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Practical

Knight
Endings
GM Edmar Mednis
Practical
Knight
Endings
Grandmaster Edmar Mednis
1993
Chess Enterprises
Copyright 1993 by Edmar Medns. Al rights resered.
ISBN 0-945470-35-5
Typset: B. G. Dudley
Chess Enterprises, 107 Crosstree Road, Moon Township, PA 15108-2607
Preface
Ooc ofthc maoymarks show|o that thc |ovcotor of
chcsswasaco|us|smak|o thcB|shopaodKo|ht- two
ab|utc|yd|crcotp|ec abutcqu|va|cot|omatcr|a|va|uc.
lo mybok Practical Bihop Ending l addrc cdthc|mprtaot
pr|oc|p|csaodtccho|qucsof|ay|osamcco|oraodopos|tc
co|or B|shop cod|os. Thc |shop |s |ohcrcot|y a o|ca|,
stra|htforward p|ccc.Thcpr|oc|pIcs of B|shop cod|os arc
| ohcrcot|y |o|ca| aod stra|htforward a|so. oow|o aod
uodcntaod|othcsc pr|oc|p|cs,whco addcdto thc oot vcry
|arcoumbcrofsop|st|catcdtccho|qucsprcscotcd |othc
abvcbk|scoouhforthcpract|ca|pIaycr.
K|htcod|og|squ|tcothcr mattcr.Acvcqb|o-
ocrrca||,thcK|ht|savcrytr|cp|ccc.Morckoow|cdc
aod cffort arc rcqu|rcd to haod|c o|ht cod|os wc| | as
comparcdtoB|shopcod|os.Ofcoursc,Ko|htcod|osa|so
havc |mprtaotpr|oc|p|caodthcoccdtobmtcrcd. But
Kn|htcod|ogoccda|otmorc.As|mp||f|cdcomp|ow|th
B|shopcod|o|vcthcfo||ow|ou|c||oc thcspc|a| occd
|oB|so

co|og|sph|st|cat|oo,K|htcod|ogrcqu|rc|ots
ofcrcattv|tyaod ca|cu|at|oo.S|occthcrc |s morc tokoow|o
Kn|htcod|og,Practical Kight Ending |s,ofoccc |ty, |oocr
thaoPractical Bishop Ending.
Motofthcmatcr|a||othcb k|sbdoomywr|t|og
oocodamc|omaa|oc.Arcqu|rcd,thcmatcr|a|hbco
rcwr|ttco,cxpaodcd aod corrcctcd.Sourccs havc bcco thc
staoddooc.maaz|oc,bkaodpmoa|cootacts. Whco
appropr|atc,d|rcctcrcd|t|s|vco |othctcxt. Ofcoursc, aoy
crronrcma|omyrcpos|b|||q.lwou|dapprcc|atcyourca|||o
thcmtomyattcot|oo.
To cosurc that thc rcadcr aod thc author arc oo thc
3
sc wavc|coth rcard|o thc mcao|o of thc quct|oos aod
cxc|at|oo mks thcyarcud |othc charactcrit|oo of
movc,thcarcthcprccot|yacccptcdmcao|og.
= astroomovc
|| = avcrystroomovc,afaotast|cmovc
! = abadmovc,awcakmovc
!! = ahorr|b|cmovc,ab|uodcr
| ! = aocotcqr|s|omovc,amovcwonhyof
coos|dcrat|oo
!| = adub|ousmovc,forthcorct|ca|orpract|ca|
rcasoos
Th|s |smyf|fthb kforChc Eotcrpr|.l am happy
tob|atcdw|th th|s f|ocpub||sh|orm aod|tprc|dcot,
BobDud|cy.
EdmarMcdo|s
NcwYork,I93
4
Cntnt
Preface
3
Introduction
7
Pa 1: Material Advantage 10
Chapter 1: Knight v. Pawn 10
Chapter 2: Knight ad Paw v. Knight 16
Chapter 3: Materal Advatage AlPaws on the
SameSide
3
Section 1. Introduction 3
Section 2. Knight ad 2 Paws v Knight ad
Pawn 34
Section 3. Knight and 3 Paws v. Knight and
2Paws
51
Section 4. Knight ad 4 Paws v. Knight and
3 Paws
63
Section 5. Knight and 5 Paws v. Knight and
4 Pawns
6
Chapter 4: Materal Advatae -Pawns on Bt Sides 69
Section 1. Generl Prnciples 69
Section 2. The Strnger Side Ha a Pasd Paw
Section 3. Bt Sides Have Pas d Paw(s) 76
Section 4. The Stronger Side Ca Force
(Create) a Pas d Pawn 8
Section 5. The Stronger Side Cannot Fore
(Create) a Passed Pawn 98
Par 11: Positional Considertions 109
Chapter 5: Pasd Pawns 110
Section 1. The Role of Passd Paws - Generl
Considertions
110
Section 2. Outside Passed Paws 121
Section 3. Protected Passed Pawns 134
5
Chapter 6: Paw Stt
Section 1: Te Qeenside Paw Majort
Section 2: Charcterstic Dfciencie in
Paw Sttr
Chapter 7: The Active Kg ad Knight
Section 1: Te Active King
Section 2: The Active Knight
Section 3: The Active King and the Active
Knight
Chapter 8 Small Advatage in Knight Endings
6
14
14
151
16
16
167
170
179
Introuction
Caracteristic of the Knigt
The Kights stong point a:
(I)ltcao]umpovcrp|ccc - thus|scflcct|vc|ob|okcd
ps|t|oosorforcocra||of|ht|o.
(2) lt cao chaoc co|or rcad||y thus cao attack or
cootro|aoysquarcoothcbd.
The Kighfs weak point are:
(I)lt c oo|ytravc| ashortd|stccatat|mc thus |s
pan|cu|ar|y|ocffcct|vc|ostopp|op dpawswh|ch c far
away.
(2) Evcrymovcmust|ovo|vcootoo|yachaocofthc
co|orofsquarcthc Ko|htoccup|cs,but cach movc br|os
abutac|car|yd|ffcrcotp|t|oo thus|t|suoab|ctokccpthc
"status quo" aod |s |ocapab|c ofbr|o|o about a zuzwao
s|tuat|oo.
lo bthofthcabvcmancn,thcKn|ht|smuch |nfcr|-
ortothcB|shop.ltsd|mcu|t|c|ostopp|op cdpawoswh|ch
arc far awayw| | | bc |||ustratcd maoyt|mcs, start|o w|th
Chaptcr I . Thcsccoodwcakocssw| || bc dcmoostratcd by
mcaosofthcfo||ow|otwothcmat|ca||y|mprtaotcxp|c.
D|aram I (oothcocxpac)showsatyp|ca|zugao
ca. W|tc'sK|o|strappd |o frootofh|s pawo aodw|||oot
b ab|ctoctouta |ooa B|ack'sK|ocaorcma|oooc|thcr
c7or c8. lfwcrcp|acch|tcsKo|

