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What is Institutional Management? Institutional Management is a part of Educational Management. Educational Management is at a Macro- level--- At the National and State levels. This is done by the Ministry of Human Resource Development at the Cabinet level and the Education Ministry at the state level. The processes of management are from top to down. Institutional Management is at the Micro-level --- At the level of individual institutions. Institutional management involves the Principal, teaching and non-teaching staff. The management process is a two way street.


M. B. Buch (1968) defines Institutional Planning as, ―A programme of developmental improvement prepared by an educational institutional on the basis of felt needs and the resources available or likely to be available, with a view to improving the school programmes and school practices, and constitutes plans for the institution.‖

Institutional Planning is, ―The planning undertaken by an institution in reference to its aims, ideals, values and available or possible resources for carrying out effectively its day to day functioning and leading towards the path of progress and development.‖

Institutional Planning deals with preparation of plan or programme of action at the institutional level.

To enable the institution to accomplish their goals by mobilising, channelising and utilising resources to the optimum level and in the desired direction.

The institutional plan may be short term or long term. It is based on optimum utilisation of the resources available with the institution as well as the community.

It aims at improving an institution‘s standards and practices so that the institution can achieve its goals and the best results that is capable of attaining.


Institutional planning is needed because of the reasons:

1. Proper direction and base for educational planning.

2. Maximum utilisation of resources.

3. Betterment and improvement of the institution.

4. Provision for teamwork.

5. Democratic approach to planning.

6. Encourages initiative of the individual teacher.

The importance of Institutional planning is emphasised by the ‗Education Commission‘ in the following words; ―No comprehensive programme of educational development can ever be put across unless it involves every educational institution and all the factors connected with it, its teachers, Students and the local community and unless it provides the necessary inducements to make their best efforts.‖

Nature and characteristics of an institutional plan

1. Need based.

2. Specific.

3. Optimum utilisation of resources.

4. Augmentating Human efforts

5. Goal oriented

6. Co-operative in nature

7. Long and short term plans

8. Reflects the state and the national Educational policy

9. Flexibility.


ANALYSIS: Analysis of the Institution‘s present situation in terms of Needs is carried out. This analysis involves:

1. School building in terms of space.

2. Equipment and furniture are adequate.

3. Laboratory and library equipment.

4. Programmes which require change.

5. Staff requirements.

6. Additional infrastructure like hostel, staff quarters, school bus, play-grounds etc.

7. Examination system.

8. Admission procedures.

9. Identification of areas which require improvement, but can be done without additional resources is also analysed.

SURVEY: Based on the Analysis carried out, a Survey of the existing resources as well those available in the future is to be carried out. The survey must include Statistical fact and figures regarding;

1. Enrolment.

2. Staff.

3. Equipment.

4. Books.

5. Examination results.

The resources to be surveyed fall into the following categories;

1. Resources in the School.

2. Resources available through the Government.

3. Resources available in the Community

IMPROVEMENT: Every institution must prepare a List of Improvement programmes, along with details of each programme. The programmes can be Long term or short term in nature. Each improvement programme must be specific in terms of;

1. Utility for the institution.

2. Financial implications.

3. Objectives must be stated in clear terms.

4. The programmes must be clearly outlined in terms of tasks.

5. Each task must be specified in terms of;

i. Resources required

ii. Time schedule for each task.

iii. Expected output.












1. Available material and human resources should be utilised.

2. There should be cooperation amongst all staff members.

3. The principal would be overall in-charge and certain staff members would be responsible for a project.

4. There should be division of tasks amongst all members involved in a project.

5. Commitees may be appointed to ensure smooth execution of the programmes.

6. A time schedule should be prepared for the project, specifying amount of work to be done in each time period.

EVALUATION: At the end of implementation of an Improvement programme, it must be assessed Qualitatively and quantitatively.

