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List of Symbols 1. Introduction 2. Project Overview 3. Block Diagram & its Description 4. Schematic Diagram 5. Hardware design & Description 6. Software Design 7. Testing & Resulting 8. Future Expansion 9. Applications, Advantages & Disadvantages 10. References

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List of symbols

1. Introduction Of Project 1.1 Project Definition:
Project title is AUTOMATIC ROOM LIGHT CONTROLLER WITH VISITOR COUNTER . The objective of this project is to make a controller based model to count number of persons visiting particular room and accordingly light up the room. Here we can use sensor and can know present number of persons. In todays world, there is a continuous need for automatic appliances with the increase in standard of living, there is a sense of urgency for developing circuits that would ease the complexity of life. Also if at all one wants to know the number of people present in room so as not to have congestion. This circuit proves to be helpful.


This Project Automatic Room Light Controller with Visitor Counter using Microcontroller is a reliable circuit that takes over the task of controlling the room lights as well us counting number of persons/ visitors in the room very accurately. When somebody enters into the room then the counter is incremented by one and the light in the room will be switched ON and when any one leaves the room then the counter is decremented by one. The light will be only switched OFF until all the persons in the room go out. The total number of persons inside the room is also displayed on the seven segment displays. The microcontroller does the above job. It receives the signals from the sensors, and this signal is operated under the control of software which is stored in ROM. Microcontroller AT89S52 continuously monitor the Infrared Receivers, When any object pass through the IR Receiver's then the IR Rays falling on the receiver are obstructed , this obstruction is sensed by the Microcontroller


3.1 Basic Block Diagram

Enter Sensor Signal Conditioning


Exit Sensor

Signal Conditioning

Power Supply



A T 8 9 S 5 2

Relay Driver



16 Segment LCD


Fig. 2.1 Basic Block Diagram

3.2 Block Diagram Description

The basic block diagram of the bidirectional visitor counter with automatic light controller is shown in the above figure. Mainly this block diagram consist of the following essential blocks. a) Power Supply b) Entry and Exit sensor circuit c) AT 89S52 micro-controller 5

d) Relay driver circuit

a) Power Supply:Here we used +12V and +5V dc power supply. The main function of this block is to provide the required amount of voltage to essential circuits. +12 voltage is given. +12V is given to relay driver. To get the +5V dc power supply we have used here IC 7805, which provides the +5V dc regulated power supply.

b) Enter and Exit Circuits:This is one of the main part of our project. The main intention of this block is to sense the person. For sensing the person and light we are using the light dependent register (LDR). By using this sensor and its related circuit diagram we can count the persons.

c) 89S52 Microcontroller:It is a low-power, high performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8KB of Flash Programmable and Erasable Read Only Memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the MCS-51 TM instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic hip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful Microcontroller, which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution so many embedded control applications.

d) Relay Driver Circuit:This block has the potential to drive the various controlled devices. In this block mainly we are using the transistor and the relays. One relay driver circuit we are using to control the light. Output signal from AT89S52 is given to the base of the transistor, which we are further energizing the particular relay. Because of this appropriate device is selected and it do its allotted function.


There are two main parts of the circuits. 1. Transmission Circuits (Infrared LEDs) 2. Receiver Circuit (Sensors)


Transmission Circuit:

Fig. 4.1 Transmitter circuit

This circuit diagram shows how a 555 timer IC is configured to function as a basic monostable multivibrator. A monostable multivibrator is a timing circuit that changes state once triggered, but returns to its original state after a certain time delay. It got its name from the fact that only one of its output states is stable. It is also known as a 'one-shot'. 7

In this circuit, a negative pulse applied at pin 2 triggers an internal flipflop that turns off pin 7's discharge transistor, allowing C1 to charge up through R1. At the same time, the flip-flop brings the output (pin 3) level to 'high'. When capacitor C1 as charged up to about 2/3 Vcc, the flip-flop is triggered once again, this time making the pin 3 output 'low' and turning on pin 7's discharge transistor, which discharges C1 to ground. This circuit, in effect, produces a pulse at pin 3 whose width t is just the product of R1 and C1, i.e., t=R1C1. IR Transmission circuit is used to generate the modulated 36 kHz IR signal. The IC555 in the transmitter side is to generate 36 kHz square wave. Adjust the preset in the transmitter to get a 38 kHz signal at the o/p. around 1.4K we get a 38 kHz signal. Then you point it over the sensor and its o/p will go low when it senses the IR signal of 38 kHz.

e) Receiver Circuit:

Fig. 4.2 Receiver circuit The IR transmitter will emit modulated 38 kHz IR signal and at the receiver we use TSOP1738 (Infrared Sensor). The output goes high when the there is an interruption and it return back to low after the time period determined by the capacitor and resistor in the circuit. I.e. around 1 second. CL100 is to trigger the IC555 which is configured as monostable multivibrator. Input is given to the Port 1 of the microcontroller. Port 0 is used for the 7-Segment display purpose. Port 2 is used for the Relay Turn On and Turn off Purpose.LTS 542 (Common Anode) is used for 7-Segment display. And that time Relay will get Voltage and triggered so light will get voltage and it will turn on. And when counter will be 00 that time Relay will be turned off. Reset button will reset the microcontroller.


