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SE Reference Manual Chapter 16

Chapter 16 CH16-1
CHAPTER 16

Design Requirements

Chapter 16 of the IBC/CBC prescribes general design requirements for structures
regulated by the code. Relevant information from Chapter 16 is presented below:

1604.5 Occupancy Category

Per Table 1604.5 (IBC/CBC) or Table 1-1 (ASCE 7),

Occupancy
Category
Description of Hazard Represented by Building Collapse
I Low
II All buildings except those in I, III and IV
III Substantial
Public Assembly >300 people
Schools, daycares >250 people
College, adult education >500 people
Healthcare (no emergency or surgery) >50 people
J ails, detention centers
Any building with more than 5000 people
Public utility buildings (not in IV)
Buildings containing hazardous materials (not in IV)
IV Essential facilities
Hospitals with emergency and surgery
Fire, rescue, police
Emergency shelters for earthquakes
Power stations, public utility buildings designated for
earthquake backup
Aviation towers, control centers
Critical nation defense related building
Buildings containing hazardous materials quantities greater
than in Table 307.1.(2).

1605 Load Combinations

Strength Design

IBC/CBC 1605.2.1

1. 1.4(D +F)
2. 1.2(D +F +T) +1.6(L +H) +0.5(L
r
or S or R)
3. 1.2D +1.6(L
r
or S or R) +(f
1
L +0.8W)
4. 1.2D +1.6W +f
1
L +0.5(L
r
or S or R)
SE Reference Manual Chapter 16
Chapter 16 CH16-5

Roof Loads (1607.11)
Roof live loads may be reduced per 1607.11.2.1 based on the roof slope and
tributary area, except for landscaped roofs (20psf minimum). Special purpose
roofs (1607.11.2.2) shall be treated similar to floors.

1609 Wind Loads

Wind loads are per Section 6 of ASCE 7. See section Wind Loads.

1617 Earthquake Loads

The IBC references ASCE 7 for the majority of the earthquake load provisions. IBC (and
ASCE 7) assigns a Seismic Design Category to each structure. Seismic design
categories are used to determine permissible lateral systems, height limitations, type of
lateral analysis and seismic detailing requirements. Earthquake loads are described in the
section titled Earthquake Loads. Other relevant items are discussed here. The code
references are to ASCE 7.

The general layout of the seismic provisions of ASCE 7 is as follows:

Chapter Description
11 Seismic design criteria
- Importance Factor & Seismic Design Category (SDC)

- Mapped accelerations etc.
12 Seismic design requirements for buildings
- Design basis
- Provisions for structural system selection, horizontal and vertical
combinations of lateral systems etc.
- Seismic load combinations
- Equivalent lateral force calculations
- Response spectrum analysis
- Drift limits
- Detailing requirements for different SDC etc.
13 Seismic design requirements for non-structural components, including
architectural and MEP components.
14 Seismic design and detailing for different materials Not used by
I BC/CBC
15 Seismic design requirements for non-building structures, including those
similar to buildings (pipe racks, towers etc.) and those not similar to
buildings (tanks, stacks, chimneys etc.).
16 Seismic response history procedures (time history analysis procedures)
17 Design requirements for base isolated structures
18 Design requirements for structures with damping systems.
19 Soil-structure interaction for seismic design
20 Site classification for seismic design
SE Reference Manual Chapter 16
Chapter 16 CH16-6
21 Site-specific ground motion procedures for seismic design
22 Seismic ground motions and long-period transition maps

Relevant Provisions of ASCE 7 Earthquake Design:



12.2.5.1 Dual Systems
Dual systems are defined as a combination, in any given direction of loading, of
moment frames (special or intermediate) and shear walls, braced frames (SCBF,
EBF, BRBF etc.)see Table 12.2-1 for a complete listing of allowed dual
systems.

The moment frames shall be designed to resist a minimum of 25% of the design
base shear. The actual seismic force distribution shall be based on the appropriate
rigidities of the systems.



12.2.2 Combinations in Different Directions
Different seismic systems can be used in each of the orthogonal directions of the
structure. The appropriate values of R, C
d
, and
o
should be used for each system.



