0 Voturi pozitive0 Voturi negative

4 (de) vizualizări32 paginigce level

May 04, 2013

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PPS, PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

gce level

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

4 (de) vizualizări

gce level

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Electricity
- hssp1800t chaptesta
- Tesla Switch
- Brochure-EPP-1665-4-09-Link-Box.pdf
- MEGGER EARTH TESTER - DET62D
- Voltage
- Duracell Coppertop 9V
- AS Electricity Basics
- Current Lbps
- Electrical Charge
- 10 Phy DPP 03
- Current__Voltage__Resistance.ppt
- lecture-4
- Id056 Igcsedphy q04 Exq
- ps chapter 20
- CURRENT-ELECTRICITY
- 2015+O-level+Physics+Paper+2+Answer+by+Calvin+Kong+Physics
- 9487-Physics Teachers' Guide Unit 2 - Electricity, Electrons and Energy Levels
- 258 R
- 8 Term 32016

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 32

Taking Measurements

The p.d. across a component in a circuit is measured in volts (V) using a voltmeter connected across (in parallel with) the component.

Taking Measurements

The current (I) flowing through a component in a circuit is measured in amperes (A) using an ammeter connected in series with the component.

Current

A current will flow through an electrical component (or device) only if there is a voltage or potential difference (p.d.) across its ends. The bigger the potential difference across a component, the bigger the current that flows through it.

You can think of electrical potential as being the topography of the electrical environment. The flow of charged particles is affected by the steepness of the slope. The change in volts per metre is a measure of how steep the slope between two points is the steeper the potential gradient the faster the charge will flow.

Model

Current

An electric current is a flow of charge (Q) measured in coulomb (C). The charges 'flowing' are usually electrons (in a wire) but can be ions (in a solution).

Current

It is the 'net' flow of charge that makes the current. Charges going in opposite directions cancel out each other's effect. Double-charged ions will make double the current that single-charged ones would.

Resistance

Components resist a current flowing through them. The bigger their resistance, the smaller the current produced by a particular voltage, or the bigger the voltage needed to produce a particular current. Resistance (R) is measured in ohms (W)

Resistance

When electrical charge flows through a resistor, electrical energy is transferred as heat according to the equation P=IV This makes components get hotter as current goes through them. A change in temperature can change the resistance of the component. You need to appreciate this.

An electric cell provides the potential difference for a battery powered circuit by changing chemical energy into electrical energy.

If more than one electrical cell is connected together the term for the power source is battery a single cell is just called an electric cell.

A cells potential difference between its terminals has a chemical source and that this can run down with use or incorrect storage providing less of an electrical gradient for the current (i.e. the voltage stamped on a battery might not be correct).

As an electric current flows through a circuit, energy is transferred from the battery or power supply to the components in the electrical circuit. An electric current is a flow of charge. Charge (Q), measured in coulomb (C) is a property of the electrons that move in the wire. Each electron has a very tiny charge of 1.6 X 10-19C

When electrical charge flows through a resistor, electrical energy is transferred as heat. The rate of energy transfer (power) is given by: P = IV Where: P = power (in watts, W) V = potential difference (in volts, V) I = current (in ampere, A) 1 watt is the transfer of 1J of energy in 1s.

The higher the voltage of a supply, the greater the amount of energy transferred for a given amount of charge which flows. E = VQ Where E = energy transferred (in joule, J) V = potential difference (in volt, V) Q = charge (coulomb, C)

Q=It

Where:

Q = charge (coulomb, C) I = current (in ampere, A) t = time (in seconds, s)

V=IR

Where: V = potential difference (in volts, V) I = current (in ampere, A) R = resistance (in ohm, W)

E = Pt

Where: E = energy transferred (in joule, J) P = power (in watts, W) t = time (in seconds, s)

recall the equation manipulate it know the symbols, values and units use it in calculations be able to use S.I. Prefixes with the units

Symbols

connecting wire

two crossing wires that are not connected to each other switch (open) switch (closed) signal lamp filament lamp

Symbols (cont)

cell battery power supply fuse resistor diode

variable resistor

thermistor

Symbols (cont.)

ammeter

voltmeter L.D.R. (light dependant resistor) You have to be able to draw these symbols and incorporate them into circuits. They must be drawn carefully. Never put a symbol in a corner. Never leave a gap. Use a sharp pencil to draw the circuits.

Series Circuits

When components are connected in series: their total resistance is the sum of their separate resistances RTOTAL = R1 + R2 + ..........RN; the same current flows through each component; the potential difference from the supply is shared between them.

Parallel Circuits

When components are connected in parallel: there is the same potential difference across each component; the current through each component depends on its resistance; the greater the resistance of the component, the smaller the current; the total current through the whole circuit is the sum of the currents through the separate components - this follows from Kirchhoff's First Law - see below.

Characteristic Curves

Current-voltage graphs are used to show how the current through a component varies with the voltage you put across it. They are called characteristic curves of the components.

The current through an ohmic conductor (e.g. a wire) is proportional to the voltage across the resistor at constant temperature.

This is known as Ohm's Law. The straight line shows proportionality the fact it goes through the origin shows it is directly proportional double the voltage and the current doubles!

The resistance of a filament lamp increases as the temperature of the filament increases. When the filament is very cool the graph is a straight line it curves most as the temperature changes rapidly (when it goes through the red glow to white glow stage). When it is really hot it gets to a steady temperature and the line straightens out again.

The current through a diode effectively only flows in one direction only. It acts like a closed switch when connected in forward bias and an open switch when in reverse bias.

When connected in forward bias its resistance is very low (provided it has a potential difference of more than 0.6 volts across it). The diode has a very high resistance in the reverse bias therefore only a tiny current flows. Zero p.d. gives zero current.

