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Apr 12, 2013

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It is a scholarly article on non-abelian gauge field.

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8 (de) vizualizări

It is a scholarly article on non-abelian gauge field.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Jessica K. Barrett

a

Science Institute,

b

Abstract For non-Abelian tensor gauge elds of the lower rank we have found an alternative expression for the eld strength tensors, which transform homogeneously with respect to the complementary gauge transformations and allow us to construct the dual Lagrangian.

jessica(AT)raunvis.hi.is savvidy(AT)inp.demokritos.gr

Introduction

There are many interesting approaches to formulating the higher-spin eld theories and tensor gauge eld theories. The Lagrangian and S-matrix formulations of free massless Abelian tensor gauge elds have been constructed in [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11]. The problem of introducing interactions appears to be much more complex and there has been important progress in dening self-interaction of higher-spin elds in the light-cone formalism and in the covariant formulation of the theories [12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20]. The main idea is to introduce self-interactions using iterations: starting from the free quadratic Lagrangian for the higher-spin eld one should introduce a cubic, quartic and possibly higher-order terms to the free Lagrangian and then check, whether the thus deformed algebra of the initial group of gauge transformations still forms a closed algebraic structure in covariant formulation or whether the Lagrangian remains Lorentz invariant in the light-cone formalism. There has been important progress in the development of interacting eld theories in anti-de Sitter space-time background, which is reviewed in [21, 22, 23] and is of great importance for the development of string eld theory. It should be noted that self-interaction of higher spin elds is naturally generated in string eld theory as well [24, 25, 26, 28, 27]. From the point of view of quantum eld theory, string eld theory seems to contain an innite number of nonrenormalizable interactions, that is a nonlocal cubic interaction terms that contain an exponential of a quadratic form in the momenta [29, 30]. The concept of local gauge invariance allows one to dene the non-Abelian gauge elds [31], to derive their dynamical eld equations and to develop a universal point of view on matter interactions as resulting from the exchange of spin-one gauge quanta. Therefore it is appealing to extend the gauge principle so that it will dene the interaction of gauge elds which carry not only non-commutative internal charges, but also arbitrary spins [32]. For that purpose one should dene extended non-Abelian gauge transformations acting on tensor gauge elds and the corresponding eld strength tensors, which will enable the construction of a gauge invariant Lagrangian quadratic in eld strength tensors, as in Yang-Mills theory. The resulting gauge invariant Lagrangian denes cubic and quartic self-interactions of charged gauge quanta carrying a spin larger than one [32, 33, 34]. Here we shall follow the construction described above which is based on the direct

extension of non-Abelian gauge transformations [32, 33, 34]. Recall that in these publications it was found that there exists not one but a pair of complementary non-Abelian gauge transformations acting on the same rank s+1 tensor gauge eld Aa 1 ...s . These are dened in [32, 33, 34]. Considering the rst set sets of gauge transformations and of gauge transformations one can construct innite series of forms Ls (s = 1, 2, ..) and Ls (s = 2, 3, ..) which are invariant with respect to the rst group of gauge transformations Ls = 0 s = 1, 2, .. Ls = 0

s = 2, 3, ..

and are quadratic in the eld strength tensors Ga ,1 ...s . This construction of invariant forms was based on the fact that eld strength tensors Ga ,1 ...s transform homogeneously with respect to the gauge transformation . Therefore the gauge invariant Lagrangian describing dynamical tensor gauge bosons of all ranks has the form [32, 33, 34, 35]

L=

s=1

gs Ls +

s=2

gs Ls .