12.2.3 Combinations in the Same Direction
For non-dual systems used in combination in the same direction, use the least
value of R for any of the systems. The C
d
and
o
values shall correspond to the R
factor being used in a given direction and shall not be less than the largest
respective values for that R factor.

Exception:

Different systems in each independent line of lateral system are permitted to be
designed for the least value of the R factor in that line if the following conditions
are met:

1. Occupancy Category I or II.
2. Height is two stories or less.
3. Light frame construction or flexible diaphragms.



12.2.3.1 Vertical Combinations of Lateral Systems
R used in any story shall not exceed the lowest R value used in any story above.
C
d
and
o
shall not be less than the largest value of each factor used in any story
above.

Exceptions:

SE Reference Manual Chapter 16
Chapter 16 CH16-8
Table 1

Structural Design Requirements

Description

SDC A SDC B SDC C SDC D SDC E & F
Building height limits

Table 12.2-1 Table 12.2-1 Table 12.2-1 Table 12.2-1 &
12.2.5.4
Table 12.2-1 &
12.2.5.4
Redundancy/Reliability
factor
(12.3.4)
= 1.0 = 1.0 = 1.0 = 1.3

=1.00 permitted if
conditions in 12.3.4.2
& Table 12.3-3 are met.


Same as SDC D
Analysis Procedures
1,2

(12.6 & Table 12.6-1)

OC Occupany Category

(See Note 2 for a
description of analytical
procedures 1 through 5)
1
(11.7.2)

OC I, II & 3 stories
with building frame or
bearing wall system
2,3,4,5

All other structures
3,4,5

Any structure with site
class E or F 3,4,5
Same as SDC B Same as SDC B

&

All other light framed
structures 3,4,5

Regular with T<3.5T
s

3,4,5,

Irregular with T<3.5T
s

and irregularities listed
in Note 3 - 3,4,5

Any structure with
torsional irregularity
(Table 12.3-1, Type 1a
or 1b) - 4,5


Same as SDC D

For SDC F, the
simplified design
procedure (type 2) is
not permitted.
SE Reference Manual Chapter 16
Chapter 16 CH16-10
Description

SDC A SDC B SDC C SDC D SDC E & F
Design & Detailing
Load Path Connections
(12.1.3 & 11.7.3)
Provide continuous
path to the lateral
systemwithin the
structure.

Connection between
a smaller portion &
main structure shall
be for F
p
=0.05w
p

Connections between a
smaller portion & the
main structure shall be
capable of carrying the
greater of:
F
p
=0.133S
DS
w
p

or
F
p
=0.05w
p

Same as SDC B

Same as SDC B Same as SDC B
Anchorage of Concrete
or Masonry Walls
(12.11 & 11.7.5)


Horizontal force shall
be greater of:
F
p
=0.05W
p

&
F
p
280plf
(11.7.5)
Horizontal force to be
greater of:
F
p
=0.10W
p

&
F
p
=0.40S
DS
IW
p

&
F
p
=400S
DS
I
&
F
p
280plf

Wall Design to be based
on greater of:
F
p
=0.10W
p

&
F
p
=0.40S
DS
IW
p


If anchor spacing >4ft,
design wall to span
between anchors




Minimum
requirements as per
SDC B

For flexible
diaphragms,
F
p
=0.8S
DS
IW
p

(12.11.2.1)

Maximum
length/width ratio for
sub-diaphragms shall
be 2.5 to 1.0
(12.11.2.2.1)





Same as SDC C

Same as SDC C
SE Reference Manual Chapter 16
Chapter 16 CH16-14
collectors and
connections between
diaphragms and
collectors to vertical
elements.

Force increase not
required if load
combinations with
over-strength are used.

See also Collectors
above in this table.

Notes: 1. OC Occupancy Group, ASCE 7 Table 1-1, CBC Table 1604.5 and 1604A.5.
2. Analysis Procedures: 1 MinimumLateral Force (11.7), 2 Simplified Design Procedure, 3 Equivalent Lateral Force, 4
Response Spectrum, 5 Time History. See Section Earthquake Loads.
3. Irregular structures with T <3.5Ts and having only Horizontal Irregularities (Table 12.3-1) type 2, 3, 4, or 5 or Vertical
Irregularities (Table 12.3-2) type 4, 5a or 5b.

