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OBJECTIVE: To determine the deflection of a simply supported beam when it is centrally loaded, or determines the modulus of rigidity. EQUIPMENT: Apparatus consist of a M.S. beam, which is supported on two supports. Apparatus is centrally loaded. Actual deflection can be measured by the help of a dial gauge at the point of loading. Apparatus is supplied complete with weights and supporting stand. INTRODUCTION AND THEORY: Whenever a beam is loaded, it deflects from its original position. The amount, by which a beam deflects, depends upon its cross-section and the bending moment. In modern design offices, there are two design criteria for a beam (a) Strength and (b) Stiffness. As per the strength criterion of the beam design, it should be strong enough to resist bending moment and shear force. But as per the stiffness criterion of the beam design, it should be stiff enough to resist the deflection of the beam. Consider a simply supported beam AB of length l and carrying a point load W at the center of the beam C. From the geometry of the figure, we find that the reaction at A. RA = RB = W / 2 Consider a section X at a distance x from B. We know that the bending moment at this section MX = R B . x = W. x 2


d2y = W. x dx


Where E is the modulus of elasticity of the beam material and I is the moment of inertia of the beam. Integrating the above equation,


dy = W. x2 + C1 dx 4


Where C1 is the first constant of integration. We know when x = 1 , dy = 0 2 dx Substituting these values in equation (ii),


dy = W. x2 _ W. x2 dx 4 16


Integrating the equation (iii) once again, EI . y = W. x3 _ W. l2 x + C2 12 16 Where C2 is the second constant of integration. We know that when x = 0, y = 0. Substituting these values in equation (iv), we get C2 = 0. EI . y = W. x3 _ W. l2 x 12 16 (v) (iv)

This is the required equation for the deflection, at any section, by which we can get the deflection at any point on the beam. A little consideration will show, that maximum deflection occurs at the mid-point C. Thus, for maximum deflection, substituting x = l /2 in equation (v), EI . y = W. (l/2)3 _ W. l2 (l/2) 12 16 = W l 3 _ W l 3 = W l3 96 32 48 Or yc = _ W l3 ( Minus sign means that the deflection is downwards) 48EI = W l3 48EI

OBSERVATION: Material of the beam is = M.S. Length of beam, l cm = Thickness of beam, t cm = Breadth of beam, b cm = Moment of Inertia, I = bt3 /12 = Modulus of elasticity, E = 2.0 * 106 kg/cm2

Least count = Sl. No. Weight on beam W Deflection observed y Deflection calculated yc % error

RESULT: PRECAUTIONS: Apply the load without jerk Perform the experiment away from vibration and other disturbances