∆I 1.50 A − 0.200 A
*32.1 ε = L = (3.00 × 10– 3 H)
= 1.95 × 10–2 V = 19.5 mV
∆t 0.200 s
∆I 0.500 A
32.3 ε =+L
∆t
= (2.00 H) = 100 V
0.0100 s
L
32.4 L = µ 0n2 Al so n= = 7.80 × 103 turns/m
µ 0 Al
N ΦB LI
32.5 L= → ΦB = = 240 nT · m2 (through each turn)
I N
µ0N 2A
32.6 ε =L
dI
where L =
dt l
Thus, ε
µ N 2 A dI
= 0 =
( ) (
4 π × 10 −7 T ⋅ m A ( 300) π × 10 − 4 m 2
2
)
(10.0 A s) = 2.37 mV
l dt 0.150 m
dI d
32.7 ε back = –ε = L dt = L dt (Imax sin ω t) = Lω Imax cos ω t = (10.0 × 103)(120π )(5.00) cos ω t
*32.8 From ε =L
∆I
, we have L= ε =
24.0 × 10– 3 V
= 2.40 × 10– 3 H
∆t ∆Ι 10.0 A/s
∆t
µ0 N 2 A µ0(420)2(3.00 × 10– 4)
32.9 L= = 0.160 = 4.16 × 10– 4 H
l
− ε –175 × 10 V
–6
dI dI
ε = –L dt → = = = – 0.421 A/s
dt L 4.16 × 10– 4 H
µ0N 2A
32.10 The induced emf is ε = − L dI , where the selfinductance of a solenoid is given by L = .
dt l
Thus,
dI ε
= − = −
εl
dt L µ0N 2A
dI d
32.11 ε = L dt = (90.0 × 103) dt (t 2 – 6t) V
450
32.12 (a) B = µ 0nI = µ 0 0.120 (0.0400 mA) = 188 µT
NΦ B
(c) L= I
= 0.375 mH
µm µm N 2 A
(b) Φ ′B = µ ΦB → L = l
= 800(1.58 × 10– 5 H) = 12.6 mH
0
NΦ B NBA NA µ 0NI µ 0N 2A
32.14 L= = ≈ · =
I I I 2π R 2π R
32.15 ε = ε 0e − k t = − L dI
dt
dI = −
ε 0 e − k t dt
L
Q = ∫ I dt = ∫
∞ ε 0 e − k t dt = − ε 0 Q =
ε0
0 kL k 2L k 2L
32.16 I= ε (1 − e −Rt/L )
R
ε ε
0.900
R
=
R
[1 − e −R(3.00 s)/2.50 H
]
R(3.00 s)
exp − = 0.100
2.50 H
2.50 H
R= ln 10.0 = 1.92 Ω
3.00 s
L I
32.17 τ = R = 0.200 s: I = 1 – e–t/τ
max
Goal Solution
A 12.0V battery is about to be connected to a series circuit containing a 10.0Ω resistor and a 2.00H
inductor. How long will it take the current to reach (a) 50.0% and (b) 90.0% of its final value?
G: The time constant for this circuit is τ = L R = 0.2 s, which means that in 0.2 s, the current will reach
1/e = 63% of its final value, as shown in the graph to the right. We can see from this graph that the
time to reach 50% of I max should be slightly less than the time constant, perhaps about 0.15 s, and the
time to reach 0.9I max should be about 2.5τ = 0.5 s.
O: The exact times can be found from the equation that describes the rising current in the above graph
and gives the current as a function of time for a known emf, resistance, and time constant. We set
time t = 0 to be the moment the circuit is first connected.
A: At time t , I (t ) =
ε (1 − e −t/τ )
R
t
and solving for t , − = −0.693 or t = 0.139 s
0.200 s
(b) Similarly, to reach 90% of I max , 0.900 = 1 − e −t/τ and t = − τ ln(1 − 0.900)
L: The calculated times agree reasonably well with our predictions. We must be careful to avoid
confusing the equation for the rising current with the similar equation for the falling current.
Checking our answers against predictions is a safe way to prevent such mistakes.