5.1 Procedure Followed While Designing:
In the beginning I designed the circuit in DIPTRACE software. Dip trace is a circuit designing software. After completion of the designing circuit I prepared the layout. Then I programmed the microcontroller using KEIL software using hex file. Then soldering process was done. After completion of the soldering process I tested the circuit. Still the desired output was not obtained and so troubleshooting was done. In the process of troubleshooting I found the circuit aptly soldered and connected and hence came to conclusion that there was error in programming section which was later rectified and the desired results were obtained.

5.2 List of Components:

Following is the list of components that are necessary to build the assembly of the Digital Speedometer Cum Odometer: Microcontroller AT89S52 IC 7805 Sensor TSOP 1738 (Infrared Sensor) Transformer 12-0-12, 500 mA Preset 4.7K Disc capacitor 104,33pF Reset button switch Rectifier diode IN4148 Transistor BC 547, CL 100 16-Segment Display 10


Description of Components 5.3.1 Microcontroller AT89S52:

The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the Industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory pro- grammar. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, onchip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM con- tents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.

FEATURES: 8 KB Reprogrammable flash. 32 Programmable I/O lines. 16 bit Timer/Counter3. 8 Interrupt sources. Power range: 4V 5.5V Endurance : 1000 Writes / Erase cycles 11

Fully static operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz Three level program memory lock Power off flag Full duplex UART serial channel Low power idle and power down modes Interrupt recovery from power down modes 256 KB internal RAM Dual data pointer


Fig. 5.1 Infrared Sensor

The TSOP17.. Series are miniaturized receivers for infrared remote control systems. PIN diode and preamplifier are assembled on lead frame, the epoxy package is designed as IR filter. The demodulated output signal can directly be decoded by a microprocessor. TSOP17.. is the standard IR remote control receiver series, supporting all major transmission codes.

Photo detector and preamplifier in one package Internal filter for PCM frequency 12

Improved shielding against electrical field disturbance TTL and CMOS compatibility Output active low Low power consumption High immunity against ambient light Continuous data transmission possible (up to 2400 bps) Suitable burst length .10 cycles/burst

Block Diagram:

Fig. 5.2 Block Diagram of TSOP 1738

Application Circuit:


Fig. 5.3 Application circuit

5.3.3 555 ( TIMER IC):

Fig. 5.4 Timer IC(555)

The LM555 is a highly stable device for generating accurate time delays or oscillation. Additional terminals are provided for triggering or resetting if desired. In the time delay mode of operation, the time is precisely controlled by one external resistor and capacitor. For astable operation as an oscillator, the free running frequency and duty cycle are accurately controlled with two external resistors and one capacitor. The circuit may be triggered and reset on falling waveforms, and the output circuit can source or sink up to 200mA or drive TTL circuits.

Direct replacement for SE555/NE555 14

Timing from microseconds through hours Operates in both astable and monostable modes Adjustable duty cycle Output can source or sink 200 mA Output and supply TTL compatible Temperature stability better than 0.005% per C Normally on and normally off output Available in 8-pin MSOP package

Precision timing Pulse generation Sequential timing Time delay generation Pulse width modulation Pulse position modulation Linear ramp generator

5.3.4:- Crystal oscillator:

A crystal oscillator is an electronic circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator circuits designed around them were called "crystal oscillators".


Operation: A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. Almost any object made of an elastic material could be used like a crystal, with appropriate transducers, since all objects have natural resonant frequencies of vibration. For example, steel is very elastic and has a high speed of sound. It was often used in mechanical filters before quartz. The resonant frequency depends on size, shape, elasticity, and the speed of sound in the material. High-frequency crystals are typically cut in the shape of a simple, rectangular plate. Low-frequency crystals, such as those used in digital watches, are typically cut in the shape of a tuning fork. For applications not needing very precise timing, a low-cost ceramic resonator is often used in place of a quartz crystal. When a crystal of quartz is properly cut and mounted, it can be made to distort in an electric field by applying a voltage to an electrode near or on the crystal. This property is known as piezoelectricity. When the field is removed, the quartz will generate an electric field as it returns to its previous shape, and this can generate a voltage. The result is that a quartz crystal behaves like a circuit composed of an inductor, capacitor and resistor, with a precise resonant frequency. (See RLC circuit.) Quartz has the further advantage that its elastic constants and its size change in 16

