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A Comparative Study of the Consumer Behavior Pattern of Organised Departmental Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers

Subhajit Bhattacharya 1 , Subhayu Majumdar 2

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Marketing, Xavier Institute of Service, Ranchi, tobesubho@gmail.com 2 Student, Department of Finance, Xavier Institute of Social Service, Ranchi, suvamajumder@gmail.com

Abstract: The changing pattern of consumerism in India over time has created a demarcation among the consumers based on different behavioral parameters. This separates the consumer base of organized retail chain segment from the local kirana store buyers segment, there are some similarities too. The study deals with identifying the factors which generally affects the shopping behavior of the people towards a particular form of buying. The factors include both "in store" and "out store" parameters. Also intragroup segmentation has been done to get a proper view. Intragroup comparison include segmentation within a group according to age, place of living, family income level and education level. This study will guide the organized as well as unorganized retail sector to find a new dimension in their mechanism by looking at the influencing parameters in this booming retail market along with the cut throat competition in the current market.

Keywords: consumer behavior in retail, consumer behavior in organized retail chains, consumer behavior in local kirana stores, statistical analysis of consumer behavior in retail marketing mix.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Across the globemany research have been formerly done in the related lines of thought as compare to the current research. Mostly the topic has been covered by the different researcher are considering the areas like Procurement and inventory management in modern and traditional retailers, Investment pattern in retail outlets, Costs in value addition made by retail outlets, Cost and Returns in retail trade, Factors influencing consumer behavior to purchase in retail outlets. Which have drawn the attention of researchers and academicians regarding the different aspect of retail business strategies and operations.

To start with Rees (1992) has observed that the factors infusing consumer behaviour concerning to the buying of food items is rather complex and one should take in to account factors like flavour, texture, appearance etc. Ragavan (1994) has pointed out that regular availability, quality of the commodity, cost price, weighing and billing, accessibility and range of merchandising as the factors in the order of importance which influences purchase of vegetables

by respondents from modern retail outlets. Hugar & Vijay Kumar (1996) has researched that the features like gender and education level of consumers have a significant effect on quantity and frequency of purchase. Price had a significant influence in the lower income group segment however this was not the case with people from higher income groups. Sundar (1997) studied the factors regarding store image and its impact on potential buyers. Manivannan and Raghunanthan (2004) have done the research no demographic factors affecting consumer behaviour in connection departmental store buying. Rajesh Shinde (2007) in his study on recent facets of consumer behaviour in connection with buying the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) product. He has shown that buying pattern to be more accurate the factors are considered by a consumer during purchasing largely depends on the nature of goods and many other correlated factors associated with buying intention .Sezen (2004) has argued that while retailers develops the pricing strategy then they also observes other factors relating to goods which are sold from the specific retail outlets. Kainth (1994) has examined the consumer preference for apples in different income groups. In his study on “Consumption of Apples: Consumer’s towards view pattern and determinants”. Chung et al. (1998) study exposed the factors impelling the furniture and fixture retailer buying decisions.

Sanjaya et al (2002) have observed the purchasing behaviour for branded fine rice in examined that the quality and image of the brand were significant factor for favoring it and also claimed price was not the most significant factor for the well-off people. Burke (2001) has established a brand equity index comprised of three factors such as image, value and loyalty. Image and value helps in pull in new customers while loyalty and value retaing customer. Rathore (2012) has studied the main drivers of the retail uprising in India and how this insurgency changes the purchasing behavior of the customer, he has also explained that increase in disposable income of the middle class, infrastructure development and changing customer choice in retail sector. Raut and Dash (2011) have pointed out the various aspect of segmentation and the consumer behavior aspect of retail buyers in India.

A Comparative Study of the Consumer Behavior Pattern of Organised Departmental Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers

The current research will however lay stress on the consumer behavior for the Purpose of getting a new dimension with regards to the new age buyer segment and their shopping behavior in connection with proper managerial implication.

2. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The current study aims to differentiate the buyers of local kirana stores from the buyers of organized departmental retail chain based on certain identified factors. It also compares the relative importance of different factors affecting buying pattern based on a particular group as well it focus on identifying the factors which discriminate between different groups. The other key objective of the current study is to get a new dimension with regards to the new age buyers and their shopping behavior with the results and findings.

3.