1. The evaluation must check whether the pre-planned objectives have been fulfilled to what extent.

2. Necessary feedback must be obtained from all stakeholders and beneficiaries of the programme.


it involves the teachers the process of planning thereby making planning more democratic in nature the preparation of the plan adopts the down to top approach where first hand knowledge about the strengths , weakness and the problems arising in the classroom processes and situations is available from teachers

it is more realistic because I it is based on the data available from then stakeholders namely students a, teachers and parents

it avoids wastage as it is founded on knowledge about real needs of the students and the community

it is more scientific , rational , effective and efficient rather than trial and error methods or traditional approach development.

Each institution has a unique personality or climate and the plan prepared in the light of this climate will be more realistic and effective

it is goal based and therefore is more efficient involving teachers in the process of planning motivates them , channelizes their energies towards achieving the goals , arouses enthusiasm in them , making its implementation easier

it reduced emphasis on expenditure orientation and enhances goal orientation

it provides ample opportunities fro creativity, innovations, initiative , freedom and experimentation to those who are involved in preparing and implementing the plans



H.G. Stead: It is the time table that supplies the framework within which the work of the school proceeds. It is the instrument through which the purpose of the school is to function. Dr Jaswant Singh: it is the spark plug of school which sets into motion its various activities and programmes. Mohiyuddin: A timetable is said to be the second school clock. It shows the hours during which the school work is done, what work is to be done during each period of the school day and in each class, the room in which the work is to be done and the teacher to be in-charge of that work.

What is a Timetable? The school time table is a chart which indicates all the activities undertaken in a school. It shows:

1. hours of work

2. teacher at work and at rest

3. rooms being used in certain periods

4. recreational time

5. time of morning assembly

6. time of roll call

7. time of co-curricular activities

8. class engaged in games

9. playground being used

In short, time table is a schedule which tells what work is being done during which period, by whom it is

being done, where it is being done and when it is being done.

Functions of a Timetable

Eliminates wastage of time and energy.

Avoids duplication and overlapping.

Ensures due attention to every subject and activity.

Brings system to school life.

Ensures equal distribution of work amongst teachers.

Helps in adjusting schoolwork according to needs of the pupils.

Helps in arrangement of proxy periods.

Develops moral values and other good habits.

Promotes school discipline.

Adds to efficiency of school by maximum utilisation of existing resources.

Principles of time-table construction:

The following principles have to kept in mind for preparing a Time Table. i) Type of School The type of the school i.e. boys or girls or mixed school, urban or rural school, secondary or higher secondary school or both, determine the nature of activities of a school and accordingly a time table is framed. One more point that is to be kept in mind is that specific needs of a school are to be taken into consideration while framing time table.

ii) Departmental Regulations

Generally, the State Department of Education fixes length of the school year, and its terms. i.e. when art

academic year starts and when it ends, the duration of the school day and even the number of periods for each subject. It is essential that the school time table is in agreement with Government regulations.

iii) Amount of Time Available

A time table is to be framed keeping in. view the available time i.e. length of the school year and total

number of holidays. For example, in a double shift schools, the duration of the school day is naturally shorter.


Principle of Justice


assigning work, care has to be taken that: a) each teacher is assigned those subjects which he/she feels

he/she is best qualified to teach, b) he/she does not teach in more than two departments, c) teaching load for every teacher is about equal to that of others.

v) Relative Importance and Difficulty Value of Subjects

Time has to be provided to each subject according to its importance and its difficulty value. For example, more time is required for Mathematics and English, not because they are more important but because they are more difficult. Besides, there are certain social and economic considerations that determine the importance of a subject in the school curriculum and accordingly, time is allotted to them in the time table, for example, in rural schools more time is required or devoted for practicals.

vi) Incidence of Fatigue

The element of fatigue influences the construction of school time table in a number of ways. Children are fatigued at certain periods or on certain days. Fatigue is not only physical but it is also psychological in nature, which results in a definite weakening of attention and diminishing interest and affects learning.