SE Reference Manual Loads & Analysis
IBC Earthquake Loads IBCSL1
LOADS & ANALYSIS

EARTHQUAKE LOADS

Per IBC 1613, the earthquake loads shall be per ASCE 7. The relevant provisions are
presented below. All references are to ASCE 7, unless otherwise noted.

Per IBC and ASCE 7, the earthquake forces and the associated detailing is based on the
Seismic Design Category (SDC) assigned to the building.

Seismic Design Category (SDC), IBC 1613.5.6, ASCE 7 11.6:

The SDC is a function of the Occupancy Category (IBC/CBC Table 1604.5 and ASCE
7 Table 1-1) and the mapped accelerations at the site. See IBC/CBC Tables 1613.5.6(1)
and 1613.5.6(2) (ASCE 7 Tables 11.6-1 and 11.6-2, respectively) for SDC classification.

SDC A and B indicate low seismic risk; SDC C indicates moderate seismic risk; while
SDC D, E and F apply to high seismic risk. The detailing requirements as well as
construction quality assurance requirements for SDC D, E, and F are much more
stringent than for the lower categories.

Earthquake Loads

The code permits a variety of analytical procedures see Table 1 in Chapter Design
Requirements. The Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure per ASCE 7 12.8 is presented
below.

Equivalent Lateral (Static) Force Procedure (ASCE 7 12.8 & 11.4)

Step 1 Obtain Mapped Spectral Accelerations: ASCE 7 11.4.1

From the maps (IBC Figure 1613.5(1) through 1613.5(14) or ASCE 7 Chapter 22,
obtain the following:

S
s
=Short period earthquake spectral response acceleration, &
S
1
=1-second period earthquake spectral response acceleration

Step 2 - Determine Site Coefficients F
a
and F
v
: ASCE 7 11.4.3

Determine Site Coefficients F
a
and F
v
from Tables 11.4-1 & 11.4-2.

If site class is not known, assume D.



SE Reference Manual Loads & Analysis
IBC Earthquake Loads IBCSL3
Note: OSHPD requires that if a structure is not assigned to SDC E of F, it shall
be assigned to SDC D (1613A.5.6)

Step 6 Compute Base Shear: ASCE 7 12.8

V =C
s
W (Eqn 12.8-1)

W = Dead load +25% live load for storage areas +Actual partition load
(or 10psf minimum) +weight of permanent equipment +snow load
(12.7.2)

Step 6a Approximate Period Calculation: ASCE 7 12.8.2.1

T =
x
n T a
h C T = (Eqn 12.8-7)

12.8.2 If the period is computed from analysis, T C
u
T
a
.

where, C
T
& x are given below (Table 12.8-2)
h
n
=Height of building in feet
C
u
is given below (Table 12.8-1)












Alternative methods for periods for moment frames and shear wall
buildings are presented in 12.8.2.1.

Step 6b C
s
calculation: ASCE 7 12.8.1.1

( )
I
R
S
C
DS
s
= (Eqn 12.8-2)

where, R =Response reduction factor, Table 12.2-1
I =Importance factor, IBC Table 1604.5A, ASCE & Table 1-1.
I =1, 1.25 & 1.5 for Occupancy Category I/II, III & IV,
respectively.

Structure Type C
u
x S
D1
C
u

Steel MRF 0.028 0.8 0.4 1.4
Concrete MRF 0.016 0.9 0.3 1.4
Steel EBF 0.03 0.75 0.2 1.5
All others 0.02 0.75 0.15 1.6
0.1 1.7

SE Reference Manual Loads & Analysis
IBC Earthquake Loads IBCSL4
The value of C
s
need not exceed:

( )T
I
R
S
C
D
s
1
= for T T
L
(Eqn 12.8-3)

( )
2
1
T
I
R
T S
C
L D
s
= for T > T
L
(Eqn 12.8-4)

C
s
shall not be less than:

01 . 0 =
s
C (OSHPD/DSA, 03 . 0 =
s
C ) (Eqn 12.8-5)

Where S
1
0.6g, C
s
shall not be less than:


I
R
S
C
s
1
5 . 0
= (Eqn 12.8-6)

Step 7 Vertical Distribution of Base Shear: ASCE 7 12.8.3

At each level the seismic force is given as:

V C F
vx x
= (Eqn 12.8-11)

=
=
n
i
k
i i
k
x x
vx
h w
h w
C
1
(Eqn 12.8-12)

If T 0.5 k =1.0
If T 2.5 k =2.0
Use k =2 or linear interpolation between the period limits.