METHODOLOGY

The study is based on the sample of 150. The sample of 150 has been taken from the population of places where there is a considerable concentration of both local kirana stores and organized departmental retail chains. With the fast growing Indian economy and changing income pattern of the Indian consumers the organized retail chains have widened their operations in the following regions like metropolitan cities, State capitals but not metropolitan Cities and any town or city other than Metropolitan or State Capital.“Any town or city other than Metropolitan or State Capital” however does not include villages which are under the purview of Panchayats and other very small towns where the income level of the people are extremely low and whose demography does not match with the above mentioned pattern of buying.

Metropolitan Cities these include top most metros which include Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Mumbai. State Capitals but not Metropolitan Cities- these include state capitals. (Though not all the state capitals have been included some included ones are-Ranchi, Bhubaneswar, Patna, Raipur, Gandhinagar. Town or city other than Metropolitan or State Capital includes cities like Jamshedpur, Bilaspur, Allahabad etc.) .To fulfill the objectives related consumer behaviour of the retail outlet shoppers and local kirana store buyers, a simple random sampling technique was used. The sample include people from varied geographic location, with varied demographic identities like place of living and other factors which include education level, age, family income etc. The nature of the data is primary in nature. Source of the data include filling in of the questionnaire prepared. The survey was carried out inline by distributing the questionnaire through e-mails and social networking sites. Also personal interview method with different consumers was used in the

pre- test schedule to identify the important factors affecting the consumer behavior pattern.

In this study this statistical technique has been used to identify the factors which discriminate between two groups of shoppers. In this study mostly Likert scale has been used. Different hypothesis have been used in different stages of the study. Dichotomous scale has also been used in certain cases along with nominal scales. The analysis has been done using SPSS version 17.0.

In determining the importance of a particular factor felt by a respondent the following scaling technique has been used where 5 is “Very important” and 1 is “Not at all important”. In determining what the consumers actually receive the scaling has been done in the following manner where 5 is “Excellent” and 1 stands for “Bad” The factors in the study are homogeneous for each of the categories namely the local kirana store buyers, the organized retail chain shoppers and the ones who shop from both the categories.

4. ANALYSIS & RESULTS

The result has been generally divided in to three parts. The first part deals with establishing relationship between certain factors. The existence of significant relationship is checked for personal factors like age, gender, place of living, educational qualification etc with the factors/ attributes which are discussed below:

Accessibility

Reason for preferring kirana stores

Variety of products.

Ambience in case of departmental retail chains and cleanliness, display space etc. in case of local kirana store is perceived to be same.

Price discounts & credit facilities available.

Relationship with the shopkeeper in case of local kirana store and behaviour of the sales personnel assisting the consumers in case of departmental retail chains is perceived to be the same.

Touch, see and feel factor.

The existence of relationship implies the responses of the groups defined according to each factor are not homogeneous. In this study we focus ourselves only on the differences based on the consumer behavior of local kirana store buying and departmental retail chain shoppers. Though the study also deals with buyers who buy both from local kirana stores as well as from departmental stores but still we focus on the differences independently rather than taking both of them at the same. The part of the study which consists of buyers from both retail buying segment and local

A Comparative Study of the Consumer Behavior Pattern of Organised Departmental Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers

kirana store buying only deals with the basic facts associated with it and a basic comparison based on the data.

The first part of the study deals with establishing relationship between different demographic segments based on age, demography, psychography ,etc and the factors which generally affect the buying pattern. This establishing relationship has been done for both local kirana store segment and departmental retail shoppers segment.

The second part of the study deals with finding out the point of difference in the consumer behavior pattern of the two segments based on the factors taken in to account.

The third part of the study as said earlier consists of the basic facts regarding the buyers who buy from both local kirana stores and departmental retail chains.

Data Analysis :

H 0 : There is no significant relationship between the segments and the buying pattern.

H 1 : There is a significant relationship between the segments and the buying pattern.

Important and Significant Relationships and Reason for Preference towards Kirana Stores

Reason for preference towards kirana stores has a significant relationship with age and education level of the consumers at 5% and 10% level of significance respectively. This can be shown by the following graph:

respectively. This can be shown by the following graph: It can be clearly shown from the
respectively. This can be shown by the following graph: It can be clearly shown from the

It can be clearly shown from the above figure that the preferences are different for different age groups. For the age group 15- 25&26- 35convenience is the most important reason for the majority, however for the 36- 45 its personal relationship and for the group 46 and above both convenience and discounts credits and offers are equally important.

and discounts credits and offers are equally important. National Conference on Paradigm for Sustainable Business:
and discounts credits and offers are equally important. National Conference on Paradigm for Sustainable Business:

A Comparative Study of the Consumer Behavior Pattern of Organised Departmental Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers

The education pattern also shows a similar heterogeneous pattern among age groups.

