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Achieving g livability y in Udaipur p through Heritage Resource Management:

Perspectives on Royal y Custodianship and Local Governance


Commission 2 Meeting Meeting, organized by Metropolis and NIUA, NIUA 4th Dec. 2009
India Habitat Centre, New Delhi
By Shikha Jain, Director, DRONAH and Resource Person, MMCF (Maharana of Mewar Charitable Foundation)

City Facts, History and Urban Growth

CDP Review and Urban Issues

Modes of Governance and Heritage Management


Located in the middle on stretch of DelhiMumbai National Highway g y( (NH8) ) Udaipur is connected to other centers to the state by three state highways SH-9 Well connected by air


HISTORICAL - Founded in 1559 /has layers y of historic fabric GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES - Aravalli hills and Network of 7 lakes. POPULATION Approx. Approx 500,000 500 000 SLUM POPULATION (As per CDP) - 119,000 DENSITY : 78.55 78 55 persons per h hectare t WORKING POPULATION: 32% OCCUPATION AREAS: Tourism, Commercial/ Industrial, Administrative, Transportation, Education.

LOCAL ECONOMY: Tourism, Trade & Commerce, and Industrial sector. HOUSING STATUS: As per census 2001 1,02,292 Dwelling units


The eastern end of Lake Pichola fulfilled many important criteria for selection of a capital Lake Pichola and hills on the west offered a natural barrier. Expanse of sufficient land on the North East for settlement and cultivation. Watch post on top of Machchla Magra for security. Abundant supply of water, forests and minerals.


Growth in the western part is limited due to physical constrains. constrains Major development activities have increased near water bodies and highways of Udaipur.


Towards Nathdwara Lake Fatehsagar

Tourism, one of the key catalyst for urban growth of Udaipur is heavily dependent on citys heritage resources

To Airport

Lake Pichola

Urban Growth in Year 1947 Urban Growth in Year 1964

To Jharol

Urban Growth in year 1997

To Ahmedabad


House of Mewar established the Lake Palace as one of the first Heritage Hotels in India

Royal Palaces such as Shiv Niwas and Fateh Prakash f h set the further h trend for heritage tourism

UDAIPUR TODAY : A PRIME HERITAGE TOURISM DESTINATION Favourite high end destination in the international tourism industry as per the surveys conducted by Travel and Leisure, 2009. Tourismsectoristhelargest contributortoUdaipur Udaipurs s economy. Constantriseintourists overlast5years. Growthintourismin Udaipurhasbeenhigher thanthatofRajasthanState


Master Plan shows an imbalance as substantial agricultural land and water bodies are proposed to be developed for residential and commercial use.

HERITAGE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LIVABILITY INDEX History, traditions, cultures are central to residents health and identity. Planning Pl i d decisions i i often ft reflect fl t l local l valuesl as a cultural lt l matter, tt not a technical point. Differentiation helps places compete for tourists, jobs, and other assets; and showcasing heritage is the best way to differentiate a place/community. Heritage is now accepted as a cross cutting theme for all Urban Sectors as per JnNURM revised CDP Toolkit by UNESCO

City Facts, History and Urban Growth

CDP Review and Urban Issues

Modes of Governance and Heritage Management


The Maharana of Mewar Charitable Foundation (MMCF), Udaipur; UNESCO New N Delhi D lhi IHCN IHCN and d Udaipur Municipal Council (UMC) are hosting a joint co-operation programme on the development of a sustainable agenda to preserve the living g heritage g of Udaipur. p The City Development Plan was reviewed under this Agenda and an Action Plan was chalked out UNESCO Brief What could be Heritage based development and how? If proposed strategies are harming the local heritage or using them in positive development? Review Points Udaipur CDP falls short with respect to the JnNURM Toolkit. Stakeholders Participation Financial Outlay Focus on Heritage based development


Tourism Heritage Trade and Commerce Regional Primacy and Linkages State Reforms I f t t Infrastructure Environment Urban Growth Slums Institutional capacity Economic competitiveness Institutional and fiscal reforms State urban reforms I f t t Infrastructure Conservation Heritage Conservation




CDP VISION A city of lakes that provides for its residents an environmentally friendly friendly,
culturally rich, economically vibrant ambiance, by sustaining its heritage resources and providing a variety of opportunities along with a robust i f t t infrastructure that th t takes t k care of f all ll of f its it citizens iti giving i i equal l importance i t to t urban poor of city.