Chapter 32 Solutions 247
dI 1
32.18 Taking τ = L R, I = I 0 e −t/τ : = I 0 e −t/τ −
dt τ
IR + L
dI
dt
(
= 0 will be true if I 0 R e −t/τ + L I 0 e −t/τ − )
1
τ
=0
(b) ( )
I = I max 1 − e −t/τ =
6.00 V
4.00 Ω ( )
1 − e −0.250/2.00 = 0.176 A
(c) Imax =
ε =
6.00 V
= 1.50 A
R 4.00 Ω
*32.20 I= ε 120
(1 – e–t/τ ) = 9.00 (1 – e–1.80/7.00) = 3.02 A
R
∆V R 16.0 V
Therefore, = = 0.800
∆VL 20.0 V
Goal Solution
For the RL circuit shown in Figure P32.19, let L = 3.00 H, R = 8.00 Ω, and ε = 36.0 V. (a) Calculate the ratio
of the potential difference across the resistor to that across the inductor when I = 2.00 A. (b) Calculate the
voltage across the inductor when I = 4.50 A.
G: The voltage across the resistor is proportional to the current, ∆ VR = IR , while the voltage across the
inductor is proportional to the rate of change in the current, ε L = −L dI dt . When the switch is first
closed, the voltage across the inductor will be large as it opposes the sudden change in current. As the
current approaches its steady state value, the voltage across the resistor increases and the inductor’s
emf decreases. The maximum current will be ε /R = 4.50 A, so when I = 2.00 A, the resistor and
inductor will share similar voltages at this midrange current, but when I = 4.50 A, the entire circuit
voltage will be across the resistor, and the voltage across the inductor will be zero.
O: We can use the definition of resistance to calculate the voltage across the resistor for each current.
We will find the voltage across the inductor by using Kirchhoff's loop rule.
A: (a) When I = 2.00 A, the voltage across the resistor is ∆V R = IR = ( 2.00 A )(8.00 Ω) = 16.0 V
Kirchhoff's loop rule tells us that the sum of the changes in potential around the loop must be zero:
∆V R
ε − ∆VR − ε L = 36.0 V − 16.0 V − ε L = 0 so ε L = 20.0 V and =
16.0 V
= 0.800
εL 20.0 V
L
*32.22 After a long time, 12.0 V = (0.200 A)R Thus, R = 60.0 Ω. Now, τ = R gives
32.23 ( )
I = I max 1 − e −t/τ :
dI
dt
( ) 1
= −I max e −t/τ −
τ
L
τ= R =
15.0 H
= 0.500 s :
dI R –t/τ ε
dt = L Imax e
and Imax =
30.0 Ω R
(a)
dI R
t = 0: dt = L Imax e0 =
ε = 100 V = 6.67 A/s
L 15.0 H
(b)
dI
t = 1.50 s: dt =
ε e–t/τ = (6.67 A/s)e– 1.50/(0.500) = (6.67 A/s)e–3.00 = 0.332 A/s
L
Chapter 32 Solutions 249
32.24 (
I = I max 1 − e −t/τ )
−3
/τ
0.980 = 1 − e − 3.00 ×10
−3
/τ
0.0200 = e − 3.00 ×10
3.00 × 10 − 3
τ=− = 7.67 × 10 − 4 s
ln(0.0200)
I1 = I 2 + I 3 (1)
dI 3
+10.0 V − 4.00 I1 − 8.00 I 3 − (1.00) = 0 (3)
dt
From (1) and (2), +10.0 − 4.00 I1 − 4.00 I1 + 4.00 I 3 = 0 and I1 = 0.500 I 3 + 1.25 A
I 3 (t ) =
5.00 V
10.0 Ω [
1− e (
− 10.0 Ω ) t 1.00 H
] = (0.500 A)[1 − e ] −10t/s
L L 3.00 H
32.26 (a) Using τ = RC = , we get R = = = 1.00 × 10 3 Ω = 1.00 kΩ
R C 3.00 × 10 − 6 F
(b) ( )( )
τ = RC = 1.00 × 10 3 Ω 3.00 × 10 − 6 F = 3.00 × 10 −3 s = 3.00 ms
( )
−t/τ
For 0 ≤ t ≤ 200 µ s, I = I max 1 − e = 10.00 A 1 − e −10 000t/s
( )
At t = 200 µ s, (
I = (10.00 A ) 1 − e −2.00 = 8.65 A )
Thereafter, it decays exponentially as I = I 0 e − t ′ τ , so for t ≥ 200 µ s,