The resistance of a light dependent resistor decreases as the light intensity increases. The resistance of a thermistor decreases as the temperature increases. (There are some thermistors which behave in the opposite way to this but all of your questions will be set on this version).

- ElectricityÎncărcat deCHOBZEE
- hssp1800t chaptestaÎncărcat deapi-366688054
- Tesla SwitchÎncărcat deYmailreader
- Brochure-EPP-1665-4-09-Link-Box.pdfÎncărcat desamsunglover
- MEGGER EARTH TESTER - DET62DÎncărcat deDean Bartlett
- VoltageÎncărcat deBerny Manalang
- Duracell Coppertop 9VÎncărcat dekimbeeman
- AS Electricity BasicsÎncărcat dekaushik247
- Current LbpsÎncărcat deMoni Kakati
- Electrical ChargeÎncărcat deShaleen Bhola
- 10 Phy DPP 03Încărcat dechuds
- Current__Voltage__Resistance.pptÎncărcat deFile Carrier
- lecture-4Încărcat deRaymond Zheng
- Id056 Igcsedphy q04 ExqÎncărcat deJaselyn Koay
- ps chapter 20Încărcat deapi-262219273
- CURRENT-ELECTRICITYÎncărcat deharipriya3011
- 2015+O-level+Physics+Paper+2+Answer+by+Calvin+Kong+PhysicsÎncărcat dejesudassaj
- 9487-Physics Teachers' Guide Unit 2 - Electricity, Electrons and Energy LevelsÎncărcat deAli Akbar
- 258 RÎncărcat deBernabeth Planco
- 8 Term 32016Încărcat deRoger Javier Corro Vega
- 0071439250Încărcat deJason Bauer
- 2017 Assignment 1Încărcat dealdrin77
- 117680976-cable-sizing.pdfÎncărcat desouheil boussaid
- 1SBC140155B0201_Current and voltage sensors brochure.pdfÎncărcat deTagno Miguel Macedo
- manualÎncărcat deEsteban Del Angel
- Eepw 2150 Module 1Încărcat de3nath
- Iran_s Military DoctrineÎncărcat deHarry
- WIDYA F. ROMPAS 19101105017Încărcat deWidya Rompas
- IndexÎncărcat deKoyal Gupta
- Paper on Redtacton[1]Încărcat deLalith Krishnan

- 1.1 1.2 IntroductionÎncărcat debellarosy
- Compund MicroscopeÎncărcat debellarosy
- Practical 2 Tests 251Încărcat debellarosy
- SpermÎncărcat debellarosy
- f4 Chapter 2 HomeostasisÎncărcat debellarosy
- Note Chapter2 StudentÎncărcat debellarosy
- Ad Pat p and Cellular RespirationÎncărcat debellarosy
- RespirationÎncărcat debellarosy
- 2 0 Forces and Motion1Încărcat deKlorin Min
- spm essaysÎncărcat debellarosy
- For Hundreds of YearsÎncărcat debellarosy
- Abortion EssayÎncărcat debellarosy
- Environmental IssuesÎncărcat debellarosy
- drugs abuseÎncărcat debellarosy
- CALENDAR 2011Încărcat deAnonymous BOOmZG
- Question (1)Încărcat debellarosy
- weida water tankÎncărcat debellarosy
- Supplementary NotesÎncărcat debellarosy
- Quiz.1 Chap 1 PhyÎncărcat debellarosy
- Quiz Chap 1 PhyÎncărcat debellarosy
- Rate of ReactionÎncărcat denatasha_muslim93

- tugas analisa numerikÎncărcat deAli Muhtar J-xrf
- Cone Clutch Question BankÎncărcat deSriram Nanjangud Subramanya
- spintronics-nanomagnetismÎncărcat delux0008
- Web 5222Încărcat devuk125
- DrzymalaÎncărcat devadani
- Atoms, Electron Structure and Periodicity HwÎncărcat deLuke Williamson
- Maintaining Vibratory FeedersÎncărcat deLê Thanh Sang
- LC Training Basic HPLC 2001 AÎncărcat debile86
- motionmountain-volume2Încărcat deyashyi
- 01 TheEssence Three-phase Part IIÎncărcat deCarlos DP
- Finite Element Modeling of Push-Out Test for Embossed Steel Plate ConnectorÎncărcat deInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- Raman.docxÎncărcat deRegina Mae Garcia
- Vedeld 2 - VIV Fatigue CalculationÎncărcat desam_senthil_68841
- RADIOTHERAPHYÎncărcat deMuhammad Hafiz Karim
- Paper KVPY XII Final Paper _01!11!2015_ FinalÎncărcat deKartikeya Arya
- Coba UTSÎncărcat deRRvirnanda
- Quantum Physics Lecture Notes (Queensland University 2004)Încărcat deShih-HoChang
- Homework 3Încărcat denguyenvule
- Ch 01 Speeding 171229 v 1Încărcat deBenjamin España
- Chemistry Note Form 5Încărcat deSofiyyahOpie
- David H. Whittum- Advanced Concepts for High-Gradient AccelerationÎncărcat deDublin000
- NS17-1connections.pdfÎncărcat degusbrros70
- DiodeÎncărcat dedadadabababa
- Kinematic Analysis of Tensegrity Structures by William Brooks WhittierÎncărcat deTensegrity Wiki
- Machine 1 Labreport No 04Încărcat deS M Akash
- Load Calculation of Civil FoundationÎncărcat deManoj kumar shukla
- DS isovac© 800-50 AÎncărcat deDávid Rúra
- draft2(1)Încărcat derewqrewq5
- Atomic StructureÎncărcat deJessica Beasley
- EQÎncărcat dePhạm Nho Biển

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.