and some other professions
can take qualifications that are awarded by their own professional bodies
instead of degrees. There are also various postgraduate degrees, including
Master of Arts or Philosophy (MA or MPhil) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD).
Universities accept students mainly on the basis of their ‘A’ levels, although
they may interview them as well. At present, students who have been
accepted by universities or other institutions of higher education receive a
grant from their local authority, which covers the cost of the course, and may
cover living expenses, books and travel, although parents with higher incomes
are expected to make a contribution. Before1990 the grant was paid back, but
since then a system of loans has been introduced.
(adapted from Britain Explored, Longman)

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LANGUAGE WORK

Complete the chart. Then compare the educational system in UK or the USA with
the educational system in our country.
UK USA Romania
Courses
Degrees
Admission
Tuition fees
Concerns

 Write a paragraph describing some of the main differences .

1. In pairs decide whether the following statements are true () or false ( ).

1 Medicine, architecture and foreign languages are studied for three years.
2 Students are only accepted based on entrance examinations.
3 The grant received by students is being paid back at present.
4 High schools and colleges are not attended by many Americans.
5 Education is considered vital to the American ideal.
6 Not so many people think that the quality of education is a problem that
must be addressed.
2. Do you know what the following abbreviations stand for?

BSc, PhD, VIP, CD, DJ, MA, Washington, D.C., SOS, IT, p.m., e.g., i.e.
Can you add some more?
………………………………………………………………………………………

VOCABULARY

Clippings are some words normally used in an abbreviated form in informal


situations.

exam (examination) lab (laboratory) fridge (refrigerator)


TV or telly (television) board (blackboard) rep (representative)

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phone (telephone) fax (facsimile) memo (memorandum)
ad/advert (advertisement)

You take / do / sit an exam. If you are well prepared, you’ll pass / do well in your
exam. If you skip lectures, you’ll probably fail / do badly in the exam. Therefore,
before an exam it’s a good idea to revise for it. When you pass all your exams, you
graduate from university – you’re a graduate.

1. Look up the following terms specific to the US education system:


sophomore freshman junior senior

2. Here are some words related to education and training. Put them in columns
under these headings: degrees, subjects, education institutions, teachers

statistics professor college economics


bachelor master university accounting
tutor postgraduate lecturer geography
high school international business doctor
polytechnics reader

3. Correct the following sentences:

1 I can’t come out. I’m studying. I’m passing an examination tomorrow.


2 Congratulations! I hear you succeeded your exam!
3 She’s a professor in a primary school.
4 He left university and now he’s an economist.

GRAMMAR FOCUS

1. Put in the prepositions in, at or on.


1 Nick was so bored, he had nothing to do ____ the weekend.
2 Derek went swimming ____ Sunday morning and _____ the evening he
played bridge.
3 I took my annual holiday in August, but I had a few days off ____
Christmas as well.
4 I was born ____ 1954.
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5 I was born ____26 March 1954.
6 The house was built ____ the eighteenth century.
7 Angela got up very early ____ the morning to set out on her trip
and she arrived in Brighton quite late ____ night.
I was six years old.
2. Write an appropriate question for these answers.
Example: How old were you when you started school?

1 …………………………………………………………….
I went to two schools.
2 …………………………………………………………….
The first was a junior school, the second was a high school.
3 ………………………………………………………………
No, I didn’t. I wasn’t quite happy at school.
4 ………………………………………………………………
I took ‘A’ levels when I was 17.
5 ………………………………………………………………
Yes, I did. I went to Oxford University
6 ………………………………………………………………
Sociology
7 ……………………………………………………………….
I studied there for four years.
8 ………………………………………………………………..
I graduated in 1977.

¾ SIMPLE PAST

3. Put the verbs in the correct tense and fill in the spaces. All the verbs are
irregular.

Infinitive Simple past Past participle


write letters wrote a memo written your resignation
… a mistake … a decision … noise
… care … a photograph … a chance
…… a report … a magazine … through the
… handbook
…… an ice-cream … a new CD … tickets

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…… a lecture … a present … your opinion

…… attention … the rent … taxes

…… out for lunch … on holiday … on a trip

…… a car … carefully … someone crazy

…… three languages … up … loudly

…… the class … to rain … work early

…… someone off … the point … someone later

…… your best … business with … homework

…… the bell … someone up … back later

…… fast … a company … a campaign

…… your job … a bet … your temper

4. Put either for or since with these time expressions.

a ……………. a long time


b ……………. six days
c ……………. my last birthday
d ……………. the end of the holidays
e ……………. ages
f ……………. I came to England
g ……………. the last few days
h ……………. the day I met you

¾ PAST SIMPLE AND PRESENT PERFECT


Before 1990 the grant was paid back, but since then a system of loans has been
introduced.
When was the grant paid back?
How long has a system of loans been introduced?

Past Simple 1990 Present Perfect now

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Compare the following sentences.
a He’s lived in the countryside for seven years. (He still lives there.)
He lived in the countryside for seven years. (Now he lives somewhere
else.)
b The company produced gramophones.(It can’t produce any more.)
The company has produced software. (It can produce some more.)
c Have you seen Tom anywhere this morning? (It’s still morning.)
Did you see Tom this morning? (It’s afternoon or evening.)

¾ SIMPLE PAST OR PRESENT PERFECT


5. Write the questions using present perfect or past simple. Look at the answers
first.
Example: How long / Sarah / live / in France?
How long has Sarah lived in France? Since 1990

1 When / be the last time / you / have / a holiday?


……………………………………………….. Last year.
2 How long / you / khow / Doris?
……………………………………………….. Two hours ago.
3 How long / Daniel / be / a student?
………………………………………………... Since last year.
4 What time / you / finish work?
……………………………………………… At 6.00 p.m.
5 How long / you / write / your report last night?
……………………………………………… All evening.
6 When / Chris / leave / for the airport?
………………………………………………. Ten minutes ago.
7 When / Norman / take / these photos?
……………………………………………….. Last summer.

SIMPLE PAST OR PRESENT PERFECT?

6. In the dialogue below, put the verbs into the simple past or the present perfect,
as shown in the example.

A: Could I have a word about your trip to Warsaw?

B: Certainly. Is everything all right?


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A: Yes. Your tickets 1) have arrived (arrive) and they’re with my secretary. And I
2) ……….…………..(just/have) a fax from the hotel confirming your reservation.

B: Thank you. What about money?

A: I 3) ……………….…….. (already/order) some zloty for you. I 4)


…………………... (ring) the bank yesterday, and they’ll have them tomorrow.
But there’s a problem with your Eurocheque book. I 5) …………………. (ask)
them to send one a week ago, but it 6) …………………… (not/arrive) yet.

B: That’s all right. I 7) …………………. (never/need) a Eurocheque before. I


normally use a credit card.

A: Really? Are you sure you can do that?

B: I think so. Certainly when I 8) …………………. (go) to Austria last September


I 9) ………………. (take) my Visa card and my MasterCard, and I 10)
……………… (not/have) any problems. But I’ll check about Poland. 11)
…………………. (you/ever/be) there?

A: No, but have a word with Jennifer Cooper in Marketing. She 12) ………………
(be) there a couple of times, so I expect she would know.

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE OR PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS?

7. Underline the correct form of the verb. Remember that some verbs cannot be
used in the continuous aspect.

Example: I didn’t realize that you and David were friends. How long
have you known/been knowing him?

1. Peter is a natural salesman. He has sold/has been selling eight insurance


policies since the beginning of the week.

2. The French visitor has arrived/been arriving at the airport for half an hour! You
have to leave immediately to pick him up.

3. We have waited/have been waiting for Helen for one hour. I guess she won’t
come at all.

4. This report is a nightmare. I have written/have been writing it for two weeks, and
it is still not finished.

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5. I’ve stayed/been staying in a hotel for a week, but I hope to find an
apartment of my own.

6. I wonder how Jim is getting on. I haven’t heard/been hearing from him for
nearly a month.

7. Marion has had/been having this car for eight years, but I think it won’t need to
be repaired too soon.

8. Complete the questions and answer about George Thomson’s life using Past
Simple and Present Perfect. p. 56

1949 born in Manchester


1960 starts Garibaldi Grammar School, meets his best friend Harry
1965 moves to London
1967 sales representative for Fancy Clothes Manufacturer
1971 marries Sophie, a French librarian
1972 moves to France, teaches English
1975 his son Thomas born, returns to England
1976 gets a job as sales representative for WH Smith bookshops
1980 his daughter Clementine born, moves to detached house in Cambridge
1987 UK Manager for Cambridge Publishers
1989 made redundant
1992 meets Harry again, offered a job as Marketing Director with Harry’s
company St Jerome’s Publishers
1994 St Jerome’s Publishers goes bankrupt
1995 starts market stall selling clothes
2002 still selling clothes at Portobello market
(now)

1. Which school did he go to?


Garibaldi Grammar School.

2. How long …………………….…….. Harry?


Since ………………..……….……….. .

3. How ……………………..……….. to Sophie?


For thirty-one years.

4. What …………………..………… in France?


He ………………..…………. English.

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5. When …………………….………… to England?
After ……………………..……… born.

6. How many times ………………...…. as sales representative?


Twice……

7. Where …………..………….…… to after Clementine was born?


A house in Cambridge.

8. How ……………………..……… clothes?


Since …………………..…………… .

9. ………. George ………… a successful career?


No, he hasn’t, because ………………………………………
……………………………………...

9. Complete the sentences by matching a line from A with a line from B.


A B
1. Although these clothes are expensive a) in spite of his age.
2. Though the results are encouraging b) they are bought by a lot of people.
3. Despite the lack of resources c) though he had no qualifications.
4. He would walk for hours d) the company did not go bankrupt.
5. He got the job e) they do not get the best marks.
6. Although they learn more f) they are not enough for real success.

Remember!

¾ Past tense vs. present perfect

Present perfect – indefinite time Past simple – definite time


How long have you prepared it? When did you prepare it?
for a long time. yesterday.
I’ve prepared it lately. I prepared it two weeks ago.
since yesterday. in 1995.
recently. at one o’clock.
She has just left. when I last saw him.
I’ve already seen it. for two years.
I haven’t seen it yet.

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SECTION B

LEAD-IN

Work in pairs. Student A should use the information below and Student B should
look at the information in File 2 on page 191. Then answer the following
questions:

• Which university is the oldest, Cambridge or Harvard?


• Which college is the oldest?
• Which college is the most recent?
• Which college is the most famous?
• Which institute is best placed in science and technology?

READING

Cambridge must be one of the best-known universities in the world. The renowned
English institution started during the 13th century and grew steadily, until today
there are more than twenty colleges. Most of them allow visitors to enter the
grounds and courtyards. The oldest college, Peterhouse, was founded in 1284, and
the most recent, Robinson College, was opened in 1977. The most famous is
probably King’s, because of its magnificent chapel. Its choir of undergraduates is
also very well known. Every year thousands of students from overseas come to
Cambridge to study English in the first place.
Each year in May there are the Eight Weeks of various sporting events, among
which the most celebrated is the boat-race Oxford v. Cambridge. It was first rowed
in 1829 and has became a regular event since 1856.
To the North of this ancient city is the modern face of the University – the
Cambridge Science Park, which has developed in response to the need for
universities to increase their contact with high technology industry. It was
established in 1970 by Trinity College, which has a long scientific tradition going
back to Sir Isaac Newton. Cambridge Science Park is now a centre of more than
sixty companies and research institutes.

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LANGUAGE WORK

¾ American English
Cambridge Science Park is now a centre of more than sixty companies and
research institutes. (British English)
Cambridge remains a center of intellectual life, especially since it’s become home
to MIT. (American English)

Here are some of the main difference both in spelling and vocabulary between the two:

Spelling Vocabulary
British English American English British English American English
metre, theatre meter, center petrol gas(oline)
colour, humour color, humor lorry truck
programme, dialogue program, dialog luggage baggage
analyse, organise analyze, organize holiday vacation
defence, licence defense, license pavement sidewalk
traveller, jewellry traveler, jewelry lift elevator
through, plough thru, plow term semester
cheque check motorway freeway
encyclopaedia encyclopedia (bank)note bill
skilful, fulfil skillful, fulfill underground subway
grey gray ground floor first floor
pyjamas pajamas autumn fall

1. If you read words spelt in the following way, would the writer be British or
American?
1) labor 2) fibre 3) centralized 4) movie theater 5) endeavour 6) thru

2. Translate the following into British English:


1. We’ve run out of gas in the freeway.
2. We’re leaving by subway.
3. I’m looking forward to my vacation.
4. He put his baggage into the truck.
5. When does the fall semester start?
6. She bought a nice apartment on the first floor.
7. Can you change this bill for me?
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Do you know any other examples of American English? Make a list at an
appropriate place in your vocabulary notebook or file.

3. What is the comparative/superlative of the following adjectives?


simple large fat easy difficult good cheap lucky quick
profitable

4. Choose the correct form of the comparative / superlative:


1. Could you tell me what the nearest/ next underground station is?
2. For any farther/ further information do not hesitate to contact us.
3. There are two answers to this question, but only the later/ latter is
convenient.
4. My uncle is the eldest/ oldest son of seven brothers.
5. The last/ latest trends of the market are encouraging.
6. The nearest/ next lecture will be given by a renowned professor.
7. The last / latest people who arrived to the meeting couldn’t find any vacant
seats.
8. The expedition reached farther/further than all the previous ones.
9. The archaeologist found the oldest/eldest remains of the ancient
civilisation.
10. Later/ latter events proved him right.

5. Write the correct question. Then give true answers to some questions about you.
Use the superlative + the present perfect.
Example:
(What / good / holiday / you have?) My holiday in Greece last
year.
What’s the best holiday you’ve had?

1. (What / exciting / experience / you / have?)


…………………………………………………………....
2. (Who / remarkable person / you / meet?)
……………………………………………………….……
3. (What / fast car / you / drive?)
…………………………………………………………..…

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4. (What / expensive thing / you / buy?)
……………………………………………………………...
5. (What / useless present / you / get?)
………………………………………………………………
6. (What / unusual food / you/ eat?)
………………………………………………………………

6. Write sentences comparing the following items.


Example: The project I work for / the last project
(big) The project I work for is bigger than the last project I worked for.
(small) It is not as small as the last project I worked for.

1. My office / my colleague’s office


(large) ……………………………………………………………………………
(small) ……………………………………………………………………………
2. The job I do now / my last job
(easy to do) ………………………………………………………………………
(hard to do) ………………………………………………………………………
3. The new software programme / the old one
(cheap) ……………………………………………………………………………
(expensive) ………………………………………………………………………
4. This meal / the one I had last night
(bad) ………………………………………………………………………………
(good) ……………………………………………………………………………..
5. Our profit this year / their profit
(little) ……………………………………………………………………………..
(much) …………………………………………………………………………….

7. Only two of these comparatives sentences are correct. Correct the mistakes
where necessary.
Example:
He left more early than she did. He left earlier than she did.

1. His car is moderner than mine. …………………………………………….


2. It’s a bit hotter today. ……………………………………………………….
3. My friend lives much more far away now. ………………………………....
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4. Is this more interesting as his latest exhibition? ………………….………..
5. My brother is the same height like me. …………………………………..…
6. I paid less than you for the holiday. …………………………………..…….
7. The chess player was more smart then the computer. ……………………...

8. Study the information contained in the following chart and then complete the
passage below, using the comparative or superlative forms of the adjectives:
much, little, high, low, near (some of them appear twice).

564
369
283
148 202 152 164 149
119 105 58 70
Belgium

Holland

Luxembourg
Greece

Ireland
France

Portugal
Britain

Spain
Denmark

EC
Italy

The chart above illustrates the different levels of per capita expenditure on leisure
activities for some EU member countries in 1997. As you can see, the
(1)………..……… amount spent was by the Portuguese with the Spaniards in
(2)………………….. position at 70 EUs. Amongst those nations who spent the (3)
………..…….. on this type of product were the Irish who were almost two hundred
EUs ahead of their rivals, the Danish. In comparison, the expenditure of the
Belgians was only half that of the (4) …………… amount. Both the British and the
Dutch were by five ecus (5) …………..…. or (6) ……………... than the EU
national average of 149.

¾ SOCIAL ENGLISH

1. Match a line in A with a line in B.

A
1. Shall we meet this afternoon at 3 o’clock?
2. Sorry I’m late. I got held up in the traffic. Did I miss anything?
3. Could I have the bill, please?
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4. Have you heard that they are opening a new mall downtown?
5. How long did it take you to do the homework?
6. Could you fill it up?
7. What a nice coat! Is it expensive?
8. Can you tell me the area code for Stockholm?
9. Would you mind opening the window?
10. Hi, Michael! I haven’t seen you for ages! How are things going?
11. Who was that came to give us a lecture yesterday?
12. Let’s take a break now, shall we?

B
1. Certainly, sir. I’ll bring it straight away.
2. Ages. What about you?
3. Not at all. It’s very hot in here.
4. It cost an absolute fortune!
5. Sorry. I can’t make it then. What about a bit later?
6. Really? I’ll go there to see it with my own eyes.
7. Nice to see you too. Well, I can’t complain. What about you?
8. One moment. I’ll just look it up.
9. I have no idea, but she seemed fine to me.
10. Sure. Shall I check the oil as well?
11. Absolutely! I’ve grown quite tired with all these exercises.
12. It’s all right. You’re here now. Come and sit down.

2. Choose the best answer, A, B, C or D

a) Could you ……………………. me some money until tomorrow?


A borrow B let C present D lend

b) She has a very good job. I’m sure she …………………… over twenty thousand
pounds.
A gains B earns C receives D wins

c) How long does your …………………. to work take?


A travel B journey C trip D voyage

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d) The …………………. of living will only go up. It won’t go down.
A price B value C cost D expense

e) While I was skiing, I …………..……… and broke my wrist.


A fell B felt C feel D fallen

f) Use your time sensibly. Don’t …………………… it on trifles.


A spend B pass C lose D waste

j) Jump in the car. There’s enough ……………. for you.


A room B place C seat D space

Remember!
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
Adjective of one syllable All remaining
Adjectives of two syllables ending in er, le, ow, y adjectives
Positive big, clever, gentle, narrow, happy generous
Comparative bigger, cleverer, gentler, narrower, happier more generous
Superlative biggest, cleverest, gentlest, narrowest, happiest most generous

Wales is as interesting as Scotland. They are not as


expensive as hotels.
The Andes are the
tallest in America.
Structures of
Holiday camps are cheaper than hotels. The least expensive
comparison
Yet chalets are less expensive than camps. holidays are often the
most interesting of all.
The more we are, the merrier we shall be.
The communications are faster and faster.

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS


good, well The statistics are better than last “Love story” was a best-seller.
year.
bad, ill The weather was worse this time. Their solution is the worst of all.
much, More people speak English today Gold is a most precious metal.
many than ever.
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little, few We have less time to read than She likes physics least of all subjects.
before.
old My brother is older than I am. Oxford is the oldest university in
He is the elder brother. UK.
Mark is the eldest son in the family.
far Saturn is farther than Mars. Pluto is the farthest planet.
Further discussion is useless. It was the furthest point debated.
near Kate was nearer the truth than Victoria is the nearest station.
Jane. My cousin lives next door.
late I arrived later than I expected. The latest fashion is very simple.
The last time I saw him was in May.

Let’s learn some new expressions!


In group A you will find common expression you could hear in conversation,
television and film. Can you match each of them with the meaning in group B?

GROUP A GROUP B
1. It’s all in the melting pot. a) He can’t justify.
2. It’s like looking for a needle in a b) It’s very difficult to keep going.
haystack.
3. It’s an uphill struggle. c) He’s very unpleasant to be with.
4. It’s a storm in a teacup. d) He’s misunderstood it.
5. He’s got hold of the wrong end of the e) He’s really happy and excited.
stick.
6. He’s over the moon. f) No decisions have yet been taken.
7. He can’t get a leg to stand on. g) He really annoys other people.
8. He’s like a bear with a sore head. h) It’s an almost impossible task.
9. He’s got plenty on his plate. i) He’s got a lot to do.
10. He gets under everyone’s skin. j) It’s a lot of fuss and commotion
about nothing.

CHECKLIST

1.a.Does one still feel ill if he/she says: ”I have caught a cold”?
b. What tense do we use to talk about: i) the present results of a past action?
ii) the time when something happened?
2. Name the educational levels in the UK and Romania comparatively.
3. What are the comparative and superlative degrees of these adjectives: far, big,
reliable, bad, funny?.
4. What expressions can you use to ask for information?
6. Give examples of words that differ in American English and British English.
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UNIT 5


GETTING IN TOUCH

SECTION A

LEAD-IN

1. To what extent is correspondence important in business communication?


2. How many types of letters/messages can you think of?
3. What is the “contents of a letter”?
4. Give as many specimen sentences for the opening lines and complimentary
close as you know.

LETTERS: DATES AND SALUTATIONS


Note that when expressing date, several variations are possible:
January 10th, 2000
10th January, 2000
10 January, 2000
January 10, 2000
The date may also be written in short. In Britain the day precedes the year:
30.12.2000
30/12/2000
In the US, the month often precedes the day:
12.30.2000
12/30/2000

That is why you had better write the month with letters.
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A number of closing salutations are possible at the end of a letter, but they are used
in different situations:
• “Yours faithfully” is used when the name of the person you are addressing is
unknown. Your letter probably began “Dear Sir/Sirs/Madam,” (or
“Gentlemen:” in US usage).
• “Yours sincerely” (or “Sincerely yours” in US usage) is used when you do
know the name of the person to whom you are writing, but wish to remain on
fairly formal terms. Your letter probably began “Dear Mr. Talbot/Ms Tomlin”.
• “Yours truly” or ”Truly yours” is used, principally, in the US as an alternative
to “Yours sincerely”. Your letter probably began ”Gentlemen:”.
• “Best/Kind regards” is frequent in friendly business letters (faxes).
• “Cordially” or “Best wishes” are used when you know the name of the person
to whom you are writing. It is less formal, so your letter probably began “Dear
John/Laura”.

Correct any inappropriate elements in the following letter:

Hartley-Mason Inc.
618 West and Vine Street, Chicago, Illinois

ATTN: Mr. M. Tirnoveanu 29/5/00


Motor Systems SRL
Str. Toamnei nr. 12
Bucharest
ROMANIA

Dear Sir,

We are in receipt of your letter of 27 May and are pleased to see that the samples
we sent you are to your satisfaction and the workmanship is to your standards.
The United States, like Romania, has also experienced an increase in motorbike
sales, and like you we think that there is a vast market to be tapped for the touring
bike.
With regard to your offer, I should tell you straight away that we never use sole
agencies anywhere in the world, but rely on merchants buying our products on their
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own account, then retailing them at market prices in their country. We, of course,
offer a 30% trade discount off net list prices and a further discount for sales above
US$100,000.
As far as advertising is concerned, you will be pleased to hear that we have arranged for
an extensive campaign which begins next month and features our machines. We are
sending dealers throughout Europe with brochures, leaflets and posters to hand to their
customers and this will be followed up by television advertising in May.
Our terms of payment are L/C open at a Bank of your preference, order shipped
CFR a port of your designation. Should any slight flaw be found, we undertake to
remedy it as soon as possible.

In the hope of signing a long-term contract with you, thank you for writing to us,
and we are looking forward to hearing from you.

Best wishes,

President
J. R. Mason
Enc. Please find our catalogue.

LANGUAGE WORK

Remember!

¾ Some abbreviations you might see on a letter/fax/envelope:

c/o care of (e.g. T. Smith, c/o J. Brown; the letter goes to J. Brown’s address)
enc. enclosed (e.g. enc. application form)
PS postscript (extra message after the letter has been ended)
asap as soon as possible (e.g. ring me asap)
PTO please turn over
pc. piece
NB please note (Latin: nota bene)
RSVP please reply (French: répondez s’il vous plaît)
a/c account current

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1. Translate this note from the boss to a group of workers in an office, into full
words.

Memo from: Mr. Braneless (MD) TO: All staff


Date: 3/5/91 Ref: 04056/DC

May I remind you that all new lab equipment should be registered
with Stores & Supplies, Room 354 (ext 2683). NB: new items must
be notified before 17:00 hrs on the last day of the month of
purchase, i.e. the current budgeting month. All a/c nos must be
recorded.
Braneless

" Sometimes the samples you receive do not comply with your standards and
you must give up cooperation with that company. Write a letter of cancellation of
the order.

2. Match the Romanian expressions to their corresponding English terms:

1. vă rugăm să confirmaţi în scris A. I look forward to hearing from you


2. dacă nu ne veţi informa contrariul B. unless we hear from you to the contrary
3. aştept cu nerăbdare răspunsul dvs. C. within a fortnight
4. confirmăm primirea D. we are holding the matter pending
5. am luat notă de E. under separate cover
6. v-aş rămâne recunoscător F. in the near future
7. în termen de 14 zile G. I have duly noted
8. în viitorul apropiat H. we shall take the necessary action
9. în plic separat I. I/we acknowledge receipt of
10. problema rămâne în atenţia noastră J. kindly/please confirm in writing
11. vom lua măsurile necesare K. I would be grateful if you would kindly

3. Match the abbreviations on the left to the full form on the right:

1. PLS A. with reference to


2. RQD B. cost and freight
3. YR C. payment
4. CFR D. your
5. ATTN E. bill of lading
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6. REF/RE F. required
7. PYT G. request
8. RQST H. free on board
9. L/C I. letter of credit
10. B/L J. please
11. CNTR K. received
12. RCVD L. container
13. DISCNT M. apologies
14. DSPTCH N. discount
15. APOLS O. dispatch
16. F.O.B P. for the attention of

 This is a part of a letter you receive from a friend. Write to your friend, giving
practical advice, referring to the points in the letter.

As you know, I’ll graduate this summer. I’m looking forward to starting work
and earning some money of my own. I want to open my own shop, so I’m
going to get a job in the local department store straightaway to gain as much
practical experience as possible. Of course my parents want me to go to college
and do a business course but I feel I’ll learn more on the job. My brother
thinks I could spend a year travelling before I make up my mind – to Australia
or somewhere and improve my English. Please let me know what you think …

GRAMMAR FOCUS

¾ EXPRESSING ABILITY, PERMISSION, OBLIGATION, ADVICE


MODAL VERBS

The modals have the following main characteristics:

• Do not have the infinitive form.


• Do not get the III-rd person singular -s of the present tense.
• Do not get the -ing suffix.
• Make the interrogative and negative without TO DO.
• The modals are followed by the short infinitive (without TO), except OUGHT
• Are replaced by modal equivalents for the tenses and moods they do not have.
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1. Use CAN/COULD to express ability and permission (COULD is more polite):
a. ........... you fill in this application form for me?
b. They .............. build better houses.
c. I ............ give a response to this fax message, because they ............ supply me
with all the information I needed.
d. ...................... I go to the customs and take the samples on your behalf?
e. What .…………….... he see in the hall of the airport?
f. He .…………... join the yacht club as soon as he is through with his last
exam.
g. The CEO says that everybody ..………………….... take part in the
discussion.

2. Fill in the blanks with CAN’T/COULDN’T + present or past infinitives to


express negative deduction and reproach:
a. The customer says that the meat ........ (be) good after so many days.
b. It ........... (be) his secretary who answered the phone. She was on lunch
break.
c. You .................. (pay) the company’s debt last month. Now we are in
litigation with our suppliers.
d. They ......... (pay) this order. Their company is bankrupt.
e. All Saints ........ (win) MTV awards last year. They didn’t enter the
competition.

3. Use MAY or MIGHT to express permission or possibility:


a. Let us book our tickets today so that when we go to the station there
………………..... be no unnecessary hurry and excitement.
b. Those who have finished their papers ………………….. leave the lecture-
hall if they go quietly.
c. They spoke in whispers so that the people in the next room ……………....
not know of their presence in the house.

4. Fill in the blanks with MUST or NEED to express obligation:


Note. In questions must and need are often similar in meaning, but need cannot
be used after question words; when using need the speaker hopes for a
negative answer:

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a. ............ I take the exam this semester? No, but next semester you must.
b. Where .......... I put this file?
c. .............. I attend the meeting too?
d. ........... I pay the telephone bill today? I’m so busy.

5. Fill in the blanks with OUGHT TO, MUST, HAVE TO, SHOULD to express
advice:
a. As the others insist on it, you ......... do as they say.
b. You ...... go to the mountains. You look very tired.
c. “You ...... finish your work before going on holiday.” “I know I ............
d. You ........... take these pills three times a day as the doctor has told you to.
e. You .......... (not) smoke cigars, they will ruin your health.
f. Robert looks quite ill. He ...... have a rest.
g. I want to get as thin as a movie star. What .......... I do? You .......... see a
doctor about it.
h. You ........ stop drinking, or else you will get drunk.

6. Change the sentences below, using I would rather or I had better followed by a
short infinitive to express preference:

Note: Would rather + infinitive shows preference (e.g. I would rather drink
mineral water than Coca Cola)
Had better + infinitive shows desirability or advisability. (e.g. You had
better come in now. = You should come in now / You ought to come in now).

a. He prefers to work abroad than get a job in his own country.


b. It will be better if he sees a therapist at once.
c. It is advisable for her to go in for the TOEFL test.
d. I prefer not to sit up late.
e. It will be better for you to apply for a well-paid job.
f. It is advisable that we phone the After-Sales Services ourselves.
g. She prefers to watch passively than actively participate in the discussion.

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Remember!