I = (8.65 A )e
−10 000( t−200 µ s ) s
( )
= (8.65 A )e −10 000t s + 2.00 = 8.65 e 2.00 A e −10 000t s = (63.9 A)e −10 000t s
32.28 (a) I=
ε =
12.0 V
= 1.00 A
R 12.0 Ω
∆V L = 1.21 kV
dI R –Rt/L dI
(c) I = Imax e–Rt/L: –L dt = ∆VL = Imax Re–Rt/L
dt = – Imax L e
and
Thus, t = 7.62 ms
32.29 τ=
L 0.140
= = 28.6 ms; I max = ε =
6.00 V
= 1.22 A
R 4.90 R 4.90 Ω
(a) (
I = I max 1 − e −t/τ ) so 0.220 = 1.22 1 − e −t/τ ( )
e −t/τ = 0.820 t = − τ ln(0.820) = 5.66 ms
10.0
( )
−
(b) I = I max 1 − e 0.0286 = (1.22 A) 1 − e −350 = 1.22 A
32.30 (a) For a series connection, both inductors carry equal currents at every instant, so dI/dt is the
same for both. The voltage across the pair is
dI dI dI
L eq = L1 + L 2 so L eq = L 1 + L 2
dt dt dt
dI dI dI dI dI1 dI 2
(b) L eq = L 1 1 = L 2 2 = ∆VL where I = I1 + I 2 and = +
dt dt dt dt dt dt
dI dI dI
(c) L eq + R eq I = L 1 + IR 1 + L 2 + IR 2
dt dt dt
Now I and dI/dt are separate quantities under our control, so functional equality requires both
L eq = L 1 + L 2 and R eq = R 1 + R 2
dI dI dI dI dI1 dI 2
(d) ∆V = L eq + R eq I = L 1 1 + R 1I1 = L 2 2 + R 2 I 2 where I = I1 + I 2 and = +
dt dt dt dt dt dt
1 1 1
We may choose to keep the currents constant in time. Then, = +
R eq R 1 R 2
1 1 1
We may choose to make the current swing through 0. Then, = +
L eq L 1 L 2
N ΦB 200(3.70 × 10– 4) 1 1
32.31 L= = = 42.3 mH so U = 2 LI 2 = 2 (0.423 H)(1.75 A) 2 = 0.0648 J
I 1.75
B2 (4.50 T)2
u= = = 8.06 × 106 J/m3
2µ 0 2(1.26 × 10– 6 T · m/A)
(b) The magnetic energy stored in the field equals u times the volume of the solenoid (the
volume in which B is nonzero).
[
U = uV = (8.06 × 106 J/m3) (0.260 m)π (0.0310 m)2 = 6.32 kJ ]
N 2A (68.0)2 π (0.600 × 10 −2 )2
32.33 L = µ0 = µ0 = 8.21 µ H
l 0.0800
Lε
U = 2 LI 2 = 2 L ε
1 1
2 2 (0.800)(500)2
32.34 (a) = = = 27.8 J
2R 8R 2 8(30.0)2
ε ε ε
(b) I=
R [
1 − e −(R/L)t ] so
2R
=
R [ ]
1 − e −(R/L)t → e −(R/L)t =
1
2
R L 0.800
t = ln 2 so t= ln 2 = ln 2 = 18.5 ms
L R 30.0
E2 B2
u = ε0 3
u = 2µ = 995 µ J/m3
2 = 44.2 nJ/m
32.35
0
1 1
*32.36 (a) U = 2 LI 2 = 2 (4.00 H)(0.500 A) 2 = 0.500 J
dU
(b) = LI = (4.00 H)(1.00 A) = 4.00 J/s = 4.00 W
dt
At that time, the inductor is fully energized and P = I(∆V) = (2.00 A)(10.0 V) = 20.0 W
E2 B2
32.38 We have u = e0 and u=
2 2µ 0
E2 B2
Therefore e0 = so B2 = e0µ 0E 2
2 2µ 0
6.80 × 10 5 V / m
B = E e0µ 0 = = 2.27 × 10– 3 T
3.00 × 108 m / s
B2
32.39 The total magnetic energy is the volume integral of the energy density, u =
2µ 0
B 2 R 4
Because B changes with position, u is not constant. For B = B0 ( R / r ) ,
2
u= 0
2µ 0 r
Next, we set up an expression for the magnetic energy in a spherical shell of radius r and
thickness dr. Such a shell has a volume 4π r 2 dr, so the energy stored in it is
2 πB0 2 R 4 dr
(
dU = u 4 π r 2 dr =
) µ 0 r 2
We integrate this expression for r = R to r = ∞ to obtain the total magnetic energy outside the
sphere. This gives
2
2π B 0 R 3 2π (5.00 × 10–5 T)2(6.00 × 106 m)3
U= = = 2.70 × 1018 J
µ0 (1.26 × 10– 6 T · m/A)