such a way that the frequency dependence on temperature can be very low. The specific characteristics will depend on the mode of vibration and the angle at which the quartz is cut (relative to its crystallographic axes). [5] Therefore, the resonant frequency of the plate, which depends on its size, will not change much, either. This means that a quartz clock, filter or oscillator will remain accurate. For critical applications the quartz oscillator is mounted in a temperature-controlled container, called a crystal oven, and can also be mounted on shock absorbers to prevent perturbation by external mechanical vibrations. Quartz timing crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to tens of megahertz. More than two billion (2109) crystals are manufactured annually. Most are small devices for consumer devices such as wristwatches, clocks, radios, computers, and cell phones. Quartz crystals are also found inside test and measurement equipment, such as counters, signal generators, and oscilloscopes.


5.3.5:- Transistors:
Transistors amplify current, for example they can be used to amplify the small output current from a logic chip so that it can operate a lamp, relay or other high current device. In many circuits a resistor is used to convert the changing current to a changing voltage, so the transistor is being used to amplify voltage. A transistor may be used as a switch (either fully on with maximum current, or fully off with no current) and as an amplifier (always partly on). The amount of current amplification is called the current gain, symbol hFE. For further information please see the Transistor Circuits page.

Fig. 5.5 Transistor circuit Symbols Types of transistor: There are two types of standard transistors, NPN and PNP, with different circuit symbols. The letters refer to the layers of semiconductor material used to make the transistor. Most transistors used today are NPN because this is the easiest type to make from silicon. If you are new to electronics it is best to start by learning how to use NPN transistors. The leads are labeled base (B), collector (C) and emitter(E). The most important properties to look for are the maximum collector current IC and the current gain hFE. To make selection easier most suppliers group their transistors in categories determined either by their typical use or maximum power rating. To make a final choice you will need to consult the tables of technical data which are normally provided in catalogues. They contain a great deal of useful information but they can be difficult to understand if you are not familiar with the abbreviations used. The table below shows the most important technical data for some popular transistors, tables in catalogues and reference books will usually show additional information but this is unlikely to be useful unless you are experienced. The quantities shown in the table are explained below.


If you have read the page on ELECTROMAGNETISM then you will know that when a current is passed through a coil, the coil becomes surrounded by a magnetic field .This field is made up from lines of force and has the same shape as a bar magnet.

Fig. 5.6 Step down Transformer If the current is increased, the lines of force move outwards from the coil. If the current is reduced, the lines of force move inwards. If another coil is placed adjacent to the first coil then, as the field moves out or in, the moving lines of force will "cut" the turns of the second coil. As it does this, a voltage is induced in the second coil. With the 50 Hz AC mains supply , this will happen 50 times a second. This is called MUTUAL INDUCTION and forms the basis of the transformer. The input coil is called the PRIMARY WINDING, the output coil is the SECONDARY WINDING. The voltage induced in the secondary is determined by the TURNS RATIO. Primary voltage/ Secondary voltage secondary turns For example, if the secondary has half the primary turns, the secondary will have half the primary voltage. Another example is if the primary has 5000 turns and the secondary has 500 turns, then the turns ratio is 10:1. If the primary voltage is 240 volts then the secondary voltage will be x 10 smaller = 24 volts. Assuming a perfect transformer, the power provided by the primary must equal the power taken by a load on the secondary. If a 24 watt lamp is connected across a 24 volt secondary, then the primary must supply 24 watts. If it is a 240 volt primary then the current in it must be 0.1 amp. (Watts = volts x amps). To aid magnetic coupling between 19 = Number of primary turns / Number of

primary and secondary, the coils are wound on a metal CORE. Since the primary would induce power, called EDDY CURRENTS, into this core, the core is LAMINATED. This means that it is made up from metal sheets insulated from each other. Transformers to work at higher frequencies have an iron dust core, or no core at all. Note that the transformer only works on AC which has a constantly changing current and moving field. DC has a steady current and therefore a steady field and there would be no induction. Some transformers have an electrostatic screen between primary and secondary. This is to prevent some types of interference being fed from the equipment down into the mains supply, or in the other direction. Transformers are sometimes used for IMPEDANCE MATCHING. There is a page on this subject.

5.3.6 LTS 542 (16-Segment Display) Description:

The LTS 542 is a 0.52 inch digit height single digit 16-segment display. This device utilizes Hi-eff. Red LED chips, which are made from GaAsP on GaP substrate, and has a red face and red segment.