EXPRESSING EXAMPLE
MODAL VERB
CAN(COULD) ability, capability Tom can read Arabic.
(equivalent: to be able to) She could play the piano, although
she could not read the notes
permission (informal Can I leave you for a moment?
alternative of may; could Could I leave early today?
is more polite)
possibility (could Do you think this ring could be
indicates greater doubt) gold?
COULD + negative deduction,
perfect infinitive impossibility She couldn’t have typed this letter,
she hasn’t learned to type yet.
assumptions
It’s no good waiting for John any
longer. - Well, let’s wait a few
reproach more minutes, he could have
missed the bus.
You could have told me you
were going
MAY(MIGHT) permission (equivalent: to May we watch the film on TV
be allowed/permitted to) tonight?
(might is more polite) Might I call you up again
possibility tomorrow?
assumption, guess He may/might come tomorrow.
(might indicates greater We’d better fill the tank up. We
doubt) may not get to another gas
MIGHT + reproach station for the next hours.
perfect infinitive You might have told me what
happened.
MUST necessity, obligation He must do all his homework
(equivalent: have to/have before he goes out. ...
got to) (negative: a)
mustn’t = duty not to do Must I help in the kitchen
something, prohibition; today? - No, you don’t have to.
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= no duty, absence of I’m going to open the present
obligation) now. - No, you mustn’t.
deductions We haven’t seen Tom today. He
must be ill.
MUST + perfect conclusions Where’s Jack? - I don’t know.
infinitive He must have missed the train.

But he can’t have missed the
train (imposibility).

NEED necessity, requirement


a) as an auxiliary: You needn’t copy the words.
Just try to remember them.
b) as main verb: Do we need to/Need we to
bring our textbooks tomorrow?
No. you don’t need/needn’t.
SHALL necessity, compulsion, The supplier shall deliver the
obligation (formal style) goods on due date.
request for advice,
suggestion (NB: first Shall I leave some coffee for
person only!) you here?
SHOULD advice, suggestion You should return those books
to the library.
duty, moral obligation You should work a little harder
for that high wages you get.
possibility, probability They should be at home by
wonder, surprise now.
How should I know? (also:
SHOULD + reproach How am I supposed to
perfect infinitive know?)
You should have left some
marks on that path. You
shouldn’t have left the map at
home.
OUGHT TO advice, suggestion You ought to be more careful
(alternative of should, but next time.
more emphatic)
duty, obligation You ought to be more polite
with your parents.

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WILL definite intention, firm Will you marry me?
decision
polite (but firm) request Will you sign the register,
and invitations please? Will you have another
repeated action sandwich?
refusal (in negative He will sit on the bench for
sentences) hours.
She won’t say a word about it
WOULD wish, intention I would tell you, but you didn’t
polite invitations and listen.
request Would you accompany me to
the concert?
repeated action Would you do me a favour?
refusal (in negative She would wait for me every
sentences) morning.
He wouldn’t let me help him.

DARE a) as main verb (to Nobody dared to contradict the


venture, to challenge) teacher.
b) as a modal (to have the
courage/impudence to) How dare you talk to me like
expressing indignation that?
USED TO (no present form; used for I used to smoke when I was
regular activities in the younger, but I gave up five years
past) repeated action ago.
BE TO order, instructions He is to stay at the airport until
(impersonal) the President arrives.

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SECTION B

LEAD-IN

Can you learn just by reading or listening to English?

You will certainly help yourself to learn English vocabulary not only by studying
with this book but also by reading and listening to English. Give each of the items
on the lists below a mark from 0 to 4 describing how important this way of learning
vocabulary could be for you personally.
Example: newspapers : 3.

newspapers TV (cable/subtitled) cinema magazines video


radio (e.g. BBC World Service) academic or professional literature fiction
simplified readers (with or without cassettes) music or other cassettes
talking to native speakers

¾ To what extent is the phone conversation important in the business world?


¾ Are you careful about your attitude on the phone, or any attitude or tone of
voice would do?
¾ How can we take the stress out of the telephone?

TELEPHONING

Mr. Abbott: Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. Johnson?


Secretary: Sorry, I’m afraid Mr. Johnson is out for a while. Would you leave
a message or call back later?
Mr. Abbott: Unfortunately, I’m in a hurry and I need to talk to someone from
the Sales Department. Could you put me through to Mr. Johnson’s
assistant?
Secretary: Of course, hold on, please, I’ll have to check up the extension. Oh
... here it is. Putting you through.
Mr. Abbott: Thanks.
……………………………………………………………………...
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Mr. Clark: Edward Clark speaking. Good morning. Can I help you?
Mr. Abbott: This is David Abbott from Mistral Ltd., importers of textile
products. We have received our pattern book and we are
particularly interested in some textiles made of pure cotton and
silk. Could you give me some more details on samples 156, 314
and 460?
Mr. Clark: Yes, certainly. I see that you have selected the most attractive
ones.
Mr. Abbott: We are going to extend our range of products and we are looking
for new shades and designs, but only of top quality.
Mr. Clark: Our products comply with all your requirements and at low prices,
too.
Mr. Abbott: Are these textiles guaranteed unshrinkable, colour-fast and crease-
resistant?
Mr. Clark: Absolutely. Moreover, I assure you that sample No. 212 which is
made of pure cotton is water-proof. I am sure that your clients will
also enjoy its light shade that is in fashion nowadays.
Mr. Abbott: Sure, but our Company would like to make sure of all these
characteristics before purchasing extensively; may I suggest you
send us a first dispatch on trial and the price quotations?
Mr. Clark: That’s a good idea; we’ll do that before signing our contract.
Anyway, considering the quality of our goods, your purchase is a
real bargain, believe me!

LANGUAGE WORK

ROLE-PLAY
How do you usually start a phone conversation to sound polite and get the
information you need? In pairs, prepare a conversation between a travel agent and
a customer, then act it out.

1. Define the following terms in English:

a. We are going to extend our range of products;


b. We are looking forward to new shades and designs;
c. unshrinkable;
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d. colour-fast;
e. crease-resistance;
f. water-proof;
g. before purchasing extensively.

2. Read the telephone dialogue below. Choose the best answer for each blank.

Marcu: Sigma Representative Offices, can I help you?


Anca: Yes. ________________________
a. This is Anca Barbu b. This is Ms. Barbu
Marcu: Hi, Anca. This is Marcu speaking. How are you?
Anca: ________________________
a. Fine and you? b. How are you?
Marcu: Just fine, thank you.
Anca: I’m calling to see if we can arrange a meeting. There are several
matters I’d like to discuss with you.
Marcu: Sure, when would it be convenient to you?
Anca: _________________________________
a. I want to meet with you tomorrow. b. Could we meet
tomorrow?
Marcu: Yes, that’s possible. What time suits you?
Anca: ___________________________________
a. How about 2:30? b. I’d like to see you at 2:30.
Marcu: Fine. I can make it. I’m looking forward to seeing you.
Anca: Me too. OK, in your office at 2:30 tomorrow, right?
Marcu: Right. See you then.
Anca: See you tomorrow.

3. Translate into English:

1. Dacă nu ştii un număr de telefon, îl poţi căuta în cartea de telefon sau formează
931 şi întreabă telefonista.
2. Desigur ai nevoie şi de prefixul oraşului sau regiunii unde apelezi.
3. Când nu eşti acasă şi vrei să dai un telefon, îţi trebuie o cartelă telefonică sau
nişte monede.

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4. Cine a lăsat acest mesaj pe robotul telefonic?.
5. “Îmi puteţi da interior 114, vă rog?” “Aşteptaţi un moment. Vă fac legătura”.
6. Îl puteţi ruga pe asociatul dumneavoastră să mă sune mâine neapărat ?

4. Complete these sentences with words from the box:

sample flaw long-term contract trade discount workmanship

a. As we have in mind an order of 5,000 pcs. of your product, could you


give us a ........................, considering that ours is a highly competitive
market.
b. While appreciating the good quality of all your .................., we find the
prices of patterns 235 and 236 rather high for our market.
c. Unfortunately, we cannot give you a better price, as ............................. is
rather expensive.
d. Pursuant to the quality inspection many ................... were found with your
goods.
e. Following our phone conversation two of our representative will travel to
Bucharest to enter into a .................... with your company.

5. Translate the following sentences, paying particular attention to modal verbs.


You will find the following vocabulary useful.

charges customs authorities free on board


customs formalities packing services stoppages

1. Ar trebui să evităm creşterea tarifelor la transportul naval până anul viitor;


concurenţa este mare.
2. 60% dintre societăţi estimează că respectarea termenelor de livrare le-ar
permite să-şi mărească cifra de afaceri.
3. Pentru produsele destinate exportului, atât ambalajul de transport cât şi cel
de prezentare trebuie să îndeplinească anumite condiţii.
4. Conform autorităţilor vamale, acest furnizor ar fi trebuit să ne expedieze
mărfurile cu transportul achitat.
5. S.N.C.F.R. se poate ocupa de formalităţile vamale, cu condiţia să i se pună
la dispoziţie facturile.
6. Am fost nevoiţi să amânăm sau să anulăm unele livrări din cauza unei
defecţiuni la calculator.
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7. Nu am putut să respectăm termenul de livrare din cauza unei serii de greve
în cadrul serviciului de ambalare.
8. Probabil că directorul a uitat să-i dea dosarul de prezentare.
9. Ca urmare a faptului că la ultima livrare s-au deteriorat mai multe
containere, s-ar putea să ne schimbăm agentul de transport.
10. Probabil că furnizorul a confundat ofertele deoarece pentru ultimul an a dat
un preţ mai mare.

Let’s learn some new phrases

by and large – this is another way of saying “usually”, “ on the whole”, or “more
or less”.
“Joseph makes mistakes from time to time of course, but by and large he is a good
student.”

off the cuff – spontaneous. At dinner parties in England, people used to make
speeches and sometimes, so they wouldn’t forget what to say, the men wrote a few
notes on their stiff, white shirt cuffs. These days, it means something said without
any preparation.
“I stood up and said a few words, right off the cuff.”

off the top of one’s head – without any preparation. This came into use in the late
1930s in the world of radio and later, TV programmes. The controller of the
broadcast would tap the top of his head as a sign to the people on air or on camera
that the programme was running ahead of schedule, and that they would have to
think of something more to say to fill in the rest of the time. For example, if the gap
was three minutes, the controller would tap his head and hold up three fingers.
“I don’t know exactly how old Mr Ford is. Off the top of my head, I would say
about 40.”

CHECKLIST

1. Name the component parts of a business letter.


2. What modal verbs can you use to make recommendations?
3. What is the difference between: i) I didn’t need to do my homework.
ii) I needn’t have done my homework.
4. What do you say i) when you phone a company and ask to speak to someone?
ii) when somebody phones your company and asks to speak to
your boss?
5. What are the negative contracted forms of WILL and SHALL?
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STOP AND CHECK

1. Fill in the blanks with one word (you are given either the beginning or the
end of it):

In Shakespeare’s time, there were only about six million speakers of


English altogether. (1) Now …………… it has become the most (2)
……………spread, as one of the major languages in the world, second only to
Chinese in the number of people who speak it. However, recent research (3) est
…………… that there are now over 400 million who use it as their mother tongue.
Globally, native speakers are in the (4) min …………… as perhaps as many as a
billion more people use it as a foreign language. This is, of course, largely due to
its use in the USA.
In some countries such as Ghana and Nigeria it has the status of an (5)
……………cial language. In India, English is an official language alongside Hindi
and no fewer than 3,000 English newspapers are (6) pub …………… throughout the
country.
All round the world people are trying to learn English. In 1983 more than
100 million people watched a course on Chinese TV made by the BBC to teach the
language at (7)…………… tary level.
People are motivated to learn because it has become the main language of
communication in (8) ……………macy, business, sport and sea-faring. It is also the
official language of air-traffic control, and airports. Three quarters of the world’s
mail is (9) wri…………… in it as well as 80% of all information stored in (10)
…………… ers. A Japanese company wishing to (11) …………… ate with an Italian
client would conduct its (12) nego …………… in English.
Two thirds of all scientists write in English. A Brazilian doctor reports that
he spends as much time improving his English as he does (13) …………… ing
medicine.
Due to telecommunications, and (14) esp …………… to Internet, English
is thought by some to become ‘the language of the future’, although the prediction
that all other languages will die out is absurd.

2. Complete these sentences with a positive or negative question tag from the box.

isn’t it were they weren’t you do you


didn’t you shall we have you haven’t you

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Example: You are a student, aren’t you?
They didn’t study physics, did they?

A: Now, you were born in Hawaii, (1) ……………………. ?


B: Yes, that’s right.
A: And then you all moved to Los Angeles, (2) ………………………. ?
B: Well, no. We moved to San Francisco first, then to LA.
A: Sorry. But you don’t live in LA now, (3) ……………………. ?
B: No, my family do. I live in Washington.
A: I see. Now, you’ve got two brothers, (4) …………………. ? And you are all
actors. That’s very unusual, (5) ………………… ?
B: I think it is, but my parents were both actors, so …
A: They weren’t very happy at first about your becoming an actor, (6) ……… ?
B: No, not at first. They didn’t want me to follow in their footsteps. But now
they’re really pleased about my success.
A: I know you’ve acted with your brothers in a film but you haven’t made a film
with your parents yet, (7) …………………. ?
B: No, but we’re hoping to do one together next year.
A: That’s very interesting. Let’s continue our interview after a small break, (8)... ?
B: Certainly.

3. Put in the right prepositions from the box.

at by from in in front of near next to of on opposite to until

Gerry is a teacher in a language school. He lives (1) ……… a small flat


(2) ……. the fourth floor of a building (3) …………… a small street (4) …………
Dresden. The school is not very (5) …………. his home; he goes (6) …………
work (7)…………… bus and leaves home at eight o’clock to arrive (8) ………..
work at nine. He usually does some work in the bus (9) ……… his way (10)
…………. work.
Gerry’s school is (11) ……….. a railway station. It is very big and it has a
lot (12) …… students. Gerry likes his office; it is (13) ………… the reception
desk, but it is big and quiet; there are some pretty trees (14) .………. his window.
He works (15) …………… nine o’clock (16) ……….. a quarter to one and then
goes to have lunch. Then he starts work again (17) ……… two and stops (18)
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………… five. On his way back (19) ………… work he does some shopping and
has supper (20) ………….. home. He likes living (21) ………… Germany; he
doesn’t go home to England (22) ………… holiday, but visits the sights (23) …….
Germany.
It is Saturday morning now, and Gerry is (24) ……… home (25) …….
bed. (26) …….. Saturday he gets up at ten o’clock and then sits (27) ……… the
living room to have breakfast. (28) ………….. Saturday afternoons he plays tennis
or goes swimming. (29) ……. Saturday evenings he usually goes out. He enjoys
the sort (30) ……… life he lives.

4. Fill in the blanks with a, an or ∅ (no article):

1. I like to go abroad about three times _____ year.


2. Have you met my brother? He’s _____ engineer too.
3. I’m thinking about buying _____ new car. What would you recommend?
4. _____ computer software is not as expensive as you think.
5. The government has urged businesses not to give _____ pay rises above
inflation.
6. How long have you been in _____ engineering?
7. I think I should do _____ course in Business Administration.
8. I have _____ idea: what about doing _____ evening course in _____
accounting? It only takes up _____ hour a week.

5. Complete the blanks in the following passages with the or ∅ (no article):

Hi, my name’s Todd Sawyer. I’m a financial analyst, and I work for a company
called (1) _____ Pacific Investment which is based in (2) _____ Channel Islands.
Our offices are in (3) _____ St. Helier, (4) ____ capital of the main island, (5)
_____ Jersey. Jersey is very popular with financial institutions from (6) _____
England because it is not part of (7) _____ UK for tax purposes, and it is also
popular with investors from (8) _____ Europe.
I work for a tour operator called (9) _____ Lakeland Travel, and we specialize in
bringing people to (10) _____ Lake District which is in (11) _____ north of (12)
_____ England. We run a hotel, (13) _____ Capitol, which is in (14) _____
Ambleside, a small town on shores of (15) _____ Lake Windermere. Many of our
visitors come from Scotland, which is very close, but others come from as far away
as (16) _____ New York or (17) _____ Far East.

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6. Match the department with its duties:

1. Marketing a. develops new products


2. Personnel b. helps customers with problems
3. Accounts c. advertises and markets products
4. Research and Development d. organises payment
5. Sales e. sends goods to customers
6. Dispatch f. buys goods for the company
7. Purchasing g. sells the company’s products
8. Production h. makes goods in the factory
9. After-Sales i. deals with employees

7. In each of the following sentences, put one of the verbs into the present simple
and the other into the present continuous:

Example:
We are interviewing (interview) people from outside the company for the new
post in the export department, but I think (think) we ought to give the job to Mr
Jackson.
1. At the moment, we ____________ (carry) out an experiment to find out what
sort of after-sales service our customers ___________ (want).
2. We’ve got a competition on at work about our new range of cosmetics. The
marketing people ___________ (try) to find a brand name that __________
(sound) natural and sophisticated.
3. ___________ (you/ know) what Mrs. Ericson ___________ (do) ? She’s not in
her office and she hasn’t left for lunch either.
4. Could you help me? I ___________ (try) to translate this letter from a Spanish
client and I don’t know what this word ____________ (mean).
5. I ___________ (apply) for a transfer to our London office, but I don’t know if
I’ll be successful. It all ____________ (depend) on whether or not they have any
vacancies.
6. Their new instant coffee ___________ (taste) very good, so it’s not surprising
that it ______________ (become) more and more popular.

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8. Look at the time line and complete the article about Liber, an Italian shoe
company.

Date Event
1928 Giovanni Liberti born in Milan
1944-48 Learns to make shoes
1963 Sets up Liber in north of Italy
1968 Liber is the main shoe manufacturer in Italy
1977 Sales rise to over $1 million
1980 Liber inaugurates its first foreign factory in Portugal
1991 Liber opens a factory in Malaysia
1992 Sales go up to over $1,000 million
1994 Production starts in China under licence
1997 Production begins in Liber’s factory in Thailand
1998 Liber opens a subsidiary in

Giovanni Liberti (1) ……………. Liber in 1963. Five years later, it (2)
………….. the main shoe manufacturer in Italy and in 1977 sales (3 )
…………………. to over $1 million. The company’s first foreign factory (4)
………………………. in Portugal in 1980.
In the 1990s, the company continued to expand. Liber (5) ……………..
another factory in Malaysia in 1991. The company’s sales (6) ………………… to
over $1,000 million the following year. In 1994 they (7) …………………… to
produce shoes under licence in China and the year after that production (8)
……………….. in a new Liber factory in Thailand.
At present the company (9) ………………… more than seven million pairs of
shoes per year all over the world. The main markets are Germany, Japan and Italy.
Today Liber is a big international company, but it is still a family business –
now his son-in-law (11) …………… as Marketing Manager.

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9. Complete the following letter. Use present perfect or past tense.
High Trees,
Hills Road,
Cambridge
July 3rd

Dear Brigitte,

I (1) …………… (be) in Cambridge for almost a year now, and I (2) ……….. (have)
a wonderful time.
Perhaps the most exciting thing that (3) ………………… (happened) to me was
going to a May Ball. Let me explain – every year in June (although they’ re called
May Balls!) the colleges organize big dances with lovely food and champagne
served from marquees in the college ground. The dance goes on all night, and then,
at dawn, people take a boat and have breakfast on the river. For a May Ball the
students wear dinner jackets and bow ties, and long dresses, although they usually
wear jeans and T - shirts!
Before the ball, I (4)……………… (meet) my friends in a typical Cambridge
student pub called “The Bath”. Apparently there’s an old student joke: “If my
mother calls, tell her I ’m in ‘ The Bath ’.”
One Saturday I (5) ………………….(go) down to the river to watch the ‘bumps’ -a
rowing competition between colleges where each boat tries to overtake or ‘bump’
another boat. Lots of people (6)…………….(get) very wet!
I (7) …………… (find) out that you can learn a lot just by being in England! Yesterday,
I (8) ………………. (learn) a new expression – Hobson’s choice. Apparently a man
called Thomas Hobson (9) ……………….. (live) in Cambridge about 200 years
ago. He (10) ……………... (have) about forty horses, and whenever a customer
(11) ………….. (want) to hire one, he always (12) ………………….. (give) them the
one that had rested longest. The only choice was ‘Hobson ’s choice’, that is no
choice at all, and that ’s what it means today!
Please write soon and tell me what you (13) ………… (do) lately. 14) ……………
(see) you Grete recently? When you meet her, send her my best wishes.
Lots of love,
Frieda.

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10. Fill in the blank with the correct tense of the verb or auxiliary -- past simple
or present perfect.

Lisa: Hi, Philip, how are things?


Philip: Hi, Lisa. I’m fine, thanks. I’m on my way to the Training Centre for the
Spanish class.
Lisa: The Spanish class?!
Philip: (1) ……………………….. (not / hear) about it?
Lisa: Not a bit. Who organised them?
Philip: The HR manager. He (2) ……………… (set up) the in-service programme
a few months ago, but the word (3) …………………… (not go round) yet.
Lisa: When (4) ……………….……. you (start) it?
Philip: In October. We (5) ………………. already (finish) the first module.
Lisa: (6) …..………... (take) any tests for that ?
Philip: Certainly. We (7) …………………. (take) a placement test at the end of
September for the teacher to decide which class is best for us.
Lisa: I see you (8) ………………. (buy) a lot of course books!
Philip: I (9) …………………. ( not have to). We (10) …………………. (receive)
all teaching material right at the beginning.
Lisa: This course sounds interesting. Such classes will do me good, either. I (11)
…………………………..…….. (not practise) Spanish for ages.
Philip: That’s right. I (12) ……………….. (have) some Spanish lessons two years
ago, but since then I (13) …………..………..(use) it quite seldom.
Lisa: So (14) …………. I.
Philip: Then it might be a good idea to join the class.
Lisa: Yes, I’ll think about that.

11. Here are two scrambled letters. Identify the opening and the closing para-
graphs. Write the two letters separately.
(1) Via de Santiago, 131-6B
36002 Pontevedra
Spain
(2) You can collect them from 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m., Monday to Saturday, at our shop
in Wimbledon, or we can post them to you.
(3) 12 June 1999
(4) Naveed Chandra

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(5) I am writing to thank you for the lovely gift that you sent me for my
birthday. How did you know that my favourite colour was red? It was very
kind of you to think of me.
(6) Velvet Vibes
117 High Street
Wimbledon
London SW12
Tel: (0181) 967 2456
(7) Dear Monique,
(8) My exams finish next week. We've got Maths on Wednesday and English on
Friday. After that, it's the holidays!
(9) I am writing to inform you that the CDs you ordered on 24 February arrived
this morning
(10) Write soon and tell me all you news. I am enclosing a photo that Celia took of
me wearing my new red T-shirt.
(11) Yours sincerely,
(12) Take care. Hope to hear from you soon.
(13) 1 March 1999
(14) Aurora
(15) Let me know your plans for the holidays – maybe we could arrange something.
(16) Ms Annette Jacks
53 Old Coach Rd
Tooting
London SW13 6YT
(17) Now you can see how it looks on me!
(18) Love,
(19) Dear Ms Jacks,
(20) I would love to see you. Maybe I could visit you in France, or would you like
to come to Spain?
(21) I would be grateful if you would contact me as soon as possible with your
instructions.
A ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
B ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

12. Fill in the blanks with WON’T (present) or WOULDN’T (past) to express
refusal or failure:
a) I expected him to be reasonable, but he …………………….... listen to me.
b) I want to give him a chance, but he ...…………………………….... take it.
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c) “I expected her to come too”. “ She wanted to, but I …………...... let her”.
d) I wanted to leave, but she .…………………………………......... hear of it.
e) No matter how hard I try, this engine ……………………………....... start.
f) Can you lend me your car? Mine .………………………………….... start.

13. Replace the italicized words by used to or to be used to as required by the


sense. Make any other necessary changes:

Note: Used to + infinitive = a past discontinued habit. (e.g. I used to skate when I
was young)
To be used to + noun/-ing form = be accustomed to. (e.g. She was used to
the noise in the workshop).

a. At their age they are not accustomed to working so late.


b. John was in the habit of getting whatever he wanted.
c. Usually they went to the university by tube.
d. He always had a cup of coffee after lunch.
e. Students usually turned in rather late.
f. Before I joined the army I was in the habit of having my own way.
g. I am not accustomed to being spoken in this way.
h. He had the habit of asking “why” to whatever question you asked him.

14. Match the sentences (1-20) with their appropriate translations (A-T):

1. She can write it. A. Se poate să-l scrie ea.


2. She could write it. B. Ea va trebui să-l scrie.
3. She was able to write it. C. S-ar putea să-l scrie ea.
4. She could have written it. D. Ar fi trebuit să-l scrie.
5. She will be able to write it. E. Nu era nevoie să-l scrie.
6. She must write it. F. Nu i s-a permis să-l scrie.
7. She will have to write it. G. Nu trebuia neapărat să-l scrie.
8. She had to write it. H. Ar fi putut să-l scrie.
9. She must have written it. I. Dacă l-ar scrie…
10. She should write it. J. S-ar putea să-l fi scris.
11. She should have written it. K. Ar trebui să-l scrie.
12. She would have written it. L. Trebuie să-l scrie.
13. She may write it. M. A putut să-l scrie.
14. She might write it. N. Se poate să-l fi scris.
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15. She may have written it. O. Probabil că l-a scris.
16. She might have written it. P. A trebuit să-l scrie.
17. She didn’t need to write it. Q. Poate să-l scrie.
18. She needen’t have written it. R. L-ar fi scris.
19. She wasn’t allowed to write it. S. Va putea să-l scrie.
20. If she should write it ... T. Ar putea să-l scrie

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UNIT 6

LOOKING AHEAD

SECTION A

LEAD-IN

Answer these questions about the future. Imagine you put the answers in a
safe place and you don’t look at them again until the year 2010!

¾ PERSONAL ƒ Which of these things will you


• How old will you be in the year have in your house?
2010? (a) video telephone (b) satellite
• Where do you think your home TV (c) a robot (d) solar heating
will be? ƒ Which of these stars will still be
• Will you be married or single? famous?
• Will you have any children? (a) Madonna (b) Michael Jackson
• How often will you speak English? (c) Tom Cruise (d) the Beatles
(a)every day (b) often (c) (e) Brad Pitt
sometimes ƒ What kind of clothes will be in
(c) sometimes (d) not very often fashion in 2010?
(e) never
¾ TECHNOLOGY
¾ WORK • Will humans be on Mars by the
ƒ What kind of job do you think you year 2010? YES NO
will have in the year 2010?
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ƒ On a scale of 5 (1=not important; • Will pollution be
5=very important), how important (a) a more serious problem than now?
will these things be for you? (b) a less serious problem than now?
(a) a computer (b) the opportunity • What will be the most important
to work at home (c) the opportunity to source of energy?
share your job with another person (d) • Will there be a cure for
the opportunity to work abroad (a) AIDS? YES NO
ƒ How many hours a week do you (b) cancer? YES NO
think you will work? • How many nuclear weapons will
there be?
¾ LEISURE • (a) more than today (b) the same
ƒ What will your hobbies be? number as now (c) fewer than
ƒ Will you be a vegetarian? YES NO today (d) none

1. Complete these sentences below with words from the box:

environmentally-friendly teleworker
on-line greenhouse flexitime
life expectancy illiterate job security fuel
man-made elderly household appliances

1 People grow vegetables and flowers in a ……………………………………... .


2 When people cannot read or write, they are ………………………………….. .
3 Refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, TV sets are …………………………………. .
4 A(n) ………………………….. is someone who uses personal computers,
telephones, etc., to work from home.
5 …………………….. is the statistically determined average number of years of
life.
6 An object that cannot be found in nature is ……………………. .
7 ……………………. is a system in which the beginning or the end of working
hours is not fixed.
8 The ………………… are people past middle age.
9 …………………… is any substance burnt as a source of heat or power, such
as coal or petrol.
10 ………………….means that someone is protected against poverty or want as a
result of unemployment.

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11 A(n) …………………….. device is directly connected to and controlled by a
central processing unit of a computer.
12 Any product or process that does not harm the ecological system is ………… .

READING

Between 1981 and 1989 the number of children in Britain between the ages
of 10 and 15 dropped from over four million to just over three million. The picture
is similar all over Europe.
By the year 2000, there will have been a 37% drop in the youth population
of Germany, a 22% drop in the United Kingdom and a 12% drop in France.
There will be fewer adolescents in the late 1990s in Britain, but the number
of people between 30 and 44 will grow by 8%. Economists say that because of this,
High Street will change. Fewer shops will sell clothes, food and drink for young
people. There will be less loud music in restaurants and pubs and the whole
atmosphere will be quieter.
What kind of people will today’s adolescents be by the year 2000?
Certainly more people will be vegetarian. The number of vegetarians may grow
from 2% of the population to almost 4% in the next ten years. 10% of all students
are vegetarians. They will also be more conscious of healthy foods and the
environmentally-friendly things in shops.
Young people will have more international life-styles, and many will go
abroad to work in the next decade. Over 50% of 18–21-year olds in Britain think of
themselves as ‘European citizens’.

Read the text and decide whether the following statements are true () or false
()

1. ___ There is a dramatic decrease in the number of youth in Europe.


2. ___ There will be more adolescents in Britain at the end of the decade.
3. ___ Not many shops will sell articles for young people.
4. ___ The adolescents will ignore healthy foods and environmentally-friendly
goods.
5. ___ Less than half of the young people in Britain think of themselves as
‘European citizens’.
Have the predictions made than years ago become true?

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2. Work in pairs. You’re going to read an article called Growing trends which is
about life in the future. Here are the topic sentences taken from four of the
paragraphs. Discuss what you think each paragraph will say.

1 In the 21st century we will almost certainly be living in a warmer world.


2 In the 21st century most families will be using computers in the home to do
a variety of tasks.
3 By the 21st century a population explosion will have taken place in the
developing world.
4 Statistics show that society is becoming more violent.