32.40 I1(t) = I max e − α t sin ω t with I max = 5.00 A, α = 0.0250 s −1 , and ω = 377 rad s .
At t = 0.800 s ,
dI1
dt
[
= ( 5.00 A s)e − 0.0200 − (0.0250) sin(0.800( 377 )) + 377 cos(0.800( 377 )) ]
dI1
= 1.85 × 10 3 A s
dt
− ε2 + 3.20 V
Thus, ε 2 = −M dI1 : M= = = 1.73 mH
dt dI1 dt 1.85 × 10 3 A s
(ε 2 )max = 1.00 V
32.42 M=
ε2 =
96.0 mV
= 80.0 mH
dI1 dt 1.20 A / s
N BΦ BA 700(90.0 × 10 − 6 )
32.43 (a) M= = = 18.0 mH
IA 3.50
Φ A 400(300 × 10 − 6 )
(b) LA = = = 34.3 mH
IA 3.50
32.44 M= = =
[
N 2 Φ12 N 2 (B1A1 ) N 2 (µ 0n1I1 )A 1 ]
= N 2 µ 0n1A 1
I1 I1 I1
( ) 0.0500
70.0
π ( 5.00 × 10 )
m = 138 nH
2
M = (1.00) 4 π × 10 −7 T ⋅ m A −3
m
µ 0 I1
32.45 B at center of (larger) loop: B1 =
2R
Φ 2 B1A 2 (µ 0 I1 / 2R)( π r 2 ) µ0 π r 2
(a) M= = = =
I1 I1 I1 2R
µ 0 π (0.0200)2
(b) M= = 3.95 nH
2(0.200)
Chapter 32 Solutions 255
*32.46 Assume the long wire carries current I. Then the magnitude of the magnetic field it
generates at distance x from the wire is B = µ 0 I 2 π x, and this field passes perpendicularly
through the plane of the loop. The flux through the loop is
µ 0 I l 1.70 mm dx µ Il 1.70
Φ B = ∫ B ⋅ dA = ∫ B dA = ∫ B (ldx ) =
2 π ∫0.400 mm x
= 0 ln
2π 0.400
The mutual inductance between the wire and the loop is then
dI1 dI dI dI dI
∆V = − L 1 − M 2 = − L 2 2 − M 1 = − L eq
dt dt dt dt dt
dI1 ∆V M dI 2
So, − = +
dt L 1 L 1 dt
(a) (b)
dI 2 M( ∆V ) M 2 dI 2
and − L2 + + = ∆V
dt L1 L 1 dt
dI 2
(−L1L2 + M 2 ) = ∆V(L1 − M) [1]
dt
dI 2 ∆V M dI1
By substitution, − = +
dt L2 L 2 dt
dI1
leads to (− L1L 2 + M 2 ) = ∆V (L 2 − M) [2]
dt
dI
Adding [1] to [2], (− L 1L 2 + M 2 ) = ∆V (L 1 + L 2 − 2M)
dt
∆V L 1L 2 − M 2
So, L eq = − =
dI / dt L 1 + L 2 − 2M
1.00 × 10 −6 F
I max =
C
( ∆V )max = ( 40.0 V) = 0.400 A
L 10.0 × 10 −3 H
32.49 [ 2 (
1 C ∆V )2
]max
(
= 21 LI 2 ) max
so ( ∆VC )max =
L
C
I max =
20.0 × 10 −3 H
0.500 × 10 − 6 F
(0.100 A) = 20.0 V
32.50 When the switch has been closed for a long time, battery, resistor,
and coil carry constant current I max = ε / R . When the switch is
opened, current in battery and resistor drops to zero, but the coil
carries this same current for a moment as oscillations begin in the
LC loop.
We interpret the problem to mean that the voltage amplitude of
these oscillations is ∆V, in 21 C ( ∆V ) = 21 LI max
2 2
.
Then, L =
C ( ∆V )
2
=
C ( ∆V ) R 2
2
=
( )
0.500 × 10 − 6 F (150 V ) ( 250 Ω)
2 2
= 0.281 H
2
I max ε2 ( 50.0 V )2
1 1
32.51 C = = = 608 pF
(2 π f ) L (2 π ⋅ 6.30 × 106 )2 (1.05 × 106 )
2
Goal Solution
A fixed inductance L = 1.05 µ H is used in series with a variable capacitor in the tuning section of a radio.
What capacitance tunes the circuit to the signal from a station broadcasting at 6.30 MHz?
G: It is difficult to predict a value for the capacitance without doing the calculations, but we might expect
a typical value in the µF or pF range.
O: We want the resonance frequency of the circuit to match the broadcasting frequency, and for a simple
RLC circuit, the resonance frequency only depends on the magnitudes of the inductance and
capacitance.