Preference about accessibility of kirana stores has a significant relationship with age at 10% level of significance (p value

0.093).

with age at 10% level of significance (p value 0.093). From the above graph it can
with age at 10% level of significance (p value 0.093). From the above graph it can

From the above graph it can be seen that for most of the persons belonging to the age group 15- 25 accessibility is important, however for the age group 26- 35 and the latter ones accessibility is very important.

Preference towards variety of products has a significant relationship with age grouping at 1% level of significance (p-value 0.006) which can be inferred from the graph below.

(p-value 0.006) which can be inferred from the graph below. Most of the consumers of the
(p-value 0.006) which can be inferred from the graph below. Most of the consumers of the

Most of the consumers of the age group 15- 25 perceive variety of products in kirana stores to be important, so is the case with the latter age groups except 46 and above feel that variety of products as not very important as well.

Perception/ Expectation about ambience in a local kirana store is related to the income level at 10% level of significance (p- value 0.073) . This study reveals the fact the preferences are different for each group which is demonstrated in the following graph.

A Comparative Study of the Consumer Behavior Pattern of Organised Departmental Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers

Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers The 1 s t income group perceives it

The 1 st income group perceives it to be moderately important, the second one is important, 3 group perceives it to be very important.

Perception about price discounts and other facilities are dependent on the income level of the consumers at 5% level of significance (p-value 0.042)

Relationship with shopkeeper has a relation with place of living of the consumers at 5% level of significance. The bulk of the persons living in metropolitan cities and all cities or towns other than metros or state capitals agree to the fact and the persons living in the state capitals but not metros bulk of the population strongly agree to the fact that relationship with the shopkeeper is giving them a feel of repurchase which is given by the graph below.

them a feel of repurchase which is given by the graph below. Perception about the variety
them a feel of repurchase which is given by the graph below. Perception about the variety
them a feel of repurchase which is given by the graph below. Perception about the variety

Perception about the variety of products offered depends upon the gender group. From the graph below it is clear that bulks of the males have ranked this as very good but females have ranked it good. So their perception can be further enhanced to excellence by providing a better variety of products for both females and males

A Comparative Study of the Consumer Behavior Pattern of Organised Departmental Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers

Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers Ambience perceived at the departmental store has a
Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers Ambience perceived at the departmental store has a

Ambience perceived at the departmental store has a significant relation with gender. The graph below shows that the bulk males feel that the ambience of the departmental stores is very good while females feel that its good.

stores is very good while females feel that its good. Importance of ambience as felt by

Importance of ambience as felt by people has a relationship with the age groups. Only the age segment 46 and above has the bulk perception that ambience is very important, bulk of the other segments have stated ambience as either important or moderately important which is given below in the graph.

or moderately important which is given below in the graph. National Conference on Paradigm for Sustainable
or moderately important which is given below in the graph. National Conference on Paradigm for Sustainable

A Comparative Study of the Consumer Behavior Pattern of Organised Departmental Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers

Additional facilities provided and its effectiveness has a significant relation with gender. Bulk of the males and females both feel that the additional facilities provided is good which is suggested by the graph below.

provided is good which is suggested by the graph below. Importance of additional facilities as felt
provided is good which is suggested by the graph below. Importance of additional facilities as felt

Importance of additional facilities as felt by the shoppers of departmental stores has a significant relation with gender rather than any other segmentation according to location of stay, annual family income, age etc and the pattern is given below.

family income, age etc and the pattern is given below. Inability of the persons to stand
family income, age etc and the pattern is given below. Inability of the persons to stand

Inability of the persons to stand in long queues which is very common in departmental stores has a significant relation with gender and the pattern of response is given below.

with gender and the pattern of response is given below. National Conference on Paradigm for Sustainable
with gender and the pattern of response is given below. National Conference on Paradigm for Sustainable
with gender and the pattern of response is given below. National Conference on Paradigm for Sustainable

A Comparative Study of the Consumer Behavior Pattern of Organised Departmental Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers

5. FACTORS DISCRIMINATING CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

In this part of the study we have basically dealt with the differences between the two groups of shoppers which can be differentiated as Local Kirana Store Buyers & Departmental Retail Chain Shoppers based on two basic factors. These are:

a. Customer Perception/ Expectation Differences.

b. Actual Service Received Differences.