a) Work Rate: In school some subjects are more fatiguing than others. They involve more mental

strain and effort. Such subjects are to be taught during early hours when the students' minds are fresh.

b) It is a common feeling to think that mental freshness is the greatest in the morning. This is also

true just after recess. The order of subjects causing strain is as follows: (1) Mathematics (2) English

(3) Other languages (4) Sciences (5) Social Studies /Humanities (6) Science practicals (7) Drawing. However, this needs not be true for all students. Some might find learning of Languages more difficult than Mathematics. Some find Sciences more difficult to learn.

c) The fatigue principle is true for days of the week also. Tuesdays and Wednesdays are considered

to be the best days in which maximum work could be done. Towards the end of the week fatigue is the greatest.

d) Younger children are more quickly fatigued. The duration of a class period for them does not

generally exceed 30 to 35 minutes. Psychologically also, their minds are likely distracted to some

other activities.

e) Certain seasons too cause fatigue. In summer due to heat, we do not like to work. So the duration

of the period needs to be reduced. If it is possible, change timings and keep the school in the morning during summer season.

vii) Principle of Variety

Time table has to be constructed in a manner so that it allows frequent change of places and postures for pupils. It has been seen experimentally that change of room, seat and posture usually is an antidote against weariness. This applies to both, students and teachers. Variety can be introduced in the following manner.

a) No subject except Science practicals should be kept for two consecutive periods, as it will cause


b) The same class should not, as .farm possible, sit in the same room for the whole day.

c) The same teacher should not have two consecutive periods in the same class, as far as possible

except in primary classes.

d) If a subject is taught only 213 times a week, periods should follow at intervals.

e) The 'physical training periods, science practical and drawing work allow a change.

viii) Free Periods for Teachers Free periods for teachers need to be provided so as to increase their efficiency and also to provide time for their correction work. e.g.

1. Language teachers need more free periods as they have to do more correction work.

2. In the periodsimmediately preceding science and other practical periods, a teacher should be kept

free to enable him/her to make necessary preparations.

ix) Principle of Play and Recreation

Careful attention needs to be given to provide for rest and recreation and provision for various co-curricular

activities should also be made in the time table, to avoid monotony.

x) Maximum Utilization of Resources While constructing a time table, number of teachers, their qualifications and experience, number and size of classrooms and material resources available, should always be kept in mind.

xi) Principle of Elasticity

We know that time table is an instrument to help school carry on its work smoothly and efficiently. It should not be fixed or rigid, but should provide scope for adjustment and changes to meet specific needs of students

as well as of teachers. The above principles provide bases in framing a time table. The difficult task of framing the time table becomes easier, if one knows the basic principles and tries to implement them. It is not everybody's cup of tea. One should possess the skill of framing a time table.

Importance of time table:

Ensures smooth and efficient functioning of the school.

Eliminates wastage of time and energy.

Brings system into school life.

It informs the students, teachers as well pupils well in advance about each activity.

Helps teacher to make advance preparation for the teaching-learning process and classroom's physical organization.

Ensures that due importance and attention is given to each academic subject along with activities.

Prevents duplication of efforts.

Enables allotment of teaching periods in accordance with the rules, difficulty level of a subject, importance of subject and the amount of content to be included in each.

Ensures equal distribution of teaching and other works to all the teachers keeping in mind the teacher‘s qualification, knowledge and specialization thus preventing teacher to be overloaded or under loaded.

Helps to adjust the school activities in accordance with the psychological needs of the students keeping in mind their age, stamina, interest, level of development, maturity, plateau periods in learning, attention span etc.

Inculcates the habits of regularity, punctuality and systemized work among teacher and students

Helps to maintain discipline in school

Enhances the overall efficiency of the school by maximum utilization of the available resources.

Types of Time Tables We have discussed that how time table is an effective instrument and how it promotes efficiency in a school. Now we will see, what are the different types of time table to be prepared in a school? Any school has a

comprehensive time table. It is known as master time table or general time table. We can also name it as a consolidated time table. On the basis of the master time table, a class teacher prepares the time table for his class and it is put in every classroom. This is known as the class time table.