1
A : The resonance frequency is f 0 =
2 π LC
1 1
Thus, C= = = 608 pF
[ ]
(2 π f 0 ) L (2 π )(6.30 × 106 Hz) 2 (1.05 × 10 −6 H)
2
L : This is indeed a typical capacitance, so our calculation appears reasonable. However, you probably
would not hear any familiar music on this broadcast frequency. The frequency range for FM radio
broadcasting is 88.0 – 108.0 MHz, and AM radio is 535 – 1605 kHz. The 6.30 MHz frequency falls in the
Maritime Mobile SSB Radiotelephone range, so you might hear a ship captain instead of Top 40
tunes! This and other information about the radio frequency spectrum can be found on the National
Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) website, which at the time of this
printing was at http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/allochrt.html
Chapter 32 Solutions 257
1 1 1
32.52 f= : L= = = 0.220 H
2 π LC (2 π f )2 C (2 π ⋅ 120)2 (8.00 × 10 − 6 )
1 1
32.53 (a) f= = = 135 Hz
2 π LC 2 π (0.0820 H)(17.0 × 10 − 6 F)
dQ
(c) I= = −ω Qmax sin ω t = −(847)(180) sin(0.847) = – 114 mA
dt
1 1
32.54 (a) f= = = 503 Hz
2 π LC 2 π (0.100 H)(1.00 × 10 − 6 F)
(c) 1C
2
ε2 = 1 LI 2
2 max
1.00 × 10 − 6 F
I max = ε
C
= 12 V = 37.9 mA
L 0.100 H
1 1
32.55 ω= = = 1.899 × 10 4 rad s
LC (3.30 H)(840 × 10 −12
F )
dQ
Q = Qmax cos ω t, I = = −ω Qmax sin ω t
dt
( [105 × 10 ]cos[(1.899 × 10 )( )] )
2
−6
Q2
4
rad s 2.00 × 10 −3 s
UC = = = 6.03 J
( )
(a)
2C 2 840 × 10 −12
2
Qmax sin 2 (ω t )
(b) U L = 21 LI 2 = 21 Lω 2Qmax
2
sin 2 (ω t ) =
2C
=
(105 × 10 −6
)
2
[(
C sin 2 1.899 × 10 4 rad s 2.00 × 10 −3 s )( )] =
( )
UL 0.529 J
2 840 × 10 −12 F
2
2
1 R 1 7.60
ωd = − = − = 1.58 × 10 4 rad / s
(2.20 × 10 )(1.80 × 10 ) ( )
32.56 (a)
LC 2L −3 −6 2 2.20 × 10 −3
ωd
Therefore, fd = = 2.51 kHz
2π
4L
(b) Rc = = 69.9 Ω
C
1 1
32.57 (a) ω0 = = = 4.47 krad/s
LC (0.500)(0.100 × 10 −6 )
2
1 R
(b) ωd = − = 4.36 krad/s
LC 2L
∆ω
(c) = 2.53% lower
ω0
32.58 Choose to call positive current clockwise in Figure 32.19. It drains charge from the capacitor
according to I = – dQ/dt. A clockwise trip around the circuit then gives
Q dI
+ − IR − L = 0
C dt
Q dQ d dQ
+ + R+L = 0, identical with Equation 32.29.
C dt dt dt
Rt Rt
− −
32.59 (a) Q = Qmax e 2L cos ω dt so I max ∝ e 2L
Rt
− Rt
0.500 = e 2L and = − ln(0.500)
2L
2L 2L
t=− ln(0.500) = 0.693
R R
(b) U 0 ∝ Qmax
2
and U = 0.500U 0 so Q = 0.500 Qmax = 0.707Qmax
2L 2L
t=− ln(0.707) = 0.347 (half as long)
R R
Chapter 32 Solutions 259
32.60 With Q = Qmax at t = 0, the charge on the capacitor at any time is Q = Qmax cos ω t where
ω = 1 LC . The energy stored in the capacitor at time t is then
2
Q 2 Qmax
U= = cos 2 ω t = U 0 cos 2 ω t.