One of the major focuses of our study is to discriminate between the two groups of buyers based on their behaviour. To identify the behavioural differences discriminant analysis has been used. However when we first used the test the data was varying from multivariate normality. So in order to apply the same we deleted one observation to make the sample size of the two groups equal.

Box's M is highly sensitive, so unless p < .001 and your sample sizes are unequal, ignore it. However, if significant and you have unequal sample sizes, the test is not robust (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001).

If there are many DVs and great discrepancy between cell sample sizes, then there is more potential for distortion of the alpha levels. A close look should be kept at the sample sizes and sizes of the variances and covariances for the cells:

If

cells with larger samples have larger variances and

covariances, then the alpha level is conservative and the

null hypothesis can be rejected confidently.

If

cells with smaller numbers produce larger variances

then beware - the significant test is too liberal. If there is

a non-significant result, the null hypothesis can be

confidently retained, but significant results are suspect.

6. VARIABLES ENTERED

Variables entered in the analysis are the ones which qualifies at the step which minimizes the overall Wilks Lambda and discriminated between the two groups.

Here clearly Ambience & Accesibility are the ones which discriminate between the group.

Logically the ambience of the departmental stores are very much different than the local kirana stores and so is the accessibility of the departmental stores when compared to local kirana stores. The concentration on the local kirana stores is better than that of departmental stores.

St

   

Wilks' Lambda

 

ep

 
           

Exact F

 
 

Entere

Stati

df

df

df3

Stati

df

df2

Si

d

stic

1

2

stic

1

g.

1

Ambie

.747

1

1

72.0

24.3

1

72.0

.0

nce

00

65

00

00

rcvd

2

Acces

.605

2

1

72.0

23.2

2

71.0

.0

blty

00

00

00

00

Rcvd

At each step, the variable that minimizes the overall Wilks' Lambda is entered.

a. Maximum number of steps is 10.

b. Minimum partial F to enter is 3.84.

c. Maximum partial F to remove is 2.71.

d. F level, tolerance, or VIN insufficient for further computation.

This was the difference based on what service they receive.

In the data about their expectation without any need to delete observations originally follows a multivariate normal as is suggested by the Box M, which is given below:

Test Results

Box's M

1.276

 

F

Approx.

1.258

 

df1

1

 

df2

15552.000

 

Sig.

.262

Use or Pillai's criterion instead of Wilk's lambda or if there is a large n, or randomly deleting cases from the sample to equalise the numbers in each group, assuming power can be maintained at a sensible level. SPSS provides Pillai's trace just above Wilks's Lambda.

After deleting one observation randomly we get the following box M result:

Test Results

 

Box's M

 

9.818

F

Approx.

 

3.174

df1

3

df2

933120.000

Sig.

.023

Tests

null

hypothesis

of

equal

population

covariance

matrices.

 

A Comparative Study of the Consumer Behavior Pattern of Organised Departmental Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers

early we accept the null hypothesis of equal population covariance and hence multivariate normality at 1% level of significance.

However only one variable has been entered which is the variety perceived. Logically the variety in departmental stores is better than in case of local kirana stores. The customer perception about variety is also the same as is reflected by the result. However this variable too does not strongly differentiate local kirana stores from the departmental retain chains because the wilks lambda is quite high.

7. ANALYSIS OF MANN WHITNEY U TEST FOR EXPECTED SERVICE

 

Accesblt

Ambienc

Variety

Price,

Relatio

y Percvd

e Prcvd

Prcvd

dis,

etc

n Prcvd

prcvd

Mann-

558.000

543.500

406.000

598.500

538.000

Whitney

U

Wilcoxo

1261.00

1246.50

1109.00

1301.50

1241.00

n W

0

0

0

0

0

Z

-1.492

-1.596

-3.274

-1.009

-1.721

Asymp.

.136

.111

.001

.313

.085

Sig.

(2-

tailed)

a. Grouping Variable: V11

 

At each step, the variable that minimizes the overall Wilks' Lambda is entered.

a. Maximum number of steps is 10.

b.