A natural question which arises in this respect is connected with the possibility of a similar construction, now for the second group of complementary gauge transformation . More specically the question is, can one construct complementary eld strength ? And if yes, then a tensors G which transform homogeneously with respect to the

,1 ...s

and to nd a possible relation to construct corresponding invariant forms, the Lagrangian L and L. between the Lagrangians L The answer that we found for lower-rank tensor gauge elds is given in (3.10) and (5.21). These new eld strength tensors transform homogeneously (3.11) with respect to and allow us to construct the second group of complementary gauge transformations 2 and L 2 presented in (3.12). Thus we have two Lagrangian forms L and invariant forms L for the same lower-rank tensor gauge elds. The natural question which arises at this L point is to nd out a possible relation between these Lagrangian forms. We have found into the Lagrangian L. It is not yet known that the dual transformation (3.14) maps L and of the corresponding if this construction of complementary eld strength tensors G invariant forms can be fully extended to higher-rank tensor gauge elds. In the last section we suggested a possible solution of this problem, but shall leave this extension for future studies.

In the recent papers [32, 33, 34] the non-Abelian tensor gauge elds are dened as rank(s + 1) tensors Aa 1 ...s (x), s = 0, 1, 2, ... (2.1)

and are totally symmetric with respect to the indices 1 ...s . A priori the tensor elds have no symmetries with respect to the rst index . This is an essential departure from the previous considerations (yet see [11]), in which the higher-rank tensors were totally symmetric [2, 5, 8, 9] . The extended gauge transformation which acts on non-Abelian tensor gauge elds of rank s + 1 Aa 1 ...s (x), s = 0, 1, 2, ... is dened by the following relations :

a Aa = + ...., a Aa 1 = 1 + ...., a Aa 1 2 = 1 2 + ....

(2.2)

........ . ....................................... The transformations Aa 1 ...s (x) form an innite-dimensional gauge group G , on which

a one can dene eld strength tensors Ga ,1 ...s . The eld strength tensors G,1 ...s trans-

form homogeneously (3.9) and allow the construction of two innite series of gauge invariant forms Ls (s = 1, 2, ..) and Ls (s = 2, 3, ..). These forms are quadratic in eld strength tensors and the Lagrangian describing dynamical tensor gauge bosons of all ranks has the form [33, 34] L = L1 + g2 L2 + g2 L2 + ...,

(2.3)

where L1 is the Yang-Mills Lagrangian. It had been found that one can select the coupling constants g2 and g2 so that the free part of the Lagrangian L = L1 + g2 (L2 + L2 ) exhibits which we shall call gauge invariance with respect to enhanced gauge transformations complementary. It has the following form [34]: Aa = a + ... Aa = a + ..., 1 1

a a Aa 1 2 = 1 2 + 2 1 + ...

a The gauge parameters are totally symmetric tensors. The full transformation is given in (2.5). 1 2 ...

(2.4)

This symmetry appears in addition to the extended gauge transformations (2.2). Two families of tensor gauge parameters { } and { } have a common Yang-Mills subgroup which is described by the scalar parameters a a . It is instructive to compare these do not coincide and are complementary transformations. The transformations and to each other in the following sense: in the derivatives of the gauge parameters { } are the derivatives of the gauge parameters { } are over over the rst index , while in the rest of totally symmetric indices 1 ...s so that together they cover all indices of the nonsymmetric tensor gauge elds Aa 1 ...s (x) (recall that these tensor gauge elds are not symmetric with respect to the index and the rest of the indices 1 ...s ). acting on free If one considers the sum of complementary gauge transformations + and totally symmetric Abelian tensor gauge elds then one can nd that it is equivalent to a gauge transformation dened in the literature [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10], but without any restrictions on the gauge parameters. They are also in the same spirit as the gauge transformation of free Abelian tensor gauge elds with mixed symmetries considered in [11]. The tensor gauge elds Aa 1 ...s (x) appear to be more general because their index permutation symmetry does not correspond to any given Young diagram. For non-zero values of the coupling constant g the full transformation (2.2) has the following form [32, 33, 34]:

ab acb c Aa A ) b, = ( + gf ab acb c b b Aa A ) + gf acbAc = ( + gf , b c b c b b ab acb c + gf acb(Ac A ) Aa + A + A ), = ( + gf

