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A PN 2001 - XX: B(lngladesh Chap,er

A REVIEW OF RESEARCH WORKS ON


WATER QUALITY OF THE LOTlC, ESTUARINE
AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT IN BANGLADESH

NURUDDIN M AHMOOD
SAYEDUR RAHMAN CHOWDH URY
ABU SAYEED MUHAMMA D SHAR IF
MOHAMMAD MUS LEM UDDIN
MOHAMMAD SAEED ULLAH
MD. HASHIBUL ISLAM

INSTITUE OF MARINE SCIENCES


UNIVERSITY OF CHITTAGONG
BANGLADESH

December 2002

ABSTRACT
The activities of the Bangladesh chapler under the project APN 200 I-XX (A study of nutrients.
sediment and carbon fluxes to the coastal zone in South Asia and their relationship to human
activities), was started in July 2001 and will continue till June 2003. A group of workers of the
Institute of Marine Sciences, Un iversity of Chittagong have been participating in th is research
programme.

Many workers conducted investigations to record physical, chemical and biological parameters
of rivers. estuaries. lagoons and neri tic waters including nutrients and carbon fl ux in different
parts of the world. Most of the information available in Bangladesh says about water qualit ies
other than micronutrients with few exceptions. However, the existing information is bei ng
aggregated here to serve as a ready reference and to find the direction towards the researchable
areas in Bangladesh context.
Although some of past works aggregated here say about micronutrients in the study areas, but
those are not usefu l for material flux study especially in line with fitting the results to any fl ux or
transport model. Data from those stud ies have been found unsuitable for fitting into any of
LO ICZ recommended Box mode ls, because they were not intended to do so. Therefore in order
to bridge the gap, a gap-filling study was undertaken, it involved field work, sample collection
and subsequent analyses; but d uring the des ign stage of the present Meghna River-estuary study
programme also probably it was not kept in mind to fit our results into any of such models .
However, to comply with the requirements, an attempt has been made to fit the data into a simple
box model. Thus in the current year (2002-2003), the Kamaphuli River-estuary has been chosen
as an ideal site, and to record data. Two other members of our delegation are going to present
results of these investigations in this Colombo Workshop (9- 11 December 2002). Future studies
are expected to cover other estuaries of our riverine country.

INTRODUCTION
The activities of the Ban gladesh chapter under the project APN 200]XX (A study of nutrients.
sediment and carbon fluxes to the coastal zone in South Asia and their relati onship to human
activities) was started in July 2001 and will continue till June 2003. A group of workers orthe
Institute of Marine Sciences. University of Chiuagong have been panicipating in this research
programme.
Many workers cond ucted investigations to record physica l. chemical and biological parameters
of rivers. estuaries. lagoons and neritic waters including nutrients and carbon flux in different
pan s of the world . Most of the information available in Bangladesh says about water qualities
other than micronutricnts with a few exceptions. However. the existing information are being
aggregated here to serve as a ready reference and to find the direction towards the researchable
areas in the Bangladesh context.

RESEARCH WORKS
Cox's B AZA R REGION
I.

Study on wa ter qu a li ty and commercial ic hthyofa un a of the Bakkhali riverestuary


M.M. Rashid (/999). MSc. Thesis. /MS. Uniw l'sily ojChillogoJlg. 89pp.
Investiga ti ons were made during July 1998 th rough June 1999. Samples were collected
monthly from three different stations of the Bakkhali river-estuary (Figure I) and the
following procedures were followed to record different parameters : ai r and water
temperature by using thermometers graduated in 0(, EC by a Conducti vity meter (Range: 010.000 ~-mhos/cm). secch i depth by a Seechi disc. pH by a digita l pH meter (Phillips PW
8409). salinity by Mohr's titration method (Strick land and Parsons. 1965), DO by modified
(Azi de modification) Winkler's method (APHA. 1976). fo r other parameters (BOD. COD.
CO 2 TDS. TSS, Total Alkalinity, HCD). ND3-N. NH3-N) standard procedures described in
APHA ( 1976) were followed.
Vari ations of water quality parameters found by the investigations have been detailed out in
Table I.

Table I:

Results of investigation on water quality of th e Bakkllali Ri per-estuary at three stations (Ju11998 - Jun 1999)

Year. Month
& St.

,
,

"

H~
u

>
0

;Z
~

8
~
~

II

II
III
1
II
III
II
III
1
II
III
1
II

111
1
II

TempO(
Salinity

EC ~
mhos NI'P mg! GPP mgl

10.03

22 .7

431.34

539.43

3.2

2.03

217

4.01

0583

0. 171

30
30. 1
30.2
29:2

29.7
29.7
29.8

7.4
7.9
8

29

28.5

7.'
7.8

12.23
13.27
13.28
12.3 I
11.45

411.59
401.18
407 .35
730.39
726.73

599.87
581.75
589.38
! 38 1.34
1301.53

3.89
3.53
3.28
4.3
4.13

1.18
1.1 3
1.05
1.01
1.08

185
206
201
166
193

1.32
1.28
1.3
2.13
2.15

0.72
0.721
0.589
0 .3 11
0 .3 1

0.123
0.128
0. 125
0. 13 [
0.13

63

29

14.9
7.7
0
15.58
7.81

28.2

27.8

7.3

8.31

25.2

511.37

899.08

3.2

lA S

175

2.'

0.398

0.078

25

24.9

11.07
0.8
28.08
16.03
1.02
32.18
18.03
1.0 I
34.7 1
19.74

31.2
3 1.53
41.37
40.97
41.1 3
42 .28
41.23
41.77
48.13
48.37

533.93
533.17
417 .0
411.18
41 2.3 1
52.06
52.01
52.03
41
4

930.58
913.94
13 14.85
1344 .73
1309.82
198.92
199.72
.170.28

3.59
3.47
5.44
5.38
5.3 1
3. [5
3. 16
3.11

1.37
1.48
1.6 1
1.62

192
177

4.3
4.25
3. [4
3.2 I
3.2
2.88
2.9 1
3.0 1

0 .1153

25

6.8
6.8
6.2
6 .3
6.2
6.2
5.'
5.7
6.1
5.8

0.5 41

25. 1
23.1
23. 1
23.2

0.421
0.538
0.3 82
0.326
0.365

0.09 1
0.094
0.11 7
0. 119
0. 118

18.4 1 50.93

370.08

582.27

22.0 1 35.8 1
13.34 35. 18

1142 .37
11192.7

29. 1

22. 1

22

22
21. 4
21.7
21. 7
21.3

22

II

26.1

26 6.3

1
II

27.5
27

27.1
26.5

7.1
7. 3

II

29.1

29

7.8

5.01

22.31

853. 17

30.5
30.2

29.7
30.1

7.7
7.7

2.1
0

18.7
18.7

330.81
339.4 3

",
0

PO,

8.1

22.4

NO,

30.1

II

<

CO,

31.7

.l:

~~

Total

DO BOD COD

98

120

211.07

75

207.3
205.4
203.9
151.4
150.8

2. 17
2.42
2.35
1.42
1.47

95

23 4.6

1.02 381 .84

107.72

100

253.3 1

1.2 1 290. 17

91.17

88

20Q.6
200.4
275.6
254.3
250.3

70

85

"

1.03
1.02
1.02

11 3
103
185
202
198

I.,

3..l1

193

345.92
348.88

2.36
2.33

3. 1
3. 13

190
202

3.0 1
3.0 1

0.30 1
0 .3

0.2 18
0.133

114

1312.84

2.5

3.58

228

2.47

0.668

0. 172

96

171. 7

841.15
3.9 2. 12
213
2.01
840.98 ._
3.78
2.2 1 -106
- -- --2. 14

0.532

0.133

65

115.9

1.6

86
88

72
70

2.37 320.2!!

0.55
0.48
0. 17
0.37
0.21

25 1.93
255 .79
285.13
433 .6<1
445.53

3 19.08
33 1.9
401.93
410.18
41 2. 45

98

111
1
II

111

2.9 582.11

110.0.1
IlIU8
93. 18
98.02
101.87

9,
103.16

123.06

The highest nutrient concentrations were recorded in monsoon months and the lowest in the
dry season. The causes of highest and lowest value of nutrien t in the disc harge arc due to
proper and improper dilution of indu strial and municipal emuenlS and wastes.
Figu re I :

Map o.f Ih e COtlSf of Chillug fJflg tlfIIl Co.x's Bazar regiatl.\ .~//Owitrg .\!udy lom/imts o.f I'ariou s
re.\eurch work.~

IT'

(j
Sam:twip
Island

KUlubd ia
Island

BAY OF BENGAL

Maheshkhali
Island

.
o

Sampling locations 01
Chowdhury. Z.R.1998

o~'s

Sampling locations 01
Noori. M.N. 1999

Sampling locations 01
Ahmed. H.R. 1989

(f

Sampling locations 01
Zalar et al 1999

Sampling area 01
Ali el al . 1985

Cruise path and direcHon 01


Mahmood & Khan. 1976

;----, Appro~imate sampling area of


L ......: RaShid . M.M. 1999

Bazar

~,

.0

km

\.

50

51. Martin's ISlandtj

2.