The environment
In the 21st century we will almost certainly be living in a warmer world. The
world will continue to use fossil fuels which release carbon dioxide, the main cause
of global warming, ‘the greenhouse effect’ as it is also called.
Damage done to the ozone layer by man-made chemicals will mean that our
children will have an increased risk of developing skin cancer.
We will be living in a world with less energy available and we will be forced
to reduce our energy consumption.

Technology
In the 21st century most families will be using computers in the home to do a
wide variety of tasks. A great part of the technology we will be using a generation
from now already exists in some form. Over 3 million British households have
personal computers today and a further 650,000 will probably purchase them in the
next year.
In 25 years’ time computers will be a million times faster than they are today.
They will have become easier to use, but anyone who has not learnt how to use
them will be seriously disadvantaged, particularly in the field of employment. They
will be considered ‘computer illiterate’.

Population
By the 21st century a population explosion will have taken place in the
developing world. In developed countries, the size of the population will have
stabilised but the proportion of older people will have increased dramatically and
there will be problems associated with care of the elderly and medical services. It
may no longer be possible for the government to provide pensions for everybody.
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Society
Statistics show that society is becoming more violent. 95% of Britons think
that it is unsafe to walk the streets at night; 85% believe that it used to be safer 30
years ago. The average person’s risk of becoming a victim of violent crime has
increased three times since 1979.
This trend will almost certainly continue. Rising criminality will be one of the
most serious problems that people in the 21st century will be facing.
(adapted from Reward, Heinemann)

¾ Match the following suggestions with one of the predictions in the text.
1 Don’t fear technology or become a slave to it. It’s more important to
learn what technology can do for you than to understand how it is
done.
2 Do your best to conserve energy.
3 Buy sun-hats and sun-cream and teach your children to keep out of the
sun.
4 Start talks with your neighbours about hiring private security guards.
5 Take out a private pension plan so that you are not dependent on the
government when you are older.
6 Travel as much as you can now. With decreasing fuel supplies it may
not be possible when you are older.
Work in pairs. Do you agree with these suggestions? Can you imagine other
solutions?

LANGUAGE WORK

1. Fill in the gaps with the suitable prepositions: by, of, over, to, under 1.
Example: Productivity will rise from 4% to 10%.

1. The profits of telecommunications companies will grow ____ approximately


25% in the next decade.
2. The sales of our beauty soap have dropped ____ the lowest level in the last
years.
3. ____ 2 million people left their homes running away from the huge hurricane.
4. The promotion campaign had a poor echo. ____ 15% of the target consumers
bought the new brand of oil.

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5. The price of gold has fallen ____ almost a quarter since the beginning of the
year.
6. A decrease ____ 40% in white-collar criminality was considered a success.

2. Arrange the expressions in the box in the appropriate columns:

I’m quite confident that … I’m positive that … The chances are that …
I expect that … I’m quite sure + (won’t) … I doubt if … Perhaps
… I shouldn’t think that … I doubt very much that … Maybe…

PROBABLE IMPROBABLE
CERTAIN POSSIBLE IMPOSSIBLE
(LIKELY) (UNLIKELY)
I’m positive
that…

3. Match the sentences in column A with sentences in column B that have a similar
meaning as given in the italicised example.

A B
1 I’m quite confident they will sign a They are not certain to sign the
the deal. deal.
2 I doubt very much if they will sign b We definitely won’t win the
the deal. contract.
3 I shouldn’t think they will sign the c We probably won’t win the
deal. contract.
4 Perhaps we’ll win the contract. d We’re likely to win the contract.
5 I’m quite sure we won’t win the e We may win the contract.
contract.
6 I doubt if we’ll win the contract. f They are unlikely to sign the deal.
7 I expect we’ll win the contract. g They are certain to sign the deal.

4. Rewrite the sentences, using the word in brackets in your answer.


Example: He says we are certain to expand next year.
(confident) He is confident that we will expand next year.
1. They’ll probably give us better terms.
(imagine) ……………………………………………
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2. I’ll probably have a lot to do early tomorrow.
(likely) ………………………………………………
3. I shouldn’t think that their new store will attract many customers.
(unlikely) ……………………………………………………………..
4. I expect that they’ll take control of the company.
(probably) ……………………………………………
5. The chances are that they’ll give us the answer immediately.
(likely) ………………………………………………..…………

5. Make predictions about the following economic and business-related aspects:


Example: People will spend more money in the next decade than they do now.

I think people will probably spend more money in the next decade than
they do now.

or I don’t think people will spend more money in the next decade than
they do now.

1. More people will be teleworkers.


2. China will become the world’s most powerful economy.
3. Flexitime and job insecurity mean that people will work much longer.
4. Virtually everyone will be on-line in his or her own home.
5. More people will be working in tourism than in any other industry.
6. Korea will come to dominate the automobile and household appliance
industries.
7. The gap between the rich and the poor will enlarge.
8. Life expectancy will increase by two years.
9. Everyone will have a mobile telephone.
10. The European Union will break up.

GRAMMAR FOCUS

1. Future continuous and future perfect


Answer these questions and try and guess the meaning of the words and phrases in
italic.
a) … will be living … -- Does this mean will be alive at that time or after it?
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b) … will have stabilised … -- Does this mean will have continued to change or
will have stopped changing?

2. Future continuous or future perfect?


Write complete sentences about what Georgia thinks she will have done by the
time she’s forty or will be doing at that time.

Example
work in a multinational company I’ll be working in a multinational.
get a MBA I’ll have got a MBA.
a. become a multi-millionaire
……………………………………………………………………………………
b. run my own insurance business
………….…………………………………………………………………………
c. move to Boston
……………………………………………………………………………….……
d. live in a mansion
……………………………………………………………………………….……
e. marry a renowned politician
………………………………………………………………………………….…
f. have one child
…………………………………………………………………….………………
g. give up smoking
………………………………………………………….………………………….

¾ Prefixes and suffixes

95% of Britons think that it is unsafe to walk the streets at night.


Can you find in the text above other examples of words formed with negative
prefixes?

1. Do the following words mean a thing, a person, or both? Look them up in a


dictionary.
cooker computer cleaner
smoker drinker pencil-sharpener
projector shopper layer

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2. Use the suffixes –er /-or and –ee to give the names of the following:
Example: An employer is the persons who hires staff.
An addressee is the person to whom a letter is addressed.

a ______________________ is the person who sends a letter.


b ______________________ takes professional photographs.
c ______________________ is the person who trains athletes.
d ______________________ is someone who is hired and given payment for his
or her work.
e ______________________ is a person who makes a donation.
f ______________________ is the person to whom a letter is addressed.
g ______________________ is someone who is taken an interview.

3. Contradict the following statements using negative prefixes: dis-, il-, im-, in-,
ir, un-.
Example: He is a very efficient man.
I don’t agree. I think he’s inefficient.
1 I find this procedure quite logical.
2 Our customers will be satisfied with the new look of the company.
3 The speaker presented a very relevant point.
4 This issue is extremely important for our business.
5 The arrangement was rather convenient.
6 It is still possible to find the solution to this problem.

Remember!

¾ Prefixes and suffixes

unbearable

un- bear -able

prefix root suffix


to form word to form
the opposite the adjective

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Prefixes Meaning Example
dis-, il-, im-, in-, ir-, opposite dissatisfaction, illogical, improbable,
un- incorrect, irrational, unimportant
multi- many multinational
over-, super-, hyper- too much overtime, superman
under- too little underestimated

Suffixes Meaning Example


-ful with careful
-less without careless
-able, -al, -ible, -ic, forms adjectives readable, national, flexible,
-ing, -ive, -ous economic interesting, productive,
humorous,
-ence, - ent, -ian, forms nouns patience, achievement, politician,
-ion, explanation, ecologist, activity,
-ist, -ity, -ness, -or, fitness, actor, dealership
-ship
-ly forms adverbs slowly

Did you know that ...


... in an average life you will walk 240,000 km, sleep for 25 years, eat 7,800 loaves
of bread, lose 127 kg of dead skin and spend 12 years watching television?

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SECTION B

LEAD-IN

What are you doing at the weekend?


Where are you going to spend your summer holiday?
Are you going to get a job next year?
Are you going to learn Spanish?

READING

A Hello, Barbara. How are you?


B Fine, Alice. And you?
A Not so bad, thanks. Listen, I’m ringing to arrange a meeting with you. I’m
coming to Edinburgh next Wednesday to see our partners. (1) Will you go
shopping with me any time in the afternoon?
B (2) I won’t be in Edinburgh, I’m afraid. I’m going abroad for a few days on
business.
A Oh, where are you going?
B To Germany. I’m attending a conference in Hamburg on environment.
A Mmm. Sounds nice. When are you going?
B On Monday evening, and I’m coming back on Thursday morning.
A Oh, well. I could stay overnight and see you then.
B Right. (3) I’ll give you the address of a good B&B.
A That seems fine. (4) Will you book a room for me then?
B Certainly. Say, Alice, what are you going to buy?
A Wallpapers and paintings for our new flat. (5) Will you help me choose
some?
B It goes without saying. I’m sure (6) we’ll have a great time together.
Thanks for ringing. Bye.
A Cheerio. I’ll see you on Thursday then. Have a good trip.

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(a) Read the dialogue. Find out which of the will phrases in italics is used to:

make an instant decision…………… make a prediction …………………..…..


make an invitation ……………….… make a request ………………….…..….

(b) Match the sentences on the left with the replies on the right:

1. I’ll buy you another drink. A. Yes, they all say it’ll be fine.
2. I’ll arrive as soon as I can. B. Okay, what would you like?
3. Will you get me something to eat? C. Thank you. That’s very kind of
you.
4. Will you sit down with us? D. I’m sorry. I’ll bring you another
plate.
5. I’m sure you’ll have a wonderful E. Thanks. I’ll have an orange juice.
evening.
6. I won’t have this soup. It’s cold. F. Okay, make sure you’re not late.

GRAMMAR FOCUS

A. Read the following sentences:


a. Wait a minute, will you? I’m speaking on the phone.
b. I’m speaking with my partner on Friday. We have to sort out things.

a. I’m sorry I can’t join you, but I’m very busy at the moment. I’m
preparing my exams.
b. I’m presenting the annual report next week.
What tense was used in each of them? Which sentences refer to actions happening
at the moment of speaking? Which sentences refer to actions that will happen in the
future? What future time phrases are used?

¾ Present simple or present continuous?


1. Complete the conversation using the present continuous for arrangements (e.g.
he’s coming) or the present simple for official schedules (e.g. he comes). The first
one has been done for you.

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Sue: Hello, Sue Cox is speaking.
Dan: Oh Sue, this is Dan Cullen. How are you? I (1) ‘m coming (come)………
Birmingham on Sunday and I’d like to meet you next week. Can we
arrange a time?
Sue: I’d love to. When are you free?
Dan: Well how about having lunch on Monday?
Sue: I’m afraid I can’t. I (2) …………………..…… (have) lunch with the new
Chairman. What about Tuesday at 10.30?
Dan: No, no way. Matthew, my agent, (3) …………………….…. (come) to the
office. Wednesday afternoon might be a possibility.
Sue: Not for me. My secretary, Betty, (4) ……………………….. (get married)
and all of us (5) …………………….……. (go) to the wedding. And on
Thursday morning I (6) ……………………… (drive) up to York for a
board meeting with Dr. Tolley.
Dan: What time (7) ………………. the meeting ………………….. (start)?
Sue: 11.30 a.m. I’ve got an idea! Why don’t you come with me? We can talk on
the way.
Dan: That sounds good. Oh, but wait a sec, I can’t. I (8) …………………….
(talk) to a group of business people about Australian opportunities over
lunch.
Sue: So Friday, then. Yes. That’s the only possibility because my return flight to
Sydney (9) …………………….. (leave) at 9.00 a.m. on Saturday. So,
11.30 a.m. on Friday morning at your office?
Dan: Yes, that’s perfect. I’m really looking forward to seeing you then.

¾ MAKING ARRANGEMENTS

Suggesting a Will March 26th be convenient? (formal) What about….?


time (informal)
Accepting Yes, March 26th suits me. (formal) Yes, I think I’ll make
it. (informal)
Refusing I’m afraid I can’t. I’m having….(formal) Sorry. I’m quite
tied up. (informal)

In pairs work out one dialogue to arrange a business lunch (formal) and one
dialogue to arrange a meeting with your friend (informal).

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B. Read the following sentences paying attention to the words in italics:
1) The AS Group is going to open a new Renault dealership this summer.
2) Based on these figures, we are going to make a profit of $1,5 m this year.
3) The meeting is going to end any minute now.

Which sentence expresses:


a a prediction based on present evidence?
b a decision?
c an event to happen soon?

¾ ‘will’ or ‘going to’?


2. Complete the sentences using will for predictions or instant decisions or going
to for intentions. Add any other necessary words.The first one has been done for
you.
1. I’ve got to fax a Berlin number. Do you know the area code?
No, I’ll look it up in the directory for you.

2. What are you doing over the Easter holidays?


Absolutely nothing. We …………………………….. some rest.
3. Did you hear the weather forecast?
Yes. ……………………. cold at first, then …………….. some light
showers this afternoon and then …………………. a little warmer in the
evening.
4. Why didn’t you come to the fair in Manchester?
I had to learn. I ……………………. to sit for entrance exams at the
International Business School.
5. If you are elected, what …………… your party ……………… about
unemployment?
We have fully considered this issue. When we win the election, we
………… create half a million new jobs.
6. What are you doing here? The boss is expecting you for the meeting.
I completely forgot! I ………………………… finish typing my report in a
minute. Thanks for reminding me.
7. How will the proposed VAT increase affect your business?
Frankly speaking, we haven’t thought about it yet. We …………………
devise a strategy when we get to it.
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8. Christopher …………………… 64 years old in November and he
………………. retire next year.

3. Add comments to the sentences. Use present continuous, going to, or will.
Example: I’m afraid I can’t meet you for the lunch on the 30th.
I’m seeing Mr. Mullin in Lisbon.

1. The management have announced how they intend to reduce costs.


………………………………………………………………………………………
2. I’m sorry, I didn’t realize you were busy.
……………………………………………………………………………………....
3. The company is in serious financial difficulty.
……………………………………………………………………………………...
4. I need some time to think about this proposal.
………………………………………………………………………………………
5. Sorry. I’m in a hurry right now.
……………………………………………………………………….………..……
6. My boss is looking for another job.
………………………………………………………………..…………………..…
7. I’m not sure whether the flight to Rome is due tomorrow.
…………………………………………………………………………………..….
8. Our Export Manager is in Romania at the moment looking at new offices.
……………………………………………………………………………………….

¾ Colours
People grow vegetables and flowers in a greenhouse. Here are some more
words and phrases with colours.
When you are £50 in the red, it means that you spent more than you have in
your account and you owe money to the bank. If your finances are in the black
you do not owe anybody any money.
Black-and-white may refer to photographs, films, TV sets, anything written or
printed, or situations that seem simple and easy to make decisions about.
White goods mean fridges, washing machines and other large pieces of
household appliances, as opposed to brown goods - TV sets, (video)cassette
recorders, CD players, stereo systems, and other electronic equipment.

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Here are some words and phrases formed with colours: red, blue, black, white,
grey, yellow. Read the definitions and complete the sentences below.

white-collar workers that work in offices rather than doing manual work in
industry
black economy the trading or producing of goods or services that people are
engaged in to avoid paying taxes
Yellow Pages telephone directory in which companies and people are listed and
grouped according to the kind of business they are involved in
red tape complicated rules and regulations, when considered unnecessary,
bureaucratic
grey area an area of a subject or situation that does not fit into a particular
category
blueprint a plan or set of proposals that shows how it is expected to work

1. Growing ………………………is beginning to worry the Government.


2. It takes weeks to go through all the …………….. involved in getting a visa.
3. ……………………….. professionals work now longer hours than they used
to ten years ago.
4. The prime minister will offer delegates his …………. for the country’s future.
5. If you need the phone number of a plumber, look it up in the ………………….
6. The new rules for police procedure cleared up a lot of …………………..

¾ ARGUMENTS ‘FOR’ AND ‘AGAINST’


Look at these discourse markers often used in a debate to express pros and cons
(‘for’ and ‘against’). Use them to complete the sentences below.

To introduce a point: firstly, secondly, one advantage is that, on the plus/ minus
side, for one thing, finally, last of all
To give an example: for instance, for example, e.g., such as
To add extra information: moreover, furthermore, in addition, besides, another
point is that
To express a contrast: however, nevertheless, yet, in spite of this, despite
To express an opinion: in my opinion, personally
To draw a conclusion: to sum up, in conclusion, in short, briefly
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1. He doesn’t accept he can make mistakes. …………….., he is totally
incapable.
2. Some fruits and vegetables, ……………apricots, peaches, or carrots, are rich
in beta-carotene.
3. …………………, we may say that all the proofs have shown she was wrong.
4. ……………………, I think the next century will be very interesting.
5. The train was an hour late. ……………., I managed to get to the meeting in
time.
6. I don’t think they’ll come to the party. ……….…….. they are very busy. Then,
they don’t socialise too much.

 Choose on of the following topics and write a composition of 250 words.


♦ Testing drugs and cosmetics on animals
♦ The nuclear energy
♦ Package holidays
♦ Career women
♦ TV - an educational medium
♦ Marrying young

Start by stating the topic issue.


Working abroad may have both advantages and disadvantages.
Continue the paragraph with ‘for’ reasons.
On the plus side, it is often easier to find work there.
Begin a new paragraph with a topic sentence presenting the ‘against’ reasons.
However, many people cannot adapt themselves to the new environment.
Continue the paragraph adding further information.
What is more, they feel homesick more often than not.
Finish the composition with a new paragraph, starting with a topic sentence which
states your conclusion.
In conclusion, I think that living abroad can be appealing especially to
young people.
State your reasons.
They like the excitement of adventure and find it easier to learn new
customs and rules.

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Remember!

¾ WAYS TO EXPRESS FUTURE

FORM USAGE EXAMPLES


will + short - predictions (simple future) I’m sure our economy will recover soon.
infinitive instant decisions The phone is ringing. ~I’ll answer it.
be going + - future events based on present The sky is cloudy, it is going to rain.
infinitive evidence
(near future) I’m going to start my own business
- intentions or decisions already made next month.
(future of intention)
simple present - future events in when and if clauses When / if you see the results, you’ll be
fixed times (official timetable very happy.
or calendar) The plane for Vienna takes off at 7.30
am.
present definite arrangements (personal I’ m taking the plane for Vienna
continuous agenda) tomorrow morning
will + perfect a future event completed before In one’s year time I will have
infinitive a future point (future perfect) finished studying this course book.
will + an event in progress at a future When you arrive at the airport, he
present point (future continuous) will be waiting for you.
participle
be about + immediate future I think the meeting is about to start now.
infinitive, Mary is on the point of resigning.
be on the point
of + …ing

CHECKLIST

1. What future verb forms can you use to make arrangements?


2. Think of two pairs of prefixes and/or suffixes having a positive and a negative
meaning.
3. Think of two contexts for the adjectives older and elder.
4. What expressions can you use to inform a customer that it is probable/
improbable to find your boss that day?
5. Is the following sentence correct: If you will kindly wait a moment, I’ll ask him
to speak to you.

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UNIT 7

INTERESTS AND
INTERESTS ANDHOBBIES
HOBBIES

SECTION A

LEAD-IN

• What are hobbies? What are they good for?


• Which is the difference between an interest and a hobby?
• Do you think an interest supposes going deeper, both theoretically and
practically into the matter?
• What do you think of being more scientific: an interest in doing something or a
hobby?
• Don’t you think that people who pass all bounds in a hobby go into the field of
a profession?
• What is the difference among these words: hobby, pleasure, entertainment,
passion, science, profession and recreation?

READING

AUTOGRAPHS THAT SPELL MONEY


While leafing through an old handwritten book of poetry, Peter Croft of Sotheby’s,
the London auctioneers, noticed that certain pages were in a different hand from
the rest. The moment he saw the handwriting on those dozen pages he realized that
he had uncovered a rare seventeenth century literary treasure.
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Croft’s expert eye had recognized the handwriting of Robert Herrick, one of
England’s finest lyric poets. He knew the book had been bought in 1848 for 58
shillings. At auction, the book fetched 34,000 pound.

Today, collectors are prepared to pay ever-increasing prices for coveted


autographs-hand-written and signed letters or manuscripts, not just scrawled
signatures on photographs or slips of paper. A letter written by Charles Dickens
could be bought for 1 pound in 1903; today it is worth 600 pound.

So great is the demand by collectors and scholars for autographs that Sotheby’s
now hold a special monthly sale in their New Bond Street auction rooms. Last
May, a United States buyer gave 17,000 pound for Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s
manuscript of the poems he wrote in 1796, which he had copied out for his
publisher.

What gives an autograph such appeal? One letter now available in the British
Museum for all to read, helps to explain the fascination that collectors find in
autographs. The letter is by Lord Nelson who, on board “H.M.S. Victory” on
October 19, 1805, wrote to Lady Hamilton. Two days later Nelson fell mortally
wounded at Trafalgar. After the battle Captain Hardy delivered the letter to Lady
Hamilton. To read it now, in the bold, left-handed writing, which Nelson adopted
after he had lost his right hand, is to become personally involved in history.

When signatures are so rare that they never come on the market, even forgeries can
be of interest. Only six authenticated examples of Shakespeare’s signature, all on
official documents, have ever been found. No one has discovered a letter written by
him, nor a single page of any original manuscript of his plays. But a forged
Shakespeare’s signature sells for 20 pounds today.

British collectors have always valued the autographs of creative minds.


(Ann Huxley, Letters Written by Famous People, Ed. Laurel, 1984)

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LANGUAGE WORK

1. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with suitable words you find in the text:
1. Peter Croft of Sotheby’s recognized Robert Herrick’s hand-writing while …….
through an old handwritten book of poetry.
2. Coveted autographs – hand-written and signed letters or manuscripts …….
much money at ……. from passionate collectors.
3. Collectors pay …….prices for ……. and ……. letters or manuscripts not only
……. signatures on photographs ……. of paper.
4. Two days after Nelson had written his last letter addressed to Lady Hamilton,
the great admiral fell mortally …….at Trafalgar.
5. As only six authenticated examples of Shakespeare’s signature were found,
even ……. can be of interest for the …….

2. Match the words with their explanation:

1. auction a. a person’s signature


2. handwriting b. something written by hand, not typed or printed
3. autograph c. a person’s style of something written by hand or
with a pen or pencil
4. manuscript d. a person who makes careful study and investi-
gation, in order to discover new facts or infor-
mation
5. collector e. a person who collects things
6. researcher f. a fraudulent imitation or copy in order to pass it
off as real
7. forgery g. a public sale in which articles are sold to the
highest bidder.

3. z Except autographs and letters, we have just spoken about, what are the

most common things people collect?


z What do children, students collect and what do some grown-ups collect?

What is the reason? Is money important in gathering things in order to


form collections?

In the following list of objects establish which ones are collected especially by
children and students and which ones grown-ups afford collecting, investment
being involved?
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posters postcards portrait sketches old cameras
coins stamps watches perfumes
furniture furniture napkins porcelain objects
stickers key-holders mahogany objects sculptures
cars paintings rare books jewelry

Do you collect anything? What? Speak about the way you started collecting and if
it was difficult to start a collection of your own!

4. Read the following text about a fine art collector of antiques:

“A Chinese jade figure of a rhinoceros, claimed to be worth about 1 million pound, has
been stolen with other valuable antiques, from the Mayfair home of Mr. David Edge,
65, a fine art collector, was revealed yesterday.” (Daily Telegraph, June 16, 1993)

The news announcing the theft is a compound sentence that contains nine pieces of
information:
1. a figure has been stolen 6. Mr. Edge lives in Mayfair
2. the figure was made of jade 7. Mr. Edge is 65 years old
3. the figure was Chinese 8. Mr. Edge is a fine art collector
4. it was a figure of a rhinoceros 9. This news was revealed yesterday
5. it was in the home of Mr. Edge

Write similar compound sentences to combine the following sets of information:

a. Mrs. Martha Edwars is the mother of Paula Edwars. Paula Edwars is a famous
actress. She acts in films. She won an award at the Cannes Film Festival. The
Cannes Film Festival took place last month. Paula Edwars has given her
mother a necklace from her own jewelry collection. The necklace is made of
diamonds. The necklace was a birthday present.
b. Patricia Austin is a famous soprano. She has been singing with the Cosmopolitan
Opera for the last sixteen years. She announced yesterday that she is going to
retire. She is going to retire next October. She wants to spend more time in
painting expositions and at auctions. She is a passionate paintings collector.

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5. “Hobbies” are a great British and American tradition. A hobby is a special
interest or activity that people do in their time off. Some people have animals as
hobbies. Others are crazy about plants.

6. Sports represent other worldwide hobbies. English play football, cricket and
polo but they play other sports too. We must consider the many advantages which
education derives from games, when practised as they ought to be. “Games are the
handmaid of lessons – a means of making you fit and fresh for work and a means
where the game itself is only of secondary importance, compared with the spirit in
which it is played. People will generally play games in the right .spirit, if those who
control them show in their own methods and conduct what that spirit is” the
educational writer Max O’Rell from ‘Daily Mail’ says.

7. Brainstorming activity. Role-play expressing your opinions:


- Have you ever practised any sport?
- What are the chief open-air sports practised in England? What about your
country?
- What sport do you prefer? Why? Speak about it!
- Give a short account, if you can, of the way in which football is played, or
describe a football match. Did you know that British invented it?
- Give your opinion on the advantages and inconveniences of games and sports.
- Doesn’t football teach discipline? What’s your opinion?

8. Work in pairs and name as many sports as possible. Together with your partner
try to classify them in outdoor and indoor sports. Use words like: team,
competition, stadium, fan, player, international tournament, to enjoy sailing,
enthusiastic, own boat, sailing races (‘regattas’), baseball, summer sport, winter
sport, bowler, ball, bat, batsman, pitcher, batter at cricket, a bowler throws the ball
and the batter hits it with his bat league, top player, big star….

9. Work in pairs and with your partner’s help, describe cricket (the typical British
sport) and baseball (the American typical sport).
- Give an account of the American football and the football played in the rest of
the world.
- In what sports do you have to wear a helmet? Choose among boating, boxing,
American football, cricket, bowling, ice hockey, surfing, Canadian hockey,
surfing, climbing, soccer.

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- What do you know about soccer? Do you know that it is known as Association
football and every year, the football teams of most cities and towns in Britain
play in the Cup Final at Wembley Stadium in London?

10. In the following sentences fill the gaps with play when they refer to sports
played with a ball and where teams are involved, go when they refer to individual
and leisure activities and do when they refer to sports or activities where body
movements are implied:
Model: My brother likes doing judo, going skiing in winter and playing bowls
with his friends.

- She looks forward to …… swimming when summer comes.


- Why do all little girls are fond of ….. ballet?
- I don’t go in for sport now, but I felt like…. football daily when I was a little
boy.
- Her mother was against ….. badminton as she found it too childish.
- What about ….. diving, the weather is very fine.
- Don’t you prefer….. gymnastics to….. snooker in that club?
- He took to ….. jogging as he was getting fat.
- They put off ….. fitness classes as they were very busy.
- Well, I like …. skating when the ice is thick enough.
- Why don’t you leave off ….. hockey with your broken arm?

Practice: Use in sentences of your own: to go gliding, fishing/horse-riding/cycling;


to do aerobics/ballet/judo/squash; to play golf/cricket/darts/table tennis/lawn tennis.

11. Read this text about music:


Music

Silence’s most eloquent contradiction is music – not because music breaks


silence with its sounds but also because it interrupts its motion. All the arts do this:
books freeze events between two covers, pictures pin them against a wall. But
music goes viscerally to the source of our mortality. It stops time in its tracks and
reinvents it. What a supernatural act it is to command a tempo and a rhythm, to set
time in motion and bring it to a halt. In a life of temporal endlessness, the musician

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who makes time starts and stops plays at being God. This is music’s comfort and
its triumph: that somewhere there exists an antidote for decay.
The technologies of the ear (the radio, the record player and the compact
disc) both give and take away. Fishing in my collection of records the other day, I
did find a recording of Brahms' Fourth. I put it back on the shelf, I’m not quite sure
where. I am not worried. I know how it goes. This is how I relive (and therefore
live) this music - in my imagination. The imagination is our great healer.
(Bernard Holland, A New and Awful Silence)

• What does Bernard Holland mean when he says that the “musician who makes
time start and stop plays at being God”?
• Do you agree with Holland who asserts that the sheer availability of music has
somehow cheapened it, taken away its special pleasures, music being all around
us today – on the radio, in the office, in the market and the shopping mall?
• Has music’s accessibility ruined your enjoying it? Why? Why not?
• What is electronic music? How do synthesizers replace traditional instruments?
• What kind of music might be synthesized?
• What do you like more: listening to real music (bands on stage or recorded) or
digital sounds music (someone capable of playing a keyboard instrument can
be a one-man band)?

12. In the following sentences, use either play + instrument and instrument +
player or person + sing and type of music + singer:

1. Elvis Presley was a rock’n’roll ………….. He came from Memphis,


Tennessee, USA and was called the ‘king of rock’n’roll’.
2. Which of these instruments do amateurs usually………………. : the piano,
oboe, violin, harp, banjo, drum, saxophone, guitar, trumpet, organ, accordeon,
flute?
3. Can you …………………… any of them? Which?
4. That great guitar…………….. couldn’t read the score, he only could …………
by ear.
5. If somebody …………...… a song, can you accompany him or her
and…………………the piano or guitar?
6. The great opera ……………....was so much clamored that she gave an encore.
7. The ‘Beatles’ from Liverpool, were the most famous pop …….… in the 1960s.
8. Arthur Rubinstein, the great piano ……………... , died at 90 years old.
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GRAMMAR FOCUS

¾ PAST PERFECT
1. Look at this sentence: ”A writer friend, who visits my apartment when I am
away, phoned me in Tangier and told me there had been a robbery.”