Lakes, Heritage and Tourism Roads and Transport Water Supply


Sewerage and Sanitation Drainage Solid Waste Management Urban Services for the Poor

Udaipur is dependent on its lake system, which is directly, or indirectly the life source of the city in terms of surface water resources, tourism, and the ecosystem y at large g The Udaipur Lake System comprises of the following lakes:
Lake Pichola Fateh Sagar Rang Sagar Swaroop Sagar Badi Lake Madar and Udai Sagar
Lake Name Catchment area (ha) Pichola Lake 12,700 Fateh Sagar Lake 2,315 Bada Madar Lake 7,290 Chotta Madar Lake 2,534 Badi Lake 1,820 Chikalwas Lake 6,450 TOTAL 33,109

Revenue from fishing activity approx approx.25 25 lakhs per annum. Pichola is the largest g lake ( (water spread p 6.96 sq.kms) followed by Fateh Sagar (water spread 4 sq. kms)

LAKES Problems and Issues:

Untreated Sewage being released into the lakes(45 drain spots). Ghats (73nos (73nos.) ) being used for washing and bathing purposes. Boating g activities spreading p g oil into waters during Navghat, Piplighat (of Pichola Lake) and boat booth (of Fateh Sagar). Total solid waste being dumped annually = approx. 500 tons. H Hotel t l and d restaurant t t (53 hotels) h t l ) waste t b being i dumped in lakes. Heavy sedimentation in the lakes due to soil erosion on hill slopes and construction waste being dumped into lakes.
View of dried- up Pichola Lake.


The paradox : Tourism in udaipur can grow immeasurably, specially with improved communication and infrastructure, but Udaipur Tourism can dry up completely if the lakes are not saved. CDP does not have an integrated approach to lakes, tourism and heritage.


Tourism is dependent on lakes and hills, architectural heritage and culture and regional linkages linkages. The prolonged drought situation two years ago, which dried up Lake Pichola and other water bodies impacted the visitor numbers and local economy.

Recommendations: Strategies for habitat protection, prevention from soil erosion, pollution prevention ti and d regulatory l t control t l on non-agricultural i lt l activities ti iti such h as mining, chemicals and minerals processing etc. Eco-tourism with a range of adventure sports like angling, boating, surfing, yachting, etc. Link with the National Lake Conservation Plan


Shilpgram Ethnographic Museum:

Sajjangarh Fort

Mahakaleshwar Temple

Located 7 kms from Railway station Village cum ethnographic museum Towards Eklingji, Shreenathji, depicting the tribal life of people of Nagda Rajasthan, Gujarat, Goa and Neemach Mata Temple City Sajjangarh Palace: Jagdish Mandir: Maharashtra . Fort: Located Traditional 9 kms homes from Railway the station life of 2 2.5 5Bari kms from Railway station Saheliyon ki The temple built in depicting the Indo-Aryan style people in the various regions Sajjangarh the monsoon palace Maharanas is Singh located within a The palace isLord also famous for paintings by artists from the 17th 18th Lake Fatehsagar Circle Sukhadia dedicated to Vishnu was built of bythe Maharana Jagat inand 1651 Moti Magari wild Provides a platform platform for rural artists life sanctuary on one of the highest peaks in Udaipur bands century The raised of the temple is and decorated byof sculptured Nehru island park Meera Kala Mandir Folk Museum craftsmen for display and sale The palace was built by Maharana Singh between 1874-84 and is Structures within Palace Complex - Bari Pole, Dhuni Mata Temple, Ganesh Temple Sajjan between the plasters. L k Swaroop Lake S one Sagar S of the best places to view the sunset sunset. Sheesh Mahal, Mahal Vilas, Vilas Bhim Vilas, Vilas Shiv Vilas and Amar Vilas Vilas. Conserved by Krishna Devasthan Department
Ahar Archeological Museum