2C 2C
1 1 1
When U = U 0 , cos ω t = and ω t = π rad
4 2 3
t π t2 π2
Therefore, = or =
LC 3 LC 9
9t 2
The inductance is then: L=
π 2C
ε L = − L dI = −(1.00 mH) (
d 20.0t )
32.61 (a) = – 20.0 mV
dt dt
∆VC =
−Q
C
=
−10.0t 2
1.00 × 10 −6 F
(
= − 10.0 MV s 2 t 2 )
Q2 1
≥ LI 2 ,
(−10.0t ) ≥ 1 (1.00 × 10 )(20.0t) ,
2 2
−3 2
2(1.00 × 10 )
(c) When or −6
2C 2 2
( )
then 100t 4 ≥ 400 × 10 − 9 t 2 . The earliest time this is true is at t = 4.00 × 10 − 9 s = 63.2 µs
dQ t t
(b) I= , so Q = ∫ I dt = ∫ Kt dt = 21 Kt 2
dt 0 0
−Q Kt2
and ∆VC = = −
C 2C
K2 t 4 1
(c) When 1C
2 ( ∆VC )2 = 1 LI 2 ,
2
1C
2 (2 2
4C 2 = 2 L K t
)
Thus t = 2 LC
2
1 Q2 1 Q 1 3Q 2
32.63 = + LI 2 so I=
2 C 2C 2 2 4CL
LI Q 3L
The flux through each turn of the coil is ΦB = =
N 2N C
where N is the number of turns.
µ 0 NI
32.64 Equation 30.16: B =
2π r
b b
µ 0 NI µ NIh dr µ 0 NIh b
Φ B = ∫ B dA = ∫
2 π ∫a r
(a) h dr = 0 = ln
2π r 2π a
a
NΦ B µ 0N 2h b
L= = ln
I 2π a
µ 0 N 2 A µ 0 (500)2 2.00 × 10 − 4 m 2
(c) Lappx = = = 90.9 µH
2π R 2π 0.110
Nµ 0 IR 2 Nµ 0 I
*32.65 (a) At the center, B= =
2(R + 0 )
2 2 3/2 2R
Nµ 0 I π
So the coil creates flux through itself Φ B ≈ BA cos θ = π R 2 cos 0° = Nµ 0 IR
2R 2
π 2
so L≈ N µ 0R
2
π T·m
(b) 2π r ≈ 3(0.3 m), so r ≈ 0.14 m; L ≈ 2 12 4π × 10–7 A 0.14 m = 2.8 × 10–7 H ~ 100 nH
(b) R= =
(
ρ l 1.70 × 10 Ω ⋅ m (10.0 m )
−8
)= 0.522 Ω
( )
2
A π 0.322 × 10 −3 m
2
µ N 2 A 800µ 0 L′
(c) L= = π ( r ′ )2
l′ l′ C
( )
2
800 4 π × 10 −7 (9.80 m )2 − (0.100 m )2 24.0 + 0.644 −3
2
L= π × 10 m
0.100 m π ( 24.0 + 0.644) × 10 −3 m 2
L = 7.68 × 10 −2 H = 76.8 mH
32.67 From Ampere’s law, the magnetic field at distance r ≤ R is found as:
I
( )
B( 2 π r ) = µ 0 J π r 2 = µ 0 2
πR
( )
π r 2 , or B=
µ 0 Ir
2π R2
The magnetic energy per unit length within the wire is then
R B2 µ0 I 2 µ0 I 2 R4 µ0 I 2
U
( 2 π r dr ) =
R
=∫ ∫0 r 3 dr = =
l 0 2µ 4π R4 4π R4 4 16 π
0
µ N 2A
L= 0 =
( ) 2
(
4 π × 10 −7 (12 500) 1.00 × 10 − 4
= 0.280 H
)
l 0.0700
(a) The time for the current to reach 63.2% of the maximum
value is the time constant of the circuit:
L 0.280 H
τ= = = 0.0200 s = 20.0 ms
R 14.0 Ω
∆I I f − 0
(b) The solenoid's average back emf is εL =L
∆t
= L
∆t
∆V 60.0 V
where I f = 0.632 I max = 0.632 = 0.632 = 2.71 A
R 14.0 Ω
∆Φ B µ 0n( ∆I )A
= =
( ) (
4 π × 10 −7 T ⋅ m A (12 500 0.0700 m )( 2.71 A ) 1.00 × 10 − 4 m 2
= 3.04 mV
)
∆t ∆t 0.0200 s
(d) The magnitude of the average induced emf in the coil is εL = N ( ∆Φ B ∆t ) and magnitude of
the average induced current is
εL
I=
R
=
N ∆Φ B
=
820
R ∆t 24.0 Ω
( )
3.04 × 10 −3 V = 0.104 A = 104 mA
dI
Outside loop: E − (I + I 2 )R 1 − L =0
dt
dI
Eliminating I 2 gives E ′ − IR′ − L =0
dt
E′ E R 2 / (R 1 + R2 )
But R′ = R1R2 / ( R1 + R2 ) and E ′ = R2E / ( R1 + R2 ), so
E
= =
R′ R 1R2 / (R 1 + R2 ) R 1
E
Thus I(t) = (1 − e − R ′ t L )
R1
Chapter 32 Solutions 263
− R2 t L
I = I0e
I0 Rt I
so e Rt L
= and = ln 0
I L I
Therefore, L=
R2 t
=
(1.00 Ω)(0.150 s) = 0.0956 H = 95.6 mH
ln( I 0 I ) ln(1.20 A 0.250 A )
32.71 (a) While steadystate conditions exist, a 9.00 mA flows clockwise around the right loop of the
circuit. Immediately after the switch is opened, a 9.00 mA current will flow around the outer
loop of the circuit. Applying Kirchhoff’s loop rule to this loop gives:
[ ](
+ ε 0 − ( 2.00 + 6.00) × 10 3 Ω 9.00 × 10 −3 A = 0 )
+ ε 0 = 72 .0 V with end b at the higher potential
(b)
(c) After the switch is opened, the current around the outer loop decays as
I = I max e − R t L
with I max = 9.00 mA , R = 8.00 kΩ , and L = 0.400 H