Study on water quality and som e co mmercially important fishes of the Rezu
khal-estuary
M.H. Iqbal (/999). M.Sc. Thesis. IMS, UniversifY ojChillagollg. 95pp.
Investigati ons were made during July 1998 through Ju ne 1999. Samples were co llected
monthly from three different station s of the Rezu khal-estuary, Cox's Bazar, and the
procedu res fo llowed to record different parameters are same as those mentioned for the
preceding investigation in the Bakkhali River-estuary. Results of this investigation are
reflected in Tab le 2.
J

Table 1:

Results ojinvestigation on water quality ojlhe Rezu khaJ-estuary at J stations (lui /998 - Jun /999)

r=

,.~

"

Tcmp"C

v t . ZE~ OE~
~E

i<'

=:
~ i
~ ~.,

"5

.~

E~.::::

E Q.,~ >. Q., ~>.

~ :s.~

0He..
Jl.gE 8]> oc::lECi.

00:::::

0 all
>JE

.E

8~ ~~

o~

::.. E

]]0:::::

0- ~

f-<E

8~

=~ f~~
=: E ZE
_

~~
f-E

13.8

<
~
CI'

I&
8

8.1
8. 1

II

0,4 r
0.39

2.5

1\

1..1.

IJ

1.1.::0

OJ.J

V.J

.. "

... . . . . "

.~~

~.,,,

.. ,,,

~L

n .....

An

II

30

27

23

II

22.5

21.5

6.7

3.5

24

410

683

0.39

II

6.7

29.9

III

.'V

.1.15,::0

".1. . 1
.n

J.J..J .t.1 1
.. 0.,.,.,

V. .tlSl

V.04

no .

n.o .

10

3. 1

0.56

0.225

II

1.99

0.42

0.299

':IV

Jl!J.

l'I'I

~.

"n

An ,

",

119

1.7

70

45.3

14K

2.1

256

38

1::00

" ....

II

III

64

;!i

&I

"..

35

I.

III

J.V.::O
'10

i:'

II

"

II

31.5

2.98

I I 2.02

J.V.I
'I'1~

I..;

I')

1.1.

'II.

"l.J~

.t':l::O
,.UI

7.28

1~ . 1

400

6.9

19.3

223

::O. l l

"'

"

97

28

0,42
0.51

0.288
0 .201

"

70

40
39

From the year long monthly observat ion of different water quality parameters with respect
to standard level, it is clear that. the water of Rezu khal is not so polluted. But in some
cases upper values with respect 10 the standard level may be due to drainage of water from
agricultural land and industrial activity areas.

3.

A compa rative pen-picture of Poll ution status of the coasta l belt of Ba nglades h
with specia l referen ce to Ha lishas ha r a nd ship brea kin g a rea , C hitlagong
M. Y. Mched; (/994). MSc. Thesis . IMS, University ojChiffagong. 1711pp.
Investigations were made during May 1992 through April 1993. Monthly samples from
three stations were collected from ship breaking area being polluted zone and from one
stat ion in Hali shahar being located in the pollution free zone. The value of electrical
conduct ivity (EC) was recorded by Backman conductivity meter (Range : 0-10,000 }lmhos/cm), and for other parameters like Total hardness, Total Alkalinity, TDS, TSS, pH,
DO. BOD. COD. Chloride, P0 4- P, N03-N. the procedures described in APHA (1976) were
followed.
Results of this investigation are rel1ected in Tables 3 and 4.

Table 3:

Physico-Chemical parameten IIJ mrjaC(' water oj N alh./wllflr, Chiuflgmlg

0,",

0"""";),

DE

May
Jun
Jul
Aug

Scp
(X,

720

673
269
275
298

120
85
89
110
85
220
200
65
66
71
71

Nov

329
210

Ik<
Jan
Feb
Mar

295
421
220
220

A ,

240 _ _ -,6,..8

ZE

6.98 11 .90
6. 11 20.50
6. 0 1 11. 50
0.28 11 .00
4.20
3.11
3.98
2.98
6. 12
2.69
6.38
2. 10
4.11
2.00
6.36
3.25
6.98
2.55

80.00
92.50
99.30
93.00
85.80
89.90
91.30
73.20
75.90
76.60
69.90

8.6
7.9
7.5
8.3
8. 1
8.5
8. 1
9.5
6.5
7.3
8. I

7.30
7.20
7.30
7.80
7.10
7.90
7. 10
6.80
6.90
7.30
7.50

6.50

85.80~~---.!..!l~~~~

7.90

2.98

120
98
125
115
III
120
III

123
123
126
129

820
492
460

1280
1100
1225
1320
890
433
975
988

125
139
110
120
125
121
290
185
189
110
120

12.00
12.90
9.80
15 .60
14.90
15.60
16.90
12.80
11. 50
8.90
8.80

550
1520
1625
1200
1825
1920
1400
2100
1425
1300
1800

619
1630
1835
1280
1900
2015
1480
2198
1490
1348
1875

Table 4:

Phy sic()-Chemical parameters of surface waler of the Ship breaking area

,.

F.C

mho"

Month
y=

M.y

S,.

em!

1800
1400

2
3
I

J""

2
3

J,I

2
3
I

Total
Hardness

DO

793

US

2500
1700

19S
198
710
182

1740

82S

SSO

324

S99
2300
2300

420

873

BOD

COD

m
4J3

3.98
3.98
4.95
2.93

7.49
15.60
8.JO
7.60
13.60
5.20
9.30
61.00
6.80
8.60

416
269
220
170

480

3.95
2.56
3.56
3.98
2.56

160

A,.

SO,

S90

410

3.50

2
3

1773
1280
4225
4229

3.96
4.20
4.96
120
156

4.60

Turbidity
lTV

790
620
250
685
671

PO,

NO,

ml

TSS

Total
Alkalinity

Chloride

ml

321.50

I7S

183
160
220
186

H
9.25
8.75
7.95
8.50
9. 10

8.30
7.80
8.80

1480
2220.00

1450

485

3 1.50
38.70
29.50
46.00
3 1.00

425.00
310.00
485

44.50
49.00
13.70

1300

398.00
380.00

220

723
47S

4550

298

120
IS8
160

12.30

lIO

398

420

30.90

4500

256

120

8.30

8.90

280
180
182
228
1S9
183

42S

385
210.00
498.00

323

210

9550
18442

420

263

688

485.00
360.00

352.00
259.00
398
259.00
325.00

IS9
210
190
183
190

11.10
9.30

221

29.80
28.00
38.60
3180
55.90
46.70

9000

250
720

68.

365.00

lIO

17000
8200

190
133

lOS

9550
15575
7750

299.00
380.00
412

2IS

7.60

2324

320

485.00
398.00
298

38.00
30.50
23.80
55.50
50.60

420.00

369

I8S
160

IUO
8.10

1770.00
1625

8750

129
188
239

8.90

4480.00

8.40

899

27S

I2S
350
21S

340.45

TDS

360
39&.45
365.00

4500

290

9225
184 55

429.00
320.00

SOOO

311

1320

1760.66
2320
1125
1950.00
2 130

72S

801
221

1890

:!C

J ' VV

f-"',

3
I

4225

890

2424

2
3

1990

380
I6S
81S
198
180
771
127
220
420
129

1280
2850

2 10
348

1690

148

1700

lIO

1780

890

No,

Do<
J,"

Fob

793

4.81
3.92

79.50
7.80
10.50
55.80
17.19
10.00
42.60
16.98
11.90
85.00
5.96
11 .00

323

4.20
4.96

83.60
5.75

356
311

269
633

411.00
390.00

39.00
3 1.50

ISooo

385 .00
310.00

25S

S.OO

9.60

320

lIO

365

4.00

4920

460

4.60
S.60
3.98
4.33
5.30

4900
6250

12000

21 00

8.60

2356
1420.00
25 15
4250
8240.00

8.10
7.70

7282.()
1625

8.60
8.50
8.70

259

160
120
160
120
124
180

729

320

:!C
M",

Ap'

9.02

'"

Resu lts reveal that values of some physico-chemical parameters were much higher in the
ship breaking area in comparison with the Controlled zone (Halishahar coastal area).
Therefore. the ship breaking area seems to be a polluted zone.

4.

Study on micronutricnts and standin g crop of ph ytoplankton in the coasta l


waters of Cox 's Baza r, C hittagong, Ban gladesh
Ml,R. Chowdhury (/998). MSc. Thesis. IMS, University o/Chillagong. 98pp.
Samples we re collected five times from six stations in the neritic waters off Cox's Bazar
(Figure I) duri ng one year's investigation (March-December 1992). Different methods were
followed to record different parameters: Winkler's method for DO (Barnes, 1959). MohrKnudsen tilrirnatric procedure for sa linity (Barnes. 1959). fo r determination of turbidity
(TSS) water samples were fillered through glass fiber filters which were dried at 105C (> 1
hr) and weighed to obtain the quantity of suspended sediment (Waht el al. 1997). NO)-N
was determined foll owi ng the Brucine method (Suess, 1982), and for detennin ing N01 -N
Bendschneider and Robinson (1952) was followed. The procedure of Murphy and Riley
( 1961 ) was followed for determination ofP0 4-P. Mullin and Riley (1955) for Si0 2-Si. and
fo r determ ination of Chlorophyll spectrophotometric method of Richards and Thomson
(1952) as improved by Parsons and Strickland (1968) and new equations given by Jeffery
and Humphrey ( 1975) were followed . The results of this investigation are given in Table 5.

Table 5:

SUllwmry 0/ (Iiffere", Ity(lro-meleorologicul partlmelers recorded/rom lite sluily area (Mar


- Dec 1997)
Tcm~

SI.