Amba Mata Temple Lake Palace 1

2 5 3 4

Lake Pichola. JagMandir Name of Palace / Museum
1 2 3 4 5 City Palace City Palace Museum Govt. Museum Crystall Gallery and Durbar Hall Bhagore Ki Haveli

Gulab Bagh Jagdish Mandir Dudh Talai Gardens


Machla Magra Eklingghad

Lake Palace: Ahar Museum: Saheliyon ki Bari:Location Built by Maharana Jagat Singhof II Palace in 1746. / Museum / Forts

Awara Mataji kms from Railway station 4.5 Saheliyon Ki Bari, or the gardens of the Maids of Honor, is situated Located in the middle of the Lake Pichola, it(2000 was a summer Location ofcivilization Religious Places Remains of 4000 ancient human B.C. 1400 B.C.) below the embankment of the Fateh Sagar Lake. residence for previous p rulers Location Gardens / Parks village the ancient capital of Sisodia dynasty. dynasty The O Originally i Ahar i ll architectural built b ilt by b was Maharana M h Sangram S of Singh Si h II in i the th 18th century t glass Striking features are the intricately hand worked The striking architectural features in this site are the ancient cenotaphs Later to its original form by Maharana Fateh Singh inlaidreconstructed designs and Kunds typical to Maintained by PWD. the Hindu architecture.

Insufficient list of tourist spots. Heritage to be classified properly, Heritage H it spots t and dh heritage it zones should be marked No provision of direct access for the rural artist/craftsmen into the market system. Many traditional artists/craftsmen migrating to other urban areas in search of alternative jobs jobs.

Building Regulations need to be developed


CDP identifies 34 regularized g and 17 non regularized slums with about 119000 inhabitants.

The CDP does not differentiate between traditional villages (crafts) and slums A mapping of urban villages (crafts clusters) with tourist l locations ti can h help l i in b better tt planning

URBAN SERVICES Water Supply, Sewage, Solid Waste

There is an existing water deficit of 30% with only half the population having access to piped supply. The frequency of supply is only 1-2 hrs every alternate lt t day. d

Review and Recommendations An RUIDP project with an estimated value of Rs 400 crore consists of illogical components such as Water Treatment Plants and Surface Reservoirs. Without any mention of how to augment water supply in future and what can be possible sources of water when the existing ground water and surface y endangered. g water sources ones are already Old wells and Bavdis should be listed and integrated in the current water supply/ harvesting schemes S d i d lid t j t dd d ll i th CDP

URBAN SERVICES - Electrical Wiring and Services, Fire Safety

Overhead wires and cables for electrical supply, telephone wiring and television cables in the city area not only cause an aesthetic h i i issue f for the h b built il heritage as they are loose and unorganized obscuring the building facades facades, but are possible sources of electric and fire hazard. Another threat is main transformers situated in dense areas without sufficient setback from the street creating a fire and safety hazard. The existing capacity and infrastructure of the Fire Department is grossly inadequate to serve the population l ti of f th the city, it the th only l Fire Station

URBAN INFRASTURCTURE Traffic and Transport

Traffic and Transport needs to be reworked with parking pools and pedestrainized stretches to achieve a pedestrian friendly environment inside the Walled City, enriching the tourist experience through heritage walks without the interference of vehicular traffic. A comprehensive plan for public transport, parking and junction improvement needs to be developed that address the cultural heritage g aspects p of the city y and its streets. Efficient mass transportation system to be developed with organized movement that helps the parking situation in and outside the walled city. consideration for future development.