Thus, when the current has reached a value I = 2.00 mA , the elapsed time is:
32.72 (a) The instant after the switch is closed, the situation is as shown i n IL = 0 ∆VL = ε0

the circuit diagram of Figure (a). The requested quantities are: +
IR = ε0/R
I L = 0, IC = ε 0 R , I R = ε 0 R
Q=0
∆VR = ε0
∆VL = ε 0 , ∆VC = 0, ∆V R = ε 0 ∆VC = 0
+ 
IC = ε0/R
ε0
Figure (a)
(b) After the switch has been closed a long time, the steadystate IL = 0 ∆VL = 0
+ 
conditions shown in Figure (b) will exist. The currents and
voltages are: IR = 0
I L = 0, IC = 0, IR = 0 Q = Cε0
∆VR = 0
∆VC = ε0 + 
∆VL = 0, ∆VC = ε 0 , ∆V R = 0
ε0
Figure (b)
R ≤ 300 Ω
Goal Solution
To prevent damage from arcing in an electric motor, a discharge resistor is sometimes placed in parallel
with the armature. If the motor is suddenly unplugged while running, this resistor limits the voltage
that appears across the armature coils. Consider a 12.0V dc motor with an armature that has a resistance
of 7.50 Ω and an inductance of 450 mH. Assume that the back emf in the armature coils is 10.0 V when
the motor is running at normal speed. (The equivalent circuit for the armature is shown in Figure
P32.73.) Calculate the maximum resistance R that limits the voltage across the armature to 80.0 V when
the motor is unplugged.
Chapter 32 Solutions 265
G: We should expect R to be significantly greater than the resistance of the armature coil, for otherwise a
large portion of the source current would be diverted through R and much of the total power would
be wasted on heating this discharge resistor.
O: When the motor is unplugged, the 10V back emf will still exist for a short while because the motor’s
inertia will tend to keep it spinning. Now the circuit is reduced to a simple series loop with an emf,
inductor, and two resistors. The current that was flowing through the armature coil must now flow
through the discharge resistor, which will create a voltage across R that we wish to limit to 80 V. As
time passes, the current will be reduced by the opposing back emf, and as the motor slows down, the
back emf will be reduced to zero, and the current will stop.
A : The steadystate coil current when the switch is closed is found from applying Kirchhoff's loop rule to
the outer loop:
+ 12.0 V − I (7.50 Ω) − 10.0 V = 0
2.00 V
so I= = 0.267 A
7.50 Ω
∆V R 80.0 V
so R= = = 300 Ω
I 0.267 A
L : As we expected, this discharge resistance is considerably greater than the coil’s resistance. Note that
while the motor is running, the discharge resistor turns P = (12 V)2 300 Ω = 0.48 W of power into
heat (or wastes 0.48 W). The source delivers power at the rate of about
P = IV = [0.267 A + (12 V / 300 Ω)](12 V ) = 3.68 W, so the discharge resistor wastes about 13% of the
total power. For a sense of perspective, this 4W motor could lift a 40N weight at a rate of 0.1 m/s.
32.74 (a) L1 =
µ 0 N12 A
=
( ) (
4 π × 10 −7 T ⋅ m A (1000) 1.00 × 10 − 4 m 2
2
)
= 2.51 × 10 − 4 H = 251 µH
l1 0.500 m
(b) M= = = = =
[
N 2 Φ 2 N 2 Φ1 N 2BA N 2 µ 0 ( N1 l1 ) I1 A µ 0 N1N 2 A ]
I1 I1 I1 I1 l1
M=
(4π × 10 −7
) (
T ⋅ m A (1000)(100) 1.00 × 10 − 4 m 2 ) = 2.51 × 10 − 5 H = 25.1 µH
0.500 m
(c) ε 1 = − M dI 2 , or I1R1 = − M
dI 2
and I1 =
dQ1
=−
M dI 2
dt dt dt R1 dt
Q1 = −
M tf
R1 ∫0
dI 2 = −
M
R1
( M
)
I 2 f − I 2i = − (0 − I 2i ) =
R1
M I 2i
R1
Q1 =
(2.51 × 10 −5
)
H (1.00 A )
= 2.51 × 10 −8 C = 25.1 nC
1000 Ω
2U
32.75 (a) It has a magnetic field, and it stores energy, so L = is nonzero.