Period
Mar-Apr
May-Jun
Jul-Aug
SCp-OCI
Nov-Oec
Mar-Apr
May-Jun
Jul-Aug
Scp-Oct
Nov-Dcc
Mar-Apr
May-Jun
Jul-Aug
Scp-Oct
Nov-Occ
Mar-Apr
May-Jun
Jul-Aug
$.!p-Ocl
Nov-Dec
Mar-Apr
May-Jun
Jul -Aug
ScpOcI
Nov-Dcc

Rainfall Salinity
%0
Air Waler mm
29,4
31 28'(,
2'J .6
NI
22..1
30.5
27.5
22.5
31.5
28.7
29.5
29.7

21.9
31.4
28.3
28.3
27.6
20.5
32.1
29
29.5

28
22.2
31. 7
29.2
27.7
28.2
21.3

29.1
27

24

"5"
135)
729
Il
78

29.2
28.7
28.8 1353
28.3
729
22.4
Il
29.7
28.3 545
29.4 1353
28.2 729
23.8
13
28.3
78
29 "5
28.3 1353
27.5 729

"5

"

25

13

29
78
29.2 S45
28.2 135 3
28.2 729
22.5
13

13.5
10.3
21.9
31
24.2
20.2
19.6
25.5
32. 7
24.5
22.6
22 .8
27.8

JJ
24.8
22.6
23.4
28.5
32.5

25
21.1
23 .7
27.3

,-,

NOjN NOrN PO.-P

TSS DO
mg/I MIll
4.75
12.24
29.83
23,3
9.26
5.81
13.83
25,44
14 . 17
7.36
5.36
11 16
27.25
16.34
6.33
7.32
16.2
26,46
19.04
6.65
2.45
15.86
20.05
15.73
5.69

pH
6.38 7.47
4.75 7.93
7.85 7.29
5.K 7.36
6.53 7.73
6,42 7.&5
4.69 7.66
5.54 7.33
07 , 7.65
6.86 7.55
6.03 7.96
5.06 7.72
5.87 7. 12
4.07 7.73
6.97 7.48
5.15 8. 10
4.38 7.69
6.3 7.05
4. 15 7.811
6.3 7.73
6. 18 7.92
4.1 7.63
6.23 732
5.32 7.44
6.68 7.69

mil
2.41
3.59
5.31
4. 18
2.38
1.60
2.35
3.34
2.27
1.64
U5
1.54
2.32
1.63
0.86
1.42
1.29

206
lA6
0.76
1.58
1.37
3.11
2.36
1.90

,-, c~~~

SiOl

)I-g

)I-g

atll

at/I

N:P

0. 427 0.503
un 0.755
1.520 1.804
0.526 0.725
0.432 0.276
0.152 0.435
0.238 0.624
0.94 1 0.930
0.363 0.369
0.092 0. 165
0.095 0.325
0.497 0.509
0.539 0.729
0.317 0.472
0.135 0.136
0.088 0.318
0.624 0.459
0.652 0.425
0.421 0.577
0.086 0.228
0.093 0.352
0.315 0.410
0.664 0.834
0.285 0.669
0.077 0.182

4.79
4.75
2.94
5.77
8.62
3.53
3.77
3.59
6. 15
9.94
4. 15
3.03
3.18
3,45
6.32
4.47
2.81
4.85
2.51
3.33
4.43
3.34
3.73
3.53
10.4

at/I

m I

5.47
25 .07
46.62
13 .56
7.50
3.08
18.23
32.83
8.35
6.31
4.67
19.78
23.74
9,45
3.27
2.27
15.06
20.35
10.20
3.28
2.70
12 .8 1
18.23
11.27
4 .92

4. 10
3.44
1.90
4.87
6.31
3.97
4.81
3.45
6,44
7.39
3.16
4.76
3.73
6.36
7.28
4.45
5.43
2.29
5.83
7.45
4.37
5.68
2.37
5.05
8.29

- - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7

Temp C

Period
Mar-Apr

Air Water
32.2 28.5

May-JIm
Jul-Aug
Sep-Ocl
Nov-Dec
Mar-Apr
May-Jun
Jul-Aug
Sep-Ocl

29.7
30.6
29.4
22.5
31.11
29. 1
29.4
28.4

_---'_N
"'o"'""'-D",,,,,_~

29.7
29.2
28.7
24 .6
28.9
29
28.8
28

Ra infall Salinit)' TSS 1)0


mm
%0 m I Mill
78
32.8 3.75 5.24
545
24 .5 12 .05 4.78
1353
21.7 23.67 6.16
729
24,3 18.22 3. 85
13
30.2 7.52 7.32
78
32.1 4.96 5.9
545
24.2 13.49 4.62
1353
20.2 25.44 6.32
729
20.7 21.99 4.59

II
7.64
7.54
7.25
8.00
7.94
7.82
7.70
7.2 1
7.68

23 .8 _ _
13 _~2",,,-2,_-,-,,,-,,,, ----"
' _"-'.
78 _'__'_'

NOJ N NOl-N
!L-g
ll-l;
at/I ' :u/l
1.23 0. 105
1.56 0.576
3.02 0.763
2.22 0.3 59
1.61 0.084
1.60 0. 168
1.95 0.596
3. 19 0.842
2.35 0.387

1'0.1'
}.L-g

at/I
0.336
0.'175
0.741
0.573
0.251
0.181
0.5]9
0.61 1
0.564

SiO,
ll-g Chi-a
N:I'
alii m ,
3.66 3.84 5.29
3.29 10.55 6. 14
4.08 13 .76 3.63
3.87
7.84 6.87
6.65
5.73 9.63
4. 17 3.67 4.22
3.50 16.93 '.04
].73 25.92 2.90
4.2 1 10. 11 ' .90
'~
' . 7.73

_ '_-'_4_0_._"_'_0_.2_06__"'.,,,",--,-', -.

Based on this investigation inference was drawn as follows:


1. Inorganic nutrients showed fluctuations with land drainage. sali nity and total suspended
sedimen ts (TSS).

2. The variation in N: P ratios indi cated that nitrogen might be the limiting nutrient in
controlling primary production of the coastal waters.

S.

Occurre nce an d a bundan ce of A cel el' S hrim ps in t he Kutu bd ia C ha nnel of


Ba nglad es h Coas ta l water
M. Zalar and M D. Alam, /99 7. Bang/(ldesh J. Fish. Res.. 1(2) :9196.

Samples were drawn between June. 89 and May. 90 in the Kutubdia Channel situated at
2 1D53'36"N and 91 D 54'S4"E. Fou r stations were selected for drawing sampl es . Surface
water temperature was recorded by a thermometer. Salini ty and DO were recorded fol lowing
standard procedures and pH was recorded by a digital pH meter. Data on atmospheric
temperature and rainfall were obtained from the Meteorologica l Office, Kutubdia,
Bangladesh. Recorded data are as shown in Table 6.
Table 6:

Parameters

MOIlIMy \(lTiflliOtt.\ of lIy drom eleor%gical fa clors itt IIII! KUlllbdia CI,amlel, B(IIIgladesl.
Jun

Salinity'J60

),'

18.00 9.72
Air
32.20
24.50
Temp cC
Wa!cr 31.60 24.00
DO mill
3.51 4.7 1
pH
7.50 7.14
Rainfall mm
562.00 722.00

6.

,)C, lm F\!b M"


0<,
Aug
No"
S<~
10.79 11 .00 20.00 25.57 27.53 30.00 29.45 25.00
30.00 27.00 29.00 26.00 19.00 29.00 28.00 29.50
29.00 26.90 27.50 27 .00 21 .00 27.00 28.50 29.00
3.82
6.97
6.99
5.2H 4.63 8.35 8.34 5.35
7.14
8.00
7.10
7.16 8.30 8.40 8.22 7.95
76.00 465.00 512 .00 0.00 0_00 0.00 55.60 195 .10

Occ urre nce, abun da nce a nd spaw nin g o f Lingula anatinu in


mu ddy beac h of Ba kkha Ji river -es lUary, Ba nglad es h

,h.

Mar
Ae r
26.00 25.00
29.00 32.00
28.00 33.00
4.97
5.35
7.00
7.90
62.00 222.00

inter-tid a l

M. Zalar. K. Wouters, A.M. Belaluzzaman and I. J.~lam (/999). Pak. J. Mar. Bioi. (Mar.

Res ). 5(1):41-4 7.
Sampling was performed between October 1993 and September 1994 from the estuari ne
part of Ban khati river intertidal zone (Figure I). Water and sediment temperatures were
recorded by a bucket thennometer. Sa linity and DO were determi ned by the standard
procedures (Barnes, 1959). The pH was measured by a digital pH meter and electric
conductivi ty was recorded by a conductivi ty meter. Sediment sal inity was calcu lated
8

follow ing Richard (1954). Organic carbon and organic mal1cr were recorded following
Jackson (1958). Alkalinity and Bicarbonate were recorded following standard procedures
(A PHA, 1976). Results are given in Tables 7 and 8.
Tahle 7:
Munth

rem

Oct

NO'
Do:e
Jan
Feb
Mar
Ap'
May

~
~

J"
J"'

A"g
Se

Table 8:

Month
~

~
~

0"
Nov
IJ,~

Jan
Feb
Mar
~
~
~

f\pr

May
Jun
Jul

A",

S,

7.

