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The gas laws section 1 part 1 Kinetic energy 1. 2. 3. 4.

Gas particles do not attract or replace each other Gas particles are much smaller than the particles Gas particles are in constant, random motion No kinetic energy is lost when gas particles collide with each other or with the walls of their container 5. All gases have the same average kinetic energy at a given temperature The nature of gases Gases dont obey all assumptions made by the kinetic energy All assumptions made by the kinetic energy are based: 1. Number of gas particles present 2. Temperature 3. Volume 4. Pressure If a variable changes, it affects the other three Eg. When a balloon is being squeezed Volume: pushes the gas particles closer increasing number of collisions Pressure: increases as the number of collisions does Temperature: remains constant Number of gas temperature: remains with the same amount of particles present BOYLES LAW Named after Robert Boyle (chemist) born in 1627- and died in 1691 Explains relationship between pressure & volume As volume decreases, pressure increases. P1V1= P2V2

P1v1 represents initial condition of a gas P2v2 represents new conditions of a gas EXERCISES: The volume of a gas at 99.0 kPa is 300 mL. If the pressure is increased to 188 kPa, what will be the new volume?

V2= p1v1 P2 V2= (99 kPa) (300 L) / 188 kPa V2= 157.98 L

The pressure of a sample of helium in a 1.00 L container is 0.988 atm What is the new pressure if the sample in a 2.00 L container? P2= P1V1 V2 P2= (0,988 atm) (1.00L) / 2.00 L P2= 0.494 atm He Section 1 part 2: Charles law How are gas temperature related? As temperature increases, so does the volume of a gas sample when the pressure is held constant. For the pressure to stay constant volume must increase so that the particles have farther to travel before striking the way. Charles's law states that the volume of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature at a constant pressure v1/T1=V2/T2 T1 and V1 represent any initial pair of conditions, while T2 and V2 are any new set of conditions Gay Lussac's Law States that the pressure of a given mass of gas varies directly with the kelvin temperature when the volume remains constant. P1/T1=P2/T2 Remember that in these laws, temperature must be in kelvin units whenever it's used in a gas equation!

Section 2 The Combined Gas Law is the relation of these 3 laws Boyles ( Pressure increases, volume decreases. Temperature is a constant P1 V1 = P2 V2 ) Charless ( temperature increases, volume incrases, pressure is a constant. V1 = V2 T1 T2 Gay-Lussacs ( Temperature increases, pressure increases, volume is a constant P1 = P2 T1 T2 Pressure is inversely proportional to volume and directly proportional to temperature, and volume is directly proportional to temperature. P1V1 = P2V2 T1 T2

Temperature has to be in kelvin 0 C = 273 K

P1 is the initial pressure V1 is the initial volume T1 is the initial temperature (in Kelvin) P2 is the final pressure V2 is the final volume T2 is the final temperature (in Kelvin)

EXAMPLE PROBLEMs 22. An unopened, cold 2.00-L bottle of soda contains 46.0 mL of gas confined at a pressure of 1.30 atm at a temperature of 5.0C. If the bottle is dropped into a lake and sinks to a depth at which the pressure is 1.52 atm and the temperature is 2.09C, what will be the volume of gas in the bottle? V1 = 46. 0 mL P1 = 1.30 atm T1 = 5.0 C = 273 + 5 = 278 K P2 = 1.52 atm T2 = 2.09 C = 273 + 2.09 = 275.09 K V2 = ? P1 V1 T2 = V2 T1 P2 1.30 atm x 46.0mL x 275.09 k = V2 278 k x 1.52 atm 124.982 = V2 7.6 16.45 mL = V2 23. A sample of gas of unknown pressure occupies 0.766 L at a temperature of 298 K. The same sample of gas is then tested under known conditions and has a pressure of 32.6 kPa and occupies 0.644 L at 303 K. What was the original pressure of the gas? V1 = 0.766 L T1 = 298 k P2 = 32.6 P1 = P2 V2 T1 T2 V1 P1 = 32.6 KPa x 0.644 L x 298 K 303 K x 0.766 L 6,256. 33 232.098

P1 = 26.95 KPa

Avogadros Principle

Avogadro was the first to propose that at equal volumes of gas at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles Mole is the most convenient unit for counting numbers of atoms or molecules. Molar Volume = volume of a gas that occupies 0.00 C (or 273 K) and 1.00 atm pressure

These conditions are also called STP Standard Temperature and Pressure Example 1000 krypton gas particles occupy the same volume as 1000 much smaller helium gas particles at the same temperature and pressure. The first to propose was Avogadro, his principle states that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles.

