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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Comminution Plant Surveys

Sampling and Surveying

Why Survey?
Modern grinding circuits are monitored continuously Operators live with the plant all day, every day With all this attention why do we need to conduct surveys?

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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Why Survey? (cont..)


Surveys are required where Plant improvements are under consideration Reasons for problems are not obvious A circuit simulation model is required Response to an ore type must be defined Benchmarking
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Sampling and Surveying

Definition of a Survey
To measure the operation of the plant under controlled conditions and for a specified investigative purpose (as opposed to ongoing measurement for production accounting)
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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Survey vs Production Accounting


Surveying Aimed at defining plant operation Typically manual stream cutting Samples subject to unusual tests Samples must be interrelatable in short term Accounting Aimed at measuring production and losses Often automated stream cutting Standard tests applied Samples must be interrelatable in medium to long term

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Sampling and Surveying

Survey vs Production Accounting


Surveying Happens rarely Needs to be planned each time Accounting Happens daily Part of standard operating procedures

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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Collecting Good Samples I


Understand the circuit and its purpose Understand the aim of the survey Determine information required and the tests to be carried out Minimum sample mass is that required for testing Select streams to be sampled
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Sampling and Surveying

Collecting Good Samples II


Understand each stream that is to be sampled Mass flow of solids and water Particle size distribution Stream geometry Stream access Sample site physical access Other (temperature, viscosity, toxicity, etc)
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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Collecting Good Samples III


Required sample mass will depend upon Test mass requirements (as mentioned) Particle size distribution, especially the top size Physical realities theoretical calculation can be performed using the equations of Gy (Ref) typically for coarse particle streams Gy gives unrealistically larger sample sizes rules of thumb and experience are often applied
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Sampling and Surveying

Mass Requirement Estimation


Calculation - Statistical Base Simplest based on assumption of Poisson probability distribution see next slide More complex Hogg (1988) Most complex Gy (1982) Experience JKTech MPTech - UCT
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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Simple Statistical Estimation


Sample Name: Solids Density: Required rel. error: Sample size: SAG Feed 2.52 tonnes/m3 10.00 % 100.00 Kg 95% Confidence Range with 100.00 Kg sample Cumumlative % Passing Low High Size fraction (mm) 400.00 300.00 212.00 150.00 106.00 75.00 53.00 26.50 13.20 9.50 6.30 4.80 3.40 2.40 1.70 1.20 0.90 0.60 0.40 0.30 0.00 Cumulative % Passing 100.00 99.60 98.10 96.30 85.00 74.80 66.00 52.30 43.30 39.80 34.50 31.60 26.00 20.50 16.60 12.50 9.70 7.40 5.50 3.60 Kg Sample for < 10.00 % Rel. error 5956056.26 623858.67 182861.00 8754.70 3822.97 1911.70 735.59 551.65 523.51 506.30 504.46 502.00 501.60 501.49 501.41 501.39 501.38 501.38 501.37

97.16 95.14 94.38 82.36 73.22 65.04 51.37 42.77 39.60 34.20 31.44 25.69 20.19 16.38 12.27 9.54 7.27 5.39 3.49

102.04 101.06 98.22 87.64 76.38 66.96 53.23 43.83 40.00 34.80 31.76 26.31 20.81 16.82 12.73 9.86 7.53 5.61 3.71

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Sampling and Surveying

Mass Requirement Estimation


Estimates based on experience JKTech, hundreds of plant surveys over 20 + years Effectively particle number (volume) based Based on typical ores with SG 2.7 to 3.0 mass recommendations will need correction for SG values significantly outside this range
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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Experience Based Estimation


Location ROM Primary Crushed Ore Secondary Crushed Ore Tertiary Crushed Ore Fine crushed Ore
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Topsize 0.5 2m 300mm 100mm 30mm 12mm

Recommended Sample Mass Not recommended, use image analysis 1500kg & supplement with image analysis 300kg 60kg 20kg
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Sampling and Surveying