Use past perfect tense of the verbs in brackets in the following sentences:
1. As soon as I ……………... (finish) my breakfast, I went to the stadium
2. By the time the coach ……………... (give) us all the training instructions, the
last member of the team arrived.
3. The referee didn’t whistled the beginning of the game until all football players
……………..… (gather).
4. When we reached the stadium, the goal-keeper …………… (already, arrive).
5. After a player …………….. (kick) the ball, it was taken by the forward player.
6. After we ………………... (play) hard, we won.

2. Decide the order in which these things happened. Then write two sentences
using after and the past perfect:
Example: The symphony orchestra came on the stage.
The conductor arrived on the stage.
The symphony orchestra members stood up.

After the symphony orchestra had come on the stage, the


conductor arrived on the stage too.
After the conductor had arrived on the stage, the symphony
orchestra members stood up.

1. The tourists got out of the coach.


They took photos.
They got back in the coach.
2. The reporter wrote a report on the accident.
She interviewed the people there.
She went to the scene of the accident.
3. The mechanic put a new tyre on.
He put the wheel back on.
He took the wheel off the car.

Activity: Write sentences of your own using the same patterns.

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¾ GERUND
1. Have you noticed this structure: “… he saw the handwriting on …”, “Finding
such as Croft’s Herrick discovery …”. They are gerunds.
In the following sentences use verb + ing as a subject:
Example: ……. (to swim) is something I don’t do very often.
Swimming is something I don’t do very often.
1. …… (to fish) is a profession and …… (to angle) is a hobby.
2. …… (to box) is a rather dangerous sport.
3. …… (to take exercise) is only one part of keeping fit.

Practice: Use the verbs: to read, to ski, to work, to write, to drive, to travel, to run
in sentences of your own.

2. Either verb + ing as a subject or long infinitive as a subject may be used in the
following sentences:
e.g. ……. (to read) French is easier that ……. (to speak) it.
Reading French is easier than speaking it.
To read French is easier than to speak it.
1. ……. (to shake hands) is not a habit Englishpeople use.
2. ……. (to study) the local customs is necessary for a traveller.
3. ……. (to have) good manners is appreciated everywhere.

Make five similar sentences of your own.

3. Use gerund after propositions:


e.g. After …… (to swim) I felt cold.
After swimming I felt cold.
1. Can you touch your toes without … (bend) your knees?
2. His wife raised the money by … (to sell) her jewelry.
3. He insisted on … (to see) her.
4. I have no objection to … (to hear) your story again.
5. He is good at … (to tell) lies.
6. We had a lot of difficulty in … (to find) the club.

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4. Phrasal verbs (verb + preposition/adverbial particle)
to be for/against to care for
to give up to keep on
to leave off to look forward to
to put off to see about
to take to to go on

Use the gerund in the following sentences:


1. I have seen the film, now I am looking forward to … (see) the film.
2. I don’t care for … (stand) and … (watch) the match.
3. He took to … (garden) when he retired.
4. They gave up … (ski) and took to … (farm).

Make sentences of your own with all the other phrasal verbs.

5. Make sentences, according to the model:

Model: Alice is studying medicine and they approve of it.


They approve of Alice’s studying medicine.

He wants to study law but his father is against it.


His father is against his studying law.

1. He rang us up in the middle of the night. He apologized for it.


2. She’ll attend classes in French. Her brother insists on it.
3. Mary got the scholarship and we were proud of it.
4. Jane will marry Gerald. Her mother is for it.

6. Make sentences according to the model:

Model: You’ll have to share with somebody, I’m afraid.


That’s quite all right. I don’t mind sharing with somebody.

1. ……. do your own washing …….


2. ……. pay in advance …….
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3. ……. give me a deposit ……
4. ……. cook your own breakfast……

Model: You’ll have to move your car. I’m afraid.


Would you mind moving your car?
Would you mind my moving you car?
Do you mind if I move your car?

1. …… to carry her luggage, I ……


2. …… to see him home …….
3. …….to take her by the hand …….

7. Use the expression to be worth + gerund, according to the model:

Model: Why don’t you listen to the radio?


There’s nothing worth listening to.
1. …… watch TV?
2. …… read the paper?
3. …… look at a magazine?
4. ……. see a film?
5. ……. buy something?

8. Use either gerund or infinitive. Make sentences with love, hate, like, dislike
drawing the distinction between general and particular situations:
Example: I like swimming. (as a general case)
I would like to swim in this river. (as particular case)

Likes Dislikes
ride drive
cook knit
ski skate
dive paint
Make sentences with the verb to stop drawing the distinction between ceasing a
previous action and purpose:
Example: He stopped listening to him. (ceased the action)
He stopped to listen to him. (in order to listen to him)
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Make sentences with the verbs regret, remember and forget drawing the distinction
between a past action and a future action:
e.g. I forgot giving him the money. (in the past)
I won’t forget to give him the money. (in the future)

Make sentences with to be afraid of + gerund used for involuntary actions and to be
afraid + infinitive to show a strong awareness of the feeling:
e.g. He was afraid of falling. (involuntary action)
He was afraid to jump so he stayed where he was.
(to be aware to perform the action)

" Translate into English:

1. Adam învăţase engleza înainte să vină în Anglia.


2. Când am ajuns pe teren, jocul începuse.
3. Când Margareta a terminat partida, a deschis radioul.
4. Îţi place să citeşti?
5. Îmi place să citesc, dar nu-mi place să citesc această carte.
6. Schiul este fantastic.
7. Ador să shiez.
8. Urăsc să aştept la cozi.
9. Îmi place să conduc cu viteză.
10. El a fost acuzat de contrabandă.
11. Ea are multă experienţă in ingrijirea copiilor.
12. El era ocupat cu cultivarea florilor.
13. Aştept cu nerăbdare să plec în străinătate în timpul concediului.
14. Încercaţi să evitaţi să călătoriţi în orele de vârf.
15. El a negat că a fost acolo şi că a văzut accidentul.
16. Iartă-mă că te întrerupt.
17. Ei nu se pot abţine să nu râdă de glumele lui.
18. Nu ne putem permite să mergem în Franţa iarna aceasta.
19. Expoziţia lui merită să fie văzută.
20. Vă deranjează dacă nu fumaţi în această cameră?
21. Ei au încetat să se mai uite la televizor pentru că programul era neinteresant.
22. Ei s-au oprit ca să cumpere bilete pentru festival.
23. Lui îi era teamă să nu piardă trenul.
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24. Regret că i-am spus cuvinte atât de neplăcute.
25. El va regreta să o vadă plecând.

Remember!
THE PAST PERFECT TENSE
USAGE EXAMPLE
1. The Past Perfect Tense is used to show As soon as I had finished the letters, I
that the action took place before another made coffee. By the time I had made the
action in the past. It is usually used calls, the coffee was cold. I didn’t drink
after: when, as soon as, after, by, by my coffee until I had made four phone
the time, not … until. calls.
2. The Past Perfect often stands together At noon I phoned you, but you had
with already and just. already left.
When I came to your place, you had just
left.
3. The Past Perfect Tense is used in If you had come, I should/would have
Conditional sentences Type 3. given you the book.
Had you come, I should/would have
given you the book.
4. The Past Perfect Tense is also used in He said, “I’m a student and I have
Indirect Speech, where The Sequence of learned English for three years”.
Tenses requires to be observed, to He said that he was a student and he had
express anteriority. learned English for three years.

THE GERUND
USAGE EXAMPLE
1. As subject of a sentence Skiing is enjoyable - in a general sense.
It is enjoyable to ski.
No smoking. No trespassing short
prohibitions
2. Gerund after prepositions I had no experience in modelling
Noun/Adjective/Verb+ I’m looking forward to going to London
preposition/adverbial particle + gerund next month.
3. As an object the gerund is compulsory I can’t risk catching a cold.
after the following verbs: like, dislike, He enjoys listening to jazz.
enjoy, finish, hate, practice, prefer, I can't understand his retiring so young.
risk, stop, suggest, dread, detest,
prevent, avoid, admit, deny, postpone,
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delay, resent, recollect, defer,
anticipate, pardon, forgive, imagine,
fancy, understand, mind, keep.
After certain expressions: to be worth, I can’t afford doing that.
can’t stand, can’t afford.
4. Sentences abridged by using the On hearing the bell, she went to open the
gerund: door = When she heard the bell, she went
to open the door.
5. Complex structures with gerund His being a champion made the family
(gerund preceded by possessive adjec- very happy - more formal with possessive
tives or accusative personal pronouns): adjectives.
She doesn’t mind me coming late. - less for-
mal with the accusative personal pronoun.

Either gerund or infinitive can be used after the following verbs: stop, begin, start,
advise, recommend, allow, permit, need, require, want, propose, try, means,
go on, used to, be afraid (of).

They show: Example:


a. distinction general/particular I like writing letters (general)
I like to write letters to my best friend (particular)
b. distinction ceased activity/ He stopped looking at her (he didn’t look at her any
purpose more)
He stopped to look at her (in order to look at her)
c. distinction past action/ future I remember having given him the book
action I’ll remember to give him the book.
d. need/want/require can be fol- The grass needs cutting/needs to be cut
lowed either by the gerund or The engine wants fixing/wants to be fixed.
by the passive infinitive but
the gerund is more usual
e. try/be afraid (of), go on, try + infinitive = attempt
propose, mean used to, have He tried to repair the TV set.
different meanings according try + gerund = make the experiments
to whether they are used with He tried repairing the engine.
gerund or infinitive used to + infinitive = habit in the past
He used to smoke (he doesn’t smoke now).
used to + gerund = to be accustomed to
I’m used to waiting for buses.

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be afraid +infinitive = strong awareness of the fear
I was afraid to move so I sat quiet.
be afraid + gerund = involuntary fear
I was afraid of being caught.
propose + infinitive = intention
I propose to leave now.
propose + gerund = suggestion
I propose waiting till dawn.
go on + infinitive = continue but with the
introduction of a new aspect of the topic
He was speaking about France and went on to
tell about its climate.
go on + gerund = continue
He went on speaking (about the same topic).

flavour of the month – a phrase which refers to the current fashion. Similar
phrases are “flavour of the week” and “flavour of the year”. Such terms were first
used when advertising ice-cream parlours in the US in the 1940s, when a special
flavour of ice-cream would be promoted. Today, they are used to ironically
describe a passing trend that will soon be replaced by another.
“The Spice Girls are the flavour of the month right now, but where will
they be in a year’s time?”

to keep one’s year to the ground – to keep oneself informed. It has been said that
the phrase was first used when talking about Indian scouts in the Wild West of
America. A scout would press one ear to the earth before announcing how many
horsemen were approaching, and from how far away.
I don’t know of any jobs in my company at the moment, but I’ll keep my ear
to the ground and let you know.”

old hat – very old-fashioned. By the mid-1500s, the Italian city of Milan had
established itself as the fashion centre of Europe, especially for hats. The styles
changed almost every week, so that people who wanted to stay in fashion had to
buy new hats all the time. To be ‘old hat’ means ‘behind the times’.
“He’s very old hat – he uses a typewriter instead of a computer.”

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SECTION B

LEAD-IN

• What do you know about the Olympic Games?


• In what country did they begin and why?
• When do they take place?
• What do the Olympic Games mean for the mankind?
• What can you say about wars and any other conflicts among nations during the
Olympic Games?

READING

GOING TO THE OLYMPICS

Patricia: Here’s to the new Olympics!


Jeffrey: OK! Cheers!
Patricia: Did you know Mark’s actually thinking of going to see the Olympics?
Jeffrey: Wow! Is he really?
Patricia: Apparently it’s a life-long ambition. He’s been saving up for ages and
he’s going to do it in style. You know, four-star hotels, front-row seats,
the whole works. He’s even bought a camcorder to take with him, so he
can keep a record of the whole trip.
Jeffrey: Sounds great! God help him meet his dream!
Trevor: Oh, I don’t know, it will cost him a bomb and I think you get a much
better idea from the telly. But he wishes he’d seen them live.
Jeffrey: Yes, as from the telly you don’t get the atmosphere. Oh, no, I think it
would be great. I’d go myself if I had half a chance.
Patricia: But if I were him, I wouldn’t go alone. I don’t think it would be much
fun going on your own, which is what he’s planning to do. It’s the sort
of thing you need to do with someone else to get the most out of it, so
you can talk about it and compare notes.

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Jeffrey: Oh, no, if he’s on his own he can do exactly what he wants to do,
without having to fit in with anybody else, hang about waiting for
people and all that sort of hassle.
Patricia: The only thing that’s putting him off is the thought of the journey itself.
He ‘d have to go by plane and he’s not too keen on flying. If only he
could go by train or by coach.
Trevor: Well, I think he’s crazy to even consider it - I bet you anything that I’ll
be able to tell you more about it from the telly and it won’t have cost me
a penny! I’d rather he stayed at home and watched them on the telly
with us.

Comprehension

• What are the three friends talking about?


• What is Patricia saying about Mark’s intention of spending his time during the
games?
• What ‘s Trevor’s opinion about watching the Olympic Games?

LANGUAGE WORK

1. Study these nouns/verbs/phrase: journey/to journey; travel/to travel; voyage/to


voyage; trip/to take a trip to a place; excursion/to make a short journey/a pleasure-
trip:

to travel They all mean covering a distance (a călători). To travel is the


to journey neutral term: we may travel both by land and by sea or air;
to voyage to travel is usually indefinite and implies covering long distances;
trip to journey, generally, by land and having an appointed destination;
excursion to voyage is to travel by sea/water or by plane/air; to take a trip
means to journey especially for pleasure; excursion means to make
a short journey/to take a pleasure-trip.

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2. Fill the gaps with the adequate forms of the verbs to travel, to journey, to
voyage or of the nouns travel, journey, voyage, trip, excursion:

1. .……. broadens mind.


2. Our ……. to London was very interesting.
3. Most people like …… .
4. He …… for three days, it was a long ……
5. They took a two-days …… to Sinaia.
6. The board of directors decided an ……. for the whole staff.
7. His …… over the Pacific in a small boat must have been very difficult.

3. Speak about a journey you made during your last holidays.

GRAMMAR FOCUS

¾ SUBJUNCTIVE
1. What can you say about the way of saying “God help him meet his dream!”
Where is the ‘s’ at the end of help? It doesn’t exist, does it? It is the Subjunctive
Mood, used to express a wish, or a prayer that something may be. Very often the
Subjunctive is expressed by using one of the modals may, might.

Long live he! Be that as it may!


Though the heart be still… Far be it from me to …
(Byron) Come what may!
May I live to see it! Suffice it to say
If need be Be it so!/So be it!

2. Use the following verbs into subjunctive (the same form as the infinitive), to
complete the following exclamations expressing a wish or hope: damn, curse, bless,
forgive, help, be praised, be:

God ……… you! …………. this fog!


Heaven ……. us! ……. ……this fog!
……. ……..you! God …….with you!

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3. The Present Subjunctive is also used in conditional clauses implying a negative. In
this case were is used instead of was for the first and the third persons. Change the
sentences according to the model:
Model: If it were not for the seats, I’d have enjoyed the performance.
But for the seats, I’d have enjoyed the performance.

1. If it were not for you, I’d never go to see play for second time.
2. If it were not for the cast, the play would have been a success.
3. If it were not for the acting, the play wouldn’t be worth seeing.

4. After verbs: suggest, propose, insist, recommend, advise, order, the construction
that….. should + subjunctive is used. Change the sentences according to the model:

Model: Roger recommended that we should distribute the tickets.

1. Richard told her to check the list.


2. George told me to read something about university life in present day England.
3. The teacher told us to read the book in the original.

5. After the impersonal sentences it is/was important, necessary, advisable, better,


vital, surprising, amazing etc., either the structure for + object or that ….. should
+ subjunctive may be used. Change the sentences according to the model, using
for + object:
Model: It is better that you should ask him for permission to use the car.
It is better for you to ask for permission to use the car.

1. It is vital that you should avoid the subject.


2. It is necessary that they should discuss the problem raised.
3. It is essential that you should study the local habits.

6. After wish present subjunctive or perfect subjunctive are used to express regret.
Change the sentences according to the model:
Model: I regret/I’m sorry/It’s a pity/What a pity I don/t have a bicycle.
I wish I had a bicycle.
Father didn’t buy me a bicycle.
I wish father had bought me a bicycle.
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1. It’s a pity he doesn’t/didn’t practise more often.
2. I regret they don’t/didn’t play chess.
3. I’m sorry she doesn’t/didn’t attend a music school.

7. Transform the following sentences according to the model:

Model: The coach has already begun and no goal has been scored yet. The coach
tells the players:
“It’s time for you to score a goal.”
“It’s high time you scored a goal” (high makes the expression more
emphatic)

1. Many people in Britain are worried because the conflict in Northern Ireland
doesn’t stop. They think:………………………………………
2. Holidays are coming and Helen hasn’t bought yet a new bathing-suit. Her
husband says to her:……………………………………………
3. I’ll leave to the festival in a fortnight and I haven’t got the plane ticket yet. My
mother tells me:………………………………………………..

8. Change the following sentences according to the model:

Model: Don’t believe her! She isn’t from Paris. He hasn’t visited Rome.
But she behaves as if she were from Paris. But he talks as though he had
visited Rome.
1. It doesn’t rain in summer here but it looks …
2. Nothing has happened but they talk ….
3. They don’t know the subject but they speak …

" Translate into English:

Jocurile Olimpice au o istorie foarte lungă. Ele au început în anul 776 î.e.n. şi
au avut loc la fiecare patru ani timp de aproape 1200 de ani la Olympia, în Grecia.
Ele includeau multe si diferite feluri de sport: alergări, box, lupte, pentatlon (cinci
sporturi diferite) şi curse de care de luptă. În 394 e.n., jocurile au încetat şi templul
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din Olympia a fost distrus. 1500 de ani mai târziu, în 1894, un francez, Baronul
Pierre de Coubertin, a convins lumea din cincisprezece ţări să reia Jocurile
Olimpice. Primul din seria modernă a jocurilor a avut loc la Atena doi ani mai
târziu, în 1896. La a patra ediţie a Jocurilor Olimpice, în 1908, au fost peste două
mii de concurenţi din douăzeci şi două de ţări. De atunci, numărul de atleţi care
concurează a crescut de fiecare dată. Comitetul Olimpic Internaţional din
Lausanne, Elveţia, decide unde se va desfăşura fiecare ediţie a Jocurilor Olimpice.
Se cere ca un oraş (nu o ţară) să fie gazdă - un oraş pentru Jocurile Olimpice de
Iarnă şi unul pentru Jocurile Olimpice de vară.

Remember!

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

FORM EXAMPLE
a. The archaic Present Subjunctive has exactly He asked that the request be
the same form as the infinitive. accepted.
To be = be (for all persons) It is decided that he take part in
To take = take (for all persons) the conference.
b. The modern Present Subjunctive has the same Suppose he came! I wish I were
form as the simple past tense in all the verbs you.
except to be, whose present subjunctive is were for
all persons.
c. The Past Subjunctive has the same form as the I wish I had been there.
past perfect indicative:

THE SUBJUNCTIVE EXPRESSES: EXAMPLE


1. an unreal comparison or a preference: Mother treats me as if I were a little girl.
If you had met them, you would have liked
them.
2. a regret for the present and the past I wish I were a student again!
and a desire for the future. They wished they had not come so late.

3. an exclamation Oh! that it were possible!


Oh! that he had come yesterday.
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4. an unreality or doubt: He talks to me, as if I were his wife.
He looks/looked as if he had seen a ghost.
5. an unconditioned preference I would rather he went by train (different
subjects)
I would sooner you came with me.

EXCEPT THESE MEANINGS THE


EXAMPLE
SUBJUNCTIVE MAY ALSO BE USED:
a. after the impersonal constructions It is right that Mary be accepted.
introduced by it: it is necessary (American)
/essential/probable/likely/unlikely It is right that Mary should be accepted.
/wrong/proper/reasonable/just/fair/
vital/strange/odd/surprising/
amazing/absurd/ridiculous…generally with
the constructions that…should +
subjunctive
b. after verbs like these ones: suggest, He suggested that Mary be
propose, command, order, advise, accepted.(American)
recommend … generally with the He suggested that Mary should be
colloquial construction that … should. accepted.
He suggested that Mary was/were
accepted. (modern Present Subjunctive)

Let’s have fun


Limericks, Sayings, Humour

Sympathy without relief Fools make feasts and wise men eat them;
Is like mustard without beef. Wise men make jests and fools repeat them.
(Traditional)

Limerick English humour

There was a composer named Liszt “There’s been an accident”, they said,
Whose music no one could resiszt. “Your servant’s cut in half: he’s dead!”
When he swept the keyboard “Indeed!” said Mr. Jones, “and please
Nobody could be bored Send me that half that’s got my keys”.
And now that he’s gone he is miszt.
(Harry Graham)
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CHECKLIST

1. Think of two contexts for: auction, bid.


2. State the difference between: i) I stopped talking to her.
ii) I stopped to talk to her.
3. Which of the two sentences is correct: i) I went out after I finished my
homework.
ii) I went out after I had finished my
homework.
4. Use two subjunctive sentences to make recommendations to your employees.
5. Use the word ”means” in two different contexts with different morphological
values.

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UNIT 8

GOING PLACES

SECTION A

LEAD-IN

• Is travelling one of your hobbies?


• What is your favourite transportation? Why?
• Is a winter break as tempting as a summer vacation?

READING

HIGH-SPEED TRAVEL

A transport revolution is taking place in Europe that could give the common
market as big a boost as two dozen EEC directives. High-speed trains could soon
halve ground-travel times, putting London two, not five hours from Brussels; Paris
five, not nine hours from Barcelona.
That is the idea of railway bosses from the 12 EEC countries plus Switzerland and
Austria (...). They want to knit Europe together with 19,000 miles of special track, two-
thirds of it new, for trains running at more than 150 miles per hour. The cost is
estimated at around $100 billion. It could all be built during the next 25 years, if other
Europeans show as much zeal as France, which has a lead of 5-10 years. The hope is
that trains will do for post-1992 Europe what deregulated airlines have done for
America: help tie a vast market together. That may seem odd: train’s share of the
passenger market has been falling. In 1975 rail accounted for as much passenger travel
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between European countries as did air; in 1986 for about half as much. Nevertheless,
enthusiasts think that high-speed trains are different: they hope people who would now
rather fly than take an ordinary train would choose a high-speed train above either.
(from Business English - Michael Brookes, David Horner)

LANGUAGE WORK

1. Read the text and say if it is probably from (a) an instruction booklet (b) a
newspaper article (c) a leisure magazine.

Swipe-cards and the air-traveller


Queues will be shorter and they will move quicker.
Business passengers with hand luggage will walk onto
planes, only stopping for security clearance. Staff will
deal with passengers with baggage for they hold more
quickly. It may sound like a dream. But the introduction
of the swipe-card with its magnetic strip which allows
all this may be with us in a few months, or it may
already be operating at an airport near you.
How does it work? All the travel information is put on
an ATB (Advanced Ticket and Boarding Pass) which
has a magnetic strip. The passenger simply ‘swipes’ the
ticket at the departure gate, confirming the reservation,
seat allocation and onward connection, if there is one.
The technology for swipe-cards is simple - it is the
same as credit cards. Airlines first discussed the
possibility of using them ten years ago. If this is so, you
may ask why we are still using the old-fashioned
carbon-copy tickets. The answer is the anti-fraud
measures imposed by the International Air Transport
Association. Computer fraud is, in general, a new area
of crime. But soon, when the safety measures are
satisfactory, we may be moving in a world of ticketless
travel, where telephones and computer reservations
replace paper completely.
(from Going Places, Heinemann)
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2. Read the text again. Are the following statements true or false?
• Airline personnel’s jobs will be easier with swipe-cards.
• With a swipe-card a passenger will walk straight onto the aeroplane.
• The technology of the swipe-card is not yet perfect.
• A swipe-card is nothing like a credit card.
• The International Air Transport Association is worried about dishonest use of
swipe-cards.

AT THE HOTEL

Desk Clerk: “Good morning, sir! What can I do for you?”


James Grant: “Good morning. I’m James Grant. My secretary must have sent
you a fax the other day for reservation, but I’ve had no
confirmation”.
Desk Clerk: “Oh, yes, we’ve received it. But she mentioned only the length of
your stay so I didn’t know what kind of room you would like to
have”.
James Grant: “ I’d like a single with a bathtub, if possible.”
Desk Clerk: “Sorry, sir, I’m afraid our singles only have showers. Would that
be O.K.?”
James Grant: “Oh, well, I guess so. Does the room happen to be in the back? It’s
much quieter there, you know”.
Desk Clerk: “Oh, you’ll find the room perfectly quiet. It looks on a quiet little
square. Now, would you fill in this registration card, please? How
do you prefer to pay? Cash or credit card”.
James Grant: “I’ll pay cash. Oh, what about breakfast?”
Desk Clerk: “Breakfast is included, of course. Here is your key. Your room
number is 114. It is on the first floor. Front. On the first floor you
also have a bar and a restaurant. The porter will take your luggage
for you. Have a nice stay in our hotel.”

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1. ROLE-PLAY

Work in pairs. Take turns role-playing parts A and B below.

Part A Part B
You are checking into the Ritz You are the hotel clerk at the Ritz
Hotel. It is July 16th. Use your own Hotel. Please help A, who has reserved
name. Your reservation number is a room through Thursday night. The
14689, and you want to stay an extra hotel is fully booked on Friday.
night until Saturday, July 28th.

" Send a fax to the Ritz Hotel’s Reservation Manager, confirming


reservations four your next business trip.

2. Work in pairs. Imagine a conversation between yourself as a tourist and the


desk clerk using the following words: accommodation, information desk,
hotel bar or lounge, booking desk, rent-a-car service, sports facility, beauty
parlor or barber, business centre.

3. You have a house in the mountains and you want to turn it into a chalet or
what is sometimes called a Bed and Breakfast. What tourist services will
you provide? Work with two other students to make a list.

4. Make up a dialogue: Student A: You have just been offered a job as a


tourist guide in your town. Ask your employer about your duties, hours of
work, breaks etc. Student B: You have employed Student A to be a tourist
guide. Tell her/him about the duties of the job.

" Guests staying in hotels must fill out a registration card with all their
personal information. Fill in this registration card for your stay in a New
York hotel.

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The Sunflower Hotel
REGISTRATION CARD

Last name Room Number


____________________Mr/Mrs/Ms
Reservation Number
First name
_____________________________
Q number Arrival date
Post Code
______________________________

Nationality __________ Passport No. _______ Issued at __________________

Company Name and Address ________________________________________

Payment Type ____________________________ Credit Card No. __________

Signature ____________________ Departure Date _______________________

5. Match the words and phrases in Column A to the phrases in Column B:

A B
a. agreeing 1. Unfortunately, we don’t share the
some opinion.
b. disagreeing 2. Yes, that’s fine.
c. refusing 3. If you could do that, I’d really
appreciate it.
d. making a request 4. Can I use my American
Express card?
e. making a very polite request 5. Can I help you?
f. offering 6. I’m afraid we’re all booked up

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6. You are travelling alone on a business trip to the United States. You want to
check in a hotel. How do you usually solve each of the following problems? (Rank
the choices from 1-4 to indicate the order of your preferences.)
1. You book your hotel room
a. with a confirmed reservation by a travel agency
b. by personal letter
c. by calling from the airport.
d. when you arrive at the hotel
2. The kind of room you usually stay in is a
a. single
b. twin
c. double
d. suite
3. When you check in, the first thing you want to confirm is
a. the check-out time
b. the room rate
c. how you will pay
d. if you have any messages.
4. You usually pay by
a. cash
b. personal check
c. traveler’s check
d. major credit card
5. What is the most popular international credit cards in our country?
a. VISA
b. American Express
c. Master Card
d. another kind of credit card.

LANGUAGE WORK

1. What kind of train would you choose among the hereby listed: train with sitting
facilities; train with sleeping accommodation; express train; fast train; through
train; slow train; night train; morning train; goods/freight train; incoming train;
outgoing train; north-bound train, commuting train.
2. What are the services in a railway station you need to resort to: information
bureau; inquiry office; booking office for first, business and economy class

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accommodation; left-luggage office; waiting room; post-office; telephone booth;
catering facilities (restaurant, snack bar, day bars, coffee rooms, tea rooms, lunch
rooms); shops.
What about a big airport: information desk; the currency exchange office;
the public address system, phone box.
3. Under what circumstances do you book: a single, one way ticket; a return, round
trip ticket; a platform ticket; a season ticket; a direct (ticket), point-to-point flight;
open-dated return ticket; a dated ticket.
4. Which are the airport formalities: flying ticket checking; luggage weighing;
customs control; passport control; security check.

NOTE: When is the “OK” or “RQ” code used?


OK - means confirmed seat
RQ (requested seat) - the confirmation of the requested seat was
not yet possible.

¾ Some words connected with travel

Last week he flew to New York. It was an early-morning flight. The plane was to
take off at 6 a.m. and land at 7 a.m. local time. He was stranded at the airport
overnight. The plane was delayed by fog. Air passengers often suffer such delays.
Trains always run on time here. You have to change trains at Crewe.
We are sailing on the QE2. It sets sail at noon. It will dock in New York at 6 p.m.
and shall disembark as soon as we can.
The ship was wrecked. The passengers were marooned on a desert island.
Our car does 10 km to the litre. It goes quite fast. We can usually overtake other
cars. The car swerved into the middle of the road to avoid the cyclist. He backed
the car into the drive and parked in front of the house.