Minimum partial F to enter is 3.84.

 

c.

Maximum partial F to remove is 2.71.

 

d.

F

level,

tolerance,

or

VIN

insufficient

for

further

computation.

Mann Whitney U Test

In this test we have analyzed the set of data based on fact that the Likert Scale data is Ordinal in nature. The results of the Mann Whitney Test are given as follows:

Expected/ Perceived Service:

The customer perceptions about the importance of the factors as felt by them differ only in case of “variety” for the two different groups of buyers.This means that the perceptional pattern of the persons who shop from the local kirana stores and departmental retail chains perceive the difference between the two only in terms of variety of products available in the two (at 5% level of significance).

In this case the null hypothesis is

H 0 : Median of both the groups are equal.

H 1 : Median are unequal.

Clearly the difference between the groups is significant only in case of variety perceived since we reject the null hypothesis (since 0.001< 0.05) at 5 % level of significance.

In order to judge the nature of difference we look at the graphs for two groups.

nature of difference we look at the graphs for two groups. National Conference on Paradigm for
nature of difference we look at the graphs for two groups. National Conference on Paradigm for

A Comparative Study of the Consumer Behavior Pattern of Organised Departmental Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers

Above graph shows the perception pattern of consumers for variety of products available in local kirana stores.

for variety of products available in local kirana stores. The above shows the perception pattern of

The above shows the perception pattern of consumers for variety of products available in departmental retail chains.

Comparing the two graphs we see that the variety of products is perceived to a very important parameter by the bulk for departmental stores. Nobody has ranked it to be “not so important” but in case of local kirana stores the bulk has ranked variety as “Important” but not “Very important”, some (2.70%), though a very minor percentage have even ranked it “not so important”. So it can be said that the importance of the variety of products for departmental retail chain buyers is more important than the variety perceived by local kirana store buyers.

8. ANALYSIS OF MANN WHITNEY TEST FOR ACTUAL SERVICE RECEIVED:

What the consumers actually receive can be best differentiated between the two groups of buyers in terms of Ambience, Relationship, Accessibility as is indicated by the results of the Mann Whitney U test.

Test Statistics a

         
 

Accesblty Rcvd

Relation Rcvd

Price, dis, etc rcvd

Ambience rcvd

Variety Rcvd

Mann-Whitney U

480.500

472.000

602.500

308.500

570.000

Wilcoxon W

1183.500

1175.000

1305.500

1011.500

1273.000

Z

-2.403

-2.507

-.940

-4.272

-1.334

Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)

.016

.012

.347

.000

.182

a. Grouping Variable: V11

         

Clearly we reject the null hypothesis for the following factors at 5% level of significance (since p- value< 0.05).

Accessibility Received

For local kirana stores the accessibility received by the consumers is majorly very good followed by excellent and good respectively as is suggested by the graph below

A Comparative Study of the Consumer Behavior Pattern of Organised Departmental Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers

Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers In case of accessibility of departmental chains same

In case of accessibility of departmental chains same is the case however some have ranked the accessibility received as “bad” and “ok” too which is given by the figure below

and “ok” too which is given by the figure below 9. BEHAVIOUR OF SALES PERSONS: Major

9. BEHAVIOUR OF SALES PERSONS:

Major bulk has given the ranking of very good for relationship/ behaviour of sales personnel of local kirana stores followed by good, excellent and ok as is given in the figure as follows.

A Comparative Study of the Consumer Behavior Pattern of Organised Departmental Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers

Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers However in case of departmental retail is a

However in case of departmental retail is a bit different. Most of the people have ranked “good” rather than “very good”.

people have ranked “good” rather than “very good”. Ambience Received Most of the consumers shopping from

Ambience Received

Most of the consumers shopping from the local kirana stores have have rated the ambience there to be “ok” some (5.41%) have even rated it bad. The pattern of response is given as follows.

A Comparative Study of the Consumer Behavior Pattern of Organised Departmental Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers

Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers But for the persons who buy from departmental

But for the persons who buy from departmental retail chains bulk of them has ranked ambience to be “good” followed by “very good” and some even “excellent”. Nobody has rated the ambience to be bad. The pattern is given as follows.