htbyaB|shopofc|thcr
co| or, thc pos|t|oo |s a tr|v|a| w|o, trrcspcct|vc ofwho |s oo
movc.Yct,w|th aKo|ht,thcqucst|ooofwho |soomovc |s
cruc|a|.Thcpr|oc|p|c|sstra|htforward.
lfthcKo|htaodB|ackK|ostaodoothcsamcco|or,
thco|t|sbadtoboomovc.
7
lfthcKo|ght aod B|ackK|ostaod oo opps|tcco|ors,
thco|t|sotooomovc.
D|aram I
Thcrcforc,forthc spcc|f|ccascofD|agram I, thc fo|-
|ow|o|struc.
Wh|tcoomovcoo|ydraws,B|ackoomovc|m.
B|ackoomovc|mvcryqu|ck|y.
l. W Kc7 2 Nd4 Kc8 3 NbS (or3 Nc6) 3 WWW Kd7 4 Kb7
Wh|tcw|os.
Yct, |fWh|tc |soo movc, |tdocs oot mattcr howthc
Ko|ht]umpsouod thcrc|soow|o. Forcxamp|c.
1 Nd4 Kc7 2 NbS+ Kc8 3 Nd6+
Uofortuoatc|yfor Wh|tc, thc Ko|ht must movc aod
thus|vcupcootro|ofc7.
3 W.. Kc7 4 Nc4 Kc8 5 Nb+ Kc7 6 Nd7 Kc8! Draw.
Thcrc |s oowayforWh|tctoprorcssbccausc hc
caoootprcvcotB|ackfromshutt||obackaodfonhbtwccoc7
aodc8.Trythcabvccxcrc|.putWh|tc'sKo|htooaoy||ht
squarc aodyouw|||sccthatthcrc|soow|o,putthcKo|htoo
aoydarksquarc aodyouw|||sccthatcvcryth|ow|os.
8
!ustasfmstrat|oforthcstroocrs|dc|sthcs|tuat|ooof
D|aram 2, wh|ch |s thc cooc|us|ooof ao codamc study by
Kakov|oaodMotor.lt|sdraw|ncpct|vcofwho|soomovc.
Wh|tc'sK|okccpsB|ack'sKo|ht|ucdooc5toprotcct |ts
awo,wh||cB|ack'sK|o|s occdtoprotcct |tsKo|ht. W|th
|acktomovc,thcbttrywou|db.
D|ag2
WWW KdS
Aftcr I...Kc6,2Kc4!! |maftcr2... Na6,yct thcact|vc
2Ka5| ho|dc||y.
2 KS Kd4 3 Kb!
Kccps thc draw |o haod. Butp|casc ootc that |fthc
|mmob||cKo|htooc5 |srcp|accdbyaB|sho
P
oo c|thcrthc
dI=a4ora4c8d|aooa|,thco B|ackw|oscast|ycvcothouh
hchthcwrooB|shopforh|sapawo.
3 WW Kd3 Ooc|ttact|ca|try.
4 Kc Kc S KdS!
ThcK|omustbc|opos|t|ootorcachc2asu|ck|yas
|b|c.Thcrcorc|o|o|sthcoffs|dc5Kb5!!.5... K 6Kc5
7Kc4Kb2dB|ackw|os.
5 WWKb3 6 Kd4 Kxa3 7 Kc3! Ka2 8 Kc2 a3 9 Kcl
Draw.
9
Par I
Material Advantage
Chapter 1: Kigt vs. Paw
Exccptforoocs|tuat|oo, |t|soo|ythcs|dcw|th thc
pawo that has w|oo|ochaoccs.Thccxccpt|oo |swhcrcthc
|o|shcmmcd|oby|sowo Roothc2odor7thraok.Th|s
thcmat|ccasc |s | ||ustratcd |o D|aram 3,whco Wh|tc hasa
matc|otwo.
D|ar3
1 Ng4! h 2 NB matc.
Th|sthcmc |sudpr|o|ca||ya thccooc|ud|omot|f
|ocodamcstud|c.luparcc|opract|ca|amc|srarc.lf
|tw|||ocuroocctoyou,tat|sa|ot|
Exccptforthcabvc"forccdsu|c|dc',thcpawcoo|y
b aps|t|vcfactor. Obv|ous|y,whcrcthcofcod|oK|o|s|o
frootofthcpawo,thcp|t|oo|satr|v|a|draw.lfthcdcfcod|o
K|ocaoootct |o frootofthcpawothcKo|htshou|dd.
Thcothcfo||ow|opr|oc|p|cho
A Knight imediately in font of the passe paw cn
bitself stop the pawn, ecept for the R on te 7th rn
Thc usua| casc |sshowo |o D|aram 4. lt|sdrawo oo
mattcrwhomovcs.For|ostaoccw|th|acktomovchccvco
IO
hasthcfo||ow|othcmat|cc|caotdraw.
D|ar4
l. .. Nd7+ 2 Kc7 NcS! 3 b8=Q Na6+ 4 Kb7 Nxb8
Draw.
Ofcoursc, thcrc |soorcasooforB|acktooforsuch
faocystuff|othccxamp|cabvc.Yctthatdraw|omot|f|sa
vcry |mportaotooc aod oftco |sthcoo|yway tocopcw|th a
passcdpawooothc7thraok.
Bccauscth|sK|htfork|sootp |b|caa|ostaRoo
thc 7th raok, thc Ko|ht by |tsc|f|oscs. lfwc oow |ook at
D|aam 5,wccthatthcrc |soodcfcosc.Wh|tcthrcatcos1
Kb,trapp|oaodw|oo|othcKo|ht.B|ackoomovccaotry.
D|aram5
l. .. Nc7+ 2 Kb7 N,butthcrc|sooKo|htforkaftcr3
11
a8=Q dB|ack|m.
Th|s |s our f|rst dcmonstrat|on ofthc vcry |mportaot
pr|nc|p|cthatte R is te most di fcult passed paw for te
Kigt to stop.
Whcn faccd w|th pos|t|onswhcrc thc Kn|ht |s away
from thcpawo, |.c. |o thcbackof|toroothcs|cof|t, thc
qucst|oo ccomcswhcthcr thc Kn|htcanct |ofront of |t.
Thcrc|sncvcras|mp|cswcr.Maoy|bcKn|htmcu-
vcrsmustbccons|dcrcdtodctcrm|nc |fthcrc|sasucccssfu|
routcbackforthcKn|ht.lt|s|cssqucst|onofthcorct|ca|
kow|cdcoraashofr||||ccdmorcofhard,rurcc-
fu| aoa|y|s.Coos|dcrf|nt D|aram 6 wh|ch |s thc cod of a
I938 cndamcstudybyN. Or|or|cv. B|ack thrcatcos I..Kc5,
chas|nthcKn|htawayandthcnqucco|nh|spawn.Thcrc |s
ascr|cofKo|ht]umps,howcvcr,wh|ch|cadtothcopprtun|-
qforWh|tctouthctcchn|qucshownfrom D|aram4.Thus
Wh|tcf|ntofa||mustbf|l|arw|ththattcchn|qucandthcn
workvcryhardtoscchowthcKo|htcou|dctbacksoasto
ut|||u|t.Thcdraw|omctho|s.
D|aram6
1 Nc7+ Kc4
Wh|tchas|t cas|craftcrothcrK|omovcs. I. ..Kd4 2
K2b3 3 Nb5+ fo||owcdby4Na3or I. ..Kc6 2Nc6Kb5 3
Nd4+ Kc4 4Nc6|b3 5Na5+.
2 Ne8!!
I2
Thcon|movc. Wh|tcp|anstoct thcKo|tbackv|a
thcroutcd6c4d2. lfB|acktr|ctostopth|s,

h|tc hthc
aux|||aryroutcc7b5a3.
2 WWW Kc
Or2... b3 3Nd6+ Kb4(3... Kd 4Nb5b2 5Na)4Nc4
b2 5 Nd2.
3 Nf6 Kd4 4 Ne8! KeS
lf4... b3 5Nd6Kc3,thcKn|htctsbackasfo||ows.6
Nc4+|Kc2 7Nd6|b2 8Nc4|bI=Q 9Na3+ andIONxbI.
5 Nc7 Kd6! 6 Ne8+!
On|y.Thc Ko|htnccdto rcta|n mob|||ty. Los|n |s
6 Nb5+! Kc5whcnwc havcourstart|npo|ntw|th B| ack
hav|na|rcadyottcn |n...Kc5.B|ackthcnw|nscas||y.7Nc7
b3 8Nc6+ Kc4ctc.AftcrthctcxtB|ackhasnoth|nbcttcr
thtoacqu|ectooncofthcthcmat|cdraw|n||nc.
6 oooKcS 7 Nf6 Kd4 8 Ne8! b3 9 Nd6 Kc3 10 Ne4+!
Kc 11 Nd6! b2 12 Nc4 b1 =Q 13 Na+ Draw.
Ear||cr |t wasdcmonstratcdwhythcRP |s thcmost
d|ff|cu|tonc forthc Kn|ht tostop. Yct |fthcpawn |s far
cnouh awayfrom quccn|n, thcrc arc |nstanccswhcnthc
Kn|htcctback|nt|mc.Anccxamp|cofth|s|sfrom
D|@am7
I3
D| aram 7, a I932 study by N. Or|or|cv. Do not bothcr
memorzing thcspcc|f|csasthcyarcnotthat|mportantfor
futurcc. What |s |mprtant |sto rca||uthatthcKn|ht|s
vcrya||c.Thatapprcc|at|onp|usa|otofhardwork|sthcroad
tosucccssford|scovcr|n

thc corrcct]umps,wh|choftcn arc


qu|tcsurpr|s|nonc.Whttctop|ayandrawasfo||ow.
1 N!
Thckcyquct|on |swhcthcrthcK|htcctback|n
t|mctoh2.Thctwomot||kc|y]umpstoh2arcfromfI or4.
Thcprospcctsofrcach|nfI arcpoorandthcrcforc

4|sthc
on|ysquarcwonhf|ht|nfor.Wh|tc'schanccofcttmto4
arc a|otbttcrfrom bthanfrom corcI. Thcrcforc,on|ytc
tcxt|sworthtry|n.
l WhS 2 Nc
Aswasa|rcadysccnbythc p|ayfrom D|a

ram 6, thc
Kn|ht hasacccsstomorcroutcswhcn|tsstartmpo|nt |s
farthcrfromthcK|n.W|thoutpropctsarc2Nd+!,K|or
2 Nc2+ K| .
2 WW Ke4!
ToprcvcntthcK|htfrom rcach|nc. Aftcr2 ... h4 3
Nc5Wh|tca|rcady|ssafc.
3 Na! !
Th|saradox|ca| |onrctrcat ut|||thc samctcch-
n|quc|nthcprcv|ouscxampcwhcrcthcfarawayc8squarc
wthcstart|np|ntforthcsuccc fu|roadback.
Thc |o|cbch|ndthccorrcctncss ofthc tcxt |s as fo|-
|ows.thckcywaypostsforthcK|hts's rctumarc thcsquarc
c5, C andd2. Wh|chsquarc |sthc spr|nboard for rcach|n
thcm!Thcanswcr,ofcoum,|sc4andthat|swhatthcKn|ht
hcadsfor.
L|n|s3Nd8!h4 4NoK5| 5Nd4+ K4whcnthc
K|ht'srctumhbcnb|okcdo0.
I4
3 h4
B|ackm|ta wc| |pushs|occ3... Kd4d3... Kd |cad
nowhcrcaftcr4

c6+),w||c3...Kda||ow4Nb3h4 5Nd2.
4 Nc4
Byoow|tshou|dbc|cthatoo|yth|scaoworks|occ4
Nb3!Kc||cavcthcKo|htshutoff.
4 K
Thc Ko|htctsback |mmcd|atc|yaftcr4...h3. 5 Nd2+
fo||owcdby6NfI aod7Nh2.
S Ne+!
Butoowthcrc |soott|mcfor 5 Nd2+!bcausc aftcr
5. .. Kc2| 6Nc4h3 7N3+ Kf2thcKo|htc|thcrctschascd
awayor|strappdooh.
WhatWh|tcmustkccp |o m|odthrouhout|sthatthc
K|ht|s|otcrctcd|octt|otoh2 thcuarc |ofnt ofthc
pawo.
S