Seismic Load Effect: ASCE 7 12.4.2

E = E
h
E
v
(Eqn 12.4-1)

E = Q
E
+ 0.2S
DS
D
E = Q
E
- 0.2S
DS
D

Where, Q
E
=Effect of horizontal seismic forces
0.2 S
DS
D =Vertical acceleration effect (Eqn 12.4-4)


SE Reference Manual Loads & Analysis
IBC Earthquake Loads IBCSL5
Where seismic over strength factor needs to be included in the design, 12.4.3,

E
m
= E
mh
E
v


E
m
=

Q
E
0.2S
DS
D

The load combinations with over strength are given in 12.4.3.2.

Redundancy Factor : ASCE 7 12.3.4.2

For SDC A, B, or C, 0 . 1 =

For SDC D, E, or F 3 . 1 = For all structures, or
0 . 1 = if one of the following two
conditions are met.

a. Each story resisting more than 35% of the base shear (typically the lower
stories in a building) shall comply with the following:

1. Loss of one of the following does not result in more than 33%
reduction in story strength:
i. An individual brace or connection thereto
ii. Moment connections at both ends of one beam
iii. A shear wall or wall pier with height-to-length ratio >1.0
iv. Moment resistance at the base of a single cantilever column.

2. Loss of one of the above does not result in an extreme torsional
irregularity (Type 1b, Table 12.3-1).

b. For structures regular in plan at all levels with at least two perimeter bays of
the seismic force-resisting in each direction at each level resisting more than
35% of the base shear.

For shear walls: Number of bays =(n*Wall length)/story height

Where, n =2, For shear walls in light framing.
n =1, for all other shear wall building.

In addition to the above, =1.0 is permitted for the following:

1. Drift & P- calculations
2. Design of non-structural components & non-building structures that are not
similar to buildings.
3. Design of collectors, splices, their connections etc., for which the load
combinations with over-strength as used.
SE Reference Manual Loads & Analysis
IBC Earthquake Loads IBCSL6
4. For design of any member or connection for which the load combinations with
over-strength are used.

Displacement amplification: ASCE 7 9.5.5.7

For allowable stress design, displacement is computed for earthquake loads
without dividing by 1.4 and using =1.0.

The design deflection at the center of mass at any level is calculated as,

I
C
xe d
x

= (Eqn 12.8-15)

where,
x
=Maximum inelastic displacement at level x.
C
d
=Displacement amplification factor, Table 12.2-1

xe
=deflection from an elastic lateral analysis of the building.

The deflections/drifts can be determined for the seismic forces at the actual period
calculated for the building, without applying the C
u
T
a
limit in Step 6a.


Exceptions to Static Force Procedure

:
Where applicable, the equivalent lateral force procedure may be substituted by one of the
procedures below. See Table-1 of Chapter 16 Design Requirements for more
information.

Minimum Lateral Force: IBC 11.7.1

Applies to SDC A only. At each floor the minimum base shear shall be:

F
x
=0.01W
x

where, F
x
=Design seismic force @ story x
W
x
=Seismic weight @ story x

Simplified Procedure: 12.14

Note: Not permitted by OSHPD & DSA (1613A.5.6.2).

This procedure can be used in lieu of the other analytical procedures for the
analysis/design of simple buildings with bearing walls or building frame systems,
if the building meets certain limitations. See 12.14.1.1 for a complete list and
below for the major limitations:

1. The building shall be in Occupancy Category I or II and shall not
exceed 3 stories in height.
SE Reference Manual Loads & Analysis
IBC Lateral System Selection LSS1
SELECTION OF LATERAL SYSTEMS FOR SEISMIC DESIGN

CHAPTERS 19 & 22

As with seismic loads and detailing requirements, the IBC/CBC places limits on the type
of structural systems that can be used for lateral design based on Seismic Design
Category (SDC)--see section Chapter 16 and Earthquake Loads for more information.