Experience Based Estimation


Location SAG Disch. with Pebbles SAG Disch Coarse Ball Mill Disch. Fine Ball Mill Disch. Cyclone U/F Cyclone O/F
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Topsize 100mm 25mm 12mm 3mm 12mm 1mm

Recommended Sample Mass 150-200 kg 60kg 20kg 10kg 20kg 2kg

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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Screen Delimited Streams


Special case Example -20mm + 10mm stream
Typical Screen Delimited Siz ings
Cumulative Wt% Passing 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 10 Size (m m ) 100

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Sampling and Surveying

Screen Delimited Streams


Steep distribution curve Important to determine proportions of oversize and undersize Detection of holes and inefficiency Sample size often determined by the need to know about fines or to pinpoint top size Mass requirements reduced - no fine fraction
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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Screen Delimited Streams


Location SAG Pebbles Coarse Medium Fine Topsize 80mm 100mm 30mm 12mm Bottom size 12mm 50mm 15mm 6mm Recommended Sample Mass 100kg 100kg 250kg 10kg

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Sampling and Surveying

Sample Collection
Belt Cuts for Conveyed samples, top size >30mm, stop belt and dig off. Collect all from a 3 5 m section, and Collect all +75 mm from a 15 20 m section Box collectors for screen oversize samples topsize <30mm, sample in sections Slurry cutters for slurry streams, max topsize 20mm typically
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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Slurry Samples
The best results are obtained by taking cuts at regular intervals of time and by so using the cutter, that its operation approaches that of a properly run mechanical sampler.
Taggart (1945)

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Sampling and Surveying

Slurry Sample Cutters


The cutter should be large enough so that there is no danger of overflow while making one passage through the stream of pulp. The aperture should be at least four times the diameter of the largest grain in the pulp; the cutter should be smooth inside, watertight, and designed to clean itself readily.
Taggart (1945)
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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Cutter Requirements
Manufactured to task Many options See Sampling High Throughput Grinding and Flotation Circuits Mosher and Alexander Slot preferably 5 x maximum particle size Volume sufficient to fill maximum of 30% during a single pass
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Sampling and Surveying

Typical Cutter Design


12mm 100mm (A
1

(C) )

150mm

200mm

(B2 )

Ra

diu

s8 0m

(B
3

Length to suit sampling point 150mm (A


2

) (B1

30mm (D)

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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Image Analysis
Blasted ore Digital or conventional photographs of muckpiles or trucks as they dump at primary crusher Analyse with Split Desktop Conveyed ore Video for entire survey period Analyse with Split On-Line Correct with measured fines from belt sample
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Sampling and Surveying

Survey Preparations
Plant personnel awareness Metallurgists Operators Maintenance Process control Management Agreement, purpose, timing and opportunities
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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Survey Preparations
Identify desired survey streams Achieve mass balance Define a process Meet modelling needs Establish feasibility of sampling desired streams If yes choose cutters If no, can it be yes or is stream required
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Sampling and Surveying

Survey Preparations
Design and acquire cutters Buy Build Borrow Test cutters Check design (especially handles and slots) Establish technique Educate samplers Check repeatability
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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Survey Preparations
Identify equipment in the circuit Mills Cyclones Screens Crushers Anything else? Identify equipment measurements required What is needed to get the measurements
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Sampling and Surveying

Detailed Planning
Write a survey document Survey goal(s) Brief survey plan Plant preparations required Survey timing Detail the samples to be taken and how Detail the equipment measurements to be taken and how Detail other data to be collected
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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Detailed Planning
survey document (cont) Detail personnel requirements Analyse the safety issues of sample collection and equipment measurement (in detail issue by issue, JSAs may be required) Detail post-survey sample handling and treatment Detail costs involved additional personnel, lab services, downtime
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Sampling and Surveying

Detailed Planning
Distribute survey document to all stakeholders Discuss and refine document Identify synergies Maintenance opportunities that match with Survey related plant shutdowns Opportunities for additional measurements Training opportunities