6 Nc4!
Backaa|o,foraocwstcpforward|
6 Wh3 7 Ne h
lf7...K,8NfI,|f7.NK, 3N4+.
8 Nf + K 9 Nx Draw.
I5
Chapter 2
Knigt and Paw vs. Knight
Thcmotbas|cofa|| Ko|htcod|og|sthatofK|ht +
pawov. Ko|ht.Much|skowabut|taodthcrcforcthckcy
[
r|oc|p|ccaobstatcdw|thgcatcoof|oocc.lw|||bd|uus-
m

whatlcoos|ortobnorl sitations, |.c. thowhcrcthc


Km aod Ko|htsarca|rcadyocarthcpawoorcao rcach |t
rca||ycoouh.
Thcdcfcod|oK|o obv|ous|ywaotstob |ofrootof
thcpawo,thcrcby|oh|b|t|othc
P
awo'sadvcc.In mraon
able cases the positions are rutme draws. Thcrcforc, |o th|s
chaptcrl w|||bccoos|dcr|ooo|ythoscs|tuat|ooswhere the
deending Kng i to the side o the pawn or in the rar o it. Tc
|mprtaotkoow|cdcw|||bprcotcd|ocoo]uoct|oow|ththc
fo||ow|oscvcokcypr|oc|p|c.
(1) Onc the Pawn has reached the sventh rank in sfet, the
win is assured.
Th|spr|oc|p|cmakcthcob]cct|vcofhowtohaod|cthc
N +Pv. Ncodamccasytostatcaodc|cartofo||ow.advcc
thcpascdpawo asrap|d|

asp|b|cthat |tcrcach thc


7th rk. cf|ntdco|tvc a|y|swprov|odby l. K||o
|oI867.Oocofh|s|ostruct|vcp|t|oos|sshowo |oD|agam8.
Wh|tcw|os,|ncpct|vcofwho|soomovc.
D|aram8
I6
Thcw|oo|otccho|qucalway consists of chasing away
the deending Kight. W|thWh|tctop|ay,th|s|show|t|sdooc.
1 Nb!
Wh|tc'sK|ostaodwc|| coouh atthc momcot |t|s
|o|ca|forthcKo|ttoctoffthccdcofthcbard.
1 WWWKc
Pass|vcdcfcosc|sho
[
c|css. I...Kc72Nd5+ Kd63
Nf6| aod a|rcady B|ack's Kmht must |vc up cootro|ofthc
qucco|osquarc.
2 Nd3 + KdS 3 Nf4+ Kd6 4 Ng6!
B|ack'sK|ohassuccccdcd |o kcc|oWh|tc'sKo|

ht
outoff6,thcrcforc,thcKo|hthcadfortouodcmoc
thcB|ackKo|ht'sp|t|ooood7.
4 ... KdS S Nf Ne!
B| ackprcvcotsthc | mmcd|atc cod bccausc ofthc
thcmat|ctr|c 6 b8=Q!!Nc6+. Yct thc |ocv|tab|c |s]ust
dc|aycdbyab|t.
6 Ka8! Nc 7 Nd7!
ThcKo|htoowproccdstochawayB|ack'sKo|ht
fromc6aodthatw|||bthccodbcauscw|thWh|tc's K|ooo
a8B|ackw|||havcoomorcopprtuo|t|cforaKo|htfork.
7 ... Kd6 8 N
Wh|tc'sKo|htcaomcoaccB|ack'sfrom,for|ostaocc,
a5,b4or c5. Thcrc|soowaythatB|ack'sK|ocaouarda||
thcsquarcs|mu|taocous|y.
8 W Kc7 9 NdS+!
Aftcr9Nc4Nb8B|ack|ssafc forthc momcot,thouh,
ofcoursc,Wh|tcst|||w|ossooocoouhbyrctrac|oh|sstcps
I7
w|th IONb|.
9.- Kd7 10 Nb Wh|tcw|os
A g|ca| cxamp|cfrom toumamcotp|a |s D|aram 9,
T.Wc|obrcr P.Oto]|c,I975C|cvc|aodotcmat|ooa|aftcr
B|ack's7Istmovc.BccauscB|ackw|||

cth|scpawotoc2 |o
safcty,hc|ssurctow|o. Thcamccootmucd.
D|agam9
72 K4
Wh|tcavo|d72K bcauhcwts to |cavcopo t
forh|sKo|ht. Aftcr72K, B|ackw|osa fo||ow. 72... Nd7|
(prcvcot|o73Nc5+)73Nb4+ Kd2 74Nc2 Nc5+ 75Kc4
c2.
72 WWO 73 Ne +
Thcamcwasad]ourocdhcrcw|th Wh|tcsca||oth|s
movc. Hcrc|ocdw|thoutrcum|op|ay. Thcrcao.
73 ... Kc!
lt |suscfu| to choosc a K|o routc wh|ch avo|dsboth
chccksaodcvcotua|Ko|htforks.
74 Nt Kdl
Th|sformat|oo |s cqu|va|cotto thatof thcprcv|ous
I8
cxamp|cwhcoB|ack'sK|hthada|rcadybcodr|vcotod.
75

Or75KcN4+ 76Kd4Nh2|.
7S WWNe+ 76 K Nd B|ackw|os
Thcstrcoghofapawooothc7thraok |sgcatthat
oftco |tw|oscvco|fthco

ocota|hapawo.A |ostruc-
turccxamp|c|sshowo|oag IO,aocodamcstudybthc
Arcot|occompr!. Muopub||shcd |o!AQUE |o 972.
Thc
}
|oo|otccho|qucuthcpr|oc|p|cdcmoostratcd|othc
prcvtoustwocxpc.
D|agamIO
1 K!
cad|oforthcact|vc|ocat|oooo D aftcrwh|ch thc
dccct|ooofBacksK|htw|||start.
1 WK
Rctrcat|othcK|o|soo hc|p at a|| as |tcvcocts|o
thcwayofh|sKo|ht. Thcfo||ow|ov|at|oo |s|||ustrat|vcof
that. I...Kd62 (3 Nc8+ |sthcthrcat) 2...Kc53Nc6| Nb5
4Kf8Nd6 5Nd8| (6ND+ |sthcthrcat)5... Kf6 6Nb7(or6
ND).Wh|tchdccctcdthcKo|htaodquccosh|spawo.
2K!
I9
Prcmaturc is 2 Nc6! siocc aftcr2... Nc8 3 KI7 Nd6+
B| ack has aiocdsufficicot timc to advaocc his pawo aod
obtaiosathcorctica||ydrawoQ +Nv. Qcodamc.4KC 5
Nd8c46Nb7c3|ctc.
2 WWWc5 3 Ne6 NbS 4 Ke8!
ThcKiohcads to d7 tochasc away B| ack'sKoiht
fromd6.Atcr Kf8! Nd6 B|ackdrawsasivco iothc ootc
aftcrWhitc's2odmovc.
4 ... Nd6+
Aftcr4... c4 Whitc quccosfirst aodthco stosB|ack's
pawo. 5 Kd7 c3 6 c8 =Qc2 7 Qc8| Nc3 8 Qc+ Kb3 9
Nd4+.
5 Kd7 Ne4 6 Nc7 Nf+
lf6. . . c4,7Nd5+ fo||owcdby8c8=Qwios,if6... Kc4,
thco7Kc6isthccod.
7 Ke6 Nb5
A|astasp .8c8=Q!!N7+.
8 Kt! Whitcwios
Whitc'sKiocomp|ctchisiostructivcricofmaocu
vcrsbyrcturoiotoI7.AftcrhaviocauscdB|ack'sKoihtto
ivcupcootro|ofthcquccoiosquarc.
Bccausc ofthcrcatdifficu|ticsthcKoihthasio
copiowith thcR, thc ocxt thrcc priocip|csdcawith that
imprtaotpaw.
(2) Te R on te 6t rank usually wns
Ooccthc RP has rcachcdthc 6th raokiosafcty, thc
amciswooiothcvastma]oriqofc. Acxcc||cotpracti-
ca|cxamp|cisthcp|ayfromDiaram I I (oothcocxtpac),H.
Pf|ccr B.Larsco,Maoi|aI974,aftcrWhitc's58thmovc. Thc
2
mutua|hfawosbthaddarca| ||fcc|cmcota wc||a prcvcot
thc tr|v|a so|ut|ooof58. . . Nb4 fo||owcd by59...Nxa6 aod a
draw.
Asfar as ourthcmc |s cooccrocd,Wh|tc'sapawo |s
a|rcadyoothc6thraokaodw|||bccomcapasscdpawo aftcr
thc|mm|ocotK7.Wh|tcwooa fo||ows.
D|ar I I
58 WW g
Act|vat|othcK|oa toc||m|oatcWh|tc'shpawo.
Obv|ous|yB|ackmustdmcth|oa othcm| Wh|tc
w|||]ust obb|c upB|ack's apawo aodthcopromotc h|sowo.
Thc attcmpt to sacr|f|cc thcKo|htforthc apawo fa||sbc-
causc oftc fo| |ow|o var|at|oo. 58. . . Nb4 5 Nf3| Kf5 6O
Nxh4+ Kf4 6IN2+|3 62h4.
59 Nt+ Kf4 MNx4 Kg 61 Ng! K3
Aftcr6I. .. KQ2 62h4oocofthcrokpawsw|||qucco.
B|ackactua||yrc|ocdaftcrWh|tc's6Istmovca hcapparcot-
|yd|dootwaottobshowothcprcttyw|oaftcr...
62 Nf4+!!
Draw|oawayB|ack'sKo|ht]ust|oocoouhfromthc
apawo.
2I
62 ... Nx4 6 Kxa7 Nd3
Or6... Nd5 6Kb7,or6... No 6Kb.
6 K! N a7 Wh|tcw|os
(3) A drw against the R on the 6th rn is pssible only in a
ver fe favorable ("luck) situations, and only if the defend
ing Kng cn attack the paw fom the rer.
As a|rcadysucstcd | othc prcv|ous pr|oc|p|c, thc
draw|ochcc|opract|cccvcryp r.Tohavcaoychaocc
ata||,thcdcfcod|oK|omustbcact|vc|y
[
|accd,|.c.b at-
tack|o thc pawo from thc rcar. A thcorcttca| cxamp|cofa
draw|s D| aram I2, aocodamcstudybyR|chard Rct| |o
I929. lt|sdrawo |ncpct|vcofwho|soomovc. B|ack's K|o
aod Ko|ht havc |dca| dcfcos|vc |oat|ooswhcrcas Wh|tc |s
haod|cappcd by hav|o
[
h|s o|ht awkard|y p|accd oo c7.
(AoothcrstudybyRctt|oI929hasdcmoostratcdthatWh|tc
w|os|fh|s|ht|sooc.)B|ackoo movcdrawst|ow|th
l. ..Nf7| - wh|cw|||bcoccur|o|oourma|o||ocoothcth|rd
movc. Thcma|o||ocw|thWh|tctomovc|sfo||ows.
D|ar I2
1 K N! 2 Kb7 Nd6+
Ofcoum,B|ack|o|mmcd|atc|yafmr2 .MM Nxc7!!3a7
3 Ka7
22
Bytr| aou|at|ow|th h|s K|o, Wh|tc has|vco thc
movctoB|ackrom ourstart|opos|t|oo.Thcrcforc,B|ack's
Ko|htmust|vcup|tsact|vc|ocat|oo,butbyaocyc|ashthc
draw|sst|||ach|cva|c
3 ... Nf! 4 Ne6
A|m|ofor c5.Atcr aK|o movc B|ackdraww|th4...
Nd8( +).
4 WWW Kb5!
Wh|tc's Ko|ht mustbkcpt away from C. Thcrcforc,
|os|o