(2.5)

......... . ............................ It was important to know the complementary gauge transformation (2.4) for non-zero values of the coupling constant g as well. It appears that its unique form can be xed by should form a group, and the full transformation (2.4) takes the the requirement that following form [34] : Aa = ( ab + gf acbAc ) b , Aa = ( ab + gf acb Ac ) b + gf acbAc b , 1 1 1 1

b acb c b ab Aa A1 ) + ( ab 2 + gf acbAc 2 )1 + 1 2 = ( 1 + gf 2 b c b c b c b c b +gf acb(Ac 1 2 + A2 1 + A1 2 + A2 1 + A1 2 ).

(2.6)

It forms a closed algebraic structure (see the last section and Appendix A ) A ...s , ] A ...s = ig [ 1 2 1 2 (2.7)

with the same composition law for the gauge parameters as for the transformation : = [, ] 1 = [, 1 ] + [1 , ] 1 2 = [, 1 2 ] + [1 , 2 ] + [2 , 1 ] + [1 2 , ], ...... . .......................... This means that (2.5) and (2.6) can be considered as complementary representations of the same innite-dimensional gauge group G with algebra (2.8) [34]. (2.8)

The eld strength tensors Ga ,1 ...s transform homogeneously with respect to the transformations (2.5) [32, 33]

abc b G c Ga = gf abc c b c Ga ( Gb , = gf , + G ), abc c b c b c b c Ga ( Gb , = gf , + G, + G, + G )

(3.9)

...... . .........................., (2.6). but inhomogeneously with respect to the complementary gauge transformations The natural question which arises in this respect is the following: do there exist coma plementary eld strength tensors G , ... which transform homogeneously, now with

1 s

? And if yes, how can one construct new invariants ? The answer to the respect to the a and G a above questions is armative and we shall present the form of the G , , and the corresponding invariants. We shall dene eld strength tensors as follows:

c abc a a a a Ab G A , G = A A + gf

(3.10)

c b c + gf abc ( Ab A + A A ).

The complementary eld strength tensors are antisymmetric in their rst two indices and are totally symmetric with respect to the rest of the indices. The symmetry properties of the a and G a eld strength tensors G remain invariant in the course of this transformation.

, ,

As one can show by direct computation, they transform homogeneously with respect to the (2.6) complementary gauge transformations Ga = gf abc Gb c G a = gf abc ( G b c + G b c ), , ,

abc b G a b c + G b c + G b c ). ( G, c + G , = gf , ,

(3.11)

The form of these transformations is identical with the one for the eld strength tensors Ga ,1 ...s given by the formulae (3.9). This simply means that the invariant forms can 2 and be constructed in the same way as for the transformation in [32, 33]. They are L and are quadratic in G a L 2 ,1 ...s : (A) = L1 + g2 (L 2 + L ) = 1 Ga Ga + L 2 4 1 a a +g 2 { G G 4 , , 1 a a G + + G 4 , , (3.12) 1 a a G G + 4 , 1 a a 1 a G, G, + Ga G, } 4 2

(A) in (3.12) for the same lowerThus we have two Lagrangian forms L(A) in (2.3) and L rank tensor gauge elds. They are fully invariant with respect to the corresponding gauge transformations (2.5) and (2.6) L(A) = 0, L (A) = 0. (3.13)

The natural question which arises at this point is to nd out a possible relation between these Lagrangian forms. a and G a First of all one can see that the denition of the eld strength tensors G , ,

a in (3.10) is the same as for the eld strength tensors Ga , and G, , if one denes dual

elds as follows: = A , A = 1 (A + A A ). A 2

(3.14)

Then , (A) = G, (A ), G , (A) = G, (A ) G (A) in (3.12) is mapped into the Lagrangian L(A ) in (2.3) and the Lagrangian L (A) L(A ). L (3.16) (3.15)