A teacher, for his own record, prepares a time table. From this discussion, we can say that there are at least

three types of time tables available in the school as indicated below:

of time tables available in the school as indicated below: Master Time Table This time table

Master Time Table This time table gives a complete, correct and comprehensive picture of the entire school programme. It is a consolidated form of class time tables and teacher's time tables. This time table is generally meant to be used by the headmaster. Class Time Table This time table shows the daily programme of a class i.e. distribution of subject with teacher for each class.

It also indicates the breaks and the periods for games and other co-curricular activities. Each class follows its

time table and a copy of its time table is to be hung in each classroom. Teacher's Time Table Every' teacher has a copy of his own programme showing details of his academic and non-academic work. There are three types of time tables. For preparing Master Table, one requires certain skills and a person should know some basic principles. A person should have knowledge of how to overcome the defects of Master Time Table.

Role of a Teacher

Teachers should also have a role in the preparation of the time table, because after all it has to be implemented by them. It so happens, some of the days, a teacher has so much of work that he/she hardly gets an opportunity to rest. Whereas there might be days when teachers are totally free. What can you expect

from an exhausted teacher? Not only is the quality of teaching affected, there is lack of enthusiasm and lack

of any innovative idea as well. If teachers are taken into confidence and then according to the principles of

time table making, a time table is prepared, its implementation will be smooth.

A teacher should take care that they do not waste time of another teacher while teaching in a class after the

period is over. Nor should teacher leave a class before the period is over. Moreover the incoming teachers should also come on time. After all, teachers are role models. Students learn punctuality from their teachers. Teachers who have been assigned extra duties, should get some relaxation in the time table. All teachers should cooperate to make a time table functional.

c] Event Management:

1. Principles Of Organising Curricular & Co-Curricular Activities:

Event management is the application of the management practice to the creation and development of festivals and events.

Activities in a school are generally classified as;

I. Curricular (Academic): These are activities which are done during the course of transaction of the curriculum.

Event Management involves studying the intricacies of the event, identifying the target audience, devising the event concept, planning the logistics and coordinating the technical aspects before actually executing the proposed event.

The Event Manager is the person who plans and executes the event. Event managers and their teams are often behind-the-scenes running the event.

The steps are:


Running (Organising)

Following-Up (Controlling and Directing)


2. Steps Of Organising Events:


Identifying objectives.

Deciding whether it is a single group or multiple group effort.

Invitations who should be there and what the invitations will say.

Clarification of roles of people involved.

Design and structure of the event. (Format)

Location, catering and other issues.

Any pre-event reading or materials for distribution.

Back-up support.

Materials required for the day, including displays and equipment.

Depending on the size of the event, planning should be done with minimum a month to 3-4 months

prior to the event.

Organising & Directing: (Running)

Check up whether all people involved are fulfilling their roles.

Facilitator managementhelping out and ironing out any difficulties.

Data on who is attendingfinal preparation of invitee list.

Agreements regarding what will happen to decisions and data collected.

Time management.

Relationship managementcoordination between the various departments.

This can be achieved through regular fortnightly meetings on a collective basis and weekly basis

with individual people / departments.

Controlling: (Following-up)

Delivery on actions identified during planning.

Communication with key people/departments.

Communication with people who are in-charge of various duties.

Linking the information into the planning and actual work that has been done or required to be done.

Ensuring that all departments are working together and things are in place for the event.

Ensures that actions and written outcomes towards the event are delivered within the time required.

Evaluation: (Feedback)

Evaluation of success of the event in terms of:

i. satisfaction of community members

ii. outcomes achieved

iii. facilitation process

iv. catering, etc.

Changing any procedures in light of evaluation findings.

Some evaluation should be undertaken on the day, with other feedback sought after the event.