Water quali~I' parameters of ti'e Bllkkhali HiI!er Estl/f/ry (Oct 1993 - Sep 1994)

C
27.0
26.8
23.0
21.0
21.0
24 .0
26.0
29.0
27.0
26.0
26.0
26.0

EC
II
8.51
8.42
8.25
8.30
8.52
8.63
8.41
S.60
8.56
8.75
8.68
S.52

-mhos !em
26.25
33.02
42.34
49.68
55.89
53.23
33.58
20.14
3.27
22.77
1.39
3.82

Salinil

'"

16.8
21.33
27.09
31.98
35.77
33.42
21.32
12.29
3.07
16.0S
1.45
2.59

DOml!1
3.02
3.59
6.77
3.16
2.57
1.49
2.03
4.53
4.01
3.98
4.63

4.32

Alkalinity
m
100

100
11O

90
1)0

145
125

120

70
110

70
90

IICO J
m I
244
250
207.4
280.6
244
274
219.2
195 .2
146.4
207.4
207.4
134.2

S e(lim ellt qllfllity parameters of ,lie illteniflal muddy beach of ''' e BaHilali RiL!er Dmwry
duril/g lull' water ~prillg (Oc, 1993 - Sep 1994)
Wet
fI
8.24
8.24
8.23
8.36
8.32
8.70
8.27
8.33
8.51
7.83
8.07
8.33

IJ'Y
II
8.87
8.89
8.86
8.76
8.69
R.65
8.57
RA O
8.04
7.77
7.85

IUS

Tcmp

EC

Salinity

-m hos/em
7.445
8.004
10.074
7.314
9. 108
9.522
5.934
Y.M7
4.9610:
5.106
3.818
5.382

9.53
10.25
12.89
9.362
11.66
12. 19
7.60
12.63
6.36
6.54
4.88
6.88

29.00
28.00
25.00
20.00
20.00
28.00
29.00
29.011
27.0U
26.00
26.00
28.00

'"

Orga nic
Carbon %
1.078
1. 115
0.774
0.5363
0.7215
0.8SS
0. 4997
0.Y75
0.536
0.6435
0.6435
0.663

Organic
mallcr %
1.854
1.9 12
1.33 1
0.922
1.241
1.476
0.860
1.677
0.922
l.l 068
I.J 068
1.1 403

St udy all immig ration of commercia lly important pe nai ed Shrilllil post larvae in
the Estu .a rine a rea of C hakaria , Co x's Bazar, Bang lades h
N. A-Io/lIIlOod (I(NO).
Ballgladesh. J25pp.

Ph.D. lYlesis.

Depol"llnelll oj Zoolo;.!,y. Rajslwhi Ul/iva.lily.

Water samples were ta\.;en from two selected stations of the study area (Mathamuhuri Riverestuary) at fortnightly intervals . Samples were drawn from both surface and bottom waters
with simultaneous record of temperature by a bucket thermometer and a thermometer
mounted inside the transparent Hyd rubi os water sampkr respectively. DO cuntent of water
was determined followin g Winkler 's 1ll~lhod (Barnes, 1959) and salinity by Mohr's chloride
titration procedure (Strickland and Parsons. 1965 ). Data on monthly rainnJ.lI and air
temperature were obtained through courtesy of the Meteorological Department. GOY\' of
Bangladesh . The recorded data oflh~ water qualities arc presented in Tables 9a,b and IOa,b.

Table 9(a): Monthly distribution o/meteorological parameters in rhe study area (May /982 - Apr 1983)
Factor

M"
M",

Air Temp "C

Min

M""
Rainfall mm

33.51
25.36
29.435
157.00

100
30.05
24 .91
27.48
11 64.00

1,]
30.46
25.29
27.875
866.00

A, .
29. 13
24.56
26.845
850.00

S,p
30.62
24.6 1
27.6 15
483.00

0"
32.08
23.81
27.945
].00

NO'

26.54
19.86
23.2
119.00

F,b
27.75
17.45
22.6
47.00

30.07
21.18
25.625
19.00

F,b
27.66
17 .5 1
22.585
0.00

M"

A,

25.28
15.84
20.56
] .00

30. 13
20.3 1
25.22
0.00

32.38
24.68
28.53
80.00

Do<

1M

27.17
15.00
21.085
0.00

26.54
14.30
2Q.42
8.00

Do<
26.23
16.20
21.215
44 .00

M~

Ap'
3 1.8 1
23.65
27.73
11 3.00

Table 9(b): Montltly distribution 0/ meteorological parameters in the study area (/lfay 1982 - Apr /983)
Factor

Mu
Air TempoC

Min
Mean

Rainfall mm [

Ma\'
32.12
24.89
28.505
182.00

100

1,]

30.86
25.35
28. 105
716.00

30.48
25.28
27.88
996.00

A,
30. 14
25.09
27.6 15
863.00

5,
30.86
25 .49
28.175
332.00

0"
30.75
24.25
27.5
379.00

No'
28.96
21.73
25.345
30.00

1,"

Table 10(0): Monthly distributiOll o/hydrological parameters in the study area (May /982 - Apr /983)
o

Factor
Water Temp

.
;;

'C
Surf
DOml!1

3m

M,,,,

Surf
Salinity %0

3m

Mean
Water Temp

'C
Sur(

.~

DO mill

i!

S:llinit)' 'K>t

,,'"

Mcan
Surf
Bot

Mean

A,

5,

29.18

28.25

4.60
4.69
4.645
17.58
18.\3
17.855

5.43
4.69

3 1.85

29.25

3.97
] .72
3.8S
30.34
30.39
30.365

4.52
] .%
4.24
17.40
17.56
17.48

M"

100

1,]

0"

NO'

1",

F,b

M"

]0.60

29.70

29.90

28.95

27.97

22.30

21.25

2].75

26.45

28.45

J.95
3.69
3.82
30.5 1
30.38
30.445

5.95
5.81
5.88
1.97
2.03

8.64

2.66

5.85
5.65
5.75
6.34
6.48
6.41

6.59
6.44
6.5 15
19.17
19.24
19.205

6.59
6.33
6.46
22.78
22.96
22.87

5.42
5.78

8.53
8.75

5.87
5.70
5.785
2.65
2.67

27.96
29.02
28.49

5.48
5.35
5.415
] 1.69
32.37
32.03

5.1 6
4.98
5.07
32.10
32 .89
32.495

4.29
4.04
4.165
23.4]
24.16
23.795

27 .80

28.60

29.65

28.87

28.10

22.67

21.75

23.25

26. 12

28.55

5.98
5.85
5.92
2.(H

5.94
5.69
5.82
6.93

2.0]
2.0]5

6.785

5.69
5.46
5.58
] 1.87
31.87
3 1.87

5. 14
4.78
4.%
33.12
33.00
3J.06

4.02
3.11 1
).92
201.7]
2S 65
25.19

5.06

5.56
4.97
5.27
8.83
9.] 4
9.085

5.94
5.43
5.69
2.61
2.72
2.665

6.64

6.92
6.70
6.81
20.57
20.12
20.345

6.8 1
6.35
6.58
25.29

25.60
25 .445

5.6

5.88

5.66
5.77
2837
29.00
211,685

Table !O(b): Monthly IlislribuliOll of hydrological parameters in tI,e study area (May /981 - Apr / 983)

M,

Factor
Water
Temp oC

-c

31.15
Surf

DO

.~

mil l

'"

Salinity

"'"

BOI

Mean
Surf

"0.

Mean

Water
Temp "C

30.22

DO

31.02 30.75
Surf

"'"

Se

28.68 28.20 29.38


5.34
5.22
5.28
1.79
2.21

mIll "0.
M,,,,

A,

"I

4.70
3.97
3.73
4.55
3.85
4.63
15.95 10.38
17.03 11.1 I
16.49 10.745

4.2 1 4.97
3.87
4.46
4.04
4.72
Surf 18.04 12.07
Salinity
Bot 18.69 13. 17
Mean 18.365 12.62

00

8.

'00

0"
27.60

NO'

Doc

27.90 23.75

""

21.35

Feb

M"

A,

20.92

24.32

29.50

5. 11
5.47
5.51
5.87
5.38
5. 15
5.21
5.31
5.60
5.45
5.34
5.4 1 5.74
5.42
5. 13
2.98 11.44 13.62 19.38 26.07
3.70 12.33 13.98 19.6 1 26.42
13.8 19.49526.245
3.34 11.885

5.63
5.26
5.45
2.00
2. 12
2.06

5.52
5.37
5.45
1.87
1.98
1.925

29.03

27.93

29.43

27.80 28.32

23.67

5.68
5.30
5.02
5.46
5.16
5.57
2.56
2.40
2.94
2.65
2.75 2.525

5.6 1
5.33
5.47
3.35
3.45

5.50
5.58
5.23
5.40
5.37
5.49
4.37 14.76
4.74 15.37
4.555 15.065

6. 17
5.57
5.47
5.87
5.52
6.02
16.86 23.00
17.32 22.87
17.0922.935

21.85

2 1.60

4.86
4.02
4.79
4.03
4.83
4.03
32.23 33.75
32.89 34.50
32.5634.125
25.52

29.45

4.18
4.97
5.36
3.97
4.73
5.32
5.34
4.85
4.08
28.37 33.00 32.68
29.25 33.25 33.8 1
28.8133. 12533.245

J.4
--------------------------------------------

Studies on the physicochemical aspects of the Moheshkhali channel, Bay of


Bengal
S. Ali, S. Sukanta and N. Mahmood (1985). Dhaka Univ. Studies, BXXXIII (1):43- 49.