Therefore the above transformation (3.14) can be considered as a duality transformation into the Lagrangian L. One can also dene the which allows us to map the Lagrangian L inverse dual transformation as , A = A + A . A = A (3.17)

(A(A )) = A and A(A (A)) = A and therefore the dual map is It has the property that A one-to-one.

a and G a We shall compute here the variation of the eld strength tensors G , , under (2.6) in matrix form. We have the complementary gauge transformation G , = { ig [A , ] ig [A , ]} { ig [A , ] ig [A , ]} ig [ ig [A , ], A ] ig [A , ig [A , ] ig [A , ]] ig [A , ig [A , ]] ig [ ig [A , ] ig [A , ], A ] = ig [ A A ig [A , A ], ] ig [ A A ig [A , A ] ig [A , A ], ] = , , ] ig [G , ] = ig [G G a and for the , we get G a , = { ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ]} 1 ig [A + A A , ] 2 7 (4.19) (4.18)

{ ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ]} 1 ig [A + A A , ] 2 1 ig [ ig [A , ], A + A A ] 2

1 ig [A , ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ] [A + A A , ]] 2 1 ig [A + A A , ig [A , ]] 2 1 ig [ ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ] [A + A A , ], A ] 2 ig [ ig [A , ] ig [A , ], A ] ig [A , ig [A , ] ig [A , ]] ig [ ig [A , ] ig [A , ], A ] ig [A , ig [A , ] ig [A , ]] = , , ] + [G , , ] + [G , , ] + [G , ]. = ig [ G

acting on higherIt is important to nd out the complementary gauge transformation rank tensor gauge elds. This transformation was known up to the tensor gauge elds of rank three and was presented above by the formula (2.6) [34]. Below we shall present the transformation acting on a rank-4 gauge eld. It is presented in a matrix form because it is much easier to use for algebraic calculations. The transformation is: A = + + 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2 ig [A1 , 2 3 ] ig [A2 , 3 1 ] ig [A3 , 1 2 ] ig [A1 2 + A2 1 , 3 ] ig [A1 3 + A3 1 , 2 ] ig [A2 3 + A3 2 , 1 ] ig [A1 2 , 3 ] ig [A1 3 , 2 ] ig [A2 3 , 1 ] 1 ig [A1 2 3 + A2 3 1 + A3 1 2 , ] ig [A1 2 3 , ], 2 (5.20)

and should be considered together with (2.6). The corresponding eld strength tensor is dened by the formula , = { 1 (A + A + A ) 2 A } G 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 1 3 3 1 2 1 2 3 3 3 2 1 { (A1 2 3 + A2 1 3 + A3 1 2 ) A1 2 3 } 3 3 8 (5.21)

ig [A1 ,

and transforms homogeneously. The duality transformation (3.14) will take the form 1 = A1 , A 1 2 = 1 (A1 2 + A2 1 ) 1 A1 2 A 2 2 1 2 3 = 1 (A1 2 3 + A2 1 3 + A3 1 2 ) 2 A1 2 3 A 3 3 and tells us that ,1 2 (A) = G,1 2 (A ). G (5.23) (5.22)

It is a natural extension of the transformation (3.15) and most probably will extend to all, properly dened, higher-rank complementary eld strength tensors ) ,1 ...s (A) = G,1 ...s (A G where the dual elds (3.14), (5.22) are dened as follows 1 ...s = 1 (A1 ...s + .... + As s1 ) s 1 A1 ...s A s s s = 1, 2, ..... (5.24)

Therefore it seems that we shall have the duality map also for the higher-rank invariants

s + g g s L s L s

gs Ls + gs Ls .