Principles Of Organising Curricular & Co-Curricular Events:

Of Organising Curricular & Co-Curricular Events: 4. Types of Co-curricular Events:  Aesthetic events:

4. Types of Co-curricular Events:

Aesthetic events: The different types of aesthetic events are Fancy dress, music, dance, drawing & art, exhibitions, dramatics. They develops a sense of beauty, appreciation of art & beauty, colour harmony, sense of rhythm.

Physical events: The different types of activities are Games, sports, PT, Yoga, NCC, gardening etc. Develops leadership, discipline, alertness, confidence, team spirit & cooperation.

Social Service events: The activities which could be conducted are Community work, Scouting & guiding, Red cross, RSP, working with senior citizens. Develops mental health, emotional character, sense of citizenship, sense of responsibility cooperation.

Literary Events: Debate, discussion, seminar, workshop, magazine, recitation, essay writing, quiz, literary club. Develops Creativity, expression, intellect, ideation, presentation, communication.

5. Need & Importance of Co-curricular Events: The need and importance of organising co-curricular /curricular events are as follows;

Provides medium for social training.

Development of moral and cultural values.

Provides recreational outlet.

Develops qualities of leadership and democratic citizenship.

Development of aesthetic values.

Supplement of academic work.

Psychologically important: Instincts such as curiosity, creative expression, self-assertiveness are fruitfully directed to creative and constructive activities. It is a safe outlet for adolescent energy. Helps to build up team spirit, group cooperation.

d] Institutional Quality:

Juran(1974) defines Quality as, ―Fitness for use‖.

Feigenbaum (1961) says that Quality means ―best for certain customer conditions‖. These conditions are: The actual use and the selling price.

Croby (1984) says that, ―Quality is conformance to requirements.‖

Thus, Quality is user-oriented and a production-oriented expression. In education, the ‗users‘ refer to students & society and ‗production‘ refers to teaching-learning-evaluation processes as well as student-development.

Quality in educational terms is, ―An expression of educational services/products usefulness in meeting the needs and expectations and its reliability, validity, relevance etc.‖


Institutional Quality: It is the commitment and approach used to continuously improve every process in every part of an institution, with the intent of meeting and exceeding students and societal expectations and outcomes.

John Shubin states that, ―Institutional Quality is the evaluations of an institution keeping in mind the set norms or standards, it involves finding out the causes for the differences and their remediation.‖


Importance Of Institutional Quality: Every institution needs to maintain its quality as well as improving itself for the following reasons;

a. To improve the reputation of the institution within the community and society.

b. To help to remove the inefficiencies from the institution; to eliminate the weaknesses of the institution.

c. To improve the motivational levels of the staff and improve their work efficiency.

d. To develop a spirit of competitiveness, this leads to continuous improvement of the institution.

e. To fulfil the expectation of the parents and the society.

f. To ensure that there is no wastages of any resourceshuman or material.

g. To provide a good quality and standard of education, which becomes a benchmark for others to follow.


Characteristics of Institutional Quality: Institutional quality of an institution needs to be determined for the following reasons;

a. It helps to improve and maintain the standard of the institution.

b. In the competitive nature of education, it helps to improve the management of the institution.

c. It helps to compare the quality of the institution in terms of the past and also set goals for future.

d. It helps to assess the various areas of an institutions‘ functioning that are upto the standard or which need to be improved upon.

e. Determining the institutional quality helps the students, parents, society and nation to fufill their needs.


Criteria For Assessing Quality Of Educational Institutions: The quality of an educational

institution needs to be assessed with an emphasis on satisfying the demands and needs of students, staff and community. Assessment of quality should look into the given criteria;

a. Setting targets of products and activities.

b. Ongoing processes of teaching, learning and evaluation

c. Processes used for obtaining feedback and

d. Analysis of curricular and co-curricular activities.