The Mewar Solar Cell with its solar rickshaws as an example of alternate modes of transport p - use of technology to find sustainable solutions to issues

Overall Priority Ranking


Urban Environment Street Lights Housing Traf fic Management Roads SWM Sew erage Water Supply Drainage


No balance in the distribution of funds Funds for Urban Renewal and Tourism are very low No integration of Lakes with Heritage and T i Tourism

Sectorwise Share of Investment Required

Sew erage 19%

Water Supply 47% Drainage Works 9%

Traffic and Transportation 12% Lakes Conservation 3% Tourism and Urban Renew al 4% Solid Waste Management (SWM) 2% Basic B i S Services i for Poor 2%

Annual Capital Investment by Institutions in Rs. Crores


S.No. 1 2 3 3 4 5 6

Agencies UMC UIT RSRTC PHED PWD DoT Irrigation Total

2006-07 13.2 4.1 0.0 84.9 0.0 7.3 21 9 21.9 131.4

2007-08 19.9 3.8 0.0 152.3 1.0 3.1 19 9 19.9 200.0

2008-09 13.5 35.9 0.0 196.7 1.1 4.4 24 9 24.9 276.4

2009-10 14.4 31.0 0.7 49.3 1.0 4.5 00 0.0 100.9

2010-11 16.3 1.3 0.7 0.0 1.0 3.0 00 0.0 22.3

2011-12 10.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 00 0.0 11.6

Total 87.6 76.3 1.4 483.2 5.1 22.2 66 8 66.8 742.6

Departmentwise Distribution of Investment

PHED 65.07

UIT 10.27

UMC 11.79%

Irrigation 8.99%

DoT 2.99%

PWD 0.69%

IHCN (UNESCO) DCs Offi /UMC Office/UMC Stakeholders

CDP Review


Realising vision through..

Planning DPRs and Projects

Technical Committee
DPR R Reviews i

Lake DPR, Water Sewage Slums etc. Urban Renewal C Conservation ti Water bodies Technical expert assistance Heritage Walks Community Projects

Proposing DPRs /aligning existing i ti reports t

Enforcing community participation toolkit Building technical assistance


a. Natural Heritage Based Tourism and Management

b. Heritage Awareness b c. Interpretation of the Heritage Resources d. Legislative and Regulatory Framework for Heritage Conservation e. Incentive Mechanisms for Heritage g Management g f. Adaptive Reuse g. Need to Encourage Local Crafts and Integrate them in to Mainstream Economy h Community Participation and Public Private Partnerships h. i. Improved Physical Access to the Heritage Resources

City F t , Facts History and Urban Growth

CDP Review and Urban Issues

Modes of governance and Heritage Management

Urban Infrastructure Land use / Master plan / Building Byelaws Water supply Sewerage Roads/ Bridges/ flyovers/RoB/Multilevel Parking Traffic Control and Management Systems City Public Transportation Street Lighting Storm Water Drainage Solid Waste Management Parks / Playground/ golf course/ beautification of road intersections/ urban forest Air, water and noise pollution Control Slum Development Urban Poverty Programme Housing for EWS Public Conveyance Heritage Building Conservation Planning and Design UIT, Town and Country planning b d board PHED, RUIDP, UIT, RHB, Pri.Dev. PHED, RUIDP, UIT, UMC, RHB, PiD Pri.Dev. PWD, RUIDP, UIT, UMC, RHB, UIT, RTD Private Developers UIT, PWD, UMC, RUIDP UIT, ID, RUIDP, RHB UMC UIT, UMC, Forest Dept. UIT,UMC PHED, RUIDP, UIT, RHB, Pri.Dev. PHED, RUIDP, UIT, UMC, RHB, PiD Pri.Dev. PWD, RUIDP, UIT, UMC, RHB, UIT, RTD Private Developers UIT, UMC, RUIDP UIT, ID, RUIDP, RHB UMC UIT, UMC, Forest Dept. Construction Operation and Maintenance UIT,UMC PHED, UIT, RHB, Pri.Dev. PHED, UIT, UMC, RHB, Pri.Dev. PWD, UIT, UMC, RHB, UIT, RTD Private Developers UIT, UMC UIT, ID, RUIDP, RHB UMC UIT, UMC, Forest Dept.



PHED, RSPCB UMC, UIT UMC UMC UIT UMC, UIT, RHB UIT, UMC UMC, Heritage Dept., Devasthan Dept.