We shall leave this extension for the future studies. It is a great pleasure to express our thanks to Thordur Jonsson for stimulating discussions and his kind hospitality of one of us (G.S.) in the University of Iceland where part of this work was completed. The work of (J.K.B.) was supported by the Icelandic Research Fund. One of us (G.S.) would like to thank Takuya Tsukioka for pointing out the mistake . This work was partially supported by the EEC in the gauge transformation of A

1 2

Appendix A

transformations can be expressed as a similar Let us prove that a commutator of two gauge transformation, and therefore gauge transformations (2.6) form a closed algebraic structure. To make the calculation more transparent let us express the transformation law (2.6) in a matrix form: A = ig [A , ] A = ig [A , ] ig [A , ] A = ig [A , ] + ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ], (6.25)

transformations acting on a second-rank tensor gauge eld is: , ]A = (ig [A , ] ig [A , ]) [ (ig [A , ] ig [A , ]) = ig { ([, ] + [ , ]) ig [A , ([, ] + [ , ])] ig [A , [, ]] } A = ig { ig [A , ] ig [A , ] } = ig

a and is again a gauge transformation with gauge parameters a , which are given by the

following expressions: = [, ], = [, ] + [ , ].

The commutator of two gauge transformations acting on a rank-3 tensor gauge eld is: , ]A = (ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ] [ ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ]) (ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ]) = ig { ([, ] + [ , ] + [ , ] + [ , ]) ig [A , ([, ] + [ , ] + [ , ] + [ , ])] + ([, ] + [ , ] + [ , ] + [ , ]) ig [A , ([, ] + [ , ] + [ , ] + [ , ])] 10

ig [A , ([, ] + [ , ])] ig [A , ([, ] + [ , ])] ig [A , ([, ] + [ , ])] ig [A , ([, ] + [ , ])] ig [A , [, ]]} = ig { ig [A , ] + ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ] A , ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ] } = where = [, ], = [, ] + [ , ], = [, ] + [ , ] + [ , ] + [ , ]. (6.26)

in It is also instructive to consider the transformation properties of the dual eld A . It takes the following form (3.14) under the transformations A = ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ] ig [A , ] and coincides with the transformation law A (2.5). (6.27)

References

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[8] L. P. S. Singh and C. R. Hagen, Lagrangian formulation for arbitrary spin. I. The boson case, Phys. Rev. D9 (1974) 898 [9] C.Fronsdal, Massless elds with integer spin, Phys.Rev. D18 (1978) 3624 [10] B. de Wit and D. Z. Freedman, Systematics Of Higher Spin Gauge Fields, Phys. Rev. D 21 (1980) 358. [11] T. Curtright, Generalized Gauge Fields, Phys. Lett. B 165 (1985) 304. [12] A. K. Bengtsson, I. Bengtsson and L. Brink, Cubic Interaction Terms For Arbitrary Spin, Nucl. Phys. B 227 (1983) 31. [13] A. K. Bengtsson, I. Bengtsson and L. Brink, Cubic Interaction Terms For Arbitrarily Extended Supermultiplets, Nucl. Phys. B 227 (1983) 41. [14] A. K. H. Bengtsson, I. Bengtsson and N. Linden, Interacting Higher Spin Gauge Fields on the Light Front, Class. Quant. Grav. 4 (1987) 1333. [15] F. A. Berends, G. J. H Burgers and H. Van Dam, On the Theoretical problems in Constructing Interactions Involving Higher-Spin Massless Particles, Nucl. Phys. B 260 (1985) 295; Nucl. Phys. B 271 (1986) 429 [16] F. A. Berends, G. J. H. Burgers and H. Van Dam, On Spin Three Selnteractions, Z. Phys. C 24 (1984) 247. [17] J.Fang and C.Fronsdal. Deformation of gauge groups. Gravitation. J. Math. Phys. 20 (1979) 2264 [18] R. R. Metsaev, Cubic interaction vertices of massive and massless higher spin elds, Nucl. Phys. B 759 (2006) 147 [19] N. Boulanger and S. Leclercq, Consistent couplings between spin-2 and spin-3 massless elds, JHEP 0611 (2006) 034 [20] D. Francia, J. Mourad and A. Sagnotti, Current exchanges and unconstrained higher spins, arXiv:hep-th/0701163.

12

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