|s4... Nd6!whcoWh|tcp|ay5Nc5|,rcach|othc Rct|


ps|ttoow|ththcKn|htooC. Thcma|o ||octhco|s5...Nb5+
6Kb7Kb4(6...Nd6+ 7Kc7|Nb5+ 8Kc6|Na7+ 9Kb7Nb5
IO Nc4 sccthc ma|o||occoot|ouat|oo.)7Kb6Nd6 8Nc4|
Nc8+ 9Kc7|Kb5 IOKb7Ka5 I I Nc5Nd6+ I2Kc7Nb5+
I3Kc6Na7+ I4Kb7Nb5 I5Nc4|Kb I6KbKc4I7Nc3|
Nd6 I8 Kc7Kc5 I9 a7 Wh|tcw|os.Wh|tc'sw|oo|omctho|s
ofcourscqu|tc|ostruct|vc,ocvcrthc|css|tscx|stcoccdcmoo-
stratcs how c|osc B|ack a|ways |s to thc abyss |o thc f|ht
aa|ostaR oothc6thraok.
5 Nd4+ KaS! 6 Nc+ KbS 7 Nb! Nd8!
Los|o|s7. . . Kxb4!!8Kb8Nd8 9Kc7Nc6+ IO Kb6.
B|ack'soo|yattcot|oomustbdcvotcdtostopp|othcapawo.
8 Kb8 Nc+! 9 Kb7 NaS+ 10 Kc7 Nc!! Draw
Wh|tchasootwayof|mprov|oh|sps|t|oo,c.. I I Kb7
Na5+ I2Kc8Kbctc.
(4)1f the R is not yet on the 6th rank the question always is
whether it cn get there under noral, i.e. favorable, circum
stances. Te psition is won if the anser is ''yes".
Amodc|cxamp|cforarr|v|oatthccorrcctaoswcr |s
D| aram I3, M. oacts M. Ta|, USSR Champ|oosh|p
I96869,Wh|tcoomovc.
2
Diaram I3
ltisc|carthatWhitcisclose toathcorctica|wio,yctthc
offsidcKoihtaodthcpawosti||bciooooo|ythcthirdraok
mcthcaoswcra ytuoccnaio.Wcmuststanthcp|aytoct
ocarcrthcc|arity.
1 K6 Ne+ 2 K Nd!
Thc Koihthas to tryto hiodcr thc pawo's advaocc
fromasaIcr|oatioobcauthcobvious2 ..9 Nt? isrcfutcdby
3 Nd4| | Whco aItcr3. . . Nxd4 4 h4 thcpcrsoo'sdccissivc ad-
vaocccaoootbcprcvcotcd,whi|c3...N4 4K5 N2 5 Nc2|
|cadtoatrapdKoiht(6K4d7Kg).
Wccao oowaddthc fo||owioimprtaotpriocip|cio a
morcforma|way.iopositiooswithaRP,aKoitsacrificcis
oftcothckcymaocuvcrtodcf|cctthcoppoocot'sKoiht aod
thusaiothc I2tcmpsrcquircdforvictory.
3 h4 Nf4 4 Nc+?
Thc movcthat throwsawaythcwio. Notoo|ydocs it
a||owB|ack'sKiotocomcc|or,buta|thcKoihtwiodsup
oo asquarcwhich offcrs |itt|cfuturc. O.M. Avcrbakh has
dcmoostratcd that a thcmatic wio cao bc aiocd with thc
ccotra|izio4Nd4| .4... Kc8 5KI5Nh5(Or5... Nd 6h5Nc7+
7Kc6N8 8Nf5Kd8 9KD)6Nc2|N7+ (Thcthrcatcocd7
Kg6forccB|ack'sKihttoapasivc |oatioo.) 7K6| Nc8+
8

6Kd7(Aftcr8... Nc7WhitckccpsB|ack'sKoihtpassivc
24
by9Nf4| .)9 h5Kc7 IO h6 (Thc Roothc6th raokaodthc
dcfcodcrpass|vc |sao assurcdw|o.) IO...Nd6(Atcr IO...Nf6
Wh|tcw|osw|th I I Nf4Nd7 I2K7Nf6 I3 Nd5+| .) I I h7
Nf I2K7Nh8| I3N|(ButootI3Kxh8!!Kf| | aodB|ack
draws sccD| aram I3. . . Nf I4Nc4Nh8 I5 Nd6| | aod
Wh|tcw|os.
1 WW Kc 5 NMNh5+|
Ovcr|okcdbyWh|tcwhcohcp|aycd4Nc5+!.B|ack's
Ko|hta|osastab|c attack|o |oat|oo aod |tw|||cot Wh|tc
va|uab|ct|mctochc|taway.
Ofcoum,5... Nxd!!wou|d havc]ust|f|cdWh|tc's p|ay
s|occtcr6h4thcpawo |suostoppab|c.
6Y6 Ng3
omparcdtothcw|oo|ovar|at|oo|vco uodcrWh|tc's
4th movc, |ack'sKo|hthas a |ot morcscopc oowaod thc
p|t|oo|sathcorct|ca|draw.
7 NDKd6 8 N|
Thcoo|ywaytochascawayB|ack'sKo|ht,yctWh|tc|s
forccd to |osc prcc|ous t|mc aod th|s a||ows B|ack's K|oto
comcc|ocr.Ocoum,Wh|tc'sK|htrcma|osp|ocd.
8 WWW NO 9 K
Both9Kf5(9... Kc7)aod9K5(9. Kc6) a||owB|ack's
K|otoctc|oscrtothcpawo. YctaftcrB|ack'srcspooscto
thc tcxtwcscc c|car|ythcchaoc |o thc pos|t|oo. Wh|tc's
awo|sst|||oothc4thraokwh||cB|ack'sK|ohasprogd
romb7tod6.
9 WWWN|1 10 Ng3Kd7
B|ack'sK|otr|cstocttothcK|os|dcv|ac8,0ctc.
A|sodraw|o aopcrhapsmorcs|mp|yso |s IO . . . Nd5+ I I
K5 (I I KO Nf4 INc2| sthcamccoursc.) I I . . .Kc7 I2h5
K I3h6Nc7 I4Nh5K8|dB|ack|ssafc.