GRAMMAR FOCUS

¾ SEQUENCE OF TENSES

Set of rules expressing the relation between the tense of the predicate of a
subordinate clause and the tense of the predicate of the main clause. Here are the
main rules:

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Main Clause Subordinate Clause
1. Present, Present Perfect, Future Any tense
e.g.
He thinks (that) a. she is applying for a job.
b. she applies for a job.
c. she applied for a job.
d. she has already applied for a job.
e. she will apply for a job.
f. she will have applied for a job by
March 5.
2. Past Tense, Past Perfect etc.
a) simultaneous actions
Past Tense
e.g. : He thought (that) she applied for a job.
she was applying for a job.
b) the action of the subordinate clause
is prior to that of the main clause
Past Perfect
e.g.: I thought (that) she had applied for a job, but she
didn’t.
c) the action of the subordinate clause
is subsequent to that in the main clause
Future-in-the-Past
e.g. I thought (that) she would apply for a job.
Future Perfect in the Past
she would have applied for a job by
March 5.

EXCEPTION
• when the subordinate clause contains an assertion of general character:
e.g.: We all knew that mathematics is a science, you needn’t repeat that.
• in attributive clause, the verb in the subordinate can be at any tense required
by the sense:
e.g.: He told me things which I shall never forget.

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• when the tense of the action in the subordinate is independent from the tense of
the action in the main clause, the verb in the subordinate is as required by the
context:
e.g. I liked those textile samples so much that I shall certainly place an order.
• in comparative clauses introduced by: as, more than, as well as, as much as,
the tense of the verb is as required by the context:
e.g. They asked for the apartment more than I ask or will ever ask for it.

1. Use the right tense-form of the verbs in the following sentences:


a. At their astronomy class they were told that the Moon (to be) 24,000 miles away
from Earth. b. Last year he worked more than he (to do) this year. c. Last night I
had the opportunity of meeting the person who (to live) next door to you. d. Last
night I completed the report which my boss (to read) now. e. The former secretary
spoke English more fluently than the secretary we (hire) this year (to speak) at
present. f. I suddenly remembered the saying that boys (to be) boys. g. The
traveller asked the station-master when his train for Paris (to leave).

2. Use the verbs in brackets in appropriate tenses:

a. The businessman faxed that he (to arrive) on the following day. b. Harris said
he (to know) what kind of job I (to mean). c. The question was what he (to do)
next. d. He did not know what he (to talk) about. e. We were afraid that she (not
to able to) complete her work in time and so we (to offer) to help her. f. The
customer wanted to know if that equipment (to be used) in electrical outfits.
g. I knew that if it (to rain), they (not to go) to the fair.

" Translate into English:

a. Nu ţi-am spus că de câteva zile nu am mai răspuns la telefon. b. Ai avut vreo


idee de ce conţinea fişa postului? c. Angajaţii au constatat că şefii lor nu le
măriseră salariile deşi le promiseseră. d. Înainte de a pleca în călătoria de afaceri,
ne-am asigurat că s-au primit faxurile care anunţau sosirea noastră. e. Faptul că a
trebuit să mă opresc la Ploieşti m-a făcut să-mi schimb toate planurile. f. Nu ştia
cât de mult îi va folosi ghidul de conversaţie. g. Nu ştiam când v-aţi întors. De ce
nu ne-aţi anunţat în prealabil? h. Care este titlul articolului pe care l-ai scris?
i. Iată-l! L-am publicat într-o revistă de specialitate care va apărea la sfârşitul lunii
viitoare. E o revistă trimestrială. j. Toată lumea aştepta să afle ce hotărăsc cenzorii.
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SECTION B

LEAD-IN

¾ Think of two advantages and two disadvantages for each of the four forms of
travel: road, rail, sea, air.

READING

ON THE BOAT

“This way for the Dover Boat! Have your passport ready! Pass up the gangway!
First class on the right, second class on the left! Here we are! Would you like to
stay up on deck or go down below?
“I’m sorry, I couldn’t quite catch what the officer said. Have you?”
“Yes. He asked whether we would like to stay up on deck or below.”
“Oh, I see. Well, I don’t know ... I’m not much of a sailor.
“You won’t be sea-sick today, the sea is perfectly calm, we are sure to have a good
crossing. I’ll get a couple of deck-chairs up here in the sun.
“Oh, well, I’ll risk it, but if the worse comes to the worst, don’t blame me!
“Do you travel much?”
“Not more than I can help by sea. I’ve crossed the Channel once before, but frankly
I did not enjoy it.”
“ Can you see the English coasts already?”
“What did the lady say? I can hardly hear because of the waves.”
“She asked: ’Can you see the English coasts already?’
“Yes, just.”
“Well, I suppose we’d better get ready for landing.
The gangway was lowered and we went down to the pier.

LANGUAGE WORK

1. Read the text quickly. Is it from (a) a professional tourist industry magazine (b) a
business magazine (c) the travel section of a general-interest magazine?
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Finding your way in the ticket maze
It is very difficult for the customer who There are also a number of special
walks off the street into the travel cases. If you buy a Round-the-World
agent to understand the complex fare ticket, the section Los Angeles to
structures that are used by the industry London costs only Ł558 single, and
today. For example, the full-fare you can get this even cheaper if you
economy class ticket from London to buy a standby ticket. In that case you
Los Angeles is Ł1,256 return, and the have to travel when the airline says
full-fare first class ticket is Ł2,910. If there is a seat available. A lot of reti-
you are in a hurry, or if you buy your red people use this type of ticket, as
ticket at the last minute, you will they have lots of time, and it doesn’t
probably have to pay these kinds of matter when they leave. Standby
prices. However, there are lots of first-class from Los Angeles to
special prices that the customer may London costs only Ł444 single, when
be able to benefit from on specific it is part of a round-the-world deal.
occasions. If you can plan ahead It is cheaper than standard economy.
carefully, you can usually get an APEX Another type of special cheap ticket
ticket, which costs Ł516. APEX means is a two-destination ticket. If you
Advanced Purchase Excursion Fare. need to travel to two different
You must plan your journey two to destinations, even if the journey is
three weeks ahead of time and you not at the same time, the ticket may
must pay the full cost of the ticket on be very cheap. For example, you
booking. You can’t change the booking may be going to Los Angeles now
- and you can’t get a refund if you and Rome in a few weeks time. The
change your mind, or if you can’t ticket London - Los Angeles -
travel because you are sick, or for any London - Rome - London costs Ł818.
other reason. In other words, you pay less than the
There are also special deals with travel full fare and you get to see Rome as
agents. Some customers may not have a well. The very best kind of ticket is
fixed destination in mind, and may come the freebie. If you are a travel
in looking for special offers. In that case, journalist or something like that, you
scheduled consolidated fares are a good might be lucky and get
deal. This means that the agent buys, for complimentary tickets. For example,
example, ten tickets for each of several if you are doing an article on a
flights and then tries to sell them. They particular country the airline may
may be very cheap – probably about give you a free ticket. At least, you
Ł420 return for Los Angeles. can always ask!
(from Going Places, Heinemann)
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2. Read the text again. Are the following statements true or false?

• You can travel first class for less than the price of a standard economy ticket.
• If you buy an APEX ticket, you must pay when you book, but you can change
your booking any time before the flight.
• You can have a scheduled consolidated fare to any destination.
• A round-the-world ticket is very good value for money.
• You book a standby ticket two weeks ahead.
• A two-destination ticket is cheaper than a single-destination ticket.
• Airlines never give away complimentary tickets.

3. Look at the table of some basic travel vocabulary:

transport different kinds of parts of vehicle people associated


type vehicle working with facilities
it
road sports car, estate boot, engine, driver, petrol station,
car, bus, coach, gears, steering- mechanic, garage, service
tram, lorry wheel, brakes, chauffeur, station
tyres bus-conductor
rail passenger train, sleeping car, engine-driver, waiting-room,
freight train, local buffet, ticket ticket office,
train, express restaurant-car, collector, signal-box
compartment guard, porter
sea yacht, rowing- engine-room, captain, port, buoy, quay,
boat, fishing-boat, deck, bridge, skipper, customs shed,
liner, ferry, gangplank, purser, docker, light-house, docks
trawler companion-way steward(ess)
air aeroplane, jet, cockpit, nose, pilot, ground duty-free ship,
helicopter, tail, wings, staff, steward, departure lounge,
supersonic aircraft fuselage, air traffic, hangar, runway
joystick controller

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4. Here are some more words which could have been included in the above table.
Where would they fit into the table?
bonnet balloon deck-chair guard’s van
mast petrol pump bus driver anchor
glider oar rudder left luggage lockers
check-in desk control tower canoe dual carriageway

5. Fill in the blanks. Most of the words you need can be found above:
Yesterday John was supposed to take a ................................ (1) from London to
Paris. He got up very early, put his luggage in the .................................. (2) of his
car and tried to start the engine. It wouldn’t start. John lifted the
.............................(3) but he couldn’t see what the matter could be. He immediately
called his local ............................................ (4) to ask them to send a
..................................... (5) at once. Fortunately, the garage had a man free and he
was with John within ten minutes. He quickly saw what the matter was. ‘You’ve
................................. (6) of petrol”, he said. John felt very foolish. ‘Why didn’t I
........................................... (7) everything last night?’ he wondered. Despite all
this, he got to the airport, checked in quite early and then went straight through to
the ............................ (8) to read a newspaper while he waited. Soon he heard an
announcement. ‘Passengers on flight BA 282 to Paris are informed that all flights
to and from Paris are ..................................... (9) because of a heavy snowfall last
night.’ ‘If only I had decided to go by ..................................................... (10)’, John
thought. ‘It would probably have been quicker in the end and even if I sometimes
feel sick on the ................................. (11) across the Channel, it can be quite
pleasant sitting in a .................................... (12) on the deck, watching the seagulls
and the other ....................................... (13). The ......................... (14) on a ship
seem to produce much better food than those on an aircraft too.’

GRAMMAR FOCUS

¾ DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH


In Direct Speech we quote the actual words a speaker said. The words are marked
off at either end with quotation marks. (Note that in English, quotation marks are
like this: “ _________ “ or this: ‘ _________ ‘)
In Indirect Speech one speaker’s words are reported by someone else. This is
happening by using in the main clause a verb such as reply, say, tell, ask, answer
etc. The indirect speech is contained in a subordinate (dependent) clause. In
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Indirect Speech the main clause may precede the subordinate clause or follow it.
The conjunction that is used in Indirect Speech, but can be left out in Direct Speech
(e.g.: He says, “I don’t travel much”. He says (that) he doesn’t travel so much.)

REPORTED STATEMENTS
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
Present Simple (e.g. I want to play) Past Simple (e.g. He said that he wanted to
play)
Present Continuous (e.g. I am writing) Past Continuous (e.g. He said he was writing)
Present Perfect Simple (e.g. I have just Past Perfect (e.g. He said he had just eaten)
eaten)
Present Perfect Continuous (e.g. I have Past Perfect Continuous (e.g. He said he had
been learning for many hours) been learning for many hours)
Past Simple (e.g. I lost my dog) Past Perfect (e.g. He said he had lost his dog)
Past Perfect Continuous (e.g. I had Past Perfect Continuous (e.g. He said he had
been working a lot) been working a lot)
Future (e.g. I will not have a large Future in the Past (e.g. He said he would not
meal) have a large meal)

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH


today becomes that day
yesterday becomes the previous day; the day before
last night becomes the night before; the previous night
tomorrow becomes the next day; the following day
now becomes then
here becomes there
this, these becomes that, those
thus becomes so
ago becomes before
next becomes the next

REPORTED COMMANDS
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
Imperative (e.g. Turn off that radio! she Infinitive (e.g. She told me to turn off
said) that radio)
Reporting verbs: to tell, to ask, to urge, to advise, to persuade.
Also: to shout, to complain, to observe, to say scornfully.
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Reported Questions
NOTE: The tense rule and word order is the same as with reported statements
(e.g. ‘When are you leaving?’ he asked. He asked me when I was leaving.)

Reported Exclamations
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
‘Happy New Year!” she said. She wished me a happy new year.
‘How pretty you look!’ she said. She said admiringly (exclaimed) that I looked pretty.

1. Put the following sentences into Indirect Speech with the introducing verb in
the Past Tense.
a) He said, told us, stated, declared:
1. He has never been on board ship before. 2. She is sorry he didn’t come by coat.
3. He will answer our fax when he gets the information. 4. He expects to see some
new ships dropping anchor today.
b) He told me, ordered me, asked me, advised me:
1. Hurry up if you want to see the eclipse. 2. Switch off the lights in the
compartment, please. 3. Cheer up! 4. Don’t let your broker cheat you.
c) She told, said, asked, wondered
1. Give me another cup of coffee, please. 2. Who will see you home? 3. Are you
travelling by this plane? 4. Don’t forget to shut the window. 5. You must follow
his example.
d) You asked, wanted to know, wondered:
1. Do you know when he will arrive in Haifa? 2. Must we be on board ship by six
or can we come later? 3. Shall we have our meal now? 4. Who must follow these
instructions?

2. Change the following from Direct to Indirect Speech.


a. “The US economy is set to maintain its strong rates of growth and job creation
and there is no risk of a resurgence of inflation in the foreseeable future”, President
Clinton said yesterday in his annual economic report to Congress. “Our economy is
stronger than it has been in decades”, Mr. Clinton said in the report prepared by his
council of economic advisers. b. The billionaire said to us, “When I came to New
York I had only one dollar in my pocket. With that small amount I made my start”.
c. The expert said, “In a typical year, The Small Business Administration (SBA),
an independent federal agency, guarantees about $ 3.5 thousand-million of bank
loans made to all businesses”. d. At the job interview, the employer said, “Do you
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have solid training to match the requirements of this position?” e. Our President
said yesterday, “In all societies people want more than they are capable of
producing”.

3. Replace the verb “said” in the sentences by one of the words in the box.
Use each word only once. Then, rewrite the sentences in Indirect (Reported)
Speech:

suggested agreed muttered exclaimed


insisted whispered boasted admitted
shouted claimed objected protested

1. “He can speak five languages fluently”, he said.


2. “Let’s go to the Mall this evening”, she said.
3. “Stop that noise”, said the teacher.
4. “That car we are driving is my property”, the man said.
5. “Yes, I broke the windows with my catapults”, the boy said.
6. “You can’t take me to prison. I know my rights”, the man said.
7. “I shall always remember your vows”, said his fiancée.
8. “We don’t have enough money to carry out the plan”, said the treasurers.
9. “This teacher doesn’t know what he’s talking about”, said the student.
10. “Well, it is a surprise to meet you here today”, he said.
11. “Well, yes; if the weather is bad, we can’t go”, he said.
12. “If you can’t come today you simply must come tomorrow”, she said kindly.

" Translate into English:


a. L-am întrebat: “Ai mai fost vreodată la un târg de bunuri de larg consum”. b.
Mi-a spus supărat: “Am încercat timp de o oră să deschid cutia înainte să o
arunc”. c. “Mă voi antrena mai mult ca să obţin rezultate mai bune la anul”, ne-
a spus sportivul. d. Preşedintele Consiliului de Administraţie ne-a spus: “La
ultima şedinţă de consiliu s-a hotărât schimbarea echipei manageriale”. e.
Funcţionarul de la primărie a declarat ieri: “Cetăţenii ar trebui informaţi
referitor la avantajele noilor metode de plată”. f. Expertul contabil îl întreabă pe
contabil: “Aţi ţinut toate registrele la zi?” g. Azi-dimineaţă secretara m-a
anunţat: “Şedinţa s-a amânat cu o zi”.

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Let’s learn a proverb!

Don’t put the cart before the horse

Imagine a horse pulling a cart. Nothing unusual. Now try to imagine


a cart placed in front of a horse. It would really look strange, even if the
horse were able to push it!
This saying means that people should do things in a specific order. When
solving a problem, you have to think of things one step at a time. If you do
things too soon, you put the cart before the horse.

CHECKLIST

1. What do you say when you phone a hotel to make a reservation for your boss?
2. Change this direct question into an indirect question: Do you have a reservation,
sir?
3. In what contexts can you use the verbs TELL and respectively SAY?
4. Translate into English: Mi-a spus că are 20 de ani.
5. What is a swipe card?

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UNIT 9

LET’SGO
LET’S GOSHOPPING
SHOPPING!!

SECTION A

LEAD-IN

• Have you ever heard the story of Frankenstein? What happened in the story?
• Can you explain what genetic engineering is?
• What do you think that genetically engineered food is? Do you think it’s
healthy or not? Read the text to find out.

READING

You are going to read a text about genetically engineered food. Five sentences
have been removed from it. Choose from the sentences A-E the one which fits each
gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

These days much of our food is quick and easy to prepare but is often not
as fresh and natural as it used to be. Cheese, for example is no longer made in the
old-fashioned way because it takes too long. The process is speeded up with
chemicals and then flavour and colour are added.
In the case of genetically engineered food not only colour or flavour are
added.
Perfectly round tomatoes all exactly the same size, long straight cucumbers
and big fat chickens are now a normal part of our diets. They are made that way by
genetic engineering – not by nature. Their genes have been changed.
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Every living thing has genes. 0 -- B. They are passed on from generation
to generation. They make sure that humans give birth to humans and cows give
birth to cows. They also make sure that a dog cannot give birth to a frog, or an
elephant to a horse. Genetic engineers take genes from one species – for example, a
scorpion, and transfer them to another – for example, corn. In this way a new life
form is created. 1 --…
Genetic engineers put duck genes into chickens to make the chickens
bigger. They put hormones into cows to make them produce more milk. They put
genes from flowers into soya beans and from scorpions into corn. This does not
make them cheaper, tastier or healthier. It makes them easier and faster for the
farmer to grow.
The effects of genetic engineering on our health are not known. Many of
the genes which are used – such as those of scorpions, rats, mice and moths – are
not part of our diet so we do not know how dangerous they may be.
The effects of genetic engineering on the natural world may be disastrous.
The engineers may create life forms – monsters – that we cannot control. The new
life forms have no natural habitat or home. They will have to find one, fight for
one – or kill for one. 2 -- … Moreover, the effects of these experiments can often
be cruel. In America, pigs were given human genes to make them bigger and less
fatty. 3 --… The pigs became very ill and began to lose their eyesight.
Greenpeace is trying to prevent all such food experiments. Some - but not
all – food companies are refusing to use genetically engineered foods. 4 --… We
must all be aware of what is happening.
Some people believe, though, that genetic engineering could be the
solution to the problem of famine. Plants which grow faster, or cows which
produce more milk, can save the lives of starving people.
We would all like a better, healthier and longer life, and genetic
engineering might give us this. On the other hand, it may be a dangerous
experiment with nature. In the story, Frankenstein created such a terrible monster,
that he had to destroy it. We must make sure that it remains a story – and no more
than that.

A. The experiment failed.


B. Genes carry information.

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C. Some – but not all – supermarkets are telling their customers which foods are
genetically engineered.
D. It may be your land they fight for – or that they kill.
E. These new life forms have been described as a “real-life Frankenstein”.

LANGUAGE WORK

ƒ Look at the words and expressions in bold in the text and try to explain them,
then choose any three and make sentences.
ƒ What are the arguments for and against genetically engineered food? What do
you think about it?

1. Look at the words below and list them under these headings:
FRUIT – SEAFOOD – DAIRY PRODUCTS – MEAT – VEGETABLES –
SWEETS – DRINKS

cabbage, champagne, pepper, lettuce, strawberries, aubergine, lobster, carrots,


prawns, mushrooms, cake, pumpkin, chicken, turkey, sausages, steak, cheese,
grapes, onion, milk, beans, ham, yoghurt, plaice, pineapple, garlic, mussels, pear,
cauliflower, doughnut, quince, cherry-brandy, leek.

2. Below are some notes about vitamins. Try to put things in order:

VITAMIN A –
VITAMIN B –
VITAMIN C –
VITAMIN D –
VITAMIN E –

ƒ Fights colds, respiratory infections.


ƒ For healthy heart and circulation.
ƒ To help digestive process, circulation, nerves.
ƒ Important for bones.
ƒ For healthy skin and good eyesight.
• Found in eggs, fish, liver, rays of sun.
• Found in apricots, carrots and dairy products. Stored in the body and released
when necessary.
• Found in wheat germ.
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• Found in citrus fruits.
• Richest source: brewer’s yeast.

3. Look at the menu. Which of these foods are :


spicy, sweet, salty, healthy, fattening, creamy, juicy?

DARTFORD LODGE
HOTEL & RESTAURANT

*
Soup of the Day
Galia Melon
Chilled and served on crushed ice with a blackcurrant sorbet
Savoury Pancakes
With spinach and stilton
Avocado Pear
On a nest of lettuce leaves, garnished with prawns
*
Fillet of Sole
Dusted with oatmeal and served with a parsley sauce
Lamb Cutlets
Grilled and served with mustard and tomatoes
Beef Wellington
Scottish beef with mushroom purée in a crisp pastry case
Breast of Chicken
Stir-fried and served with beanshoots and ginger
*
A choice of Desserts from the Sweet Menu
British and Continental Cheeses
*
Coffee with Hand-Made Chocolates

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4. You are going to read a dialogue between two people discussing what to eat at
a business lunch at Dartford Lodge Restaurant. Complete the dialogue with
information from the menu in exercise 3.
A: Are we having a starter as well or just a main course?
B: It’s up to you. I think I can manage a starter though.
A: I might have the ______ then. ______ are a type of shellfish, aren’t they?
B: That’s right.
A: What about _______ ?
B: They’re like crêpes. And ________ is a dark green leafy vegetable. Have you
ever tried ________ ?
A: I don’t think so. What is it?
B: It’s a traditional English blue cheese.
A: Sounds nice. I think I’ll have that instead? What are you having?
B: I’ll find out what the ________ of the day is, then I’ll have _______ . I like
sorbet… If you want something that’s very English, you could try the ________.
A: Where’s that?
B: Down in the main courses.
A: Ah, yes. Scottish beef. Could you explain the word “__________”?
B: Yes, it’s a kind of flat fish. And it’s covered with __________, that’s flour made
from oats.
A: OK. I think I’ll have the _________, anyway.
B: Well, I’m going to have the ________.
A: Stir-fried with _________ and __________ . It sounds Chinese.
B: Yes, I like Chinese food.

5. Study the different prepositions in these sentences:


The sauce is made of butter and parsley.
Oatmeal is made from oats.
Porridge is made in Scotland.
The chocolates are made by hand.
The menu is made up of starters, main courses, and desserts.

Take an object from your pockets, or choose an object in the room and make up
sentences about it, using the expressions in bold print.

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GRAMMAR FOCUS

1. Read the following conversation. Find and correct eight grammatical mistakes;

A: Hi. I’m home. Can you help me unpack the shopping?


B: Yeah. Oh good, you got some chips for lunch. But why did you get so few
bread? And you’ve bought so little biscuits.
A: They’re fattening and there weren’t some chocolates ones, which are the only
ones I really like. I’ve bought much milk – you said we needed some.
B: Good. But why have you bought so much razors?
A: We didn’t have some left and we haven’t got many washing powder either, so I
decided to get some more.
B: I hate when you go shopping. You never get some chocolate.
A: Listen, you go next time.

¾ WAYS OF EXPRESSING QUANTITY


You can use the following expressions of quantity:
- with countable nouns: a(n), few, a few, many, both (of), several, neither
(of)
(e.g. a few dollars, several pounds)
- with uncountable nouns: very little, not much, a little, less, much, a great
deal of
(e.g. very little money, less tax)
- with both countable and uncountable nouns: some, any, no, none, hardly
any, half, all, a lot of, lots of, (not) enough, more, most
(e.g. some money, hardly any cash)

2. Complete the sentences with suitable expressions of quantity from the list below.
A few some some more a couple hardly any a lot
any at least three

A: Can you lend me ______ money? I forgot to go to the bank.


B: Well, I’ve only got _______ pound left.
A: Oh, dear. I need quite _______ . Don’t worry, I’ll go to the bank when I go
shopping.

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B: If you’re going shopping, can you get me ______ of bottles of water? You can
get bottled water at _______ shop on the high street.
A: Yes, and we need _____ tins of tomatoes. I’m making spaghetti bolognese
tonight. We’ve got ______ beans. Shall I get _____ beans as well?
B: All right.

3. Work in pairs. Imagine that you are planning to invite some friends to a
barbecue. Make a list of the things that you will need. Then, prepare a
conversation about the thing you already have and the things that you need to
buy, using dialogue in 1 to help you. Act out your dialogue for the class.

4. Play a memory game, saying why you went to the supermarket. Each person
rembers what went before and adds to the list alphabetically, like this:

A: I went to the supermarket to get an apple.


B: I went to the supermarket to get an apple and some beef.
C: I went to the supermarket to get an apple, some beef and a few …

" Close your eyes and imagine a house just before a party. Write a list of things
you can hear, see and smell.

" Write a poem called “Before the party”. Use your list and patterns like these:
A lot of people running
Some baked potatoes
A few packets of crisps
Not much time

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SECTION B

LEAD-IN

1. Match the parts of these sentences to form sayings connected with money.

1) A fool and his money a) grow on trees.


2) Money is like b) for love nor money.
3) I wouldn’t do it c) the pounds will look after themselves.
4) Money doesn’t d) are soon parted.
5) If you look after the pennies e) root of all evil.

2. Which of the expressions from Exercise 1 would you use to comment on these
situations?
1) You’re watching a TV programme about a man who fights crocodiles for fun.
2) You hear that someone you think is stupid paid £200 for some jeans.
3) You’re reading a newspaper article about two brothers who killed each other
over £50.
4) A child you know is saving up for a bicycle, but complains that it is a slow
process.
5) Paul wants his parents to buy him a very expensive pair of trainers. They want
him to realise that you have to work to earn money.

READING

SHOPPING

Customer: Excuse me, I bought this colour TV here last week and I’m not satisfied
with the picture. I’d like to have my money back, please.
Shop assistant: I’m sorry, sir, but I’m afraid we don’t give refunds. May I see your
receipt?
Customer: Here you are.
Shop assistant: We can give you a credit note for this amount, sir, or you can
exchange it for something of equal value.

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Customer: All right, I’ll take the exchange.
Shop assistant: Actually, sir, you are very lucky. We’ve got a sale this week. We
have some really great bargains. Now, this Zandy 3000 is a great deal. It’s 40 per
cent off the normal retail price. In fact, we’re selling it for just over the wholesale
price that we pay. It has remote control and it has a one year guarantee, so that if
anything goes wrong you can bring it back and have it repaired.
Customer: It still seems expensive to me.
Shop assistant: No, no, sir, that’s a fantastic price. It’s cheap, believe me. We’ve
sold hundreds of them and this, I believe, is the last one.
Customer: The last one, eh? OK. I’ll take it. How much extra do I owe?
Shop assistant: Just £125.
Customer: And can I pay by credit card or would you prefer a cheque?
Shop assistant: Credit card will be fine, thank you.
Customer: Good-bye!
Shop assistant: Good-bye, sir.
Shop assistant (two minutes later): Bring out another Zandy 3000, will you?

LANGUAGE WORK

1. Decide if the following statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the
story.
1. ___ The man returned the television because it was broken.
2. ___ The man wanted a refund.
3. ___ The Zandy 3000 was being sold at half price.
4. ___ If the Zandy 3000 breaks in the next year, the man will get his money
back.
5. ___ The Zandy 3000 cost more than the television that the man had returned.
6. ___ The man paid by cheque.
7. ___The man bought the last Zandy 3000 in the shop.

2. Decide if the following sentences are similar (S) or different (D) in meaning.
1. It’s fifty per cent off. ___ It’s half price.
2. It’s a bargain. ___ It’s a good deal.
3. It’s reduced. ___ It’s at the normal price.
4. It’s at the retail price. ___ It’s at the wholesale price.
5. It’s a big discount. ___ It’s a great reduction.
6. It’s in a sale. ___It’s at the normal retail price.
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3. Match the words with their definitions:
a) refund
b) credit note
c) exchange
d) guarantee
e) receipt
f) cheque
g) credit card

1 _______ a piece of paper that says that you bought something in a store
2 _______ money that you get back after you return goods in a store
3 _______ a piece of paper promising you money, a replacement or repair if
something goes wrong with what you have bought
4 _______ a piece of plastic that you can use like money to pay for goods
5 _______ a piece of paper that says you can spend money in that store
6 _______ goods in return for goods that you bought in a store
7 _______ a piece of paper that says that you will pay with money in your bank.

4. All the following words have to do with making payments

salary wages charge fees fare commission tip

Which one describes the money you pay


1. to thank someone for their services (for example, a waiter or waitress)?
2. to an agent or salesperson?
3. for a professional service (for example, to a lawyer)?
4. for a service (for example, electricity, postage)?
5. for travelling?
6. to your staff every week?
7. to your staff every month?

