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# FAIZ NAJMI BIN ABDULLAH

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## TENSILE TEST FOR METALS

Introduction :
What is tensile strength ? Tensile strength can be define as the resistance of a material to a force tending to tear it apart, measured as the maximum tension the material can withstand without tearing. The tensile strength can be divided into 2 ; Tensile stress = the ability of the material to withstand the applying stress until breaks.

Tensile strain = the ability of he material to withstand the strain until breaks.

In this experiment, the metal of different properties were used to measure its tensile strength. The Universal Testing Machine was used to conduct these experiment. What is Universal Testing Machine? The machine that use specifically for perform the standard tensile strength that involve
standard tensile and compression tests on materials, components, and structures.

The specimens are placed into the Universal Testing Machine. The Universal Testing Machine will elongate the specimen at a constant rate while the computer measure the instantaneous applied load and the resulting elongation. The test specimen is slowly bend until its reach certain point where at the the diameter of centre of the specimen begin to decrease. At final stage, the specimens will fracture and breaks due to excess force applied to the material. It is permanently deformed.

FAIZ NAJMI BIN ABDULLAH The figure 1 show the before and after the test.

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A0

d0

L0

A1

d1

L1

## Specimen after test (for metal)

Figure 1 Figure1 shows the shapes of steel rod and alluminium alloy. Where, L0 = L1 A0 A1 d0 original gauge length = = = = final gauge length original cross section area final cross section area original diameter

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## The basic graph of stress strain curve :

A- limit of proportionality - the point beyond which Hooke's Law is no longer obeyed. Hookes Law can be exist when the specimen still has ability to return to its original length. B- yield stress - the stress at which yielding occurs across the whole specimen. C- proof stress - a third point is sometimes used to describe the yield stress of the material. This is the point at which the specimen has undergone a certain (arbitrary) value of permanent strain, usually 0.2%. D- ultimate tensile strength (UTS) - the point at which plastic deformation becomes unstable and a narrow region (a neck) forms in the specimen. E- final instability point - the point at which fracture occurs.

## FAIZ NAJMI BIN ABDULLAH

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Objective :
To study the behavior of specimens during the experiment until its break.

- To calculate: a) Relationship between stress and strain b) Modulus of Elasticity (E) c) Indicate stress strength in: i) Yield stress (Y and 0.1% and 0.2% proof stress, P) ii) Maximum stress (MAX) iii) Rupture or failure stress (BR = RUP) d) Local extension or the strain to a specified length. e) Average of general extension or strain to overall length of specimen (AV) f) % reduction in area (AO %)

Apparatus:
Testing machine (Universal Testing Machine 10 ton capacity), extensometer, dividing and marking machine, micrometer,electronic balance, vernier caliper and steel ruler.

## FAIZ NAJMI BIN ABDULLAH

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Procedure:
1. In terms of straightness, uniform diameter and cross-section, cracks and defects the physical inspection of the specimen were carried out . Diameter of the specimen were measured by using vernier caliper by 3 times; left, right and at the middle. The average of the diameter of the sample were measured and recorded as the original diameter (DO) is determined: (DAV = DO =D i/3). 2. By using electronic balance the specimen were weighted . 3. After that, the specimen were marked every 10mm by using marking machine. The overall length, Lt were measured. 4. The metal specimen were placed in the Universal Testing Machine, the extensometer was fixly placed at that approximately middle of the metal. Then, the readings were recorded between the jaws of extensometer, Lg. 5. The range of load required were selected with basic ultimate tensile strength of given material. Original cross-sectional area of specimen : AO = Estimated Ultimate tensile load = UTS x 1 Ton = 1000 Kgf 1N = f x g
2 2

ton

The specimen was loaded repeatly and the behavior was noted. 6. The diameter were measured at the neck of the failed sample by using vernier caliper by 3 times; left, right and at the middle. The average of the diameter of the sample were measured and recorded. 7. Gauge length LS = 5.65 were calculated according to B.S. where AO = Original

area of the specimen. The value of LS was placed to the nearest centimeter. The final increase in length of LS was measured after test. 8. After failure the total length of the specimen was measured

## FAIZ NAJMI BIN ABDULLAH

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DISCUSSION :
1) From both graph of stress-strain, we can found the yield stress for steel reod is higher than aluminium rod. From there, we can conclude that steel can stand more load before broke the Hookes law (undergoes permenant plastic deformation. 2) From the graph, we can find the modulus of elasticity,E of the steel and aluminium by calculate the gradiet of the graph before it reach elastic limit. The value E of steel is 247.5 wherealse, aluminium is 86.67. obviously, the amount of E of steel are more higher than aluminium. Mean, the aluminium can only sustain a low range of load compared to steel that has ability to sustain more range of load. 3) The maximum stress of the steel is more higher compared to aluminium. Steel are stiffer than aluminium. 4) The higher ultimate tensile strength,UTS higher amount of sustain load before it begin to break/fail. Steel has more UTS than aluminium. 5) Ductility is the ability to deform permanently under tensile forces prior to fracture. Theoritically, steel is more ductile compared to aluminium. . In this case, the ductility of mild steel is higher than the ductility of aluminium as suggested by the larger percentage of elongation of the specimen. This maybe because of the specimen maybe contain impurities that make the result opposite with the theory. 6) An instrument for measuring the extension of a body, especially for measuring the elongation of bars of iron, steel, or other material, when subjected to a tensile force. Extensometer is removed when the strain is not proportional to the stress applied. The loading is continued till the failure is reached.

7) The precaution that should be take : o the specimen must be clamp lightly to the Universal Testing Machine to prevent any damages to the specimen surface before the breaking stress achieve. o Extensometer used instead of marking the specimen manually to prevent unequal distance between the lines due to human errors.

## FAIZ NAJMI BIN ABDULLAH

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Conclusion:
In conclusion, mild steel is tougher than aluminium. Form the experiment, the mild steel has higher modulus of elasicity, maximum stress, yield stress, and rupture stress. Mild steel rod can withstand on more load than aluminum rod before it breaks. Mild steel rod is more stiffness than aluminum rod since the Youngs modulus of mild steel is higher than that of aluminum. However, the steel has lower ductility compered to aluminium due to the result shown that the percantage of elongation of aluminium is higher than steel.
E = Modulus of Elasticity y = Yield Stress P (0.1%) = Proof stress 0.1% P (0.2%) = Proof stress 0.2% MAX = Maximum stress RUP = Rupture or failure stress Steel Aluminum Steel Aluminum Steel Aluminum Steel Aluminum Steel Aluminum Steel Aluminum 247.50 kN/mm2 86.67 kN/mm2 620.00 N/mm2 253.00 N/mm2 563.00 N/mm2 215.00 N/mm2 625.00 N/mm2 240.00 N/mm2 630.00 N/mm2 375.00 N/mm2 393.00 N/mm2 200.00 N/mm2

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Appendix:

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