Common Anode 0.52 Inch Digit Height Continuous Uniform Segments Low power Requirement Excellent Characters Appearance High Brightness & High Contrast Wide Viewing Angle


5.3.7 LM7805 (Voltage Regulator)

Fig. 5.7 Voltage Regulator

The KA78XX/KA78XXA series of three-terminal positive regulator are available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.

Output Current up to 1A Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V Thermal Overload Protection Short Circuit Protection Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection



Fig. 5.8 Relay

A single pole dabble throw (SPDT) relay is connected to port RB1 of the microcontroller through a driver transistor. The relay requires 12 volts at a current of around 100ma, which cannot provide by the microcontroller. So the driver transistor is added. The relay is used to operate the external solenoid forming part of a locking device or for operating any other electrical devices. Normally the relay remains off. As soon as pin of the microcontroller goes high, the relay operates. When the relay operates and releases. Diode D2 is the standard diode on a mechanical relay to prevent back EMF from damaging Q3 when the relay releases. LED L2 indicates relay on.



#include<reg52.h> #include<delay.h> #include<lcd.h> #define DATA P1 #define RS P35 #define RW P36 #define E P37 #define dev1 P20 #define dev2 P21 #define entry P32 #define exit P33 #define buzz P34 void main() { unsigned char person=0; lcd_init(); lcd_put("Power Saver"); lcd_cmd(0xc0); lcd_put("Project "); secdelay(3); while(1) { lcd_cmd(0x01); lcd_cmd(0x80); lcd_put("Persons: lcd_val(person); if (exit==0) { if(person>0) { 23 // define DATA and Control Pins of LCD


person--; buzz=0; lcd_cmd(0x01); lcd_cmd(0x80); lcd_put("Persons: "); lcd_val(person); lcd_cmd(0xc0); lcd_put("Exit Detected"); secdelay(2); buzz=1; } else { buzz=0; lcd_cmd(0x01); lcd_cmd(0x80); lcd_put("No person"); secdelay(2); buzz=1; } while(exit==0); secdelay(1); } if (entry==0) { if(person<10) { person++; buzz=0; lcd_cmd(0x01); lcd_cmd(0x80); lcd_put("Persons: "); lcd_val(person); lcd_cmd(0xc0); lcd_put("Entry Detected"); secdelay(2); buzz=1; } else { buzz=0; lcd_cmd(0x01); lcd_cmd(0x80); lcd_put("FULL"); secdelay(2); buzz=1; } 24

while(entry==0); secdelay(1); } if(person>0 ) dev1=0; if(person==0) dev1=1; if(person>5 ) dev2=0; if(person==5) dev2=1; } } // active low so device's are on // active high so device's are off // active low so device's are on // active high so device's are off



Fig. 4.7 Flow Chart If the sensor 1 is interrupted first then the microcontroller will look for the sensor 2. And if it is interrupted then the microcontroller will increment the count and switch on the relay, if it is first time interrupted.


If the sensor 2 is interrupted first then the microcontroller will look for the sensor 1. And if it is interrupted then the microcontroller will decrement the count. When the last person leaves the room then counter goes to 0 and that time the relay will turn off. And light will be turn off.



Testing And Results:
We started our project by making power supply. That is easy for me but when we turn toward the main circuit, there are many problems and issues related to it, which we faced, like component selection, which components is better than other and its feature and cost wise a We started our project by making power supply. That is easy for me but when I turn toward the main circuit, there are many problems and issues related to it, which are I faced, like component selection, which components is better than other and its feature and cost wise also, then refer the data books and other materials related to its. I had issues with better or correct result, which I desired. And also the software problem. I also had some soldering issues which were resolved using continuity checks performed on the hardware. We had issues with better or correct result, which we desired. And also the software problem. We also had some soldering issues which were resolved using continuity checks performed on the hardware. We started testing the circuit from the power supply. There we got over first trouble. After getting 9V from the transformer it was not converted to 5V and the circuit received 9V. As the solder was shorted IC 7805 got burnt. So we replaced the IC7805.also the circuit part around the IC7805 were completely damaged..with the help of the solder we made the necessary paths.



By using this circuit and proper power supply we can implement various applications Such as fans, tube lights, etc. By modifying this circuit and using two relays we can achieve a task of opening and closing the door.



Application o For counting purposes o For automatic room light control

Advantages o Low cost o Easy to use o Implement in single door

Disadvantages o It is used only when one single person cuts the rays of the sensor hence it cannot be used when two person cross simultaneously.


Reference Books:
Programming in ANSI C: E. BALAGAURUSAMY. The 8051 microcontroller and embedded system: MUHAMMAD ALI MAZIDI JANICE GILLIPIE MAZIDI The 8051 microcontroller: KENNETH J. AYALA.