Avogadros PrincipleUsing Moles PROBLEMS 27. How many moles of nitrogen gas will be contained in a 2.00-L flask at STP? T = 0.00 C = 273 K P = 1.00 atm V = 2.00 L Moles of N2 = ? 1 mol N2 ------- 22.4 L
x .------- 2.00 L 22.4 L x = 0.089 moles N2 x = 1 mol N2 x 2.00 L

PRACTICE Avogradros principle Using mass PROBLEMS 30. What volume in milliliters will 0.00922 g H2 gas occupy at STP? 1 mol ------ 2.02 g H2 X ------ 0.00922 g H2 X = 1 mol x 0.00922g H2 2.02 g H2 X = 4.56 x 10 -3 mol H2 1 mol ----- 22.4 L 4.56 x 10 -3 ----- x X = 4.56 x 10 -3 mol x 22.4 L 1 mol x = 0.10214 L 1L ------- 1000 mL 0.1021 L -----x X = 102.14 mL

31. What volume will 0.416 g of krypton gas occupy at STP? 1 mol ------ 83.80 g X ------ 0.416 g

X = l mol x 0.416 g 83.80 g X = 4.96 x 10 -3 mol Kr gas

1 mol

------ 22.4 L x

4.96 x 10-3 mol ------

X= 4. 96 x 10-3 mol x 22.4 L 1 mol X = 0. 11 L of Kr gas Section 3: Ideal Gas Law: The combined gas law relates volume, temperature and pressure of a sample gas. For a specific sample of a gas, you can see that this relationship of pressure, volume, and temperature is always the same. You could say that (Formula) where K is a constant based on the amount of gas present, n. Experiments using known values of P, T,V, and N show that K=nR where R represents an experimentally determined constant that is referred to as the ideal gas constant. The ideal gas law describes the physical behavior of a gas in terms of the pressure, volume, temperature, and number of moles of gas present. Case 1: Find the volume from the 0.250 moles gas at 200kpa and 300K temperature. P = 200 kPa, n = 0.250 mol, T = 300K, R = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1

Step 1: Substitute the values in the below volume equation: Volume(V) = nRT / P = (0.250 x 8.314 x 300) / 200 = 623.55 / 200 Volume(V) = 3.12 L This example will guide you to calculate the volume manually. Case 2: Find the temperature from the 250ml cylinder contaning 0.50 moles gas at 153kpa. V = 250ml -> 250 / 1000 = 0.250 L, n = 0.50 mol, P = 153 kPa, R = 8.314 J K1 mol -1 Step 1: Substitute the values in the below temperature equation: Temperature(T) = PV / nR = (153 x 0.250) / (0.50 x 8.314) = 38.25 / 4.16 Temperature(T) = 9.2 K

Section 4: Gas stoichiometry all the laws can be applied to calculate the stoichiometry of reactions in which gases are reactants or products. Recall that the coefficients in chemical equations represent molar amounts of substances taking in the reaction. Stoichiometry is the study of quantitative reactants used and products in a chemical reaction It = law of conservation of mass So gas stoichiometry is the same but for a gas reactants and products. Ex. Combustion of butane gas C4H10 (g) + O2 (g) ---> CO2 (g) + H2O (g)

Volume Problems

58. How many liters of propane gas (C3H8) will undergo complete combustion with 34.0L of oxygen gas? C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O 1 volume C3H8 ------ 5 volume O2 x ------ 34.0 L O2

x = 34. 0 L O2 x 1 volume C3H8

5 volume O2 X = 6.8 L C3H8 59. What volume of oxygen is needed to completely combust 2.36 L of methane gas (CH4) ? CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O 2 volume O2 ----- 1 volume CH4 X ----- 2.36 L CH4

X = 2 volume x 2.36 L CH4

1 volume CH4 X = 4.72 L O2 Volume and Mass Balance chemical equation of these problems helps find ratio for moles and gas volume only not for masses

Temp in Kelvin