Investigations were made between January and October 1980. Samples were drawn fro m
Moheshkahali channel (2 130'N and 91 0 58'E). Chemical analyses of the samp les were done
by using a HA CH water analysis kit (Model DR-El, No. 1206-00). The recorded data are
shown in Table II.
Table I J:

Seasonal vrtriati()IlS ofpiJysico-chemical parameters of warer


Temperature cC
AirL

M"

Month

''''M,

30.4

Ap'

)]

Feb

~
~

M,

- '00

9.

Water

26.4

15

28

16
20.9
25.5

32
29.9

29

2l
24.8
24.6

"I
A,
Sep

29.7
31.6

0"

31.5 22.5

Min
25
25.5
27.5
30

29
28
28

24 29.4
24
2R
27

Rainfall Turbidity

DO

Inch

m J

0
0.59
4.25
0
18. 10
41 .22
27.88
43.04
11. 14

5
10

mg/I
8.1
7.5
7.0
6.5
7.6
7.8
7.5
6.5
7.0
7.9

1.20

15
10
35
40
10
70
5
0

CO,
mg/I
8.5
9.7
14.0
12.5
10.0
11.7
11.0
14.5
12.0
9.5

Total
alkalinity
pH
8.3
8. 1
7.5
7.5
82
7.9
8.2
7.0
7.7
8. 1

Salinity

mg/I
100
90

75
80
80
65

"'28"
27
25 .. 9
25
22.7

60

21
21
20

40
50

28

95

27

NO~~
m I
0.00 1
0.007
0.01 0
0.005
0.00 1
0.00 1
0.002
0.007
0.005
0

ECOlogy of the intertida l macro-benthic Fau na in Cox's Bazar coasta l area,


Ba ngladesh
A.M. BeJa/uzzamon (1995). MSc. Thesis. {MS, University ojChillagong. I 99pp.
Investigations were made during October 1993 to September 1994. Monthly water samples
were taken from two sampl ing areas of the intertidal sandy Sea beach of Cox ' s Bazar and
the intertidal muddy beach of Bakkhali river estuary during new moon. In each investigated
shore three samplin g positions were selected according to the lidal submergence level
II

following a standard not clearly referred. Water temperature, pH. Electrical cond uctivity
were recorded by us ing a thermomete. digital pH meter and conductivity meter respectively.
Salin ity was determi ned fo ll owing the standard Mohr- Knudsen method (Barnes. 1959). DO
by Azide modification of Winklers methods (Lind. 1979). Methods followed fo r the
determination of Bi-carbonate and Total alkal inity are were not clearly mentioned. The
recorded data are given in Tables 12 and 13.
Table 12: SeasOllall'uriuliollS of wflIer quality paramelen' of Cox 'l ' Bazar l'um/y S ea bellc" (Oct 1993
- Sep 1994)
Month
M

~
~

~
~

J"

Temp 'C
28
29
22
22

r eb

23

00<
No.

"",

M"

24

Apc

30

M,y

32
28

Joe
J"'
A".
50p
Mean

SD

29
29
29
27.08
3.25

p"
8.66
8.61
8.63

8.7
8.7
8.81
8.56
8.96
9.03
8.76
8.5 1

8.6
8.7 1
0.15

ECIl-mhos/em
43.29
57.75
50.38
53.82
56.74
57.3
52.51
49.3
43.82
45.92
35.03
39.59
47.95

6.5

Salinit y %0
27.64
30.53
32.24
34.87
36.3 1
36.67
32.16
30.89
27.1
28.54
21.14
25.29
30.28
4.42

DO mIll
3.98

3.8
3.4l!
3.31
2.37
2.23
2.68
4.22
4.42
4.83
5.09
4.63
3.75
0.92

Alkalinity ppm
120
125

lIeo; mg/I

135
140
150
150
130
125
120
130

275.2
280.6
260.5
268.4
274.5

286
25.6.2
244
231 .8
268.4

100

"3

100

274 .4
285.58
27.17

127.08
15.47

Tuble 13: SemiOnal variation of different water quality parameters in tI,e intenidal surf ace water of
the Bakkhuli River-estuary, Cox 's Bazor (Oct 1993 - Sep /9 94)
Month
00<
M
~
No.
~
Dec

J"
Feb

M"
~
~
~

Apc
May

Joe
J"'
A"g
Sep
Mean

SD

T,m T
27
26.8
23

21
21
24
26
29
27
26

16
26
25.23
2.37

II
8.51
8.42
8.25

8.3
8.52
8.63
8.4 1

8.6
8.56
8.75
8.68
8.52
8.51
0. 14

EC -mhus/em
26.25
33 .02
42.34
49.68
55.89
53.23
33 .58
20.24
3.27
22.77

1.39
3.82
2l!.84
18.49

Salinit %0
16.8
21.13
27.09
31.98
35.77
33.42
21.32
12 .29
3.07
16.08
1.45
2.59
18.58
11 .62

DOml!1
3.02
3.59
6.77
3.16
2.57
1.49
2.03
4.53
4.01
3.91
4.63
4.32
3.67
1.33

Alkalinit

100
100
11 0
90
130
145
115
120

70
120
70

90
105.83
22.44

HCO)nl I
244

250
207.4
280.6
24'

274
219.2
195.2
146.4
207.4
207.4
134.2
2 17.48
43 .24

10. Occ u rrence a nd community struct ure of M olluscs with specia l reference to
hydrologica l pa ra me te rs o n t he intertida l Seash o re wa te r of C ox's Ba za r
MA .B. Bhlliyan (1998). M.Sc. Thesis . IMS, UniversityojChiffagong. /08pp.

Field investigations were made for one year between July 1997 and June 1998. Monthly
samples were collected from the intertidal sandy beach of Cox's Bazar during full Moon.
Water samples were collected from the surface by different collecting bottles and plastic
12

containers, preserved in the fo llowing way: For DO by KI and MnS04. P0 4', Si02' and
NO)' with distilled water, 0.5% H20 2 and by freezing. For other parameters, water samples
were kept in the clean plastic containers. Water temperature, pH and Electrical conductivity
were recorded by using a thermomete, digital pH meter and conductiv ity meter respective ly.
Salinity was determi ned by the standard Mohr-Kn udsen method (Barnes, 1959), DO by
Azide mod ification of Winkler's method (Li nd, 1979), Primary production by the "Light
and Dark" bott le techn ique (APHA, 1976). NO)-, P0 4' and Si02' were determined follow ing
the methods described by Bendschneider and Robinson ( 1952), Murphy and Ri ley ( 1961)
and Mullin and Rilley ( 1955). Methods fo llowed for determination of Bi -carbonate and
Total alkalin ity were not clearly mentioned. Results are given in Table 14.
Table 14: Seasonal variations of hydrological parameters and nutrients of Cox's Bal ar Seashore
water (Ju1199 7 - Jun /998)
Month

J,'
A"
~

g:

Sep

0
No,
Deo

J""

F,b
~

~
~

My
Ap'

M,y

J"

Mo""

DO
mV'
5.93
3.25
4.707
4.184
3.662
2.42
3.255
2.59
3.56
3.12
4.37
4.68
3.8 1

NPP
m cm1/d
2 19.775
172.35
178. 772
206.584
155.702
130.42
146.285
13 5.87
78.571
153.99
250.461
277.58
177.194

GPr
m cm1/d
348.978
2110.972
324.096
299. 122
328.418
181.75
204.46
162.048
172.235
207.235
402.248
373. 106
273.389

Alkalinity

m
73
'06
97
7l
103.33
102.25
10 1.45
11 0
8J

30'
228.89
359.57
303.33
226.92

36()
312
212

'06

219
36l

"'

348

81
95.752

13

HCO}

22l

300.475

NO}'

,v,

PO.-

,v,

Sial'

0.698
0.734
0.3 16
0.443
0. 182
0.48
0.28
0.23
0.27
0.4 12
0.52
0.52
0.52

0.168
0.118
0. 128
0.069
0.1138
0.076
0.093
0. 122
0.122
0. 16
0.152
0.132
0.1192

11.769
6.425
2.67
3.758
3.0659
2.0764
1.7802
2.3736
2.3736
3.96
6.428
5. 142
4.4 17

,v,

CHI1TAGONG REGION
11. An investigation on seasonal variation of micro nutricnts and standing crop of
phytoplan kton in neritic wa ters of the south east coast of Bangladesh
MN. Noori (1999). MS". Thesis. IMS, University o/Chiltagm1g 91pp.
Investigations were made between March 1998 and December 1998. Samples were
collected in three dominant seasons from six selected stations of the study area in the neritic
waters of the east coast of Bangladesh (F:igure I), Different methods were followed to
record different parameters: Winkler's method for DO (Barnes. 1959), Mohr~Knudsen
titrimetric procedure for sa linity (Barnes. 1959), for determination of turbidity (TSS) water
samples were filtered through glass fiber filters which were dried at 105C (>1 hr) and
weighed to obtain the quantity or suspended sediment (Waht el al. 1(97). NOyN was
determined rollowing Grasshoff (1964). for determining the NOrN Bendschneider and
Robinson (1952) was followed. The procedure of Murphy and Riley (1961) was followed
for determination ofP0 4-P. Mull in and Riley (1955) for Si02-Si. and for determination of
Chlorophyll spectrophotometric method of Ri chards and Thomson (1952) as improved by
Parsons and Strickland (1968) and new equations given by Jeflery and Hum phrey (1975)
were followed.
The physicochemical parameters as recorded from the neritic waters of the study area are
furnished in Table 15.
Table 15:

2
J

Some pl.ysicio-cllemical parameters as recorded at sit: different .~talimU" in neritic waters


off the .foutil East coast of Banglmleslt (Bay of Bengal) t/urillg 1998

Premonsoon
28.9
Monsoon
27.5
Postmonsoon 25.1
Prcmollsoon
28.K
Monsoon
27.5
Postmonsoon 24.9
Prcmonsoon
29.1
Munsoon
28.0
Post monsoon 25 .00
Prcmonsoon
28.6
Monsoon
27.5
POSlmonsoon 25.00
Prcmonson
28.4
27.5
Monson
Poslmonsoon 25.00
Prcmonsoon
27.9
M'onsoon
28.0
Postmonsoon 25.0

36.0
20.33
32.00
33 .00
14.27
30.00
33.00
8.3 1
26..50
28,50
2. 17
26.00
26.80
1.26
23.00
12.00
0
7.00

1.85
2.56
15.00
1.]5
1.84
18.00
8.26
4.46
25.00
41.16
28. 17
65.00
85.10
121.16
186.00
125.25
40 1.26
315.00

6.63
6.10
3.12
4.64
5.72
3. 10
3.98
5.70
3.25
3.32
5.00
4. 13
2.65
4.76
4. 13
2.50
3. 10
4.20

7.9
7.5
8.2
7.8
7.4
8.3
7.8
7.4
8.4
7.9
7.3
8.3
7.8
7.3
8.3
7.7
7.2
K.2

0.62
1.86
0. 16
1.87
3.46
0.35
0.92
3.18
0.48
0,5 I
4.86
1.34
0.32
6.10
4.73
0.22
8.98
5.11

.054
. 126
.040
.043
. 146
.055
.150
. 170
.020
.107
.170
0.060
.235
. 188
.090
.364
1.198
. 110

.305
.410
.075
.3 to
1.200
. 175
.360
1.100
.075
.:150
.870
.225
.120
.810
.285
. 110
2.330
.567

.673
2. 148
8.500
.769
1.735
15,50
2.930
1.487
9.500
4.766
1.900
11. 500
4.766
22.396
14 ..500
16.324
63.310
23 .500

Based On this investigation inference was drawn as follows:


I. Monsoon is the driving force of primary productivity in this coast.
14

50.5
1356.5
78. 1
50.5
1356.5
78. 1
50,5
1356.5
78. 1
50.5
1356..5
78.1
105 .83
1290.5
72 .3
105.83
1290.5
72.3

2.033 2.980
4.537 8. 150
2. 133 7.057
5.64 2.620
2.88 12.619
2.00 4.026
2.556 1.754
2.89 10.573
6.4 3.857
2.04 1.345
5.586 6.908
5.95
2.83
2.667 1.110
7..53 2.830
16.596 2.049
2.0 0.850
3.854 0. 194
9.0 t2 1.850

2. During monsoon heavy rainfall and flood discharge carry enonnous quantity of nutrients
and turbidity to the shelf sea allowing high productivity.
12. Preliminary o bserva tions o n the hydrologica l conditions of the Bay of Benga l
off the coast on Bangla desh
N. Mahmood and YSA. Khan ( 1976). 1. Asiatic Soc. Bangladesh (Sc.) 1 (2): 117-122

Investigation was made during March 1974. Samples were collected from eight different
stations of the Bay of Bengal off the coast of Bangladesh (Figure I). Standard procedures
described in Haq (1968) were fol lowed for recording different parameters, and reflected in
Table 16.
Table 16:

Stations

Results o/III e cruise in tI,e bay 0/ Bengal on BNS Padma (Mar 1974)

Location
nO IO'N. 91 37'E

II

21 40N, 91 35'E

III

21 IO'N. 91 35'E

IV

20"38'N. 9220'E

20 0 54'N. 92 II'E

VI

21 24'N, 9 136'[

VII

21"53'N . 9148'E

VIII

2210'N, 9 146'E

Time

Depth

Seechi
depth

Local

om

1050

11 00
1520
1530
21 10
2130
2 150

1600
1615
1150
1800
0120
0145
1120
1135
1340
1350

Air Depth of
Temp hydrocast
C
Meter

10.5

25 .6

31.75

15.3

11.0

29.50

29.0

Night

28.00

I.
I.

I.
I.

2.
11.0

196.3

28.5

26.0

27.50

179.3

10. 5

49.3

25.25

12 .. 0

21.0

28.50

11.0

24.0

29.00

I.

I.

10
10

Water
Temp

min

26.00
25.50
27.60
21.60
26.25

4.55
4.44
4.60
4.41
4.60
4.53
4.45
4.54
4.53
4.23
4.20
4.84
4.84
4.52
4.67
4.51
4.41

26100
26100
26.00
26.00
21.00
26.50
25.25
25.60
26.50
26.00
21.50
26.60

..

DO. Sali ni ty

19.68
20.50
24.10
25.05
29.56
29.61
30.08
31.98
31.80
31 .03
31.40
28.95
29.32
24.19
25.05
2 1.41
22.25

13. Studies on the hydrology of the Karnafuli Estuary


N. Mahmood, YS.A .Khan and M.K. Ahmed (1976) . 1. Asiatic Soc. Bangladesh (ScI
2(1):8899

Investigations were made during May 1975 through Apri l 1976. Samples were drawn from
four selected stations at fort nightly intervals within an area of about 10 mi les from the river
mouth to Sadarghat. For collection offield data and analyses of samples, methods described
in Barnes ( 1959), and Strickland and Parsons (1965) were followed. Study area and
recorded parameters are shown in Figure 2 and Table 17 respectively.

Il
.'

Figure 2:

The Karnuphuli river (lowe part) and location of sampling stations (I to 4)

CHITTAGONG
CITY AREA

BAY OF
BENGAL

km

Table 17: Summary of hydrometeorologicul conditions ill tile area of investigation (Muy, 1975 April. 1976)
Waler lem C
Ai r Temp C

M"
Min

DO. mill

H
Tide

MHW
MLW

Mat
28.72
32.39
24. 17
4.38
7.20
11.8 1
2.03

Jun
29.90
32.23
25.39
4.23
7. 10
12.30
2.67

J,'

Aug.

28.0 1
29.72
24.33
4.34
7.20
13.50
3.07

29. 15
31.50
24.55
3.93
7.10
13.80
3.24

Sc~

OCI

29. 12 28.22
31. 283 1.11
24.78 24.52
3.62 4.43
6.90 7. 20
13.50 12.70
3.05 2.62

Nov
20.10
27.56
19.39
4.35
7.50
11 .60
2.0 1

J"

Feb

Mar

A~r

25. 12 22.68 24.28


25. 17 25.76 27.51
13.78 13.22 16. 13
4.96 4.97 4. 16
7.70 7.30 7.50
10.60 9.90 10.00
1.40 0.92 0.69

29.69
31.11
20.66
3.37
7.30
10JO
0.80

29.35
32.96
22.50
3.36
7.30
11 .00
1.33

Dec

-----------------------------------'6

M,

Oct.
1.30
St. !
Bottom
2.80
,}
Surface
0.32 0.29
SI.2
Bottom
0.60 0.34
.~
0.24 0.24
Surface
St.3
~
0.34 0.2 1
Bottom
Surface
0.2 1 0.21
S\.4
Boltom
0.2 1 0.21 0.21
Rainfall. inch
12.29 13.34 35.58 11J7 12 . 19 9.33
MHW Mean high water. MLW Mean low waler
Surface

.."

14.

Eco l ~g i ca J

1""

1"' A" .

1.82 0.40
5.90 1.15
1.56 0 .. 22
2. 10 4 .90 0.33
0.75 1.17 0.23
0.84 2.64 0.30
0.2 1 0.35 0.24
0.2 1 0.3 5 0.24

2.95
4.88
1.07

1.44
1.56
0.46
1.44
0.21
0.33
0.2 1

&.
0.69
1.76

Nov.

0,,,

1.32 3.47
4.34 11.64
0.64 1.38
1.39 5.36
0.30 0.9 1
0.72 1.58
0.39 0.47
0.39 0.40
5.04
Nil

1M
3.80

Fob
5.58

12.40 14.07
2.32 5.38
6.87 7.80
1.82 4.00
3.75 4.76
0.47 2.48
0.33 3.40
Nil 0.24

studies on t he pla nktonic orga nisms of the "aida River

R. w.R. Patra and MA . Azadi (1987), Bangladesh J. Zool. 15(2): J0912pp.

Observations of water qual ity of the


Halda River (Figure 3) for the
present work continued for one year,
from October 1977 to September
1978. Collection of samples for
various chemical parameters (DO,
CO 2 Calcium and Phosphate) and
their esti mation were carried out as
suggested In standard methods
(AP HA, 1976). Water temperature.
Transparency,
Turbidity,
Conductivity and pH were also
recorded. Current velocity was
measured by follow ing a cork to
travel a distance of 3 meters on
waler. In all cases the final result
were 'calcu lated from the mean
estimate of four stations which were
calculated by tak ing at least three
consecutive readi ngs. Rain fal l data of
Chittagong for the period of
investigation was obtained from
Meteorological office at Chittagong.
Results of observed environmental
condi tions and physicochemical
qualities of water in the river are
presented in Table 18.

Figure 3:

17

Map showing Halda River

M~.