The brief list below specifies the minimum concrete and steel system requirements for a
given SDC. It is always permitted to provide a better lateral system and take advantage of
the lower seismic design forces (ACI 318, R21.2.1)

For a detailed listing of lateral systems and associated limitations, see ASCE 7 Table
12.2-1. All reference in the following are to IBC/CBC, unless noted otherwise.

Concrete (Chapter 19 & ACI 318)

Seismic Design Categories A & B (Low Seismic Risk) 1910.2 & 1910.3

Ordinary Shear Walls


Designed using Chapters 1 through 18 of ACI 318.

Note: For SDC A, shear walls can be ordinary plan concrete walls per Chapter
22 of ACI 318 or detailed plain concrete walls per IBC 1908.1.14.



Ordinary Precast Concrete Shear Walls
Designed using Chapters 1 through 18 of ACI 318.



Ordinary Moment Frames
Designed using Chapters 1 through 18 of ACI 318.

108.1.1 Provide at least two reinforcing bars continuously at top and bottom in
beams and develop at (or continuous through) the columns.

1908.1.2 Columns with clear height to maximum dimension ratio of five or
less shall also be designed for shear.

Seismic Design Category C (Intermediate or Moderate Seismic Risk) 1908.1.4

Ordinary Shear Walls

:
Designed using Chapters 1 through 18 of ACI 318.
SE Reference Manual Loads & Analysis
IBC Lateral System Selection LSS2
Note: Plain concrete shear walls not permitted except as basement (retaining)
walls for one or two family dwellings with stud framing above.

Intermediate Precast Concrete Shear Walls

:
Designed using Section 21.13 in addition to Chapters 1 through 18 of ACI 318.

Intermediate Moment Frames

:
Designed using Section 21.12 in addition to Chapters 1 through 18 of ACI 318.

Discontinuous Members (1908.1.12)

: Columns supporting discontinuous lateral
systems above (such as shear walls) shall be designed for the special seismic load
combinations (i.e. using
o
) with appropriate transverse reinforcement, per
21.12.5.2 of ACI 318, over the full height as well as above and below as required.
Seismic Design Categories D, E, F (High Seismic Risk) 1908.1.4

Special Shear Walls

:
Cast-in-place walls designed using Sections 21.2 and 21.7 in addition to Chapters
1 through 18 of ACI 318.

Precast walls shall also satisfy 21.8 of ACI 318 in addition to the above.

Special Moment Frames

:
Cast-in-place frames designed using Sections 21.2, 21.3, 21.4 and 21.5 in addition
to Chapters 1 through 18 of ACI 318.

Precast frames designed per Sections 21.2, 21.3, 21.4 and 21.6 of ACI 318,
including all requirements for ordinary moment frames.

Diaphragms and Foundations

:
Designed using Sections 21.2 and 21.9 for diaphragms and 21.2 and 21.10 for
foundations, in addition to Chapters 1 through 18 of ACI 318.

Frame members not part of the lateral system

:
Designed/checked per section 21.11 to ensure that they can continue to carry the
gravity loads at the maximum lateral displacements corresponding to the design
level seismic forces.



SE Reference Manual Loads & Analysis
IBC Lateral System Selection LSS3
Steel (Chapter 22, AISC Steel Specifications (ASD/LRFD AISC 360) & AISC
Seismic Provisions, AISC 341)

Seismic Design Categories A, B & C (Low or Moderate Seismic Risk) 2205.2.1

Steel structures may be designed using the following two options:

1. Use R = 3 per ASCE 7, Table 12.2-1, Item H for Structural Steel Systems Not
Specifically Detailed for Seismic Resistance in conjunction with the typical AISC
LRFD or ASD Specifications.

2. Use an R factor per ASCE 7, Table 12.2-1 and design per AISC Seismic
Provisions (ASIC 341), Part I.


Seismic Design Categories D, E & F (High Seismic Risk) 2205.2.2

3. Steel structures shall be designed using AISC Seismic Provisions (ASIC 341-02),
Part I.


SLRS-SCBF









(1) 13.2 Bracing Members

13.2a Braces:
y
F
E
r
KL
4
See 13.2a for KL/r greater than above limit.