Both Departmental Retail Chains and Local Kirana Store Buyers

Departmental Retail Chains and Local Kirana Store Buyers From the graph above it is clear that
Departmental Retail Chains and Local Kirana Store Buyers From the graph above it is clear that

From the graph above it is clear that in most of the cases people prefer monthly buying from departmental retail chains. Consumers who buy from both departmental retail chains and local kirana stores generally visit the departmental retail stores once a month because of the accessibility problem.

A Comparative Study of the Consumer Behavior Pattern of Organised Departmental Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers

Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers From the graph above it is clear that
Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers From the graph above it is clear that

From the graph above it is clear that in most of the cases local kirana stores are used for daily buying purpose.

The reason for this may be the better accessibility factor which is leading the consumers to go for daily buying purpose from local kirana stores. The question then remains then why do they ever need to visit retail departmental stores once a month. This may be due to the fact that the departmental retail chains have a wider variety of goods available. Also the kirana stores are used for buying items which are regularly required and cannot be stored for a long time however departmental retail chains are used for buying materials which are for long term use may more one month more than one month may be. The generally grocery can be of two types:

1. Grocery for daily consumption.

2. Grocery for monthly consumption.

Depending upon the nature of the grocery local kirana store or departmental retail chains are selected.

Also from the point of view of the departmental retail chain shoppers it can be said that the most important factor which affects the buying decision according to the most of the persons is “Prices & Discounts” which is given by the graph below.

& Discounts” which is given by the graph below. National Conference on Paradigm for Sustainable Business:

A Comparative Study of the Consumer Behavior Pattern of Organised Departmental Retail Chain Shoppers and Local Kirana Store Buyers

Thus the departmental retail chains must keep the following factor in mind while designing the pricing strategy. The importance of the differences in the consumer behaviour pattern for the two groups of buyers is can be very much useful for identifying the consumer behaviour pattern. However the most important part of the study is the reconciliation and matching of the results. Very surprisingly the results given by the Discriminant Analysis (taking in to account interval nature of the data) and Mann Whitney U Test (taking into account ordinal nature of the data) give similar results. This shows the overall validity of the study.

10. OVERALL RESEARCH FINDINGS

1. Quite a few factors both for departmental retail chains and local kirana stores has a significant relationship with segments according to age, gender & place of living (as suggested by the chi square test).

2. The consumer perception pattern given in terms of the ranking/ importance of the factors can be discriminated based on variety of products alone. The ranking of the other factors are more or less similar across the two groups (as suggested by the result of the discriminant analysis).

3. The actual service received given in terms of the ranking/ importance of the factors can be discriminated based on ambience received and accessibility (as suggested by the result of the discriminant analysis).

4. The consumer perception pattern given in terms of the ranking/ importance of the factors can be discriminated based on variety of products alone. The ranking of the other factors are more or less similar across the two groups (as suggested by the result of the Mann- Whitney U Test).

5. The actual service received given in terms of the ranking/ importance of the factors can be discriminated based on ambience received, relationship/ behaviour and accessibility (as suggested by the result of the Mann- Whitney U Test).

11. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS AND END NOTES

There is a clear difference between the local kirana store buyers and departmental retail chain shoppers can be identified based on different segments. Both the two groups i.e. local kirana stores and departmental retail chains should focus on the proper segmentation techniques and they should closely identify the perceptions among the different segments.

The buyers of the modern complex market is having different preferences the Indian retail sector should focus on the factors which have a significant relationship with the segmenting variables like age, gender, place of living, annual family income, highest educational qualification etc. Working upon the factors according to the needs of the consumers will give an edge. The unique strategy must be formulated which intergrade pricing decision, ambience planning, merchandising management and promotional as well as branding exercise for the long run sustainability.

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[2]

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[3]

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R.,

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[9]

Ragavan, R., 1994, A study on the consumer response towards franchise vegetable outlets- A case of Just picked, (Unpublished.). M.Sc. (Agri) Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agril. Univ, Coimbatore.

[10] Rajesh Shinde, 2007, Recent Facets of consumer behaviour –

A case of rural market. Indian Journal of Marketing,, 37 : 19-

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Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology 45 (4) : pp. 112-

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[12] Sanjaya S. Gaur and Abdul Waheed, K., 2002, Studyo f buying behavour of branded rice. Indian Journal of Marketing, pp. 33-38. [13] Sundar, K., 1997, Store image of Saravana Bava Supermarket in Cuddalore district –(A critical study) Indian Journal of Marketing, XXIV (4-6) : 25-30.