6.24
12.96
5.43
8. 16
2.95
5.45
1.30
2.02
0.84

A ,
4.34
1\.15

1.07
6.99
0.75
1.45

b.41
0.44

2.35

Table 18:

~
~

Rai nfall
om
7.21
1.09
0.08
0.00

Dot
No.

""

JM
rob

0.00

M",

~
~

Ph),sico-chemical/eatures o/the Halda Ril't!r (Oct 1977 - Sep 1978)

0.20
4.80
Ap'
M,y 37.52
Joe 80.70
J,I
28.30
A,S 40.64
50p 4182

Air Water
Temp Temp

'C

'C

26.73
26.45
25.13
23. 15
27.3
30.86
30.83
31.48
33 .00
30.1
3 1.2
31.15

28.25
25.58
20.63
19.58
23.2
25.88
29.28
28.61
32.0
29.78
29.25
29.33

- - --

Water Secchi TurbiEC


velocity depth
dity
em.lscc
om
m mhos/em
H
15.61 20.55
87.3 7 8.15
304.0
15. 18 20.98 319.38
91.69 7.36
12.S3 28.58 139.38
96.00 7.51
11.56
84.53 7.53
22.0 134.38
12.4 18.73 268.75
118.15 7.58
14.4 15.75
335.0
147.65 7.39
16.38
14.45 428.25
139.43 7.63
17.86 13.62 43 L25
73.50 6.96
17.75
51.58 7. 12
17.45 368.75
17.28
17.4
342.5
70.20 6.89
16.71
18.75 213.75
85.00 7.01
15.76
18.0 376.25
84.80 7.06

"-

00
m
9.05
10.98
12.45
13. 18
11.23
9.65
7.55
6.83
8.31
8.43
8.03
8.03

Free CalCO,
m 1
0.69
0. 58 11.56
0.28 14. 16
0.0 15.26
0.11 14.86
0.24 14 .63
0.64 13.62
2.29 9. 16
3.58
7.71
2.86 9.46
1.46 9.42
0.22 10.67

PO,
m
0.16
0. 16
0.15
0. 13
0.15
0. 18
0. 18
0.21
0. 19
0. 18
II. I6
0.06

IS. Effect of I ndustria l po llu tio n (Ka r nafu lly Pape r M ill and Ka r nafully Rayon
Complex) on the biology of the River Ka r nafully

A.M Bhouyain (1981) . MPhillthesis, Dept. o/Zoology, University ofChillagong. 196pp.


The effects o f Kamafu lly Paper mill (KPM) and Karnafull y Rayon Complex (KRC) waste
waters on water quality of the river Karnafull y have been studied from Jul y 1976 to January
1978. Monthly samplings, wi lh some exceptions, were made from six different stations at
polluted zones and th ree at control regions, for phys ico-chemical analysis. T he physicoc hemical properties of water were studied following A PH A ( 1976). The recorded data of
the water qualities are presented in Table 19.

Table 19:

PI'ys;co-chemical Factors o/polluted and control areas

~
c..

Jul Polluted 27.800.085


X x Muddy. grey
Control
28.90 0. 102 3.55
2 Muddy
Se Polluted 28.700.190 3.96 10 Slight muddy
P Control
29.00 0. 193
X x Slight muddy
Oct Polluted 27.760.172
X x Muddy & pinkish
Control
28.600.235
X 6 Light green
Dc<: Polluted 24.830.926 2.454.25 Slight blackish
Control
24.75 1.36 4.00
4 Greenish
Feb Pol luted 23.00 1.29 2.50 2.1 Greenish & muddy
Control
22.60 1.63 2.62 2.5Grcenish
M Polluted 25.00 1.26 2.60
5 Blackish & green
24.50 2.34 4.08 4.5 Gr..'enish
ar Control
A Polluted 26.83 0.525 2.75
6 Muddy
pr Control
26.50 0.518 3.24
4 Greenish
Jun Polluted 29.90 0.466 2.43
4 Muddy & black
Control
29.500.506 4.05 3.5 Muddy&grcen
Jul Polluted 29.00 0.3102.210 5.5Muddy &black
_ --,-_ _ ~C"O"
" t"ro"I_-,,2",
9.,,,01 0.186 3.50_3 Muddy & green
18

8 2: 0c::d i::u
"0 ~ 'n
- o:. ~
E "E" " E' 'E

'f
"E

0z :

.~
u Co

7.103 .903.2032.10
x 0.55 6.74 6.16
7.05 3.80 0.4631.0G
x 0.74 5.50 6.01
7.30 3.56 3.0328.60 0.35 0.60 5.33 9.87
7.26 3.66 0.7632,00 0.1 1 0.58 5.00 6.20
7. 58 6.40 3.76 5.66 0.34 0.5417.00 16.03
7.087.00 0.63 4.000.570.51 6.13 7.74
7.407.183.46 4.32 0.21 0.58 5.5012.03
7.35 5.20 1.00 4.50 0.20 0.00 5.00 9.22
6.93 5.03 3.71 4.83 0.25 0.92 7.00 8.15
6.90 5. 11 1.00 5.33 0.2t 0.00 3. 25 8.4 1
7.13 5.83 2.76 6.00 0.32 0.98 8.66 12.0 1
6.84 5.4) 1.23 5.66 0.36 0.62 4.66 9. 10
7.23 6.20 4.71 4.50 0. 13 0.7020.4 1 15 .88
7.25 6.61 0.76 4.83 0.08 0.66 4.00 8.67
7. 15 5.06 5.06 3.66 0.28 0.93 16.43 12.80
7.0 1 S.SO 1.00 3.66 0.20 0.77 2.00 7.20
7.235.03 4.00 5.00 0.20 U.83 5. 15 11.00
7.20 5.66 0.73 5.33 0.32 ~ 0.12 7.20

Polluted
Control
Polluted
Sep
Control
Polluted
0<,
Control

29.50
29.80
]0.60
30.80
30.00
29.60

No, Polluted

28.50

".

~
~
~

"',
1978

,,,

Stagnant

Control
Polluted
Control
Polluted
Control

0.206
0.26]
0.80
0.99
1.09
2.05

3.51 ] .2 Muddy & green


4. 13 ] .2 Muddy & green
2.55 2.8 Black &. green
4.06 3 Green
2.25 2.5 Black
4. 13 2.] Green

7.80 5.45 3.00


7. 15 5.70 0.48
7.80 4.5] 2.40
7.4 1 5. 18 0.3 8
7.40 4.45 2.80
6.96 4.98 0.75

3.50
6.00
3.66
' .00
3.96
4.70

0. 18
0. 18
0.22
0.05
0.38
0.]4

1.90 14.8214. 10
1.07
0.62
0.86
1.1 1
I.SO

1. 50
7. 16
0.66
4.90
1.74

8.00
11.00
7.70
11.33
7.46

6.86 5.25 2.8 1 7.09 0.23 0.87 5.73 8. 16

1.28 2. 17 1.5 Black

28.50 2.20 ].45 4.5 Green


27.80 1.13 1.83
Black
26.50 1.66 3.62
Green
23.50 0.98 1.36
Green
23.30 2.05 3.90
Slight green

--

7.36
7.70
7.30
8.41
7.40

5.8 1
6.51
6,Ss
6.25
7.26

0.51
2.88
0.7 1
3.6 1
0.56

3.76
] .83
4.19
1.1 6
4. 13

0.18
0. 12
0.08
0.16
0. 16

0.98 1.32 '.60


0.9825.4110.66
0.62 1.41 8. 13
0.89 5.32 12.26
0.62 0.57 8.00

---------------- -

Inferences:
The water quality of polluted area changed sign ificantly with the addition of waste waters
fro m KPM and KRC . N03-N, Chloride, Calcium and BOD values increased substantially
and Secchi depth decreas~d remarkably at polluled region in comparison to the control area.

16. Ocea nography of the nea r shore coasta l waters off Chi ttagong with some notes
on productivity
HR. Ahmed (l989). MSc. Thesis. IMS. Univers ityojChiuagong. 126pp.
Surface water samples were drawn fro m seven selected stations in the near shore waters off
Chittagong (Figure 1) by a bucket for determination of water temperature, dissolved
oxygen, salin ity, pH and settling volume of suspended particles during the year round
investigation (November 1987- October 1988). Air and water temperature were determined
by a centigrade thennometer and transparency of water by a Secchi disc. Data on rainfall
and sunshine of the investigated area were obtai ned Ihrough courtesy of the Bangladesh
Meteorological Department, Climatic Di vision, Dhaka. DO of the coll ected water samples
were determined foll owing Winkler's method and sa linities was determined by the standard
M oh r-~nud sen method (Barnes, 1959). pH was recorded by a di gital Coming pH meter.
The recorded data of the water qualities are presented in Table 20.