13.2d Compactness (8.2b, Table I-8-1):
WF & Channels:
y
F
E
t
b
30 . 0
For h/tw under flexure and axial load, see Table I-8-1.
Rectangular HSS:
y w
F
E
t
h
or
t
b
64 . 0
Circular HSS:
y
F
E
t
OD
044 . 0
Angles:
y
F
E
t
b
30 . 0
OSHPD/DSA do not permit the use of rectangular HSS
sections unless filled with concrete.

13.2c Lateral Force Distribution
For a line of bracing:
total tension h Total
V V V 7 . 0 3 . 0

Vh tension = Horizontal component of axial force for braces
in tension.
VTotal = Total horizontal force in line of bracing.

Note: Exception if all braces are designed to resist the
load combinations including o in compression.


13.2e Built-up Members:

For each individual element between stitches, l/r 0.4lt/r,
where lt/r is for whole member.

Shear strength of stitches tensile strength of each
element.

Stitches to be placed uniformly along length. No less than
2 stitches. No bolted stitches within the middle of the
brace clear length.





STEEL SPECIAL CONCENTRIC BRACED FRAMES (AISC 341, 13, ASCE 7, Table 12.2-1)
R = 6, = 2, C
d
=5
(3) 13.4.a Beam Design for V-Type & Inverted V-Type Bracing

1. Beam shall be continuous between columns and designed to carry all applicable gravity load
combinations without braces.
2. For load combinations that include earthquake effects, use the following:
a. (1.2 + 0.2SDS)D + Pb + f1L + f2S
b. (0.9 - 0.2SDS)D Pb
where, Pb = unbalanced post-buckling force based on Pst = RyFyAg & Psc = 0.3Pn, where Pn
is the nominal compressive capacity of the brace.
3. Both flanges of the beam shall be braced as follows:
a. At the point of brace intersection.
b. At a maximum spacing of
y
y
pd b
r
F
E
M
M
L L |
.
|

\
|
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
2
1
076 . 0 12 . 0 (A-1-7)
where, M1 & M2 (k-in) are the smaller and larger moments at the ends of the unbraced
length. The ratio is positive for reverse curvature and negative for single curvature.
Note: For TS beams, see Appendix 1 A.1.7. of AISC Specification.

Lateral braces shall be per Eqns. A-6-7 & A-6-8 of Appendix 6 of the AISC Spec. with Mr
being either RyZFy (LRFD) or RyZFy/1.5(ASD) and Cd = 1.0.

(2) 13.3 Bracing Connections

13.3a Tensile strength of connections (including beam-column
connection) shall be the lesser of:
1. Pst = RyFyAg (LRFD) or Pst = RyFyAg/1.5 (ASD)
2. Maximum load effect that can be transferred to brace
by the system

13.3b Flexural strength of the connection shall be based on
1.1RyMp (LRFD) or (1.1/1.5)RyMp (ASD) of the brace
about the critical buckling axis (typically out of plane).

This strength requirement does not apply if the
connection can accommodate the inelastic rotations due
to the brace post-buckling deformations. This can be
accomplished by using single plate gussets with a 2t
setback from the yield line for out-of-plane rotation to
the brace end. The gusset plate shall be designed to
resist the compressive strength of the brace without
buckling.

Net Area: Typical connections use slotted HSS members
welded to the gusset. The net area in tension shall be
calculated as the gross area minus the slot width
times the thickness of the HSS. This area needs to be
replaced via a plate welded to the two non-slotted
faces of the HSS (curved plates for round HSS). The
side plates need to be adequately extended either side
of the slot via a shear lag analysis (see D3 of the
AISC Specification).









(4) 13.2d Columns
WF:
y
F
E
t
b
30 . 0
Rectangular HSS:
y w
F
E
t
h
or
t
b
64 . 0
Column strength and splice design shall be per 13.5 => See sheet SLRS-Col1&2 for details.
Same limits as braces, Table I-8-1.
SE Reference Manual Concrete Design
Shear Wall Design CSWD1
REINFORCED CONCRETE

SHEAR WALL DESIGN

Referencec: ACI-318 & IBC 2006/CBC 2007.