D|aram I4
11 K
Harm|c . Wh|tcshou|dhavccha||cncd B|ack w|th I I
Nc2|whco I I ...Nxc2!! |oscto I2h5aod I I...Nh5+!! |oto
I2 K6. Thcrcforc,B|ack mustp|ayI I ... Nd5+ I2K Nc3 I3
h5N4|.Hcst|||drawbcauWh|tccannotct h|sawn to
thc6th rankwh||cprcvcnt|nB|ack'sK|nfromrcac|n8.
Oncp|b|cqucocc|sI4N3Nc5+ I5K6 N4+ I65
Nc5 I7Kf5 Nf7 I8Kf6 Kc8 I9 K7 Kc7 (Avcrbakh) aod
B|ackho|dbcauscWh|tccannotadvancch|spawn.
ll WW Kd6! 12 Ne2
Thcrc|soow|n,butnowB|ackdraw|ostaotaocous|y.
12 WWWNxc2
Thcamcwasca||cdadrawhcrc.Thc furthcrcoursc
cou|dhavcbcn...
13 hS Nf4 14 h6 Nc Draw
Bccau Wh|tc'sK|o|sonO,B|ack drawss|occ I5h7
a||ow I5... N5+. lncocra,aK + Ncomb|nat|oncan stop a
R onthc6thrank, c.. I5 Kf6Nf8 I6KONc6 I7 K85
ctc.
2
(S) Other pawns on the 6th rank usually draw, if the defending
King is actively placed in te back of the paw.
An cxcc||cnt cxamp|c ofrcat pract|ca| va|uc |s
shown |nD|aram I5. lt|sdrawn nomattcrwho|son movc.
For|nstancc,w|thWh|tctomovc.
D|@ I5
1 Nd6
Ic7fa||sto! ...Nd5 2c8=QNf6+.
l ... NdS 2 Nc4 Ke4 3 Kd6 Kd4!
W|th B|ack'sK|nact|vctothcrcarofthcpawn, |tcan
hc|p|tsKn|htkccpthccxcc| |cnt post on d5. n add|t|on,
bccauscthcpawn |son|yonthc6th rank,var|ousKn|htdc
f|cct|onsacr|f|cfa||,c..4NcNxc 5c7Nf5+.
4 Na3 Ke4 S N Ne! 6 Kd7
B|ack now nccds to show somc carc. Thus 6... Nd5!!
|o to7Nc+| Nxc 8c7s|nccthcpawquccnsw|thchcck,
6...Nf5!!a||ows7Nd6+. ThcrcforcB ackp|ay
6 ... Kf4! Drawn
Wc'rcbacktoourstan|np|t|on|
W|nsarc usua||yon|ypss|b|c |fmc spcc|a| factor(s)
27
a| |ow thc stroncrs|dc to ach|cvcbyforcc avcry favorab|c
p|t|on.Suchac|s|||ustratcdfrom D|@am I6,E.Pao|| -
M. Kovacs, unary I97I. B|ack on movc. At thc momcnt
Wh|tc'sK|nanKn|hthavccxcc||cntdcfcns|vc |oat|ons,
yctB|ack,bysacr|f|c|noncofh|spawnsw|||bab|ctom|s-
p|accWh|tc'sforcc.B|ackwona fo||ows.
D|ar I6
1WWW Ke 2 Nt
Aftcr thc pass|vc rctrcat2 Kh3, B|ack w|ns rout|nc|y
w|th2... f.
2 h3! ! 3 Nh
Wh|tc |sforccdtodcact|vatcthcKn|ht. Thc hpawn
w|||bwon,butthcamc|ost.
3 K! 4 Kh3
Aftcr4Nf3B|ackw|nsbythcthcmat|cKn|htdccc-
t|onsacr|f|cc4... Nh4| | .
4 WWW Ne!
Wh|tc'sKn|htnowcannotmovc.
S K4 K 6 KS K3! Wh|tcrc|s
BccauscofzzanWh|tc |othcKn|ht.
2
Twoadd|t|ona|pr|nc|p|cshou|da|waybkcpt|nm|nd
whcn dcc|d|nto cntcrorp|ayaN + P v. Ncndamc.Thc
arc.
(6) After the RP, the most diffcult pawn for the Knight to
handle is the NP.
Thcb- and pawns arc a|soc|osc tothc cdc ofthc
bardandthcrcforctcndtocrampthcKn|ht'sact|v|ty.
(7) Te defending King should always bin position to bable
to attack the pawn fom the rear. This is a much suprior lo
tion for the King than to bto the side of the paw.
29
Chapter 3
Material Advantage - All Paw on the Same Side
Setion 1: Introuction
Thc cocra| cxchao|opr|oc|p|ca| app|yto Ko|ht
codamc.
Thcs|dcupmatcr|a|waotstocxchcK|hts.
Thc s|dc dowo matcr|a| waots to ach|cvc routine
cxchaocofpawos.
!ustas|t|s

cocra||ytruc|oothcrcodamcs,sotoo|o
Ko|htcodamcstt|s| othc|otcrcstofthcdcfcodcrtohavc
pawosoo|yoooocs|o.Th|sm|o|m|thcarcathatmustb
dcfcodcd aod thus s|o|f|caot|y |ocrcascs thc chaoccs for a
draw.
Thcfo| |ow|o thrcc pr|oc|p|cs arc morc spcc|f|c to
Ko|htcodamc.
(1) Under normal conditions a two pawn advantage is a sure
win.
A ty|ca| pos|t|oo from a pract|ca| amc |s showo |o
D|aram I7.
D|ar I7
3O
Thc w|nn|ntcchn|quccons|stsoff|rstcrcat|nconncctcd
passcd pawosandthcncarcfu||yadvanc|othcm. W|thWh|tc
onmovc,amoc|coot|nuat|oo|s.
I Ke4 Nd7 2 f4 Nc + 3 K Nd3 4 t g!
Thcbcstdcfcosc.Aftcr 4. . . xf5!| 5 Nxf5 Wh|tc's
cooncctcd passcd pawns arc sccurc, souod aodrcady tobc
mob|||zcd,mak|nthcw|nrc|at|vc|ycasyto ach|cvc.Howcvcr,
aftcrthctcxtth|ngarcnotobv|ousbcauaftcr5hQ5 +!|
k5B|ack's K|n hsuccc fu||yb|okadcd thc pawn and
Wh|tcw|||havctoworkvcryhardto makc h|spawnsmob||c
a

a|o.A|oadv|sab|c|s5h5!|Nc5+ 6Kc4ND andB|ack's


ptcccarcwc||p|accdforthcb|okadc.
What Wh|tc nccd |s to ach|cvcthc pawn cxchanc on
histcms,|.c.w|thout|v|nB|ackthcopprtun|tytob|okadc
on 5.
5 Kg3! Nc
Aftcr5...h4+!| 6Kxh4 |t |soow Wh|tc'sK|owh|ch
contro|s5andWh|tc|sa|rcadyprcparcdtop|ay75 +.
6 Nd5+ Ke 7 Nc! K
Aftcr7...Kd4 8hQ5|Kc 96thcp cdpawnsw|n.
8 K3!
P|ac|oB|ack | nzuzwan. a Ko|ht movc |oscs to 9
Nc4+, a K| o movc a||ows9 hx5. Thcrcforc, B|ack must
capturcanda|!owWh|tccooncctcdp cdpawns |n afavora-
b|cps|t|on.
8 WW o4 9 K4 Nd3
Aftcr9...Kc5,Wh|tc'sK|omovcfo~ard. IOK5|
10 Ne4+ Ke5 11 Ng3!
Byprotcct|nthc fpawn, Wh|tccnab|cthcpawn to
3I
advancc.
11 Net 12 gS!
D|aram I8
Wh|tchnowach|cvcdconnetcdp dpawns|n thc
mob||cs|dcbys|dcpos|t|on. H|s w|n |s assurcd as |on as
Wh|tcfo||owsthccu|dc||nc.
(I)advancc thcpawnscarcfu||yand,asmuch asposs|b|c, |n
un|son
(2)kccp thc K|nandKn|htact|vcsothatthcycanhc|pthc
pawns'advcc.
12 W Nt+ 13 Kg4! Nd4 14 KhS! Nc6 15 Kg6 Kf4 16 NbS+
KeS 17 f6 Nd8 18 r Ne6 19 Kh6! Kd6 20 Nf4! Nf 21 g6!
Ke7 22 Kg7 Nd7 2 NdS+ Ke6 2 f=Q Wh|tcw|ns.
(2) When dow two paws, a draw is only possible in those
rare situations when an impregnable blockade can borgan
mor the defender's King is unusually active.
At|nt|anccD|aram I9,M.Ta|manov B.Sp ky,
Lcn|nrad 9, Wh|tcon movc,must|ok ||kc accrta|nw|n
forB|ack.hc|suptwopaws,thcpawsarcconncctcdandnot
b|okadcd, thc |ndKn|htarc |nps|t|on to protcct thc
pawns. YctWh|tcasoncvcryavora|cfactor. |sK|n |s
p| accd cxcccd|n|y act|vc| bch|ndboth pawns and thcsc
pawnsarcon|yonthc th|rd rank. Th|sfactor, hc|pcdbythc
32
spcc|f|c"qu|rk|oc "ofthcps|t|ooa||owWh|tctodraw.
D|aram I9
INt Kg4
lttumsoutthatooth|oworkforB|ack.OMAvcrbakh
prov|dcthcfoIIow|oa|tcmat|vc.
(I)I...c5 2Nh4+K5 3NO+ K4 4K6c4 5Nc5+ K3 6
Nc4w|thadraw.Thccpawocootcttocvcothc6thrk.
(2) ! ...Kc4 2Nd2+ K 3Nf! f5(or3... Kc2 4K6| KI 5
Kc5)4Kf6Kd4 5Ngfo||owcdby6Nx5.Wcw|||se aoccho
ofth|s|othcamccoot|ouat|oo.
I Nh2+ K3 3 Nf f 4 K Draw|
Notath|ocaobcdooc aboutthc com|o 5 Nc3 fo|-
|owcdby6Nx5.
(3) In endgames with a one pawn advantage the stronger side
has always much better winning chances than in the corre
spnding Bishop vs. Bishop endgame.
Thc supr|orw|oo|ochaoccdcr|vc from thc Ko|ht's
capab|||tyofoprat|ooosquarcofc|thcrco|or.Thcrcforc, |t
|sabIctohc|

|tsowopawotoadvaocc,a wc|Ia toattackthc


cocmyawos)oomattcrwhatco|orthcyarcoo.Morcovcr,a
b|ockad|oK|ocaobcchcckcdoffh|ssquarc aodthco thc
stroocrs|dc's|ocaoadvaocc.
33
Comparcth|sto thc B|shopcodamc. |fthcdcfcodcr
p|acc |upawosoo aco|oro|tcthatofthccocmyB|sho
[
aod has h|s K|ooo asafc ockad|o squarc, thco thcrc ts
abso|utc|yoowayforthcstroocrs|dctopoctratc.
Section 2: Kigt + 2 Paws vs. Knight + Paw
Th|sscct|ootakcathorouh |ok atthcN+2Pv N+P
codamcbcau|t|sthcmost|mprtaotooc.Thcrcofor
|ts |mportaocc|svcrys|mp|c. |t |s thcbas|c form |oto wh|ch
morccomp||catcdcodamcaobrcduccd.
Two broad pr|oc|p|cs cocompass thc N+2P vs N+P
codamcw|ththcs|o|f|caotkoow|cdcprcotcdthcrcuodcr.
(1) N + 2P vs. N + P is drawn, unless the stronger side already
has a passed paw or some other signifcnt advantage.
Thck|odofqp|ca|ps|t|oothat|squ|tcdrawo |sshowo
|o D|aram 2O, A.