Issues & Strategies Urban Governance


Objectives/Strategies/ Action Plans

Overlapping responsibilities and jurisdiction of various organizations. Inadequate overall database management. Critical functions like planning, water supply and sociosocio-economic development (as per 12th schedule) ) still not with UMC. Decentralization of powers and functions still not achieved

Provision of EE-governance for efficient management. Capacity building for UMC and Udaipur Traffic police. Formation and regulation of a clear cut f framework k of f responsibilities ibiliti and df functions ti of f each department. Installation of a Computerized systems of mapping and management

Custodianship as a sustainable model of governance since 8th century

withLakePichola,theislandpalacesandlayersofhistoryrelatingto Udaipursgenesis .

(PlanningfundedbytheGettyFoundation;WorkshopswithNationalMuseum, UNESCONewDelhiandSchoolsofArchitecture)

Annual festive rituals at t the th palace l grounds d from sixteenth century till today signifies a unique y of Mewari continuity traditions. These are celebrated Th l b t d in the Palace complex under the heritage brand of Eternal Mewar.

crafts ft workshops k h organised i d as extensions t i of f the th festivals f ti l

Centuries old festival of Holika Dahan celebrated by the

royal y family y

Extends into a crafts workshop at Holi for local artisans

diverse mediums, di collective ll i voice,thedifferentcraftsofthe
Throughtheworkshop MewarsuchasMolela,Miniature painting, i i Kavad, K d Phad Ph dand dPichwai Pi h i createdwithdifferentmediums areintroducedtoeachother.The intentionistodevelopinnovatons inordertoensurethegrowthand popularityofthesecrafts.

Extends into a an arts and crafts bazzar to sustain local artisans i

Extends into a food festival for visitors to experience the fl flavours of f Mewari M i cuisine i i

Museum and street activities sustain each other

The daily visitors to the city palace museum directly or indirectly impact income for about 5000 families in the city generating employment for local crafts persons/ guides/ shops/ rickshawallahs etc.

Heritage walks and trails with different themes (promoted by IHCN- UNESCO, UNESCO MMCF MMCF,Udaipur Udaipur Municipal Corporation and INTACH)

Heritage Walk 1

Thebuilt components onthe walkroute are havelis, houses and temples. p Thearea covered i the in h heritage walk comprises of 140 structures

experiencing havelis, people and lifestyle


Theprojectedbalconieswithinthehaveli lookingintothehavelicourtyard

Viewofaprojectedbalconywith elementsfromMewarBritishphase withasemicirculararchedopening inthecenterwithuseofstained glass.

RajPalace claimedtobeamore that300yearsoldhaveli,the residenceofRajRanaofJhadol(An erstwhileRuleroftheJagir)thathas beenconvertedtoahotel.The facadeisentirelynewwithan extrovertedcharacter,though elementsliketheentrancegateway mayhavebeenretained.

Typicaldoordetailofahouse accessedfromthestreet.Thewall paintingaroundthedoorframeand onthesidesarecommonfeaturetill datewiththetraditionalstylesof paintingthriving.

experiencing chowks, temples, wells and rituals.

Thereare13templesinthe walkarea.Thetemplesare attachedtohavelis,setin chowks orarelandmarks chowks, onthestreet,besidesthe Jagdishtemplewhichisa citylandmark. landmark
TheplatformofaBanyantreeatjunctionofstreetswithreligious value TempleofVishnuandLakshmisetwithinan enclosure



Anicheinthewallastempleonthestreetthat becomesahubofreligiousactivityatspecific timesoftheday

encouraging promotion of local arts and crafts


Thebazaarstreetcontinuestofulfill itscommercialfunction, function theretailis artandcraftbasedandcatersto thenationalandinternational tourists.Hence,there h is interminglingofthelocal communityandthetouristinthe streetthathasafunctionaland culturalroleforboththesegments

Theuseofaresidenceforcommercialactivity selling thelocallymadeleathershoes mojris without alteringthefacade

Handicraftshopincorporatedinthegroundfloor ofaresidenceonthemainstreet

Sharing stories with the local community with inclusion in their activities

The street has its culturally enlivened sections that have religious and commercial activity, catering to the local community and the tourists respectively.

Achieving livability through Heritage Management and appropriate Governance

Discoveryof Udaipur'sunique identityderived from o its shistory. soy Immersionto authentic high authentic, qualityexperiences rootedinitsunique, indigenousculture, culture heritageandthe senseofplaceofthe l larea. local