5. Now use the same seven words to complete these sentences:


1. The taxi _____ was $18 and I gave the driver a $4 ______ .
2. On orders of over 2,000 pieces delivery is free of ____ .
3. The builders receive their weekly _____ in cash.
4. In addition to your basic ____ you will receive a 25% _____ on all goods sold.
5. She’s a good accountant but her ______ are high.
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6. In which shops would you buy the following items?
1. apricots, radishes at the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _’s
2. aspirin, vitamins _ _ _ _ _ _ _’s
3. bread and cakes _ _ _ _ _’s
4. dogs, cats, hamsters _ _ _ shop
5. hammer, nails _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _’s
6. newspapers, magazines _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _’s
7. pens, writing paper _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _’s
8. roses, daffodils _ _ _ _ _ _ _’s shop
9. salmon, herring _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _’s
10. tea, sugar, coffee _ _ _ _ _ _’s shop

GRAMMAR FOCUS

1. Look at these sentences about the achievements of some famous people.


Unfortunately, the achievements have been attributed to the wrong people.
Rewrite the sentences using the correct information.
1. The telephone was invented by William Shakespeare.
2. Mount Everest was first climbed by James Watt.
3. Imagine was sung by Sir Edmund Hilary and Sherpa Tensing.
4. The Pastoral Symphony was composed by Alexander Graham Bell.
5. The Earth was first orbited in space by Joern Utzon.
6. Hamlet was written by Leonardo da Vinci.
7. The steam engine was invented by John Lennon.
8. The Sydney Opera House was designed by Yuri Gagarin.
9. The Mona Lisa was painted by Ludwig van Beethoven.

PASSIVE VOICE
USAGE EXAMPLES
To describe actions without saying who In this way a new life form is created.
does them The sauce is made of butter and parsley.
Their genes have been changed.
To describe processes The process is speeded up with chemicals
and then flavour and colour are added.

NOTE: You can use the passive voice They are made that way by genetic
and still say who performed an action by engineering – not by nature.
using “by”
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FORM EXAMPLES
Use the verb BE as a help verb + the third The sauce is
form (past participle) of the main verb The sauces are made of garlic.
To change the tense, change the form of
the verb BE:
Present Simple English is spoken here.
Present Continuous Excuse the mess: the house is being
painted.
Past Simple It was invented by the Chinese.
Past Continuous I felt as I was being watched.
Present Perfect All the money in the safe has been stolen.
Past Perfect I knew why I had been chosen.
Future You’ll be told in advance.
Going to structures Who’s going to be invited?
Modal structures The company should be taken to court
and punished.

2. Put the following sentences into the passive:

1. People leave 60 umbrellas a day on London buses.


2. They asked the boy many questions.
3. We will give you another chance.
4. We must not throw away empty bottles.
5. Someone left the light on all night.
6. Something has disturbed me.
7. The police will ask you a lot of questions.
8. The wind has blown off the roof.
9. People who drink and drive cause many road accidents.
10. Teenagers design some of the best computer games.

3. Answer the following questions using the passive voice:

1. “What happened to your dog?”


“It………………………………”
2. “Haven’t you got a car?”
“Yes, but……………………….”
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3. “Does he still work in that bank?”
“No,…………………………”
4. “Are these shoes brand-new?”
“Yes,……………………….”
5. “Are you going to the Longmans’ party?”
“No,………………………….”
6. “Does the TV set work now?”
“Yes,………………………”
7. “Is it a Swiss watch?”
“No,………………………..”

4. Write sentences from the prompts using one of the verbs from the box:

build discover elect found invent open

1. The Berlin Wall/1961


The Berlin Wall was built in 1961.
2. The Channel Tunnel/1994
…………………………………….
3. Radium/Marie and Pierre Curie
……………………………………..
4. The wireless/ Marconi
……………………………………..
5. Fiat SPA/1899
……………………………………..
6. President Clinton/1992
……………………………………...

5. Add a comment to each of the following questions:

Have you heard what ….

1 … has happened to their Spanish subsidiary? It has been sold.


2 … is happening to the department? ………………………………………….…
3 … happened to the chairman at the meeting? …………………………………..
4 … has happened to the strikers? ………………………………………………..
5 … is happening to the price of petrol? …………………………………………
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6 … happened to our office in Singapore? ………………………………………
7 … has happened to the EURO? …………………………………………………..

6. Many of the following sentences sound unnatural because they are in the active.
Rewrite them in the passive, but do not mention the agent (e.g. by workers, by
people).

1. Workers in China make these telephones.


These telephones …are made in China.
2. Employers pay many manual workers weekly.
Many manual workers…
3. They keep a large amount of gold at Fort Knox.
A large amount of gold … ______
4. Farmers grow a third of the world’s cocoa in the Ivory Coast.
A third of the world’s cocoa …
5. Countries store most nuclear waste underground.
Most nuclear waste …
6. Scientist test most new drugs extensively before they go on sale.
Before they go on sale, most new drugs … ______
7. Workers print a lot of books in Hong Kong.
A lot of books…

Let’s learn some new expressions!

to sell like hot cakes – to be sold very quickly


“The tickets sold like hot cakes. Everyone wanted to go to the concert of
the famous pop star.”

to have one’s cake and eat it – to enjoy both of two desirable but incompatible
alternatives.
“You definitely have to make up your mind: if you get promoted, you won’t
be able to find time for your hobbies any longer. You can’t have your cake and eat
it.”

piece of cake – something that is easily achieved or obtained


“Why are you worrying so much about the next exam? It’s really piece of
cake!”
Let’s learn some proverbs!
Don’t cry over spilt milk.

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Imagine that you have just spilled some milk on the floor – you were going
to have a nice glass of milk when an accident happened. Should you cry? Of course
not, that would be silly! There are more serious problems in the world than spilt
milk. Moreover, you can’t get the milk back into your glass.
Therefore, to cry over spilt milk is to be upset about something that is not
worth your tears, when there is nothing you can do about it.

CHECKLIST

1. Whats is the difference between i) I have few friends.


ii) I have a few friends?
2. Turn into the Passive: i) Nobody has drunk from that glass.
ii) Nobody has slept in this bed.
3. Think of two contexts for: cow/beef and pig/pork.
4. What are the features of genetically engineered food?
5. What is the difference between change and exchange?

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UNIT 10

MEDIA/COMMUNICATIONS

SECTION A

LEAD-IN

• What are media?


• What ways of conveying information to the general public do you know?
• Which one of the communication means is today more broadly defined as mass
media?
• What do you know about and which is the difference between print media,
electronic media?
• What and which are media professionals?

READING

UNDERSTANDING MEDIA
Slightly more than 550 years ago, a German craftsman invented a machine which
introduced to the then civilized world what is now known as mass media. Johannes
Gutenberg and his colleagues little realized that moveable type and the printing
press would initiate what ultimately became the “communications revolution” - a
revolution which has affected virtually everyone throughout the world.

Revolution it has been. It is impossible to tell how many millions of words and
pictures have been disseminated in just the past 100 years, let alone since the
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invention of the printing press. But in that 100 years, we have shifted from the
primitive, hand-operated printing presses, which changed little from those of the
fifteenth century, to sophisticated, technologically superior systems and devices
which permit almost instantaneous transmission of media messages to any locale in
the world. Only the most naïve among us would say we are not affected by those
messages. From the moment people tumble out of bed in the morning until they
crawl under covers at night, they are in some way subjected to the influences of
mass media. We would like to examine here the extent and the effects of that media
influence.

Consider this: just today some millions of copies of daily newspapers are being
circulated. Just this week, millions of copies of weekly newspapers will be
distributed. Just this month thousands of magazine titles will reach the media
marketplace. And just this year, some thousands of new book titles will compete
for readers.

The extent of influence of the electronic media is even more difficult to assess.
Thousands of television stations send signals to an estimated of 98 percent of
world-wide households. Additionally, cable television signals reach millions of
homes. Radio - who honestly knows the extent of its listenership? Thousands of
stations are picked up by millions of radio receivers. No one really knows how
many radio sets are operative, given the millions of inexpensive transistorized
personal receivers that the public uses while jogging, working or relaxing.

It is also true that no one really knows the extent of the distribution of films. An
estimated 4,000 to 5,000 feature films are released annually. They are viewed on
the big screen in some thousands of movie theatres across the countries by millions
of movie-goers (mostly teenagers and young adults). How many millions more
watch the same films in the privacy of their residences? How many students watch
films in their classrooms? How many organizations and corporations use films of
various types for training?

Media influence is pervasive and persuasive. It surrounds us, engulfs us. Mass
media are such an integral part of our educational, social, political, and economic
system today that if they disappeared, our society would suffer serious
consequences.
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Comprehension

1. Who invented the printing press?


2. What consequence has this invention entailed and how do people call it?
3. How have media developed for 100 years?
4. How much of our life are we under the influence of media?
5. How would you define daily newspapers, weekly newspapers and magazines?
6. Explain the influence of electronic media on the general public.
7. Why do students watch films in classrooms?
8. What would happen if mass media disappeared? Why?

LANGUAGE WORK

1. Fill in the blanks with suitable words from the text:

1. Johannes Gutenberg invented about 550 years ago the …………………….…....


2. The invention of the printing press brought about a …………………………...
in the world of communications.
3. Superior systems and devices permit today an almost…………………...
transmission of media ……………………….anywhere in the world.
4. From the moment they wake up until they go to bed people are …………..…. to
the ……………………………………..of mass media.
5. Every day …………………………….... newspapers, every week ………….….
newspapers and every month ……………………... reach the media ……...…...
6. While jogging, working or relaxing, the public uses …………………….
personal ………………………..…
7. Millions of ………………...., mainly teenagers and young grown-ups, watch
………………………. films on the big screen in thousands of movie theatres
all over the country.
8. Lots of organizations and corporations use …………….…. of various ………
.…. for …………………..…. their staff.

2. Do you think the following statements are true or false? Write T or F:

1. Benjamin Franklin invented the printing press.


2. Media suppose channels or means of mass communication as the press,
television etc.
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3. Electronic media mean newspapers and magazines.
4. Media professionals are writers, editors, reporters, correspondents, broad-
casters, newsreaders, news gatherers, anchormen, or anchorwomen, DJs.
5. Message means spoken communication.
6. Broadcast means to speak or appear in a radio or TV programme.
7. Movie-goers are those people who do not like to go to the cinema.
8. Mass media are an integral part of our educational, social, political and
economic systems today.
9. If media disappeared, our society would not suffer any consequence.

3. Match the words in the left column with the suitable definition you find in the
right column:

1. media a. a workman who is skilled in an occupation


2. message b. scene, as of a play or story, or locality of operations or events
3. craftsman c. a long film forming the main item in a cinema programme
4. locale d. spoken or written communication
5. news gatherer e. newspapers and broadcasting by which information is
conveyed to the general public
6. anchorman f. key broadcaster who participates in and coordinates the work
of other broadcasters
7. feature film g. reporters, correspondents, television journalists and the
camera operators who go with them

4. Combine the word media with the words in the box below and complete the
newspaper extracts:

attention circus empire campaign


magnate analyst guru correspondent

1. The trial of Bruno Hauptmann for the 1932 kidnapping of aviator’s Charles
Lindbergh’s baby attracted media ……………………... unlike any seen before.
2. The government has been particularly annoyed at the involvement of the French
state in what they are calling a hostile media--…………………………….…....
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3. Black had set his heart on the ‘News’ , which he saw as a key part of his plan to
build a world-wide media………………………………………..
4. The thought of a quiet ceremony and a small dinner party to follow is becoming
more attractive to stars as they watch publicised marriages like Elizabeth
Taylor’s being transformed into a media……………………………..
5. Estimates by Browen Maddox, media………………….…. at Kleinwort Benson
Securities are that the company will lose more than 330 million pound this
year.
6. Another satellite network came into being, Sky Television, owned by media
………………………….... Mr. Rupert Murdoch.
7. The Palace had claimed that Fergie had hired top media ……………………..
Sir Tim Bell to handle publicity on her behalf.

5. Use the words documentary and entertainment and the new-made words
docudrama (documentary and drama) and infotainment (information and
entertainment) with their proper meaning, in sentences about TV shows:

1. What we need is ……, variety shows with comedians, singers, pianists,


jugglers and acrobats.
2. That thin line between fact and fantasy has never looked thinner than in this
ABC…… movie, provisionally titled ‘Charles and Diana’.
3. An interview with Ron Brown, the Democratic Party Chairman, was edited to
40
seconds. Slotted between special video-effects and soundtrack, it is part of an
……
revolution.
4. We have a …..on the social issues, like the housing problem and the public
policies on education, health, and the social policies of the government.

6. Look at these newspaper extracts and match the types of TV programmes to


their definitions:

- His fiction was derived from ‘Dallas’ and other glossy SOAP OPERAS which
are consumed abroad.
- By combining the PHONE-IN with the TALK-SHOW, he was able to convey
his reaction to the ‘concerns of the average American’ more immediately than
by any other form.
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- Being a good GAME-SHOW host means getting to know your contestants.
- On my first appearance, interviewing a priest in the GOD SLOT, I tripped
headlong over some wires – and the programme was live.
- The whole point of QUIZ SHOWS is that, sitting at home you can shout out
the answers.
- Good SITCOM comes out of painful situations, and there doesn’t have to be a
happy ending every time.

Match the words in the first column with the suitable definition you find in the
second column:
1. chat-show or talk-show
2. God slot
3. game show
4. phone-in
5. quiz-show
6. sitcom
7. soap opera or soap

a. contest of skill, intelligence or knowledge.


b. series about the lives of a group of people
c. short for situation comedy. Comedy series based around a character or group of
characters, often an ‘ordinary’ family
d. a well-known host invites guests to talk, often about something they are trying to
sell or to promote, like their latest book.
e. a host invites people to phone in and put questions to a studio guest or just give
their opinions about something
f. religious programme
g. contest involving answering questions.

Give examples of these kinds of TV programmes from your own experience and
comment them.

7. Here are some useful words you may need in discussing newspapers. Decide
which definition belongs to each of them:

1. “human interest” story


2. edition

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3. column
4. classified ads
5. lead story
6. editorial
7. headline
8. story or article

A. Technically, a vertical section of words on the page; but in a colloquial sense


the terms can mean a regular feature in the paper (e.g. the editorial).
B. A story containing something about the personal life of one or more
individuals. These stories can be about ordinary people and have no political
significance.
C. The “title” of an article.
D. A column which expresses the paper’s own point of view.
E. Very short advertisements which are arranged under different headings.
F. A newspaper in the form that it appears on a particular day.
G. Any item written by a journalist.
H. The main front-page story.

¾ Write articles of your own, about happenings you know, trying to observe the
logical order of the events.

GRAMMAR FOCUS

¾ CONDITIONAL

Notice this sentence from the main text Understanding Media: “if they were to
disappear, our society would suffer serious consequences”.

1. Charlotte works for an advertising company. She has made some notes about
different products. Write sentences with if + the simple present + will to advertise
the products:

Example: Wash your hair with Head and Shoulders – it looks super.
If you wash your hair with Head and Shoulders, it will look super.

Feel better – take Panadol


You’ll feel better if you take Panadol.
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a. choose a Sunspot holiday – have a great time
b. sleep a lot better – sleep in a Dreamway bed
c. people notice you – wear Rodeo jeans
d. shop at Kwikbuy – save money

" Write a few sentences advertising some other products. Use if-clauses of type 1.
1. You can choose real products.

2. Read the following interview:

Jeffrey: Hi! My name’s Jeffrey. Our subject is going abroad. (Patricia’s family
has arranged for her to spend two months with a family in France).
Patricia, when are you going to France?
Patricia: Next week.
Jeffrey: What will you do if you don’t understand the language?
Patricia: I’ve learnt a little French in school and I’ll have a phrase book, so I’ll
try to speak French if people can’t speak English!
Jeffrey: And what will you do if you’re lonely?
Patricia: Well, I’m sure to be homesick, but I’ll try to make new friends and I’ll
write to my boy-friend every week. I won’t be sad and miserable!

Imagine you are Jeffrey. Prepare for the interview by writing some questions using
if + simple present + will. Use these expressions: feel lonely, get lost, don’t like the
food, meet an English person, feel homesick, can’t speak to people.

Example: Don’t understand the language.


What will you do if you don’t understand the language?

3. Use tentative possible conditions: if + should + infinitive:

Example: If you happen to see her, ask her to dinner sometime.


If you should see her, ask her to dinner sometime.
Should you see her, ask her to dinner sometime.

a. If by any chance Alice comes to see us, we’ll have a party.


b. If you happen to get two tickets for that show, will you spare one for me?
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c. If you happen to come on Sunday, you’ll meet your favourite actress.
d. If you happen to meet him, tell him to ring me up.

4. Use unless + a positive verb instead of if …not:

Example: Patricia won’t miss our meeting, if she is not ill


Patricia won’t miss our meeting, unless she is ill.

a. If you don’t apply to the chief editor, you won’t get a rise.
b. The correspondents won’t enter the palace, if they don’t have the president’s
permission.
c. She won’t say anything, if you don’t speak about the article.
d. If you don’t take out a permit, you won’t be allowed there.

5. Patricia is a secretary. She’s grumbling about her new job and her boss. Match
each sentence in the first column with one in the second. Rewrite the sentences
using if-clauses type 2 (if + simple past):

Example: If my boss didn’t play golf, he wouldn’t be out of the office so much.
If he told me where he was, I could contact him.

1. The pay isn’t good. A .I can’t afford a nicer flat.


2. He gives me so much work. B. I can’t contact him.
3. His writing is so awful. C. I can’t read it.
4. He doesn’t listen to me. D. I have to tell him everything twice.

6. If I were you, I wouldn’t (go by bus). I’d (go by underground)


This pattern is commonly used to make tentative suggestions. It is a more polite
and considerate way of advising .

Practice this dialogue with a partner using the clues below. Instead of buy, you
may use get, purchase, invest in:

Patricia: I’m thinking of buying a “Whizzy” washing machine.


Jeffrey: I wouldn’t if I were you. I’d buy “Whirly”. It’s cheaper than a
“Whizzy”.
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Patricia: Mm, it’s not so reliable though.
Jeffrey: Ah, but reliability isn’t everything.
Patricia: I don’t agree.

Washing machines: Whizzy Whirly Cars: ZXK JGY


Reliable Fast
Cheap Economical

Motorbikes: Vroom Zap Watches: Electric Zeus


Safe Accurate
Powerful Flashy

Coats: Chic Beau Typewriters: Tip-tap Tap-tip


Hard-wearing Long-lasting
Smart Quiet

7. Below is the story of what happened when four people went on a long walk last
week. Read the story and rewrite the underlined parts using if-clauses of type 3 (if
+ past perfect):

Example: If it hadn’t rained most of the morning, it would have been a


pleasant walk. They wouldn’t have decided to go if the forecast had been
bad.

Last Saturday Jeffrey, Patricia, Trevor and Emma went on a twenty-mile walk
over the Norland Hills. Jeffrey likes walking, and it was his idea. They walked
from Oscroft at the eastern end of the hills to Raveley in the west. The day didn’t
go at all as planned. It rained most of the morning, so it wasn’t a very pleasant
walk. The weather is often wet in the Norland Hills, in fact. But they decided to go
because the forecast wasn’t bad. Jeffrey and Patricia wore their anoraks, but Trevor
and Emma got wet because they didn’t have their anoraks. The four friends had
other problems too. They forgot to bring a map, and they lost the way. They
wanted to stop for lunch in the village of Rydale. They finally got there at two
o’clock. They were late because they didn’t go the right way. They had planned to
eat at the café in Rydale, but they weren’t able to eat there because the café was
closed for the day. It was very annoying. They didn’t have any food with them, so
they were hungry. But the weather was better by this time, and they decided to go
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on to Raveley. Five miles further on Patricia had an accident. She fell and hurt her
leg. So they had to go more slowly after that. They lost even more time. They
missed their bus home because they got to Raveley so late. There wasn’t any other
transport, so they rang their friend Adam. Luckily he was at home, so he was able
to come and fetch them in his car. They were glad to get home.

" Translate into English:

Mass media sunt mijloacele prin care informaţiile sunt transmise publicului
larg. Există mijloace de informare tipărite, cum ar fi ziare, reviste, cărţi şi mijloace
de informare electronice, cum ar fi televiziunea şi radioul.
Cine ar fi crezut vreodată că, dacă Gutenberg n-ar fi inventat tiparul, care a
însemnat “revoluţia comunicaţiilor”, am fi ajuns astăzi la aparatura sofisticată din
punct de vedere tehnologic, care permite transmiterea imediată a oricărui gen de
mesaj în orice colţ al lumii.
Zi de zi suntem într-un fel sau altul sub influenţa mass mediei. Nu putem
să nu fim afectaţi de informaţiile transmise prin ziare, televiziune, radio etc.
Influenţa copleşitoare a mass mediei este văzută în însuşi modul nostru de a gândi.
Consecinţele şi rolurile majore ale mass mediei joacă un rol covârşitor în
viaţa noastră. Dacă n-ar fi formele mass media, n-am afla niciodată evenimentele
majore din ţară şi din întreaga lume.

Remember!

TYPE IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE EXAMPLE


1. A) Possible, Present Tense Future Tense If it rains, we won’t go to buy
probable/real the newspaper.
condition referring
to something which
may or equally may
not happen.

B)Tentative If you should meet Philip, tell


possible condition, Should Future/imperative him the news.
referring to
something, which is
rather unlikely to Should you meet Philip, tell
happen, but still him the news. (more formal)
could do so
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2. Improbable Simple Past Present If she became a reporter, she
condition referring Tense Conditional would work very hard.
to something which Tense Unless (if …not) we invited
the speaker can her, she would not come.
imagine happening If I were you, I wouldn’t
in theory change my job.

3. Impossible Past Perfect Perfect If he had known English, he


condition referring Tense Conditional would have translated the
to something in the report.
past which, because Had he known English, he
it is in the past, would have translated the
cannot by definition report. (more formal)
happen.
With modal verbs
If she had been able to
answer the questions, she
might have passed the
examination.

Let’s learn a new proverb!

Don’t put off tomorrow what you can do today


It’s easy to put things off. Just say, “I’ll do that tomorrow”. We call that
procrastination (quite a big word, isn’t it?). What about you? Do you often put
things off? What type of things? Homework, certainly. What else? We usually put
off things that we do not enjoy. Sometimes, we may not have a good reason for why
we procrastinate.
However, our work won’t go anywhere, no matter how long we wait to do it.
Therefore, if we don’t have a good reason, we should just do it.

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SECTION B

LEAD-IN

• What do you know about advertisement?


• What is the difference between advertisement and publicity?
• What does advertising deal with?
• What do you know about the language of advertisements?

READING

T. V. ADVERTS

Patricia: The adverts will be on in a minute. You want a cup of tea, don’t you?
Jeffrey: Yes, please. Do you want a hand? It was kind of you to have invited me.
Patricia: No, thanks, I’ve just got time.
Jeffrey: I don’t know what the advertisers would do if everyone was like mum.
She always makes a cuppa during the adverts.
Patricia: Yes, loads of people do, that’s why they put the sound up, so you can
still hear the ad, even if you can’t see it.
Jeffrey: Is that true? You’re kidding, aren’t you? It’s stupid of them not to watch
the images too.
Patricia: No, I’m not. You haven’t noticed, have you?
Jeffrey: Well, no, I can’t say that I have. Isn’t that awful!
Patricia: Why is it awful? Adverts aren’t that bad. In fact, some of them are
pretty good. The ones they did for shampoo, a while back, were really
great, and the ones with the monkeys were hilarious. It was very clever
of the advertiser to have chosen such a subject for an advert.
Jeffrey: Well, I think they’re a pain in the neck. Three stupid adverts for
washing powder in the middle of a film, it just ruins it, doesn’t it? It’s
wrong of the broadcasters to slot the film in this way.
Patricia: Mmm! you’re right about that. Washing powder ads are worse than
everything. I can’t believe they help to sell the product. I mean, they’re
all the same, aren’t they?
Jeffrey: What, the adverts you mean, or the products?
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Patricia: Well, both actually. But I meant the adverts.
Jeffrey: Yeah, they just copy each other. First it was changing two packets for
one, then the “biological” powders and now the latest thing is those
liquid ones.
Patricia: Here’s the tea, come on, stop chatting now.
Jeffrey: Television - the great conversation killer!

Comprehension

1. What do the two friends speak about?


2. What do they think about advertisements?
3. Does Jeffrey like advertisements in the middle of a film? What’s his opinion
about that?
4. What kind of language do they use? Is their talk formal or informal?
5. What characteristic features do you notice in their speaking an “everyday
language”?

LANGUAGE WORK

1. What do you know about advertisements in newspapers? Do you know what


classified ads are? All people want to know about business, job changes, personal
information and others, is dealt with through the classified columns of local,
regional and national papers. Indeed, many people in British and American
communities buy newspapers for the sole purpose of checking the small ads.
The classifieds contain important expressions and abbreviations which you, as a
language learner, need to know.

2. Read the following text about Internet and try to understand it with a dictionary:

What is the Internet and why do I need it?

Now you should have a film grasp of the World Wide Web and what it has to offer.
The Web can link together information from anywhere in the world and make it
available to anyone. Any student can jump from Dun & Bradstreet financial
information to a tour of Croatia’s capital, Zagreb, to Southern Africa - without ever
leaving his desk.
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Although the Web has existed for only a short time, it is already being used in
numerous areas by both public and private institutions. Business have discovered
how beneficial advertising and performing transactions on the Web can be.
Educational institutions also are making more information available on the Web,
and students are discovering that they can get increasingly more research done by
searching Web pages rather than library books. You can make travel plans, buy
houses, read about your favourite hobby, and make new friends via the Web.

ROLE - PLAY

Plan your holidays through the Internet by e-mailing a travel agency. Speak
about it. You are the customer and another student is the agency’s
employee.
" You are a refreshments company employer. Your company is not very
successful and you have to put down your prices. Use World Wide Web.
Write a summary about it.
You are being bored. To get out of it you need somebody. You have the
brilliant idea of accessing the Internet to make friends. Write about your
bad mood and speak about how you have succeeded in making a friend and
how your relations have evolved. Have you ever met?

GRAMMAR FOCUS

¾ PHRASAL VERBS

1. Here are six examples with get. Read the examples carefully.

The new manager is easy to get on with.


Fred is healthy again. He got over his illness pretty well.
The files are locked up and I can’t get at them.
Don’t let this rainy weather get you down.
How’s Jack getting on at school?
Susan got through her exams successfully.

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Complete these sentences using a phrasal verb with get.

a. I must put this vase in a place where the children can’t


..………………………. .
b. How are you ………………………….. in your new job?
c. Jim’s only beginning to ……………………. his disappointment.
d. She finally ……………… ….. driving licence test.
e. She couldn’t …………………… her room mate – she was a heavy
smoker.
f. I know I shouldn’t let his comments ………… me ………… but I
can’t help it.

2. Here are some phrasal verbs with the particle up. Read the examples carefully.

It’s parents’ responsibility to bring up their children.


You have to make up your mind whether you want to leave now.
I can hardly get up in the morning.
You should never give up hope.
Look up the price in the catalogue.
She picked up a little German when she visited her friend there.
The landlord put the rent up by 50p a week.
I can’t put up with his manners.
Since he retired, he has taken up gardening.
No sooner had he left that his fellows turned up.

Now complete the following sentences using one of the phrasal verbs above.

1. Why didn’t you buy your car now? They’re going to ……………………
the price soon.
2. He was ………………………….. to be a respectable man.
3. The citizens don’t ……………………………. pollution any longer.
4. It was late so she ……………………………. in a hurry.
5. He had been waiting for an hour when she finally …………………… .
6. I have no idea what ‘income’ means. Why don’t you ………..…..
………….?
7. I’ll have to …………………. driving, I got a company car and I can’t use it.
8. Where shall I go on holiday? I haven’t …………………….. yet..
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9. He didn’t attend any training, but he managed to ……………. some
computing skills.
10. They had to …………….. travelling by car because of the flood.

3. Complete the sentences using one of these verbs + one of the pronouns it /them/
her/ him/ you:

make up fill in give back show round turn down see


off wake up throw away break down cross out

1 They gave me a form to fill it in.


2 The boy told his friends a story that wasn’t true. He ………………………..
3 Would you like to see our company? I could ………………………………..
4 Denis was offered a job as receptionist but she …………………………..…..
5 Martin is very tired. Please don’t ……………………………………………..
6 When you finish reading the journals, don’t forget to ………………………..
to the librarian.
7 She had a lot of useless things, so she wanted to ………………..……………
8 The door was locked so the police had to ……………………………………..
9 Her sister is leaving to New Zealand and she is going to the airport to ………
10 If you make a mistake on the form, just ……………………………………….

Remember!

¾ PHRASAL VERBS

Phrasal verbs are verbs with particle, the meaning of which may be different from
those of the individual parts. There are four types of phrasal verbs:

EXAMPLES
1 They do not take an object. His fellows turned up later.

2 They take an object.


• The noun object goes after or before He put up the rent. / He put the
the particle. rent up.
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• The pronoun object always goes
before the particle. He put it up.
3 They take an object. The noun/ pronoun I can’t get at the files.
object goes after the particle. I can’t get at them.
4 They have two particles and the I get on with my manager.
noun/pronoun object goes after these. I can’t put up with his manners.

¾ ADJECTIVAL PHRASE
Have you noticed in the dialogue between Patricia and Jeffrey about TV adverts,
the phrases of this kind: “It was kind of you to …”, “It’s stupid of them not to …”,
“It was clever of the advertiser to …”, “It’s wrong of the broadcasters to …”?

1. Patricia and Jeffrey were school mates long ago. All the pupils who left Parkside
School twenty years ago, are having a reunion. They’re meeting to talk about the
old days when they were younger. Fill in the gaps with phrases above mentioned,
namely adjectival phrases: it + to be + adjective + of + noun + long infinitive.

Jeffrey: Hello. You’re Wendy, aren’t you? It was nice of you to accept the
invitation.
Wendy: Yes, I remember you, too. You’re Jeffrey Cowley, aren’t you? …….
(splendid) (have organized) this reunion.
Jeffrey: That’s right, it was Patricia’s idea. We were in the same class, weren’t
we? But it’s easy to forget people.
Wendy: I think I remember most of the people here. Patricia Squires is over there,
isn’t she? I’ve heard she reads the news on Television Northwest. …….
(gorgeous) ……. (have) this job.
Jeffrey: Yes, she’s on television quite often. She’s done well.
Wendy: We had a lot of fun at school, hadn’t we?
Jeffrey: Er, yes. Don’t turn round, but Melone’s looking awfully.
Wendy: Mike Melone?
Jeffrey: Yes, can you remember him?
Wendy: Oh, yes.
Jeffrey: I hated him. Oh, no! he’s coming over here.
Wendy: Well, it is a reunion. We ought to be friendly!
Mike: Hello, Jeffrey! Nice to see you again.