arpov V.Korchoo|, I974 F|oa| Caod|


datcMatch,Oamc2O, aftcrB|ack's44th movc.Thcrc|soota
th|owroow|th B|ack'spos|t|oo aodhccaofcc|surcofthc
draw.Thcamccoot|oucd.
D|agam2
4 f+ Kd 4 Nb+ Ke
Ofcoursc,ootthc act|vc46... Kd4!!bccausc47Nd
w|osthcpawoaodthcamc.
34
47 Nc K 4 Kd3 Ne+ 49 Kd4 Ng! 50 KdS Nh4 51 Net
Ng! Draw.
B| ack's K|o |s wc|| p|accd for thc dcfcosc aod thc
Ko|htt|cdowo Wh|tc'sKo|httothcdcfcnofthcpawo.
Thcrc|sabso|utc|yoowayforWh|tctomakcaoyprorc .
Koow|opr|oc|p|c(I)a||owWh|tctohand|cw|thca
thc pos|t|oo |o D| aram 2I, E. Mcdo|s B. Amos, S|cco
O|yp|ad I97O,AftcrB|ack'sIOIstmovc.
D|aram2I
102 Nx3!
Wh|tc|squ|tchappytocotcrasccurc|ydrawo N+2P
vs.. N+Pcodamc. lo a
[
ract|ca|amc,foo||sh |s thcrccdy
IO2Kc2!| cvco thouh ttappcarsthat Wh|tc caodrawaftcr
IO2,.. 2. IO3Nc3+ Kb4 IO4Nc2Ka3 IO5NI b5 IO6 Nc2
Ka2 IO7 NcI+ KaI IO8 Nc2 b4 IO9 NI a4| I IO Nc2|
(Wh|tc |oaftcr I IO bx4!! Ka2|) I IO... Ka2 (I IO ... a3 offcn
oow|oo|ochaoccs|occB|ack'sK|orcma|osbxcd|ooothc
af||c.Aftcr I IO... I=Q I I I NxI a2 Wh|tc |s savcd by a
Ko|htchcck. I I2bxa4b3+ I I3 Kd2| b2 4Nc2bI =Q I I5
Nc+)I I I Nc! + Ka3 I I2Nc2b3+ I I3KbI d Wh|tc |s
safc.
102 WWW Nd4 103 Kc Draw.
Offcrcd by B|ack. Wh|tc's pos|t|oo |soot as act|vc as
B|ack'swas|othcprcv|ouscxamp|c,but|t|suodcnouh for
35
accrta|odraw.A||kc|coot|ouat|oo|sIO3...Nc6 IONc4Nc5
IO5Nd6+ Kc6(IO5...a6 I0b) I0Nc4Na6 IO7Kb2Kb5
IO8KcwhcoB|ackhasshowoooprorc .
Drawo a| |s D|agam22,M.Stcao E. Oc||cr, Euro-
p Tcam Champ|oosh|p, Bath Eo|d, !973, aftcr B|ack's
5Oth movc.Howcvcr, as drawo pos|t|ooso, th|s |safa|r|y
favorab|coocforB|ack.h|spawosarcc||c,K|opos|t|oo
o,wh||cWh|tc'sKo|ht|smomcotar||yp |vc.Thcthcorc-
t|c|aoscaod|sm|ssuchp|t|oosas''obv|ousdraw .. , but in ral
lie the are played out. hus,|t|s|mportaottoootoo|ykoow
howto dcfcodthcmfor adraw,buta|howtouccuthcm
|otry|oforthcw|o. OMOc||crd|dtrytow|oth|sps|t|oofor
ovcr5Omovc.
D|aram22
Ncvcnhc|c ,thcwcakcrs|oshou|dhavcooqua|ms|o
acccpt|oaD| aram22tyc pos|t|oo |o tr
)
|oto sccurcthc
draw. Uo||kc,for |ostaocc,sav|o adraw m thc R+B vs. R
codamc,wh|ch rcqu|rcs||caotspc|f|cthcorct|ca| koow|-
cdc aswc| | asrcatcarc, oorma|scos|b|cp|a
)
|s a|| that |s
rcqu|rcdhcrc.Forthcp|ayto comc, fo||owtc tdcas |ovo|vcd
aoddo oot bcd|stractcdbyoccurrcoccssuch asrcpct|t|ooof
movc.Thcarca|va||dpartsofpract|ca|chc stratcg.
51 Ke4!
Qu|tccorrcct|yWh|tc'sK|owaots tobcwhcrc thc
act|oow|||b.thck|og|dc.
36
51 Nd6+ 52 Kf Nf 53 Nd2 Ng7
Thc|mmcd|atc53... h5|sofcoump|ayab|c,butB|ack|s
in nohurry. Wh|tccaoootprcvcntthat,anyway, andB|ack
wants toct c|oscrtothct|mccontro| at movc 56 bcforc
moy|ncvcn|b|cdcc|s|on abutpush|npaws.Away
rcmcmbrthatPawmovccannotbtakcnbac
54 Kg4 Kg6 55 Ne4 h5+ 56 K K 57 Nd6+ KeS 58 Nc4+
Kd5 59 N6+ Ke4 MNd7!
Kn|hts arc most cffcct|vc |n attack|n pawns from
behind. Wh|tchcadsforf6 whcrc|twou|daccomp||shoocof
thcfo||ow|n.forccB|ack'sK|nback,t|cdown B|ack'sK|ht
tothcdcfcnscofthchpawoororccthchpamfomard.
60 WW Nf+ 61 Kf Kf4
Comparcdtothcstart|o

d|aram pos|t|oo B|ackhas


madcoo|tcprorc |oact|vath|sK|o.
62 Nf6! Ng7
On h|span,Wh|tc'sprccpt|vcK|htmcuvcnhavc
caud B|ack's Kn|ht torctrcat. Throuhout thc amc B|ack
avo|dp|ay|n ... h4,bcauw|th Wh|tc'spawoon h3,B|ack's
pawo cou|d oot advancc w|thout a||ow|o a rout|oc pawn
cxchaoc.Thc rcu|tofhav|napawnfomat|onofWh|tc.h3;
B|ack.5,h4 |s that B|ack'spawn |scons|dcrcdtob "fxcd"
on5,wh||cWh|tccffcct|vc|ycootro|of4.Such p|t|ons
offcrB|ackscantw|nn|nchancc.
63 h3!
B|ackwasp|ann|n63... 4 fo||owcd by ... h4, thcrcby
furthcrcocroach|non Wh|tc'sspaccon thck|ng|dc.Thctcxt
prcvcotsth|sfora|It|mc.ThcPawoooh3|sab|tmorcw|ncr-
ab|cthaoooh2,butWh|tccaoprotcct|twcIIcoouh.Wh|tc's
movcturosoutto bcthc Iastpawo movc |o thc amc s|occ
B|ackcunoattract|vcmomcntforp|ay|nc|thcr... 4or... h4.
W|thoutacapturcorpawomovcth|s

amccaoprocccdon|y
5O movcs bcforc c|thcr s|dc can c|atm a draw. Hcrc that
37
momcot|saftcrmovcI I3.
63 ..Ke 6 Nd7 + Ke Nc + K 6 K!
B|ackhaschascdawaythcKo|ht, but oowWh|tc's
K|ocua|oat|oooocraokfomard.
6 M Ne6 67 Nd3
Wh|tccao cotcradrawo K&Pcodamcaftcr67Nxc6
Kxc6 b Kc2| whco Wh|tc ctab||shc thc d|staot opps|t|oo.
Th|s|ssuff|c|cottodrawbccauscthcprcscoccofthchpawo
mbB|ackofthcusua|w|oo|oopprtuo|t|c.
67 ... Nf4 6 Nt Ng6 69 Ke Ne7 70 Nl!
Ao cxcc| |cot dcfcos|vc maocuvcr,wh|ch kccps rcap-
pcar|o. Wh|tc ' ' thrcatcos'' aN3 attack|o B|ack's hpawo,
wh||ca|sob|orcadytorctumtoQtoprotccth|sowopawo.
Thcrc|soowayforB|acktobrcakth|sp|ao.
70 W Ke 71 Nt
D|@2
Aa|o,]usta oomovc67(aod|atcroomovc79)Wh|tc
caocotcradrawoK&Pcodgctcr7INgNf5+ 72Nx5
Kx5 73K. loa|||ostaocc