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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Detailed Planning
Clearly establish your own role Control major survey processes go / no go plant stability monitor data collection checker troubleshooter

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Sampling and Surveying

Carry Out the Survey


Month to Week before Ensure plant is configured as required Identify survey time window Ensure instruments are calibrated Check for operational stability issues Ensure all cutters are tested and OK Order cutters, shovels, bags, drums, lights, etc Ensure lab is ready and aware Establish sample ID method
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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Carry Out the Survey


Month to Week before Prepare survey spreadsheet brief survey description list all samples space for dates, times and ore sources space for wet and dry weights space for all data to be collected space for all machine measurements preliminary calculations checklist
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Sampling and Surveying

Carry Out the Survey


Day before Label all sample bags, buckets and drums Check all equipment Measure available equipment conveyor speeds crusher gaps installed motor powers screen apertures anything else?
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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Carry Out the Survey


Day before (cont.) establish operational aims with metallurgist, foreman, shift-boss and operators establish night shift goals and communicate these personally at the start of nightshift the survey will be much easier if the plant is nearly ready after night shift Confirm maintenance and control issues personnel availability for equipment tag out collection and capture of data
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Sampling and Surveying

Carry Out the Survey


Survey day check operations and maintenance for issues distribute samplers, survey equipment and measurement tools to appropriate locations establish 100% survey readiness monitor plant condition establish an adequate stability level survey start
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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Carry Out the Survey


Survey day signal for survey cuts to be taken (eg 15 minute intervals) Continue to monitor plant stability, ore changes, control actions observe sampling if possible check that manual data is being collected cyclone pressure cyclone numbers Anything else?
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Sampling and Surveying

Carry Out the Survey


Survey day stop survey sampling call for plant shut down call for equipment tag out sample from stopped conveyors measure required equipment check for 100% completion de-tag equipment clearly release plant back to operations
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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Carry Out the Survey


Survey day ensure any other data is collected (DCS, etc) transport all samples to laboratory weigh all samples wet and in containers filter and dry all samples weigh all dry samples weigh all containers for tare weight Important - survey in morning, samples all dried and weighed by days end
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Sampling and Surveying

Typical Plant
SAG followed by discharge screen, recycle crusher, 2 x Ball mills and cyclones

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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Survey Streams

1 4 3 2

7 5 8 6
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Sampling and Surveying

SAG Feed
1000tph Conveyor Top size = 250mm Belt Cut 600 - 1500kg

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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

SAG Discharge
1200tph Slurry topsize = 80mm inaccessible

2 X

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Sampling and Surveying

SAG Pebbles
200tph Conveyor Top size = 80mm 80kg Belt Cut or Screen o/s 3

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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Recycle Crusher Product


200tph Conveyor Top size = 20mm Belt Cut 30kg 4

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Sampling and Surveying

SAG Screen U/S

1000tph slurry Top size = 13mm Inaccessible / Needs work


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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Cyclone Feed

3500tph slurry (200tph/cyclone) Top size = 13mm 20kg solids Slurry Cutter Blank off 1 cyclone o/f and sample u/f
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Sampling and Surveying

Cyclone Underflow
2500tph slurry Top size = 13mm 20kg Solids Slurry Cutter

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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Ball Mill Discharge

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2500tph slurry Top size = 13mm Slurry Cutter 20kg Solids Special arrangement

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Sampling and Surveying

Ball Mill Discharge

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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

Cyclone Overflow
1000tph slurry Top size = 1mm 2kg Solids Slurry Cutter

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Sampling and Surveying

Selected Samples

1 4 3 2 X

?
5
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Surveying

JKSimMet Course - 2009

Sampling and Surveying

SAG Screen U/S


What can we do ? Adjust equipment so we can measure ! Use mass balance Relies on good quality samples of cyclone feed and ball mill discharge Has no redundant information

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