In order to assess the quality of any educational institution the following criteria should be kept in mind; Part A: General Information about the Educational Institution

Name of the institution:



Number of years the trust been constituted:

Type of Institution: Aided / unaided, girls/boys/co-ed, private / government, school ed/ technical ed/ college


Name and address of Management:


Institution timings:

No of sections:

No of students per section:

No of institutions run in the same building:

Their names and timings:

Medium of instruction:

Building owned by:

Area in sq feet:

No of books in the library:

No of journals, magazines etc:

Part B: Specific Information about the Educational Institution The information to be given and on which the institution is actually assessed are as follows:[Each area to be assessed has been awarded grade points which are awarded to the institution]

Curriculum Transaction--- Assessment of Teaching learning processes, in terms of teacher performance.

Infrastructure ---- Infrastructural facilities are to be assessed in terms of space, furniture, classrooms, laboratories, library, computers, teaching aids, playgrounds, etc.

Results --- the performance of the students at various examinations both at school level and at boards is to be assessed. Also the students‘ performance at various competitive exams is seen in terms of participation as well as performance.

e] Institutional Network:


an interconnected system of things or people

communicate with and within a group

An extended group of people with similar interests or concerns who interact and remain in informal/ formal contact for mutual assistance or support.


relating to or constituting or involving an institution

an organization founded and united for a specific purpose


When members of an institution with similar interests or concerns interact with one another formally or informally for mutual assistance or support for a specific purpose, then their interactions constitute an Institutional network.

The interaction between different groups of people working in an institution, in order to fulfil their regular / special tasks is known as an ―Institutional network.‖

"Educational Networking" is the use of social networking technologies for educational purposes.

i. Schools in ME - Schools in Middle East social network and community. Schools in ME, is welling to be the biggest social network and community for education in Middle East, it‘s a good place for schools, students, teachers and parents to meet all together using the power of community communications to set their goals.

ii. The Schools United - The Schools United website is a networking site dedicated solely to the education community worldwide. It provides schools and staff with the no-cost facility to share educational resources, ideas and experiences. The site encourages schools from around the globe to 'link' with each other prior to sharing these resources.

iii. National Network of Education (NNE) is India's largest online educational network of 47 portals covering the entire gamut of education in India.


Chain network: This type of a network is also called as ―linear network‖. This type of interaction is a one way process which, moves from first to last and back again in a straight line. It is basically the type of network seen for doing daily tasks. e.g. Interactions between principal to supervisor to the teacher to the students, in order to give instructions regarding examination schedule.


give instructions regarding examination schedule. Principal Supervisor Teacher  Wheel network: This type of network


regarding examination schedule. Principal Supervisor Teacher  Wheel network: This type of network is seen


Wheel network: This type of network is seen when a person in an authority position is interacting with various members on the same team or level. The interactions are between the person in charge and the people who are a part of the core team. e.g. Principal interacting with various section head of departments. This type of networking is also seen between the parents and the class teacher, interaction between teacher and students during a classroom.

Pre- Lower Principal primary Sec HOD HOD Primary HOD

Star network: In this type of network, there is interaction between each and every member of the institution or group. All the interactions in this group are two-way interactions; this is the most democratic type of networking. This type of networking generally also leads to finding the most popular person, with whom maximum interaction takes place; helps to identify leaders known as stars. e.g. General classroom discussions between students. Members of a particular club on interacting. Science teachers networking in BASE meeting.

1 2 5 4 3


i. Helps to complete tasks with efficiency and effectively, due to constant INTERACTION.

ii. They help to development of better systems of management.

iii. Increase coordination between members to achieve institutional goals.

iv. Leads to knowledge exchange.

v. Develops better interpersonal relationships.

vi. Problems can be resolved through mutual dialogue and minimises distrust.

vii. Helps in identification of inefficiency in the systems and provides for solutions to be found.

viii. Develops a spirit of healthy competition.


i. Leads to exchange of ideas and technology.

ii. Helps in the professional development of teachers.

iii. Provides feedback for improvement.

iv. Leads to intellectual development.