Wall Type


SDC
Reinforcement
Limits
Shear
Design
Axial & Flexural
Design
Other
Ordinary
Shear Wall

A, B 14.3
11.10.8, 11.10.9

11.10
14.2, 14.3
(10.2, 10.3. 10.10-
10.14, 10.17)

-
Special
Shear Wall

A, B, C,
D, E, F
21.7.2 21.7.3,
21.7.4
21.7.5
(10.2, 10.3. 10.10-
10.14, 10.17)
Boundary
Elements
21.7.6
Notes: 1. Provisions 10.10-10.14, 10.17 address slenderness, moment magnification,
bearing strength etc. and typically do not govern the design.
2. Precast walls follow similarly to above, except Intermediate Precast Walls
(permitted in SDC A, B, C) shall also comply with 21.13.

Reinforcement Limits (11.10.9, 14.3, 21.7.2)


Note: 1. OSHPD/DSA Minimum reinforcement parallel to all edges of the wall and
boundaries of all openings shall be twice the shear reinforcement required per lineal
foot of wall (1908A.1.37).
2. For seismic design reinforcement development lengths (& splices) shall be per 21.5.4
See Reinforcement Development & Lap Splices, pp. RDL3-RDL5.
SE Reference Manual Concrete Design
Shear Wall Design CSWD6
Boundary element requirements for Special Walls (21.7.6)

:
Boundary element requirements can be evaluated by either one of the two methods
described below:

a) For walls that are effectively continuous from the base to the top with a single
critical section for axial and flexural loads (21.7.6.2):

Provide boundary elements where:
( )
w u
w
h
l
c
/ 600
(21-8)

where, c = neutral axis depth for (1.2 + 0.2S
DS
)D + Q
E
+ f
1
L

u
= design displacement at top of wall (i.e. C
d

x
/I)

u
/h
w
0.007 (21.7.6.2(a))

For
u
/h
w
= 0.007, c = 0.24
w
.

At some height along the wall, the above requirement will not be applicable

Extend the boundary element reinforcing beyond this elevation by a distance not
less than the larger of:
w
or M
u
/4V
u
.

b) For walls not designed per above, provide boundary elements at wall boundaries,
and edges of openings where maximum compressive stress exceeds 0.2f
c
.
Discontinue boundary detailing where the stress is less than 0.15f
c
(21.7.6.3).




Shear wall







Axial Stress


Flexural Stress


Resultant Stress

P
u

M
u

If
res
> 0.2f
c
, provide boundary
reinforcing.
Factored Loads
Use gross section properties
with elastic force distribution
21.7.6.3
0.15f
c

0.2f
c

Boundary detailing
required.
Extend up to and
discontinue above
SE Reference Manual Concrete Design
Concrete Beam Design CBD1
REINFORCED CONCRETE

BEAM DESIGN


Reference: ACI 318

General Design Provisions for Beams:

Analysis

Reinforcement Limits

:
Check d b
f
f
w
y
c
' 3
min
=

s min
10.5.1
d b
f
w
y
200
min
=

( d b
f
f
A
w
y
c
s
' 6
min
= for T-beams with flanges in tension)
The above limits need not apply if A
s
provided, at each section, exceeds by 1/3
rd

the steel area required by analysis (10.5.3).

In ACI 318-05, section strength is governed by available ductility (i.e. amount of
reinforcement at a given section and tensile stress in the reinforcement) and the
strength-reduction factor, , e.g. the higher the ductility, the smaller the strength
reduction and vice-versa.

Each section is classified as either compression-controlled, tension-controlled or
in transition. These categories are based on the net tensile strain (
t
) in the
extreme tension steel and are defined at a concrete ultimate strain (
cu
) of 0.003.