Stcaodcc||octhcs|mp||f|ca
t|oo.Fromapract|ca|staodpo|otth|s|swc||]ust|f|cd.ccao
bsurcthattcKo|htcodamc|sathcorct|ca|draw. Yctthc
K &P codamc |sc|thcr athcorct|ca|draworathcorct|ca|
38
|os. lfyoukoowforsurc,ofor|t.Butdootuc |Awroo
uc mcaostum|oadrawoKo|htcodamc|otoa|otK&
codamc,whcrcasacorrcctuc ]ust spcds up thc ach|cvc-
mcotofadraw. lt |s |mpnantto rca||u thatthccx|stcoccof
thc ava||ab|cdraw |o tc K & Pcodamc |sspcc|f|c for thc
pawo format|oo dthcK|o|oat|oos. loothcrwords, Wh|tc
caoach|cvcc|thcrthcoormaord|staotopps|t|oosthcyarc
rcqu|rcd.
71 WWNf+ 72 K Nd4+ 73 Ke Nc2+ 79 K K 75 N1!
Ne1 + 76 Ke2 Ng 77 K Nh4+ 78 Ke Kg6 79 Nt
Coot|ou| ow|th thctr|cdaod truc.Aa|o 79N3 |s
p|ayab|c whco 79... Nf5+ 8O Nx5 K5 8I Kf3 |sthc samc
drawops|t|oo|vcoabvc aod79...N2+ 8K Nf4 a||ows
thcdraw|o8Ih4| .
79 WNg+ WK Ne1 + 81 Ke2 Nc2 8 K K 8 N1!
Wchavcthcsamcps|t|ooasaftcr Wh|tc's7Oth movc,
cxccpt that B|ack'sKo|ht |soo c2 rathcr thao c7. Th|s|sof
||tt|c |mportaocc.Whatmattcrs|sthatWh|tc'sKo|htknows
thcr|htmcuvcr.NhI | w|ththc|dcasNDorN3.
8 WW Nd4+ KeJ Ne6 8 K Nc &Nt
Hcrctos|mp|crcms86N3+ K6 87NhI.
&W Nd7 8Nd1!
Hcrc a b|t ofa chaoc ofp|ans |s adv|sab|c.Aftcr87
NhI!| Nc5+ 88KD(88Kc3!| Nc4+ 89KO!Nd2+ W Kc3
Nc4) 88. . . Kf4 89 N3 Nd3+ 9O K2 h4 Wh|tc has bcco
pushcd back|oto a vcrypass|vcaoduoattract|vc pos|t|oo.
Uo|c rcqu|rcd,thcrc|s]ustoosco|occd|omuchspacc
tothccocmy.
87 WNe+ 8 Ke Nc4+ 89 K KeS 9 Nt! Kd4
B|ackqu|tc |o

|ca||yattcmptstopcoctratcw|th thc
K|o.Ncvcrthc|css,wtththchc|poftact|cs, Wh|tc|sab|cto
kccpB|ackout.Notca|how|mpnaot|t|sforB|acktokccp
39
h|shpawo ooh5 a othcrw|sc Wh|tcpoctratcw|th h|sK|o
aftcr4.
91 K3! NeS
Thc|mmcd|atc9I...Kca||owbth92h44 93NQ4+
aod92N4+| hx4(othcm|93Nf6) 93K4 |ocach ca
a||ofB|ack'spawosw|||booc.
9 Nd1 Kd3 93 Nf+ Ke3 94 Nd1 + Kd3 95 Nf+ Kd4
A uowtcdrctrcat,yctthcact|vc95...Kc2|sfo||cdby
9h4|4 97Nx4| | Nx4 (97... 4 98h5) 98K4Nf6 9K5
K I0Kx6K4 IOIc5Kh4 IO2Kf4,w|thadraw.
96 Nd1 ND3 97 K Ne1 + 98 Kf ND3+ 99 K KeS 100
Ke3 Nf4 101 Nf Nd+ 102 K
D|aram24
Wc arcprcttymuchbackto thc pos|t|oosccoth|rty
movccar||cr|
102 ... Nf 103 Ke3 K 104 K Nd 105 Nh1! Ke Draw.
OffcrcdbyB|ackwhof| oa||ydcc|dcsto|vc up thc
host. Wh|tcwou|dhavc p|aycd IO6N3| wh|ch forccs thc
uodcs|rab|c IO6... h4whcoB| ack'sw|oo|ochaoccsarcscaot
aftcr IO7Nc4Kf5 IO8Nd6+ ctc.B|ackcaoootkccp h|spawo
format|oowho|cw|th IO6... Nf6 (or IO6... Nf4) bccauscofIO7
Nxh5|Nxh5 IO8K4.
4
A|oagcadamc!Yc,dc||a|tc|y.botpart|cu|ar|y|atcr-
cst|ag!Qu|tcproab|yso.O|pract|ca|va|uc!Vcrymuchso!
Aadthat'swhatth|sb k|sabut!
1ocaab|cthcstroagcrs|dctow|aw|ththco|pawa
coa||gurat|oasshowa |a D|a

rams 20-22, somcthug spcc|a|


mustcx|st.Oacsuchs|tuat|oaisshowa|aD|agram,D.
Rajkov|c - R.mar|c,Yugo|av|a I974,wh|tcoa movc.Atthc
momcatwh|tc|suptwopawas,ycta|tcrthc|mm|acat|oo|
thc|pawawh|tcwi||b|c|tw|ththcapparcat|yuaw|aaab|cb
+ 2Pvs. b + Pcoa||gurat|oad|scusscdcar||cr. Howcvcr,
wh|tc ||adsa mostca||ghtca|agmaacuvcrto makc |||c ua-
p|casaat|or8|ack.l|8|ackcapturcsthc|pawa,hcw|||w|ad
apw|th|mpr|soacdka|ght.1h|s|show|twasdoac.
U|agram25
1 Ke! !
lasu|c|cat |s I kO!! bcausc 8|ack's ka|ght bcomc
act|vca|tcrI...Nd! . 2kg4(or2g4h5!whcaac|thcr3bh6aor
3g5+ kx|5w|||w|abccausc 8|ack'sp|cccs arcvcryact|vc.)
2 . . . bc5+ 3 kh5 km5 4kxh6kg4aadaga|a 8|acsact|vc
p|ccc|ocat|oaw|||stopwh|tc'spawas.5h5NO+! 6kg7(6
kg6Nc5+ 7k6kxh)6... k! 7K kg4. laa||o|thc
var|at|oaswh|tc|shaad|cappcdbyhav|agh|sk|ghto||s|dc.
1 N3!?
1h|s|sthcoa|ywaytoprcvcat wh|tc|rom succcss
|u||yprotcct|agthc|pawa.A|tcrothcrka|ghtmovcswh|tc
4I
w|asw|ththcs|mp|c2k|4.Atcrthctcxt,2g4!aga|aa||ows
2. . . h5! w|thadraw.wh|tcmust,thcrc|orc,coat|aucw|thh|s
or|g|aa|p|aa.
2 K! K 3 Nc!!
1hcka|ght mustjo|a thc|ray asothcrw|sc 8|ack's
ka|ghtcaaaotccapturcd.1hc| mpctuous3g4+! a||ows
8|acktodraw.3... k! 4bc3h5! 5gh5k|5 6h6b|4 7h5
bc6!aad8|ackw|||b|ockadcthc|orwardpawaw|th8... b|8
aaa|y|sbyGmRajkov|c.
3 Ng1 + 4 Kf!
1hctrappcd ka|ghtmust aot bc a| |owcd to cscapc
wh|chwou|dhappaa|tcr4kg2!kg4! 5bc4bc2.
4 ... Kg4 S Ne4 Nt
8|ackacqu|ectoa|ostk&Pcadgamc.1hca|tcma
t|vc|sto|oscthctrappcdka|ght.5... k|5 bd2!(thck&P
cadgamca|tcr6Ikc4 |sdrawa bcaux8|ack'sk|ag |s
vcryact|vc.)6. . . kg4 7b|I !bh3+ (7... b|3 8bc3+, 7... h 8
kqI)8kg2h5 9c3+.
6 Nf+ Kf 7 KK 8 Ke4!
wh||ca||thcpotcat|a|cadgamcs|rom Stcaa Gc||cr
wcrcdrawa,hcrcwh|tcw|asby|orcc,bccauscthcrcarcjust
caoughd|||crcaccs.1hcact|vck|a|sthckcyaadthcpawa
p|accmcat|sustr|ght.l|aow8...h,wh|tcga|asthcoppos|
t|oaw|th9k|!aadw|asthcrcby.Yctaotcthatthc|mmcd|atc
8k|4!!h5 9 kc4kc6g|vcs8|ackthcoppos|t|oaaadthc
draw.
8 Ke 9 g4! Kf6 10 KdS!
1hcact|vck|agpactratc|uhcrdwh|tcw|as.
10 WWhS 11 gS+ Ke7 12 KeS K 13 Kd6! 8|ackrc|gas.
wh|tc's|urthcrprogrc|s|acv|tab|c. I3... kg7 I4 kc7!
42
K6 I5 K0| Kh7 I6Kfk8 I7K6|ctc.
(2) N + 2 P vs. N + P gives excellent winning chances if the
extra paw is in the for of a sud passe pawn.
lfwcaa|ooback aod |ok atD|arams20-22dthc
cosu|op| ay,
J
ouw| | | sccthatthc stroocrs|dc cou|doot
crcatcapaw pawow|thouta||ow|oarout|occxchcofa
pa|rofpawos,wh|chwou|dhavcbrouhtabutadrawoN +P
vs. N codamc. Howcvcr, |fthc stroocr s|dc a|rcady has a
v|ab|cpasscdpawo,th|schaocsthccomp|cx|ooofthcpos|-
t|oocoos|dcrab|y.lo a||cascsthcw|oo|ochaoccsarccxcc|-
|cot, |o somcpos|t|oosthc w|oaobc forccd.Ao cxcc||cot
cxamp|cofawoopos|t|oo|sD|aram26,R.Saou|octt| N.
Padcvsky,N|ccO|ymp|adI974,aftcrB|ack's63rdmovc.
D|ar2
HcrcWh|tchaoumbrof|arcp|u.ao|ccpawd
protcctcd hpawo (thcR b|o