19

Table 20:

Physiochemical fa ctors of the near .fhort! coastal water of Chittagong (Nol' 1987

Oct

/988)
Stn Factors

Nov

Dec

lan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

l ui

Aug

Sep

Oct

1987 1987 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988
1988
Air Tcmp C
30.85 24.00 22.45 24.20 27.00 27.85 32.20 27.80 30.00 28.60 30.80 25.40
Watcr Temp C
28.25 24.43 22.85 24.10 26.25 29.03 31.50 28.00 29.80 28.40 29.80 28,00
I DO mg/I
4.270 4.940 5. 125 6.220 6.490 10.44 7.320 4,980 3J I8 4.313 3.982 6,304
Salinity %..
16.02 18.00 20.05 23.00 16.00 19.50 19.00 5.00 0.59
1.41
1.00
7.00
pH
7.43 7.71
7.75 7.89 8.07 7.75 7.00 7.00 7.30 7.10 7.20
7.00
WatcrTrans. em
39.7 42.0 42.7 41.0 41.4 31.2 42.3 39.5 42.2 42.2 42.0
41. 7
Air Temp C
28.25 24.95 24.75 28.80 30.20 29.50 32.20 28.50 32.80 29.90 30.40 26.10
Water Temp C 28.20 24.70 23.65 25.20 27.00 29.20 30.40 28.00 30.30 28 .90 29.90 27.50
2 DOmgll
4.205 4.695 5.215 5.850 6.300 7J20 8.400 4.480 4.312 4.643 3.960 6J02
Salinity%..
20.27 11.75 24.10 211.00 22.00 22.50 22.00 12.50 2.78 3.57 4.00
6.50
pl l
7.20 7.80 8. 11
8,10 8,22 7.86 7.20 7.00 7. 10 7.20 7.50
7. 10
WaterTrans. cm
38.7 42.5 47.8 42.5 40.4 40.8 37.7 37.9 42.4 42 .6 42.6
41.0
AirTemp oC
28.00 24.75 26.20 29.50 28.25 29.05 31.90 28.80 32.90 29.90 31.80 25 .70
WaterTem p oC 27.90 25.10 23.65 25,70 27.00 29,00 30.00 28.70 30. 10 29.00 30JO 27.00
3 DO 109/I
4.030 4.805 4.790 5.300 5.145 7.880 6.950 4.940 4.306 4.633 4.043 5.799
Salinity %0
21.50 24.50 26.90 29.50 24 .00 24,25 23.00 18.40 5.38 8.08 5.00
5.50
pH
7.50 7.96 8.23 8.15 8.19 7.92 7.35 7.00 7.50 7.00 7. 10
7,10
WaterTrans. cm
42.542.2 47.243 .0 42J 41.7 41.0 37.7 39.4 41.3
59.0
50.4
AirTemp oC
29.00 14.95 29.35 30JO 29.45 28.50 31.60 27.10 31.80 19.70 33.50 25 .70
Water Temp C
27.75 25. 10 23.50 25.40 27.55 28.68 29.80 27.60 3020 29.00 30.90 27.20
4 DO 109/I
3.660 4JOO 4.760 5.490 5.265 6.865 8,790 3.650 3.980 3.980 3.980 5J07
Salinity %..
24 .78 26.00 28 .10 JO.30 28.00 25.00 24.20 20.50 18.94 10.03 9.00
9.00
pH
7.88 7.96 8.29 8.10 8.27 7.93 7.25 7.10 7.40 7.30 7.00
7.20
WatcrTranS.cm
42.2 47J 45,0 42.5 42.6 37.7 35.8 41.2 41.8 42.056.2
56.3
Air Temp C
28.50 25.05 26.00 27.60 29.35 27.60 31.70 27.90 30.80 29.80 33.00 24.80
WatcrTemp"C
27.80 24.25 23.05 24.90 26.40 28. 10 30.00 27.60 29.80 28.80 30.90 27. 10
5 DO 109/I
3.925 4.380 5. 125 5JOO 5.615 7.315 8.4 10 4.310 3.878 4.971 4. 144 4.972
Salinity %0
24.20 25.85 28.50 28.00" 28.00 25.80 24.40 20.00 8.08 10.69 9.87 10.00
pH
7.88 7.86 8.41
8.32 8.3 1 7.95 7.30 7.20 7.00 7.10 7.30
7.10
WatcrTrans. cm
41.642.643.041.938.436.741.3 37.6 42.3 34.3 40,0
58.8
Air Temp C
28.40 25.60 25.95 27.20 28.85 27.00 29.00 27.80 30,00 29.90 34.00 25.50
Watcr Temp "C 28.30 25.25 23.15 25. 10 26.90 28.50 29.80 27,60 30,00 29. 10 ' 31.50 27.75
6 DO 109/I
4.024 4Joo 5.115 5.480 5.270 6.945 7.690 4.300 3.807 3.972 3.807 4.634
Salinity%..
24.14 26.85 29.50 28.00 28.00 24.50 25.00 20.00 9.98 11.02 10.00 17.50
pH
8. 15 8.00 8J6 8.30 8.3 1 7.88 7.35 7.10 7.00 7.00 7. 10
7.10
WaterTrans.cm
39.842.4 42.6 41.3 41.0 37.6 37.6 37.6 42.0 39.7 48 ,042 .7
AirTemp"C
27 .70 25.00 15.15 27.00 28.10 26.85 29.80 27.80 29.40 30.00 32.50 29.20
Watcr Temp "C 27.70 25.25 23.05 24.60 16.05 28.05 29.30 27.70 29.80 28.80 3 1.00 28.50
7 DO 109/I
3.970 4.390 5.305 5.850 5J25 8.965 9. 150 4.970 4.4 10 4.973 3.813 4.042
Salinity%..
24.92 27.25 29.90 30.50 18.50 25.50 25.00 20.20 9.46 10.98 IlOO 16.50
pH
7.947.958.21
8J5 8.29 7.9 1 7.257.107.157.107.00
7.00
_-",W-,,"oo',cT
"c-"'"ee',,.c"m"-__'"I".l,, _-,'"2.,7._',,-I
,
,,,,.6 ~~~~~~ .-..!l:.Q.~
42.0

Inference:
A marked seasonal Ouctuation in salinity, DO, Air and water temperature was observed
which was governed mainly by the monsoon and river systems flow ing in to the Bay of
Bengal.

2U

DISCUSSION
Although some of past works aggregated here say about micronutrients in the study areas. but
those are not useful fo r material flux study especially in line with fitt ing the results to any flux or
transport model. Data from those studies have been found unsui table for fitting into any LO ICZ
recommended box models, because they were not intended for the purpose.
Therefore. in order to bridge the gap, a gap filling study was undertaken. It involved field work
and analysis. but during the design stage of the present Meghna River-estuary study programme
probably it was nol kepI in mind to fit the results into any of such models. However. to comply
with the requirements. an attempt has been made to fit the data into a simple box model. Thus in
the current year (2002-2003), the Kamaphuli River-estuary has been chosen as an ideal site, and
to record data based on field work, dra~ing samples and subsequent analyses. Two other
members of our delegation are going to present results of these investigations in this Colombo
Workshop (9-1' December 2002). Future studies are expected to cover other estuaries of our
riverine country.

21

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22

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13

LlST OF SCIENTISTS AND OTHER PERSON ELLS INVOLVED IN RESEARCH AND


MONITORING OF AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT
(with their fie/II of interest)
Institute of Marine Sciences, University of
C hitta gong, C hitlago ng 433 I, Bangladesh

Dr. M. A. Gafur
Professor
Limnology
e-mail: vc-cu@spnetctg.com

Dr. Nu ruddin Mahmood


Profeswr
Biological Oceanography
e-mail: nuruddin@abnetbd.com

Dr. A.M. Bhouyain


Professor
Limnology
e-mail: vc-cu@spnctctg.com

Dr. YusufSharif Ahmed Khan


Professor
Limnology. Environmental Pollution
c-mai l: yusuf@abnetbd.com

Department of Chemistry, University of


Chittagong, Chittagong 4JJ I, Bangladesh

Dr. Nani Gopal Das


Professor
Coastal Aquaculture
c-mai l: ngdasrq)abnetbd.com

Dr. M. l amaluddin Ahmed


Professor
Environmental Chemistry
e-mail: vc-cu@spnetctg.com

Dr. Mohammad Zarar


Professor
Coastal Oceanography
e-mail: vc-cu@spnetctg.com

Mr. M. Helaluddin
Lecturer
Marine Chemistry
e-mail:vc-eu@spnclctg.eom

Dr. M. M. MarufHossain

Department of Geography, University of


Chitta gong, Chitl.agong 43J I, B.angladesh

Associate Professor
Ecotoxico{ogy
e-mai l: maruf@ctgu.edu

Dr. M. Shahi dul lslam


Associate Professor
Coastal Environment and dynamics

Mr. S.R. Chowdhury


Assistant Professor
Oceanography, Water Quality
e-mail: sayeduITchy@yahXl.com. sayed@ctgu.edu

Department of Environment, Gov!. of Banglades h.


Now.ab Sirajdowla Road, C hittagong 4000

Mr. Md. Shahadat Hossain


Lecturer
Coastal Zane Management & Aquaculture
e-mail : hossainms@ yahoo.com

Mr.M.Shajahan Khan
Senior Chemist
Mr.M. Asadul Hoque
Junior Chemist

Mr. Md. Zahedur Rahman Chowdhury


Lecturer
Chemical & Biological Oceanography
e-mail : zahedims@yahoo.com

Mr. Hasan Ali


Juni or Chemist/Aquatic ecologist
BCSIR (B.angladesh Council of Scientific and
Industrial Research) Laboratories,
P.O.Cantonment. C hittagong. Bangl.adesh

Department of Zoology, Unive rsity of Chitta gong,


Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh

Dr. M.A Azadi


Professor
Fishery biology. Limnology
e-mail: azadi@spnetctg.com

Mr. M. Billah Chowdhury


Principal Scientific Officer
e-mail : bcsirctg@abnetbd.com

Dr. M. Shah Alam


Professor
e-mail : vc-cu@spnetctg.com

Department of Applied Physics & Electronics,


University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
Dr.Shamsuddin Shahid
Associate Professor
e-maill : sshahid@agni.com

24