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Jeffrey: Nice to see you too, Mike. ……. of you …… (recognize) me.
Mike: This reunion was a good idea.
Jeffrey: Yes, I’m enjoying it. Mike, do you remember Wendy?
Mike: Yes, she’s my wife.
Jeffrey: Oh!

Activity: Imagine that in twenty years’ time you are at a reunion with the other
members of your class. Think of four or five sentences with adjectival phrases that
you might say to your partner. Use these adjectives with to be + of + object + long
infinitive: pleasant, expensive, reasonable, good, kind.

" Translate into English:

Redactarea unui exemplar publicitar este ca şi redactarea unei ştiri.


Accentul în scrierea unei reclame se pune pe concizie şi claritate. Fiţi exact şi
cinstit - aceasta este o responsabilitate de bază în publicitate. Studiaţi reclamele.
Uitaţi-vă prin reviste şi ziare. Observaţi simplitatea reclamelor. Aţi remarca de
îndată că există apeluri pentru diversele interese ale cititorilor atât prin ilustraţii, cât
şi prin text.
Multe cărţi despre publicitate discută psihologia vânzării. Unele vă vor da
liste lungi cu trebuinţelor oamenilor. Psihologii au publicat liste ale dorinţelor
umane şi au pus cele mai puternice dorinţe la începutul acestora.
Este foarte bine să vă uitaţi la lista de apeluri pentru a găsi unul bun pentru
produsul dvs. Selectaţi-l pe cel mai bun şi care este, de asemenea, logic şi credibil.
Alegeţi un apel care va face cu adevărat vânzări. Nu încercaţi să vindeţi tuturor
pentru a sfârşi să nu vindeţi nimic nimănui.
Fiţi selectivi în ceea ce scrieţi. Hotărâţi ceea ce va vinde cel mai bine
produsul cititorului dvs. Fiţi creatori. Cea mai bună reclamă n-a fost încă pregătită.
Nici unul dintre experţi nu are toate răspunsurile.

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Let’s have fun

All’s Well that Ends Well

The scene was in a drawing-room, and a strange idea came into her mind. She was
romantic, and all kinds of strange ideas flitted in and out of her pretty, little head.
Stamping as hard as she could on the carpet, throwing back her shoulders and
pointing to the cabinet in the corner of the room with a commanding gesture, she
said: “Open one of those three drawers.”
The young man rushed toward the cabinet.
“Don’t be in such a hurry. First listen to what I have to say.”
He stopped suddenly, as if she had told him the drawers might explode if he
touched them.
“Open one of those drawers, and be careful how you choose, for in each one I have
placed an answer to the favour you have asked of me. If you put your hand on the
paper on which “Yes” in written, then I am yours. But if the paper in the drawer
says “No”, then understand that is my final decision.”
“You are too cruel”, said he; “I am sure it will be ‘No’ ”.
“You must take your chance” she replied. He paused to look into her face for
guidance, but he found none there; so, closing his eyes and trusting to Providence,
he opened the middle drawer, and took out a tiny roll of scented pink paper and
handed it to her.
“Well, what is my sentence” he inquired.
“Read it yourself”, she said, as she held out the leaf of paper, upon which was
written the world “Yes”.
Now she was his; she had given her word and she must keep it. After a few minutes
the young man became suddenly cool.
“What’s the matter, darling?” she asked, noting the change. “Are you not happy
now?”
“Not quite”.
“Not quite!” she repeated, “am I not yours for ever?” “That is so, but I won you by
chance. You did not come to me of your own free will, did you?”
“Don’t be so silly”, she said, as she put her arms round his neck.
“If you want to know the truth, I put the same answer in each of the three drawers”.
(Anonymous)

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Let’s learn a proverb!

Don’t put all of your eggs in one basket


What would happen if someone put all off their eggs in one basket, and
then dropped the basket? They would lose everything. But what if they put some in
another basket? In that case, if they dropped one basket, they would still have eggs
from the other one.
That is why bankers usually advise people to place their money in several
different investments or banks. If one investment fails or one bank goes bankrupt,
people will save the money deposited in the others.

CHECKLIST

1. Is media a singular or a plural noun?


2. When can you use the verb would in an IF-clause?
3. What verbs can you use to make suggestions?
4. What is a phrasal verb?
5. Give one exemple for each type of conditional sentence.

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STOP AND CHECK

1. Underline the correct option from the words in italics.

1. I’d like a/some advice about the government’s latest tax proposals.
2. I’ve just received a/some very nice gift from one of my friends.
3. Did you meet an/any interesting people at the party?
4. Bill wants you to phone him. He says he has a/some good news for you.
5. Shall we carry on working, or would you like to go out for a/some meal?
6. I just have to go to the bank to get a/some money.
7. The engineers are having a/some problems with the new engine.

2. Write complete sentences:

Example: he / the day after tomorrow / manager / see /


He is seeing the manager the day after tomorrow.

A. present continuous or ‘will’?

Jack: everybody / come / to the presentation on Friday afternoon?


........................................................................
Pam: Most people.
Jack: you think / it / be a long one?
...........................................................................
Pam: I'm not sure. It / probably / be about 3 hours. Why?
...........................................................................
Jack: I / go to the dentist at 5.30. I made an appointment two weeks ago.
............................................................................

B. present simple or ‘going to’?

Tom: Great! That’s the end of school for a few weeks.


Lucy: When / the next term / begin?
…..........................................................................
Tom: On 15th February.
Lucy: What / you / do / during the holidays?
…..........................................................................
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Tom: I don’t know yet. What about you?
Lucy: I / not finish / until next week. Then, I / look / for a job for the summer.

3. Choose the best answer, A, B or C

1. The suitcase looks heavy. …………………………… you with it.


A. I’m helping B. I help C. I’ll help.
2. ‘The trade fair is interesting.’ ‘Yes, I know. ……………………….. it tomorrow.
A. I visit B. I’m going to visit C. I’ll visit
3. We’re late. The plane ………………………… by the time we get to the railway
station.
A. will already start B. will be already started C. will already have started
4. …………………………… tomorrow, so we can go somewhere.
A. I’m not working B. I don’t work C. I won’t work
5. I think the inflation ………………….. decrease next term.
A. will B. shall C. is going to
6. Don’t worry …………………… late tonight.
A. if I am B. when I am C. when I’ll be

4. Answer the following questions, according to the model:

Model: Will you go shopping at Harrods in Knightsbridge?


I’m looking forward to going shopping at Harrods in Knightsbridge, it’s
the best department store in London.

1. Will you take a walk down the King’s Road in Chelsea?


……. a walk down the King’s Road in Chelsea, where there are dozens of
small
restaurants.
2. Will you see a ballet?
……. a ballet at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York.

5. Change the following sentences according to the model:

Model: Tom would prefer to go.


I would prefer Tom to go.
I would rather/sooner Tom went.
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1. Bill would rather play tennis than football.
2. My brother would rather go skiing than skating.
3. They would rather listen to concerts than operas.

6. Translate into English:

1. La sfârşitul anilor optzeci un mare număr de firme au dat faliment din cauza
crizei petrolului.
2. În următorul deceniu probabil jumătate din populaţia globului va locui în oraşe.
3. Până în anul 2010 se vor fi inventat roboţi care să preia multe din activităţile
omului.
4. Între 1989 şi 1999 s-au produs transformări majore în economia ţărilor din
Europa Centrală şi de Est.
5. Mai puţin de o treime dintre angajaţii firmei vor deveni şomeri până la începutul
anului.
6. Clima se va încălzi din ce în ce mai mult la începutul mileniului următor.
7. Cu cât se dezvoltă producţia mai repede, cu atât ne vom extinde mai mult
pieţele.
8. Calitatea nu este la fel de importantă ca preţul, în ce îi priveşte pe clienţii noştri.
9. În prezent există cu 20 la sută mai puţine surse de apă nepoluată.
10. Produsul nostru va fi mult mai apreciat decât majoritatea mărcilor concurente.

7. Complete the following sentences with the words business, economy and the
words related (economic, economical, economics, economist , economize).

1. If we want a holiday this year we’ll have to ……………………….. . We’re


spending too much.
2. The newspapers advertise many small ………..………. for sale.
3. Every country has its own ……………………… problems.
4. She’s an ………………….. lecturer at Leeds University.
5. Peter’s thinking of setting up in the construction ………………. when he
leaves university.
6. The most ………………. way of heating your house is by using solar energy.
7. The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the minister responsible for the domestic
……….………. .
8. I have to go abroad on ………………….. for at least two months a year.
9. Naturally he has many professional ………….……….. to advise him.
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10. They are studying marketing, ……………….. geography, political …………..
and management at the ………………… school.
11. The world …………………….. get more and more integrated.
12. It is usually more ………………… to shop in a supermarket than in a small
shop.
13. He presented himself very well at the interview. He was very professional and
……………..…-like.
14. Would you like a cup of coffee or shall we get down to ……………… straight
away?
15. He always travels by …………….-class and by such small ……………. he
manages to save a lot.
16. In a hotel it’s the receptionist’s ………………. to welcome tourists.
17. Don’t bother me so much. This is none of your ………………. .
18. The government ………….……. policy is to reduce taxation in the next years.
19. He’d better mind his own …………………. and not interfere at all.
20. She has a good ………………. as a hairstylist.

8. Use your dictionary to fill in the chart. Some words do not have all forms.

Verb Noun
Person Activity Result Adjective
pro’duce pro'ducer pro'duction pro'duce pro'ductive
produc'tivity 'product
photo'graphic
create
'marketer
management
con'sumption
super'visory
ad'vertisment
em'ployer

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9. Put the verb in the right form: -ing or infinitive (with or without to):

1. She doesn't allow smoking in the house. (smoke)


2. I've never been to Barbados but I'd like __________ there. (go)
3. I'm in a difficult position. What do you advise me _________ ? (do)
4. She said the letter was personal and wouldn't let me _________ it. (read)
5. They were kept at the police station for two hours and then they were allowed
_________ . (go)
6. Where would you recommend me _________ for my holiday? (go)
7. I wouldn't recommend _________ in that restaurant. The food is awful. (eat)
8. The film was very sad. It made me _________ . (cry)
9. Carol's parents always encouraged her _________ hard at college. (study)

10. Fill in the blanks with the verbs in brackets, using the -ing form or to +
infinitive:

1. There's nothing wrong with the photocopier. It just needs servicing. (service)
2. We need _________ (look) at this proposal very carefully before we make a
decision.
3. I'll make a note in my diary so that I will remember ___________ (send) you the
information you need.
4. I'm not sure if I have met Mr Gonzalez, but I remember ________ (hear) his
name.
5. I will never forget __________ (walk) into the class on my first day at school.
6. Could you take this file to Ms Armstrong? I meant to let her have it this
morning, but I forgot __________ (give) it to her.
7. He found it very difficult to get work because he was unemployed, and soon
regretted _________ (resign) from his previous job.
8. We have appointed another candidate to the post, so I regret _________ (say)
that we will not be able to offer you the job.
9. If their Accounts Department is slow at paying bills, try _________ (send) a fax
to the chairman. That usually works well.
10. As a company, we always try ________ provide our customers with the best
service possible.

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11. Write sentences beginning with I wish ... ..

Example: I don't know many people (and I'm lonely). I wish I knew more people.
I've eaten too much and now I feel sick. I wish I hadn't eaten so much.

1. I live in a big city (and I don't like it). ................................................................


2. It's cold (and I hate cold weather). ...................................................................
3. I didn't applied for the job advertised in the newspaper.
..........................................
4. I can't go to the party (and I'd like to). ...............................................................
5. I forgot to take my camera. .............................................................................
6. I'm not lying on a sunny beautiful beach ( and that's a pity).
.....................................
7. I have to study tomorrow (but I'd like to stay in bed).
..............................................
8. I didn't study English hard when I was at school. ...................................................
9. Ann isn't here (and I need to see her). ...................................................…............
10. I don't know anything about cars (and my car has just broken down). …............
..........…………

12. Somebody says something to you which is the opposite of what they said
before. Write a suitable answer beginning I thought you said... .

Example: That restaurant is expensive. Is it? I thought you said


it was cheap.

1. Ann is coming to the party tonight.


Is she? I thought you said she ................................................................
2. I know lots of people.
Do you? I thought .............................................................................
3. Ann likes music.
Does she? ......................................................................................
4. I'll be here next week.
Will you? .......................................................................................
5. I'm going out this evening.
Are you? ........................................................................................
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6. I can speak a little Portuguese.
Can you? .......................................................................................
7. I haven't been to the theatre for ages.
Haven't you? ..................................................................................

13. Read the report about what a candidate said at an interview. Change the
words in italics into Direct Speech.

Miss Baker said that (1) she was very interested in working for us, and she
explained that (2) she had been working in the City for three years. When I asked
her about her reasons for leaving, she said that (3) she liked what she did, but she
wanted more responsibility. She seems well-qualified for the post, as she said that
(4) she had a degree in Economics and an MBA. As far as her terms of notice are
concerned, she made it clear that (5) she couldn't leave her job for another month. I
decided to offer her the job, and she said (6) she would consider our offer, and
would let us have her decision the next week.

1. She said: "I am very interested in working for you".


2. She said: ............................................................................................
3. She said: ............................................................................................
4. She said: ............................................................................................
5. She said: ............................................................................................
6. She said: ............................................................................................

14. A speaker was asked these questions after a presentation. Report the questions.

1. "When will the new product be ready?"


2. "How much are you planning to spend on advertising?"
3. "Where do you intend to advertise?"
4. "What discount will you give to your distributors?"
5. "Why has it taken so long to develop?"
6. "How much market interest has there been in the new product?"
7. "Who is the product aimed at?"
8. "What sort of problems have you had in developing the product?"

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15. High Street shops. Why do you go to these places? What do they sell or do?
Example: a laundry You go to a laundry to have your clothes cleaned.
a florist A florist sells flowers.

a. a chemist
………………………………………………………………..
b. a building society
………………………………………………………………..
c. a garden centre
………………………………………………………………..
d. an insurance company
……………………………………………………………….
e. an estate agent
………………………………………………………………..
f. a travel agent
……………………………………………………………….
g. a hardware shop
……………………………………………………………….
h. a software shop
……………………………………………………………….
i. a greengrocer’s shop
……………………………………………………………….
j. a DIY shop
………………………………………………………………..

16. A person who works in the Personnel Department is explaining how they select
candidates in her company:

“If there's a vacancy, I usually advertise it in-house first of all, and if I don't find
any suitable candidates, then we advertise the job in the papers. We ask applicants
to send in their CVs, and we invite some of the candidates to an interview. After
that, we draw up a shortlist and ask some of the applicants back for a second
interview. We choose the best candidate, and then I check his or her references,
and if everything's OK, we offer the applicant the job”.

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Complete the sentences below to give a general description of the recruitment
process. Use the passive in your answers.

1. The vacancy is advertised in-house.


2. If there is not a suitable in-house candidate ....................................................
3. The vacancy .........................................................................................
4. Applicants ...........................................................................................
5. Some candidates ....................................................................................
6. A shortlist ............................................................................................
7. Selected candidates .................................................................................
8. The best candidate ...................................................................................
9. The references .......................................................................................
10. The successful candidate ..........................................................................

17. Complete the following sentences with the first conditional:

1. I'll probably stay in my present job unless ...


...............................................................................................................
2. The economic situation will continue to improve as long as ...
...............................................................................................................
3. I won't be able to go to the interview on Thursday unless ...
...............................................................................................................
4. Provided the Boeing get the safety certificate for their new aeroplane, ...
...............................................................................................................
5. Unless I have to change the time of the meeting for some reasons, ...
...............................................................................................................
6. We will allow you to become the sole distributor of our product providing ...
...............................................................................................................

18. Put the verb into the correct form:

1. They would be rather offended if I didn't go to see them. (not/go)


2. If you took more exercise, you would feel better. (feel)
3. If I were offered the job, I think I ________________ it. (take)
4. I'm sure Amy will lend you the money. I'd be very surprised if she
____________ . (refuse)
5. If I sold my car now, I _____________ much money for it. (not/ get)
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6. A lot of people would be out of work if the factory _____________ . (close
down)
7. What would happen if I _______________ that red button? (press)
8. Liz gave me this ring. She ______________ very upset if I lost it. (be)
9. Mark and Carol are expecting us. They would be very disappointed if we
_______________ (not/ come)
10. Would George mind if ______________ his bicycle without asking him?
(borrow)
11. If somebody _______________ in here with a gun, I'd be very frightened.
(walk)
12. I'm sure Sue _______________ if you explained the situation to her.
(understand)

19. Put the verb into the correct form:

1. I didn't know you were in hospital. If I had known (know), I would have gone
(go) to visit you.
2. Ken got to the station in time to catch his train. If he ________________ (miss)
it, he _______________ (be) late for his interview.
3. It's good that you reminded me about Ann's birthday. I __________________
(forget) if you __________________ (remind) me.
4. Unfortunately, I didn't have my address book with me when I was in New York.
If I ________________ (have) your address, I _________________ (send) you a
postcard.
5. I took a taxi to the hotel, but the traffic was very bad. It ________________ (be)
quicker if I _________________ (walk).
6. I'm not tired. If __________________ (be) tired, I'd go home now.
7. I wasn't tired last night. If I __________________ (be) tired, I would have gone
home earlier.

20. You have applied for these jobs. Say why you think you should get the job.

Example: Accountant I’ve always been good at figures. I worked as


an accountant from 1990 to 1995. I’ve read a
lot of books about accounting. I like working in
an office.

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a. Tourist guide for your town or country.
b. Hotel manager
c. Journalist

" Write the letter of application for one of these jobs. Include any information
you think relevant. Think particularly about
¾ your education and qualifications
¾ any experience relevant to the job
¾ why you are interested in the job.
¾ when you are available for interview

……………………………………...

………………………………………
Dear
I would like to apply for the position of ……………………………………..………,
which I saw advertised in………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………..……………………………
…………………………………………………………………..…………………………
………………………………………………………………………..……………………
……………………………………………………………………………..………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………….

21. Choose the correct word:


I’m off on a travel/trip to Paris tomorrow by car as I’m looking for work/job. I saw
an advertisement/publicity for a job in a company there, which does scientific
research/experiment. I’m only taking one bag/baggage and a briefcase because I’m
only staying for two nights. I hope there isn’t too much traffic/cars on the
motorway as I don’t like traffic jams. I believe that place to stay/accommodation
for me has been booked in a hotel close to the centre. I hope to get a view/scenery
of the Eiffel Tower.

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22. Look at the following deconstructed article adapted from the newspaper The
Guardian. Rearrange the paragraphs in their logical order to get to the original
text: ‘Town’s New Swimming Pool’ :

A. Mrs. Mae Rose Owens was the first person to see it, last Friday. As she looked
out of her window she saw a tree getting shorter and shorter.

B. They recently built a new swimming Pool in the small town of Winter Park,
Florida. It is one metre deep at one end and 55 metres deep at the other. That
was not the original plan: half the pool has been eaten by an enormous hole.

C. “Suddenly the earth just opened up and down this tree went. I couldn’t believe
it.”

D. By Sunday, the hole had eaten one side of Denning Avenue, and was
approaching three more houses. Yesterday it measured 400 metres across and
55 metres deep. According to Mr. Jim Smoot, of the US Hydrological Survey,
it will probably go on growing for several weeks. There is about 15 metres of
water in the bottom.

E. The hole has also eaten two businesses, a house, five cars, several trees, and a
largepiece of road. It was still growing yesterday.

F. The hole seems to be a result of the drought. Underground streams have dried
out, making the subsoil contract.

G. By 4 a.m. on Sunday, Mrs. Owens had seen her home disappear, together with
the buildings of a Porsche agent and a printing firm.

23. Jeffrey, Trevor and Bob are football fans. They’re talking about the World
Cup. Complete their conversation by using adjectival phrases. Use the adjectives
and the verbs between brackets:

Jeffrey: Did you see Holland and Mexico on television last night?
Trevor: Yes, ……. (great, to play). Holland were marvellous.
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Bob: They won’t find it so easy against Poland. ……. (difficult, to win).
Trevor: Yes, you’re right. Poland have a good team.
Jeffrey: Lobak looks, doesn’t he ……. (hard, the Austrian, to stop)?
Trevor: It will be an interesting game, won’t it?
Bob: England haven’t been very good …….(wrong, not to have the luck on
one’s side).
Trevor: But why is Bodger playing? He isn’t very good ……. (silly, the team, to
select).
Jeffrey: Well, we should beat Nigeria, shouldn’t we?
Bob: I don’t know. Anything could happen, couldn’t it?
Trevor: The German are good. They don’t take any risks, do they?
Jeffrey: They’re playing Hungary tonight…..(advisable, you, to watch).
Trevor: Yes, of course.

24. Fill the gaps with the following words: business, affair(s), matter:

1. The meeting was a long …….


2. Don’t interfere in your relatives’ …….
3. This is your own …….
4. He never discusses his ……. with anybody.
5. The spy interferes in the home ……. of other countries.
6. The picnic was a very pleasant …….
7. Mr. Parker is having a ……. talk with a visitor.
8. He has just returned from a ……. trip.
9. It is a ……. of time.
10. What’s the …….? Why is everybody shouting?
11. He hates it when people interfere in his …….
12. I can’t help him with this, it’s his own …….
13. I don’t want to argue. It’s a ……. of opinion.
14. The Minister of Foreign …………. attended an international conference.

¾ FILE 1
Advanced schooling in the U.S.

Many students, upon finishing high school, choose to continue their


education. Community colleges, also known as junior colleges, offer two-year
programs leading to a bachelor’s degree (as well as, in many cases, further
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programs leading to higher degrees). These schools may be public or private;
private schools cost a lot more. U.S. colleges and universities have many students
from around the world, especially from Asia.
Many more Americans than ever before are finishing high school and
college. More than 20 percent of all adults have finished college and more than 75
percent have finished high school. Although the number of years in of schooling is
going up, there are signs that the quality of education may be going down. This is
of great concern, especially since education is considered crucial to the American
ideal that each person should achieve all that he or she can.
There are many theories about where the problems lie. Some think that
students have too many ‘ electives’, or courses they choose, and too few courses in
basic subjects. Others think students watch too much TV and do too little
homework. Everyone agrees that the problems must be addressed.
(From Spotlight on the USA, OUP)

¾ FILE 2
Cambridge is sometimes called the birthplace of American intellectual life.
It has the nation’s oldest university, Harvard University, founded in 1636.
Cambridge remains a center of intellectual life, especially since it’s become home
to MIT, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Harvard has an excellent
reputation in many fields; MIT is the best placed in science and technology.
Students attending Harvard and MIT come from around the world; Harvard alone
has students from 90 countries.
Since one-fourth of the people in Cambridge are students, it’s not
surprising that Cambridge has many bookstores, shops, restaurants, coffee houses
and clubs.
A common sight in Cambridge is Harvard oarsmen rowing on the Charles River.
The Harvard rowing team spends all year preparing for races in the spring, espe-
cially for the Harvard-Yale Regatta. Yale University is Harvard’s big rival.

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TEST YOUR ENGLISH

1. Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs given in brackets. Make all
the necessary changes in the word order of the sentence. Make sure you read the
whole text first, to get some ideas of what it is about.

Women in Adventure
The last hundred of years 1) (to see) ………………….. many exceptional
woman travellers. The Victorian ladies with their long skirts and umbrellas may
sometimes 2) (to seem) ……………….. amusing to us now, but after the laughter
3) (to disappear) ……………….. what remains must surely 4) (to be) …………
respect. Some woman travellers 5) (to drive) ……………….. by scientific reason,
others by religious faith or simply curiosity. Most 6) (to be) ……………. middle-
aged and independently wealthy, but all 7) (have) …………………. incredible
bravery and they all 8) (to determine) …………..………. . There 9) (to be)
……………, for example, May French Sheldon, who 10) (to make) an expedition
to Africa’s Mount Kilimanjaro in 1891. She 11) (to know) ………………… to the
Africans as ‘Bebe Bwana’ or ‘Lady Boss’. Once she 12) (to astonish)
………………… a group of tribal chiefs by 13) (to arrive) ……………… at a
ceremony in a blond wig and a ball dress complete with a ceremonial sword.
Mrs. French Sheldon 14) (to experience) …………………. her share of
danger, too. One night she 15) (to wake up) ………………… and saw something
that 16) (to terrify) ………………. any traveller. It 17) (to be) ……… . An
enormous python about fifteen feet long. If the python hadn’t been caught and
killed by an African the life of Mrs.’ Sheldon 18) (to end) ………………..
tragically.
“I came very near to collapsing”, Mrs. Sheldon said. “But there was not time for
weakness; there 19) (to be) ………….. other sequences 20) (to consider)
…………….. .”

2. Read the text below. Use the appropriate word made of the word given in
brackets to complete the text. Make sure you read the whole text first, to get some
ideas of what it is about.

Welcome to Socorro, New Mexico


Located in Central Mexico, Socorro is a unique 1) (to mix) …………… of
the 2) (tradition) …………………… ways and advanced technology. Socorro, also
the name of the County, means “help” or “aid” in 3) (Spain) ………….. . One 4)
(history) ……………… source tells us that in 1598 members of the Juan de Onate
Expedition gave this name to the 5) (to exist) ………….. Pueblo village. There,
they received very 6) (to help) ……….……. assistance from the Piro people who
had been the area’s first 7) (to inhabit) ……………….. .
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The 8) (to settle) …………….. remained small until the 9) (to arrive)
………………….. of the Santa Fe railroad in 1880. Newcomers arrived 10) (day)
………….. as followers of the boom in copper, solver, gold 11) (to mine)
…………… . After the boom period closed, the area became 12) (agriculture)
…………………….. . Socorro is 13) (pride) …………… to host the New Mexico
Fire-fighters Training Academy. The Academy provides 14) (to train) ……………
in fire-fighting and lifesaving techniques. The innovative and 15) (beauty)
………………. Campus is located in the 16) (west) ………… edge of the City.
The mineral Museum is 17) (to house) on the campus, and is open to the public.
The Museum 18) (to collect) …………….. contains over 10,000 specimens. The
Laboratory for Atmospheric Research is an hour’s drive west of Socorro high in
the Magdalena Mountains. The Laboratory is an 19) (international)
……………….. known centre for the study of thunderstorms and atmospheric 20)
(electric) ……………….. .
The Navajo Indians Reservation is 21 (to locate) ………………. in
Socorro County as well. The Reservation invites 22 (to visit) …………….. on
special occasions. For 23) (far) ………… information concerning these events,
contact us at 505-854-2686.

3. Read the passage. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb given in
brackets and use the appropriate word made of the word given in brackets. Mind
the word order. Make sure you read the whole text first, to get some ideas of what
it is about.

A Love Story
“I love your verse with all my heart, dear Miss Barrett.” The letter 1) (to
send) ………………… in January 1845. It 2) (to begin) ……………. like other
letters Elizabeth Barrett 3) (to receive) …………………. from many 4) (to admire)
…………….. of her poems. Poetry and the letters 5) (to be) ………… the only 6)
(bright) ………………. in her quiet life. But she 7) (to surprise) ………..……. at the
letter of this particular man, himself a 8) (to know well) ……………… poet in his
own right. Forced by strong 9) (to feel) ……………. he impulsively added to his
letter “And I love you, too”. Elizabeth 10) (not to expect) …………….. romance –
by that time she 11) (to be ill) ………….. for many years. Her 12) (ill) …………
made her isolated in her London home, which 13) (to rule tightly) …………….. by
her father for 40 years of her life.
Now Robert Browning, her 14) (late) …………… admirer, 15) (to declare)
……………… his love, written 16) (bold) …………… across the page. It was clear
he 17) (to fall) ………….. in love with this 18) (sense) ……………., gentle woman.
Their 19) (to correspond) …………… continued. Browning ‘s enthusiasm gave
Elizabeth a new desire to enjoy 20) (to live) ……. as he did. She returned his love
in many letters even before they 21) (to meet) ………… . Her father’s 22) (to
oppose) ……………. was very strong but Elizabeth left her home in September
1846 and settled in Italy.
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They flourished as poets together. Elizabeth regained her health in the 23)
(warm) …………. of the 24) (Italy) …………….. sun and in Robert’s love. Their
relationship became a 25) (fame) ………… love story of the 26) (nineteen)
…………….. century. Elizabeth died in Browning’s arms in 1861, perhaps 27) (to
remember) ………………. the words of her poem:
“… and, if God choose,
I shall but love thee better after death.”

4. Read the passage. Fill in the blanks with the correct word given in
brackets. Make sure you read the whole text first, to get some ideas of what
it is about.

The Riddle of the Sphinx

The city of Thebes in ancient Greece was once afflicted with a monster called the
Sphinx, which had the body of a lion and the head of a woman, and made the 1)
(neighbour) …….…………… 2) (safe) …………… for all who came near it. It lay
on the top of a rock and stopped every 3) (to travel) …………… who came its
way. Those who could not answer its riddle 4) (correct) ………………. were
immediately devoured by the monster. No one had yet 5) (success) …………….
solved the riddle, and many travellers had been 6) (cruel) ……………. murdered.
Then Oedipus came and, in spite of all 7) (to warn) ……………… , boldly
approached the 8) (fear) ……………. rock. This was the question put to him by the
Sphinx: “What animal is it that in the morning goes on four legs, at noon on two,
and in the evening goes on three?” Oedipus replied: “Man, who in 9) (child)
…………… crawls on all fours (on his hands and knees), in manhood walks 10)
(right) …………….., and in old age with the aid of a stick.” The Sphinx was so 11)
(stressed) ………………. that its riddle had been guessed that it threw 12) (it)
……….. down from the rock and perished.