Balanced strain conditions: @
cu
= 0.003,
sb
= f
y
/E
s
10.3.2

sb
= 0.002 for f
y
= 60ksi 10.3.3

Compression-controlled: @
cu
= 0.003,
t

sb
10.3.3

Tension-controlled: @
cu
= 0.003 ,
t
0.005 10.3.4

Transition-range: @
cu
= 0.003 , 0.002 <
t
0.005 10.3.4

SE Reference Manual Concrete Design
Concrete Beam Design CBD5
Beam Deflection (9.5.2)

Per Table 9.5(a), deflections need not be computed if the following minimum
depths are provided (for normal weight concrete & 60ksi reinforcement):
Beams
- Simple span: L/16 L/20
Slabs
- Cantilever: L/8 L/10
- One end continuous: L/18.5 L/24
- Both ends continuous: L/21 L/28

Deflection Calculation (9.5.2.3):

Deflection is to be based on beam formulas and I
e
shown below,


cr
a
cr
g
a
cr
e
I
M
M
I
M
M
I
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
3 3
1 (Eqn 9-8)


t
g r
cr
y
I f
M = where,
c r
f f ' 5 . 7 = &
2
D
y
t
= (Eqn 9-9)

M
a
is the service level moment (if M
a
< M
cr
=> No cracking =>I
e
= I
g
)



2
3
) (
3
) (
kd d nA
kd b
I
s cr
+ =


|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
s
nA
b
d
nA
b
kd
1 1 2


Long-term deflection factors (9.5.2.5)

:

' 50 1

+
= (Eqn 9-11)

where, = compressive steel ratio
= 2.0 for 5 years or more, 1.4 for 12 months or more etc.

Notes: 1. See ACI 318, Table 9.5(a) for quick estimates of slab/beam thickness.
2.See ACI 318, Table 9.5(b) or UBC/CBC Table 19-C-2 for permissible
deflections (typically use
D+L
L/240 &
L
L/360).
Using transformed section from
working stress design.
PCA Notes on ACI 318-95, pg. 8-3
SE Reference Manual Concrete Design
Concrete Beam Design CBD8
Non-Seismic Beam Reinforcement Detailing (12.10, 12.11, & 12.12)

:
Positive Moment Reinforcement:

Distance to extend reinforcement past where it is no longer required =
MAX(d,12d
b
) except at supports of simple spans and ends of cantilevers.

Extend bars at least
d
past the critical section.

Minimum reinforcement to be extended at least 6 into support (Bars B):
Simple span beams:
+ s
A
3
1

Continuous beams:
+ s
A
4
1


At simple supports & points of inflection, bar size shall be limited such that
d

satisfies the following:

a
u
n
d
l
V
M
L + 12.11.3
M
n
= Nominal flexural capacity of beam
V
u
= Factored shear at the section
l
a
= Embedment length beyond center of support or

maximum of beam
effective depth & 12d
b
at an inflection point.
Notes: 1. This provision limits the bar size to ensure adequate L
d
is available.
2. Use 1.3(M
n
/V
n
) in above equation if a compressive reaction confines
the end of the bars.


12.11.1
SE Reference Manual Concrete Design
Concrete Beam Design CBD11
Seismic Provisions for Special Moment Frame (SMRF) Beams:

P
u
0.10A
g
f
c
21.3.1.1

4
d
ClearSpan
21.3.1.2

3 . 0
Depth
Width
21.3.1.3

Width 10 21.3.1.4

d b
f
f
A A
w
y
c
bot s top s
' 3
& &
y
w
f
d b 200
21.3.2.1
025 . 0
max
= , where
d b
A
w
s
=

At face of joint, A
s min bot
= A
s top
1921.3.2.2

Anywhere along the beam length, M
n

min
at top & bottom M
n max
.

Lap splices permitted only if confined over full length by hoop or spiral
reinforcement (see figure below). 21.3.2.3

Beam shear demand,
( )
2
clr g
clr
prB prA
e
L w
L
M M
V +
+
= 21.3.4.1

Where, M
prA
& M
prB
= Moment capacities @ beam ends using 1.25f
y
& =1.0
W
g
= Factored gravity load
L
clr
= Clear span

If
2
u
e
V
V &
c g u
f A P ' 05 . 0 < 21.3.4.2
V
e
= seismic shear demand from analysis.
Assume V
c
= 0 & design stirrups to carry entire shear demand, V
e
(shear
from analysis)see CBD4 for V
s
.

Provide 2 continuous bars top
and bottom, typical.
SE Reference Manual Concrete Design
Concrete Beam Design CBD12
Since V
e
approximates the maximum shear that can develop in a member,
use = 0.75 (21.3.4.1 & 9.3.4).




Detailing Requirements for SMRF Beams
Note: For development lengths, splices etc. see Concrete Column Design
section.