I2
(b) Every field line goes through the rectangle between the conductors.
Φ 1 w−a
I I ∫y=a
(c) Φ = LI so L= = B da
1 w−a µ0I µ 0 I 2 µ 0 Ix 2µ 0 x
w−a
I ∫a 2 π y 2 π w −y I ∫ 2 π y
L= x dy + = dy = ln y
( ) 2π a
µ 0x w − a
Thus L= ln
π a
R R
− t I(t) − t R
32.76 For an RL circuit, I(t) = I max e L : = 1 − 10 − 9 = e L ≅ 1 − t
I max L
R (3.14 × 10 − 8 )(10 − 9 )
t = 10 − 9 so Rmax = = 3.97 × 10 − 25 Ω
L (2.50 yr)(3.16 × 107 s / yr)
(If the ring were of purest copper, of diameter 1 cm, and crosssectional area 1 mm 2 , its
resistance would be at least 10– 6 Ω).
1 1
32.77 (a) UB = 2 LI 2 = 2 (50.0 H)(50.0 × 10 3 A) 2
= 6.25 × 1010 J
(b) Two adjacent turns are parallel wires carrying current in the same direction. Since the loops
have such large radius, a onemeter section can be regarded as straight.
µ 0I
Then one wire creates a field of B=
2π r
µ0I µ lI 2
giving F = Il sin 90° = 0
2π r 2π r
(1.00 m)(50.0 × 10 3 A) 2
Solving for the force, F = (4π × 10–7 N/A2) = 2000 N
(2π)(0.250 m)
Chapter 32 Solutions 267
32.78 P = I ( ∆V )
P 1.00 × 10 9 W
I= = = 5.00 × 10 3 A
∆V 200 × 10 3 V
µ 0 I enclosed
From Ampere’s law, B( 2 π r ) = µ 0 I enclosed or B=
2π r
B=
(4π × 10 −7
)(
T ⋅ m A 5.00 × 10 3 A ) = 0.0500 T = 50.0 mT
2 π (0.0200 m )
B=
(4π × 10 −7
)(
T ⋅ m A 5.00 × 10 3 A ) = 0.0200 T = 20.0 mT
2 π (0.0500 m )
U = ∫ u dV = ∫
r=b [B(r )]2 (2π rldr ) = µ 0 I 2l b dr µ 0 I 2l b
(c)
r=a 2µ 0 4π ∫a r
=
4π
ln
a
(d) The magnetic field created by the inner conductor exerts a force of repulsion on the current i n
the outer sheath. The strength of this field, from part (b), is 20.0 mT. Consider a small
rectangular section of the outer cylinder of length l and width w . It carries a current of
The pressure on it is P=
F
=
F
=
(
5.00 × 10 3 A 20.0 × 10 −3 T )(
= 318 Pa
)
A wl 2 π (0.0500 m )
*32.79 (a) B=
µ 0 NI
=
( )
4 π × 10 − 7 T ⋅ m A (1400)( 2.00 A )
= 2.93 × 10 − 3 T (upward)
l 1.20 m
( )
2
B2 2.93 × 10 − 3 T J 1 N ⋅ m N
u= = = 3.42 3 = 3.42 2 = 3.42 Pa
( )
(b)
2µ 0 2 4 π × 10 −7 T ⋅ m A m 1 J m
(c) To produce a downward magnetic field, the surface of the super conductor
must carry a clockwise current.
(d) The vertical component of the field of the solenoid exerts an inward force on the
superconductor. The total horizontal force is zero. Over the top end of the solenoid, its field
diverges and has a radially outward horizontal component. This component exerts upward
force on the clockwise superconductor current. The total force on the core is upward . You
can think of it as a force of repulsion between the solenoid with its north end pointing up,
and the core, with its north end pointing down.
( )
F = PA = ( 3.42 Pa) π 1.10 × 10 −2 m = 1.30 × 10 − 3 N
2
(e)
Note that we have not proven that energy density is pressure. In fact, it is not in some cases;
see problem 12 in Chapter 21.
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