Answers
(Women in Adventure) 1) have seen; 2) seem; 3) has disappeared; 4) be; 5) were
driven; 6) were; 7) had; 8) were determined; 9) was; 10) made; 11) was known;
12) astonished; 13) arriving; 14) experienced; 15) woke up; 16) would terrify;
17) was; 18) would have ended; 19) were; 20) to be considered.

(New Mexico) 1) mixture; 2) traditional; 3) Spanish; 4) historical; 5) existing; 6)


helpful; 7) inhabitants; 8) settlement; 9) arrival; 10) daily; 11) mining; 12) agricul-
tural; 13) proud; 14) training; 15) beautiful; 16) western; 17) housed; 18) collec-
tion; 19) internationally; 20) electricity; 21) located; 22) visitors; 23) further

(A Love story) 1) was sent; 2) began; 3) had received; 4) admirers; 5) were;


6) brightness; 7) was surprised; 8) well-known; 9) feelings; 10) was not expecting/
didn’t expect; 11) had been ill; 12) illness; 13) had been tightly ruled; 14) last;
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15) was declaring; 16) boldly; 17) had fallen; 18) sensitive; 19) correspondence;
20) life; 21) met; 22) opposition; 23) warmth; 24) Italian; 25) famous;
26) nineteenth; 27) remembering.

(The Riddle of the Sphinx) 1) neighbourhood; 2) unsafe; 3) traveller; 4) correctly;


5) successfully; 6) cruelly; 7) warnings; 8) fearful; 9) childhood; 10) upright;
11) distressed; 12) itself

KEY

CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 1

1. i) the UK, the USA, Australia


ii) India, Canada, Pakistan
iii) Romania, France, Spain.
2. firm, corporation (in American English)
3. Do your friends like vanilla ice cream?
Are you joking ?
Have you already met your new teachers?
Will the students have to translate this text?
4. i) A rising intonation.
ii) A falling intonation.
5. i) (Time adverbial) + Subject + Verb + Direct Object + Indirect Object + Manner
Adverbial + Place Adverbial + (Time adverbial).
ii) Question word + auxiliary/modal + Subject + verb + objects + adverbials.

CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 2

1. i) You: “Hi, Paul!”


Paul: “Hi, George!”
You: “This is John, my cousin. John, this is Paul, my best friend.”
Paul: “Hi, John, nice to meet you!”
John: “Hi, Nice to meet you too!”
ii) You: “Hello, madam. I’d like you to meet my boss, Mr Ionescu, the General
Manager. Mr. Ionescu, this is Mrs. Perrault, the L’Oreal representative in Romania.”
Mr. Ionescu: “How do you do, Madam!”
Mrs. Perrault: “How do you do, sir! I’ve been looking forward to meeting you!”
iii) you: “Hello, Mrs Popescu!”
The teacher: “Hello, Miss!”
You: “Let me introduce myself to you! I’m Maria Preda and I’ll be your
student this year.”
The teacher: “Nice to meet you, Miss Preda!”

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2. i) Hello, sir! I’m Mihai Vasilescu, head of the Marketing Department. How do
you do!
ii) What do you usually do in the morning?
iii) How are you today?
Fine, thanks!
3. a possessive adjective
4. Normally none of these nouns can be accompanied by an indefinite article,
because they are uncountable.
5. man – men woman – women child – children foot – feet tooth – teeth
ox – oxen mouse – mice louse – lice die – dice brother – brethren

CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 3

1. Success is not supposed to make you stop fighting; on the contrary, you should
work even harder in order to keep yourself successful
2. wages – money earned usually by blue – collar workers, paid per hour/day/
salary - money earned usually by white – collar workers, paid monthly.
3. i) meets (planned and official future action).
ii) am meeting (planned future action).
4. A job vacancy should – announce the vacant position (secretary, engineer, etc)
– state the qualities required from the applicant (age,
qualifications, experience etc.
– contain information about the way the applicant can
contact the employer (send acv, make an appointment by phone, send a fax etc.)
5. A holding company is a group of more companies. The holding owns shares in
the existing companies, called subsidiaries. The subsidiaries are sister companies to
each other.

CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 4

1. a) yes, one still feels ill.


b) i) The Present perfect
ii) The Past Tense
2. The UK: kindergarten, grammar school, college, university
Romania: kindergarten, general school, highschool, university
3. far – farther – the farthest
– further – the furthest
big- bigger – the biggest
reliable – more reliable – the most reliable
bad – worse – the worst
funny – funnier – the funniest
4. Sir/Madam, could you tell me …… please?
Sir/Madam, would you mind telling me …..please?
(more formal)
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Can you tell me …..please ?
Tell me ….. please?
(less formal)
5. British English: cheque, metre, holiday.
American English: check, meter, vacation.

CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 5

1. heading, date, inside address, references, salutation, subject of the letter, body
of the letter, complimentary close, signature, enclosures.
2. Should, ought to, must, might.
3. i) I didn’t do my homework because it was not necessary
ii) I did my homework though it was not necessary.
4. i) Hello Sir/Madam! I’m Mary Smith from ”Jonson & Co. Ltd” May I speak to
Mr Green, please?
ii) Hello Sir/Madam! I’ ll put you through immediately!
OR: Hello Sir/Madam! I’m sorry, Mr Black is not in his office right now.
Would you like to leave a message for him?
5. Won’t, shan’t.

CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 6

1. the will- future; present continuous


2. positive meaning: - ful, super - ; negative meaning - less; under –
3. Only older pupils can participate to the contest.
His elder brother is a musician
4. He’s likely to come any minute. OR: He must return soon.
He’s unlikely to get back before 10' clock. OR: I’m not sure you can find him
this morning.
5. Yes the sentence is correct. (It means: If you want to wait for him…)

CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 7

1. The auction will start in an hour.


He bid 1, 000, 000 for that painting
2. i) I ceased speaking to her.
ii) I ceased doing something else in order to talk to her.
3. Both sentences are correct.
4. It is necessary that you should arrive to the office on time.
It is important that you should communicate your projects to your boss.
5. Trams, planes, trains are means of transport. (noun)
Do you happen to know what this word means in English? (verb)

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CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 8

1. Hello Sir/Madam! I’m Jane Brown, secretary at “Jonson & Co. Ltd”. I’d like to
make a reservation for the General Manager, Mr Edward Jonson, please!
2. Sir, I’d like to know if you have a reservation.
3. Tell is more likely to occur in Indirect Speech.
Say is more likely to introduce Direct Speech.
4. He told me he was twenty.
5. A swipe card is a special magnetic card containing all the travel information
necessary to a passenger.

CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 9

1. i) the sentence has a negative meaning.


ii) the sentence has a positive meaning
2. That glass has not been drunk from.
This bed has not been slept in.
3. Cows and pigs are domestic animals.
This restaurant offers a varied range of both pook and beef menus.
4. Genetically engineered food contains changed genes; it tries to attain perfection
(in terms of flavour, colour, size)
5. Change implies only one agent (e.g: I changed my clothes).
Exchange implies more agents (e.g. They exchanged business cards among
themselves).

CHECKLIST FOR UNIT 10

1. Media is a plural noun.


2. The verb WOULD can be used in an IF-clause when it keeps its meaning of
volition.
e.g. If you wouldn’t mind, could you help me please? (~ If you want)
3. You might; you could; you’d better.
4. A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a particle; the meaning of the new
construction is different from the meaning of the original verb.
e.g.: to make – to manufacture
to make out – to manage to see
to make up – to become friends again
5. I go on trip if it doesn’t rain.
I’d go on a trip if it didn’t rain.
I’d have gone on a trip if it hadn’t rained.

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LISTA ABREVIERILOR

abrv. = abreviere
adj. = adjectiv
adv. = adverb
amer. = termen american
auto = automobilism
dat. = dativ
d. = despre
expr. = expresie
fam. = familiar
fr. = termen francez
interj. = interjecţie
jur. = juridic
mar. = marină
mil. = termen militar
pl. = plural
prep. = prepoziţie
s. = substantiv
sl. = slang
vb. = verb
zool. = zoologie

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GLOSSARY

A
accommodation s. cazare, casă şi masă
account-book s. registru contabil
account s. cont
accountant s. contabil
addendum (pl. addenda) s. adenda, adaos
addressee s. destinatar
advertisement (advert, ad) s. reclamă, anunţ, afiş
affordable adj. care se poate acorda, acordabil
agreement s. acord, înţelegere (mutuală); consimţire
allocation (vb. to allocate) s. alocare, repartizare
alongside adv. alături; prep. lângă
amid fears (expr.) de teamă
analyst (media analyst) s. analist / expert mass-media
angle vb. a pescui cu undiţa
anthem s. imn
appeal s. (aici) atracţie
appointment s. întâlnire; numire (într-o funcţie)
apprentice s. novice, ucenic
arouse vb. a stârni, a deştepta
assert vb. a afirma
assess vb. a evalua (o sumă)
at once adv. imediat
attend vb. a frecventa

B
B & B abrv. bed and breakfast cazare şi mic dejun (la hotel, pensiune)
bachelor s. 1.burlac; 2. licenţiat
ball bat s. baston
bankrupt adj. falimentar
bargain s. afacere, târg
bathtub s. cadă de baie
batsman s. jucător la bătaie (la cricket, baseball)
batterbat s. baston de cricket, baseball
be a pain in the neck vb. a fi foarte enervant şi plictisitor
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be awarded vb. a fi premiat oficial
be aware of vb. a fi conştient de / că
be sea-sick vb. a avea rău de mare
bear a grudge vb. a purta pică
behave oneself vb. a prezenta bune maniere
bend vb. a îndoi, a apleca
bilingual adj. bilingv
bill of lading s. conosament
boast vb. a se lăuda
bold adj. (despre scris) reliefat, proeminent
bonnet s. bonetă, beretă, capotă
boom vb. a produce senzaţie, a prospera, a fi înfloritor
boost vb. a mări valoarea; a creşte reputaţia, a promova
booth s. cabină
bother vb. a necăji, a sâcâi
boundless adj. fără limită
bow tie s. papion
bowl vb. a rostogoli
bowler s. jucător care serveşte mingea la cricket; jucător care ţinteşte mingea la
baseball
bravery s. curaj, bărbăţie
break smth. down vb. a sparge, a doborî
breeze s. briză
brewer’s yeast s. drojdie de bere
bring up vb. a educa
broaden vb. a lărgi, a lăţi, a extinde
broker s. agent, misit
budgeting month s. luna în care venitul sau cheltuielile sunt planificate sau
repartizate în buget
bump s. cucui; vb. a (se) ciocni
bundle s. legătură, snop
buoy s. geamandură

C
camcorder s. (camera + recorder) cameră de luat vederi
campaign (media campaign) s. campanie mass media
cancellation s. anulare, revocare
catapult vb. a catapulta
cater vb. a furniza
CEO abvr. chief executive officer director executiv, manager, administrator
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challenge s. provocare
chap s. (fam.) băiat, tip
cheat vb. a trişa
check-in desk s. biroul in spatele căruia stă casierul sau recepţionerul, ghişeu
cheers! interj. vivat! noroc!
chilled adj. conservat la o temperatură joasă fără a îngheţa
circulate vb. a răspândi, a difuza
clue s. indiciu, cheie
cockpit s. 1. arenă pentru lupte de cocoşi; 2. teatru de război; 3. carlingă
collocation s. alăturare; (lingv.) colocaţie, îmbinare de cuvinte
colonial language s. limbă vorbită în colonie
come over vb. a fi copleşit
commission s. comision
commuting-train s. tren pentru navetişti
companionship s. societate, tovărăşie, companie
complaint s. plângere
comply with vb. a se conforma
comprehend vb. a înţelege, a pricepe
computer-fraud s. furt cu ajutorul calculatorului
consultant s. consultant
cooker s. aragaz
cost a bomb vb. a costa foarte mult
cost and freight s. cost şi navlu
coterie s. coterie, salon (literar, artistic, etc.)
courtyard s. curte
covet vb. a râvni, a dori cu înfocare
crash s. 1.cădere sau coliziune violentă; 2. faliment; 3.(fam.) a intra într-un loc fără
permisiune (bilet, invitaţie)
crate s. ladă
crease-resistant adj. neşifonabil
creased adj. şifonat, încreţit
crew s. echipă, echipaj
crisis (pl. crises) s. criză
cross smth. out vb. a tăia, a bara (pe un formular)
cuppa s. (colocvial) o ceaşcă de ceai
currently adv. curent
customer s. client; în prezent
cut costs vb. a reduce cheltuielile
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D
darts s. joc de interior în care sunt trase săgeţi înspre o ţintă
data s. pl. date, informaţii (sg. datum)
deal with vb. a se ocupa de (ca afacere)
dealer s. negustor; retail dealer s. negustor cu amănuntul, whole-sale dealer s.
angrosist
deck-chair s. şezlong
decrease vb. a scădea, a reduce
deny vb. a nega
department store s. magazin universal
descendant s. descendent, urmaş
devise vb. a inventa, a imagina, a plănui
die out vb. a se stinge, a pieri, a muri
disabled staff s. persoane invalide
discount s. reducere
dispatch vb. a expedia
displayed adj. expus
diving s. scufundare
docker s. docher; hamal în port
double-decker s. tramvai, autobuz sau troleibuz cu etaj
doughnut s. gogoaşă
drum s. tobă
dual carriage way s. drum în dublu sens
duly adv. 1. just, binemeritat; 2. în timp util, la timp
dwarfed adj. micşorat, aparent mai mic

E
earn vb. a câştiga, a agonisi
editor s. editor
embarrass vb. a stânjeni, a umili, a jena
endow vb. a înzestra, a dota (material şi spiritual)
engulf vb. a scufunda; a înghiţi
enterprise s. 1. întreprindere, iniţiativă; 2. antrepriză, companie
entertainment s. distracţie, amuzament
entrepreneur s. întreprinzător, antreprenor, conducător al unei activităţi de afaceri
ever-increasing adj. în continuă dezvoltare
exhausted adj. epuizat, terminat
expectancy s. 1.expectativă; 2. speranţă; 3. anticipare, probabilitate
expenditure s. cheltuieli
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extension s. prelungire
eye-opening adj. Senzaţional

F
facsimile s. facsimil, copie exactă
faded adj. ofilit, decolorat, fără vigoare
fail to vb. a eşua
failure; s. eşec
faint vb. 1. a leşina 2. adj. slab, vag: (a faint hope)
fare s. costul unui bilet de călătorie, tarif
fee s. taxă
feel homesick vb. a simţi dor de casă
ferry vb. a transporta oameni sau lucruri cu vaporul ; ferry-boat: bac
fetch vb. a aduce
file s. dosar
fill out vb. a întregi, a completa
fit adj. potrivit
fit vb. a se potrivi
fitness s. exerciţii pentru forme corporale atletice şi întreţinerea sănătăţii
flashy adj. ţipător, superficial
flaw s. cusur, defect, pată, viciu de formă
flexitime s. program de lucru flexibil
flip-chart s. mapă cu foi detaşabile aşezată vertical pe un suport, de obicei
forecast vb. a prevedea; s. previziune
forefront s. frunte
foreman s. maistru
foreseeable adj. previzibil
forgery s. falsificare, imitaţie frauduloasă
forward- player s. înaintaş (fotbal)
fossil fuel s. combustibil fosil
fraud s. fraudă
free on board adv. scutit de taxe (pentru livrarea mărfurilor pe vapor)
freebie s. bilet de călătorie gratuit (pentru persoane în interesul serviciului)
freight-train s. tren de marfă
freshman s.novice, boboc (în primul an de liceu sau facultate)
front page s. (ziare) pagină de titlu (unde găsim pe scurt articolele detailate în ziar)
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full-fare economy class ticket s. bilet fără reducere la cls. a IIa
full-fare first class ticket s. bilet fără reducere la cls. I

G
gain vb. a câştiga
gangplank s. pasarelă (pentru urcare sau coborâre în sau din vapor, barcă, etc.)
gangway s. pasarelă (pe vapor)
garments s. haine
gather vb. a aduna
gem s. o piatră preţioasă
genuine adj. real, autentic
get a raise (expr.) a primi salariul mărit
get down to vb. a începe să lucreze la, a se apuca de
get hold up vb. a face rost de, a pune mâna pe
get on with vb. a se împăca, a se înţelege cu
ginger s. ghimber
give an encore vb. a da un bis
give away vb. 1.a da cadou, a da gratis; 2. a da de gol, a trăda
glassed-in adj. montat în sticlă
glider s. planor
glimpse s. privire fugară, trecătoare
glossy (glossy soap opera) adj. siropos
gnarled adj. răsucit, nodoros
go down vb. a scădea (preţuri), a se scufunda (o navă, etc.)
go in for vb. 1. a lua parte la (o competiţie, etc.); 2. a se ocupa cu
go round to vb. a face o vizită
go up vb. a creşte (preţul, etc.)
go without vb. bineînţeles, se înţelege de la sine
goal-keeper s. portar
grant vb. 1.a acorda; 2.a aproba (o cerere, etc.); 3. (d. sume de bani) a aloca
greatness s. forţă, putere
greenhouse s. seră
grimly adj. cumplit
grounds s. teren
grove s. crâng, pădurice
grudge-bearing person s. persoană ranchiunoasă

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grumble vb. a mormăi, a bodogăni
guru (media guru) s. expert în mass media
guy s. (sl.) tip, individ

H
habitat s. loc de baştină
hairstylist s. coafor de lux
halve ground travel vb. a înjumătăţi timpul de călătorie terestră
handling s. manevrare, mânuire
handmade adj. manual, de mână
hang about vb. a hoinări
hassle s. ceartă, harţă, agitaţie
heading s. titlu
helmet s. cască
hold on vb. (fam.) a aştepta
hostel s. cămin (studenţesc, etc.)
household appliance s. aparatură casnică
housing policy s. plan general adoptat de guvern sau un partid pentru acordare de
locuinţe
hundred fold increase s. majorare însutită
hurricane s. uragan; hurricane-lamp s. felinar de vânt

I
idle adj. leneş
impudence s.obrăznicie, aroganţă
in-house adj. în cadrul instituţiei; intern
in-service adj. în slujbă, în funcţie; cu normă întreagă
incoming-train s. tren care vine
inconvenience s. inconvenienţă, neplăcere
industrious adj. silitor
initiate vb. a iniţia
interest s. dobândă; interes
interfere vb. a se amesteca
intrude vb. a veni nepoftit
invoice s. factură
involved adj. implicat
item s. articol, o singură piesă, subiect
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J
jam s. 1. gem; 2. ambuteiaj
jargon s. jargon
jest s. glumă, festă
joystick s. manşă
juggler s. scamator, jongler
juniper s. ienupăr

K
keen (on) adj. (fam.) pasionat
keep hold vb. a apuca
keep out vb. a împiedica, a feri
keyboard s. claviatură
kick out vb. (fam.) a da afară
kid vb. a tachina

L
labour s. muncă fizică sau intelectuală; forţă de muncă
lack s. lipsă
lawn tennis s. tenis de câmp
layer s. strat
leaf vb. a frunzări (o carte); s. frunză; pagină a unei cărţi
leafy adj. acoperit de frunze
leaflet s. foaie volantă; broşură
leave off vb. a lăsa haina
leek s. praz
left luggage locker s. depozit de bagaje
leisure s. timp liber
letter of credit s. scrisoare de credit, acreditiv
listenership s. public
litigation s. (jur.) litigiu; discuţie, ceartă
livelihood s. mijloace de trai
lobby s. marele vestibul din camera comunelor; sală de aşteptare; grup de influenţă
lobster s. (zool.) homar
long-lasting adj. rezistent
look forward to vb. a aştepta cu nerăbdare
look up vb. 1. a căuta informaţii, a controla, a verifica; 2. (fam.) a se îmbunătăţi
lounge s. hol
luncheon voucher s. tichet de masă
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M
magazine s. revistă
magnate (media magnate) s. magnat (syn. mogul, tycoon)
mahogany s. mahon
maintenance s. întreţinere
make up vb. a inventa, a născoci, a fabula
make up one’s mind vb. a se hotărî
mall s. alee; complex comercial
maple s. arţar
march vb. (mil.) a mărşălui, a defila
marquee s. cort mare, umbrar (folosit pentru expoziţii)
mast s. (mar.) catarg
maze s. labirint, complicaţie, confuzie
mean adj. meschin
memorandum (-a) s. memorandum, raport
moth s. molie
mother tongue s. limba maternă
motorway s. autostradă
mussel s. (zool.) midie (un tip de moluscă bivalvă)
mutter vb. a bombăni, mormăi

N
native speaker s. vorbitor de limbă maternă
necklace s. colier
network s. reţea
newscaster s. vezi newsreader
newsreader s. prezentator de ştiri
nod assent vb. a consimţi
north-bound train s. tren în direcţia nord
nursery s. cameră pentru copii; (fig.) pepinieră

O
oarsman s. vâslaş
oatmeal s. făină de ovăz, terci de ovăz
obviously adv. evident
offside adj. / adv. în afara terenului
on the dole (expr.) alocaţie de şomaj

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outfit s. echipament
outgoing adj. sociabil şi prietenos
outgoing train s. tren care pleacă (antonim: incoming train)
output s. producţie
outskirts s. periferie
overreact vb. a reacţiona exagerat
overseas adv. extern, în străinătate
overtake vb. a depăşi
overturn vb. a răsturna
own vb. a deţine, a poseda

P
palm tree s. palmier
pantry s. cămară
parsley s. pătrunjel
pay off vb. a achita
pen-friend s. prieten prin corespondenţă
pencil-sharpener s. ascuţitoare
pending adj. care aşteaptă o rezolvare, neterminat
persuasive adj. convingător
pervasive adj. pătrunzător, care se răspândeşte pretutindeni
pet adj. favorit, iubit (d. animale)
phrase book s. dicţionar de expresii
pick up vb. a ridica, a culege
pin s. ac de gămălie
pine s. pin
pine-needled adj. cu frunze ascuţite de pin
pitcher s. jucător care aruncă mingea
plaice s. (iht.) plătică
plenty s. belşug, bogăţie; ~ of o mulţime de
plumber s. instalator
postgraduate degree s. diplomă de studii postuniversitare
praise s. a lăuda
prawn s. crevete
precis s. (fr.) expunere scurtă, rezumat
premises s. locuinţă cu anexe şi dependinţe
print media s. mijloace media tipărite (ziare, reviste, etc.)
printing press s. maşină de imprimat, tipărit
prompt vb. a îndemna la acţiune; s. replică
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prospects s. perspective
pub s. (short for public house) local, bar, braserie
purchasing officer s.funcţionar al departamentului achiziţii
pursue s. a urmări
put off vb. a amâna
put up with vb. a suporta, a tolera

Q
quay s. (mar.) chei, dig portuar

R
rank s. rând, şir
rate s. ritm, viteză
rating s. evaluare
razor s. brici
referee s. arbitru
regatta s. întrecere nautică
refund s. restituire
rely on vb. a se bizui
remains s. resturi
resurgence s. renaştere, reînviere
retail s. (vânzare în) detaliu
reveal vb. a dezvălui
reward s. recompensă
riddle n. ghicitoare
rowing s. canotaj
rudder s. cârmă
ruin vb. ruină, distrugere
run a business vb. a conduce o afacere
runway s. albie de râu; potecă; pistă de decolare; parcurs

S
sack vb. a concedia
sales manager s. director de vânzări
salmon s.(iht.) somon
sample s. mostră
savings s. economii
scheme s. proiect, plan, stratagemă
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scholar s. savant, discipol
scholarship s. bursă
scissors s. pl. foarfece
score s. (aici) partitură
scrawl s. scriere neglijentă, mâzgălitură
seafaring adj./ s. care călătoreşte pe mare; navigator
see smb. off a conduce pe cineva la gară, aeroport, etc.
selfish adj. egoist
semi-detached adj. (d. case) lipită de altă casă printr-unul din ziduri
senior s. 1. senior, mai mare în vârstă sau rang; 2. (amer.) student în anul IV
set one’s heart on vb. a-şi canaliza eforturile asupra obţinerii unui lucru
set out vb. a prezenta, a arăta (motive, etc.)
set to work vb. a începe lucrul; a se apuca de lucru
set up in vb. a stabili, a fixa
set up to vb. a hotărî
set up vb. 1.a aranja; 2. a stabili; 3. a înfiinţa, a organiza; 4. a provoca; 5. a pretinde
shades of opinion s.( people of all shades of opinions) nuanţe (politice, etc.)
shake hands vb. a da mâna în semn de salut, felicitare, acord
shareholder s. acţionar
sheer adj. simplu, clar, curat
shellfish s. scoici; crustaceu
shift vb. a schimba, a transfera de la o persoană la alta, dintr-un loc în altul
shipper s. persoană sau firmă care se ocupă de transportul maritim al mărfurilor,
expeditor
shopping mall s. o stradă cu magazine pe unde nu circulă automobile
shorthand 1. s. stenografie; 2. adj. care duce lipsă de mână de lucru, cu personal
insuficient
show smb. round vb. a-i prezenta cuiva birourile, instalaţiile etc. ynei companii
sit up vb. a se ridica; a sta în picioare; a trezi interesul
skill s. abilitate, aptitudine
skip-skipped-skipping vb. 1. a sălta, a zburda; 2. a atinge în treacăt o chestiune; 3.
a răsfoi o carte
skipper s. căpitan
slang s. jargon; argou
slim adj. subţire, zvelt; 2. (d. ocazii, şanse, scuze) slab, redus, nesemnificativ; 3. (d.
venit) mic
slip of paper s. o fâşie de hârtie
slot a film vb. a întrerupe un film pentru a difuza reclame

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slot s. 1.oră de vărf pentru vizionarea programelor TV; 2. spaţiu rezervat
publicităţii în timpul unei emisiuni TV
smart adj. deştept, inteligent, ingenios
snooker s. un fel de biliard
soccer s. (fam.) fotbal
socialize vb. a socializa, a face sociabil
solicitor s. avocat consultant; consilier juridic
sophomore s. student în anul II
sorbet s. şerbet
sound-track (soundtrack) s. bandă sonoră, fundal sonor
sour adj. acru
spark s. scânteie; licărire
speak up vb. a vorbi deschis, desluşit, tare
spy s. spion
squash s. joc asemănător cu tenisul
staff s. personal
stand-by ticket s. bilet care se va obţine în urma eliberării unui loc, bilet în
aşteptare
stand for vb. a reprezenta, a simboliza
starter s. primul fel de mâncare
stay vb. a sta, a rămâne
steady adj. uniform, constant, regular
stilton s. varietate superioară de brânză din Stilton
stir vb. a mişca; a amesteca; a agita
stoppage s. piedică; întârziere; întrerupere a lucrului
stranded adj. împotmolit
strip s. fâşie, bandă
subject to vb. a supune (cu dat.)
suburb s. periferie
suite s. 1. apartament; 2. suită, cortegiu
summit s. 1. conferinţă la nivel înalt; 2. vârf
sunroof s. (auto.) parasolar
supplier s. furnizor
sweep vb. a mătura
swipe vb. 1. (fam.) a plezni ; 2. a fura

T
tag vb. a adăuga, a anexa
take a fancy vb. a se simţi atras de; a îndrăgi
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Universitatea SPIRU HARET


take booking vb. a se retrage din (club, etc.)
take off vb. a dezbrăca, a scoate
take over vb. a prelua
take the stress out of the telephone vb. a relaxa conversaţia
tedious adj. plictisitor, obositor
tennis court s. teren de tenis
thached adj. acoperit cu paie
theft s. furt, hoţie
therapist s. terapeut
thriller s. roman sau film poliţist, de suspans
tidy adj. curat, îngrijit, ordonat
tie-up s. impas
time off s. timp liber
tip s. bacşiş
to be driven to fury vb. a fi scos din sărite, a deveni furios
to take to vb. a se apuca de
topic s. subiect, temă
tour vb. a vizita, a călători
touring bike s. bicicletă de curse
tournament s. competiţie sportivă, concurs
tramp s. vagabond
transact vb. a trata o afacere
trespass v. a încălca proprietatea cuiva
trifle s. fleac, lucru de nimic
tumble out vb. (fam.) a se trezi, a se deştepta, a face ochi
turn back vb. a abandona
turn smth. down vb. a refuza
turn out vb. a produce, a fabrica
turn professional vb. a deveni profesional
turnover s. cifră de afaceri
tutor s. 1.profesor particular, meditator 2. preparator (universităţile engleze); 3.
asistent (universităţile americane)

U
undertaking s. 1. întreprindere, acţiune; 2. garanţie, promisiune
unemployed s. şomer
unshrinkable adj. care nu intră la spălat

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V
vacuum cleaner s. aspirator
veined adj. cu nervuri
venture s. acţiune riscantă, speculaţie comercială
voucher s. 1. dovadă, act justificativ; 2. chitanţă; 3. act de garanţie
vow s. jurământ

W
wallpaper s. tapet
weave vb. a ţese
welfare s. bunăstare, prosperitate; asistenţă socială
whisper vb. a şopti
whistle vb. a fluiera, a şuiera
winding s. cotitură, sinuozitate
wipe out vb. a îndepărta, a şterge, a suprima
workmanship s. îndemânare, măiestrie, operă de artă
workshop s. atelier, secţie
wounded adj. rănit
wrist s. încheietura mâinii

Y
yeast s. drojdie de bere

Z
zeal s. zel

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