thcmotaoooy|o
[
awofora
o|httostop),ccotra||udacttvcK|oaodccotra|tud act|vc
Ko|ht. Oothcothcrs|dc,B| ack'sK|o |s pass|vc aod h|s
Ko|ht|scvco morcso.Thcrcforc,|tshou|dcomc as oosur-
pr|scthatWh|tchasaforccdw|o.
6 Nf4!
Frccsd5forWh|tc'sK|o,wh||ctak|oawayc6from
B|ack'sK|o.
6 WWNe8
43
Hop|otobr|othcKo|ht|otothcamc. Bccausc of
B|ack'sp|vc p|cccp|accmcot,cr|f|c|othc fpawo to sp||t
Wh|tc'spawosbr|ogoorc||cf. 6...f5+ 6Kf6 NNd5+
K5 (66... KO 67h6ctc.) 67f6Nc8 68Kc

| aod Wh|tcw|os
(aoa|y|sbyOMPadcvs[).
65 KdS! Nc7 + 6 Kc! Na6
l osuff|c|cot, but 66. . . Nc8 a| |ows 67 Kd7 whco both
67... N7aod67M..K |otobh6,wh||c67.. .f5 |sfo||cdbyb
5.
67 Nd! !
lmpr|soo|oB|ack's Ko|ht aod thrcatco|o to capturc
|tw|th b Kb7. Thcrc |soohopc |o67...Nb8+!| Kc7Na6+
69Kb7s|occWh|tcw|osrout|oc|yaftcr69...K7 7OKxa6 Kh6
7I Nf4 K5 72 Nc6+. B|ackthcrcforc a|ms for |mmcd|atc
couotcrp|ay,sctt|oa|aph|st|catcdtrap.
67 WWK7!? 6 Kd6!!
Hcad|oforthcK|os|dc|soowrcqu|rcd.Thcrc|soo
t|mcforb Kb7! Kh6 69 Kxa6bcauaftcr 69.. .f5| | 7O 5
Kxh5Wh|tccaoootsavc h|srcma|o|opawo.
6 WWW K
Orb...Kh6 69 Kc7K5 7ONQf5 7I Nh3+ K4 72
h6aodthcpawoquccos.
69 Kd7!
Notchowrc|cot|css|yWh|tc'sK|omovcdccpcr|oto
B|ack'stcn|tory.B|ack'sK|o

aa|ohasto|vcrouodbcau
69... Nb8+ 7OKc7 |oasvco |othcootcaftcrWh|tc's67th
movc.
69 ... K7 70 Ke7! Nc7 71 Nf4!
cctab||sh|othcKo|htp|accmcotsaftcrmovc65,
butw|ththchuc d|crcoccthatWh|tc'sK|ohpoctratcd
4
dcc|s|vc|y.Thccod|socar.
71 WW Na6 72 Ne+ B|ackrc|os.
Wh|tcw|oscas||yw|ththcmocooocctcdpawdpawos.
Howcvcr, thc ps|t|oo ofD|agam 27, T. Wc|obrcr -
P., Ostov|c, C|cvc|aod I975, aftcr h|tcs49thmovc, |s oo
whcrcasfavorab|cfor thcstroocrs|dcaswas D|aram 26.
B|ackdohavcasafc,uod,cxtrapawdpawo. Yctbcausc
thcrcpct|vcK|ogaodKo|htsarcabutcqu|va|cotfaras
act|vc p| accmcot |s cooccrocd, thc pos|t|oo |s tcoab|c for
Wh|tc. Ncvcrthc|css, to f|rst ho|d aod u|t|matc|y drawsuch
ps|t|oos|samotthaok|cstask. lopract|ca|p|aythcw|oo|o
chaoccforthcstroocrs|dcca|wayvcqh|
$
h.Wh|tc|osc
th|samc w|thout apparcot|y mak|o aoy maor crrors. H|s
movcssccmp|aus|b|ccoouh,ycttodrawsuchpos|t|oostwo
occdsarcrcqu|rcd. (I)koow|othc propr stratc|cdcfcos|vc
approach, aod (2) utmosttccho|ca|carc |o cxccut|othc dc-
fco.Thc|ostruct|vcamccounc|s.
D|agam27
49 e!
Notsomuchtoctthcawoo|obuttoctthcK|o
o|ov|ac6aodd.Thcrcforcc ccct|vc|s49....
g4?!
lsth|saoodmovcoroot! ltspurposcofcoursc, |sto
prcvcot...f5,but|fthatmovc|ssoo,whyd|do'tB|ackp|ay
45
|tooh|sprcv|ousmovc! Ayway, thcrcarcmorcoswhyl
doot||kc|t.F|nt|y,thcpawo|smorccqcdaodvu|ocrab|c
oo

4 thao back homc oo2. Sccood|y,thc K|o |s a tcmpo


bchmd|omarch|o

forwardtowardthcccotcr. ouodcraod
bttcr|sthc|mmcdtatc5 K3.
50 ... Ke6 51 Kg3 KdS 52 KKd4!
Notc how B|ack I|rst act|vatcs h|sK|o as much as
poss|b|cbforcuodcrtoaoyth|oc|.
53 Nb3+
lwou|dhavcrcfcrrcdthcb|ockad|o

53NfIKd 54
Nc|w|ththc|dca55Nd5.Howcvcr,thctcxt tsa|sosat|sfacto-
r, |fpropcr|yfo||owcdup.
53 ... Kc4! 54 Nd+ Kd3 55 NNf!
Hcad|ofor 5 whcrc thc Ko|htwou|d scrc a dua|
[
urposc. I) b|ockac thcpawo, 2) o to c4 at |ts coovco-
tcocc.Thcrc|sooth|o|mmcd|atc|othcps|t|oo,c...
(I)55...Nc4! | 56NcI+ forccsthcrctrcat56...Kd4 57Nc2+
Kd5 s|occ56. . . Kc2! 57 Kxc4 KxcI 585 |sao |mmcd|atc
draw.
(2)55... c4+!| 56Kf4c3 57KO| |sprcmaturcbcaua||that
B|ackhas"ach|cvcd"|stowcakco h|scpawo.Thcpos|t|oo|s
ootyctr|pcforthcadvaoccofthccpawo,asWh|tc'sK|o|s
p|accdtowc||.Awaybcarcfu|w|thpawomovc you cao't
takcthcmback|
56 Nc+ Kd4 57 Ne6+
S|occ Ko|htsarcmostcffcct|vc |oattack|opawos
frombh|od,morccff|c|cothcrc|s57Nd7|N5+ 58Kc2Nc4
59Nb| aodhow|sB|acktoprorc ! Wh|tc'sK|ob|okadc
thccpawowh||ca|uard|othc|mrtaotcuarcdh|s
Ko|ht|srcadytorctumtodtowatchthcfpawo.
57 ... Kd5 58 Nc7+ Kd6 59 Nb+?!
+
Dub|ousoo |tsowo mcr|tsaodoothcwaytocomm|t-
t|othcdcc|s|vccrror. ltsurc|ywas |o|ca| (aodcorrcct) to
chathcK|obackw|th59Nc8+| Kc7aodthcotop|ayc|thcr
6 Nc7or6 N7.W|thB|ack'sK|obackooc7|t|sc|carthat
hchasmadcooprorc Iorw|oo|opuq.
59 ... Kc MNc?
Thc||omomcot.Thcko|htmustbkcptact|vcw|th
6ONc7| . Thco

h|tcho|dsahcrboth6O. . . N5 + 6IKc3 aod


6O. . . Kd4 6INc6+ Kd3 62 Nc5+ ctc. Howcvcr, aItcr thc
pas|vctcx,B|ack'sK|o+ Ko|htarcab|ctopoctratc.
60 ... Kd4 61 Ne2+ Kd3 62 Ncl + KC2 63 Na
D|aram2
P|ac|othc Ko|htoothccdccaoootworkoutwc||.
Buta|aItcrthcccotra|6Nc2B|acp|ay6... Kd2|Io||owcd
by6... N5(+)aod h|sIorccarc|o.
63 ... Kd2!
Thcdcc|s|vc maocuvcr. B|ack'scpawo |s oowrcadyto
stan|tsw|oo|oruo.Wh|tchasoo t|mcIor64Kc4N5+ 65
KI5bcauscaftcr65... c4|thcrc|soowaytostopthcpaw.
6 Nb4 NgS+ 65 K Ne4+ 6 K Nc!
W|th B| ack's K|o + Ko|htwork|o to

cthcr, |t |s
ccrta|othatthccpawocaoadvaocc.A||thatrcmamsIorB|ack
47
|stocxcrc|thc occecarcthatWh|tccaoootsacr|f|cc
h|sK|htforthccpawowh||ca|b|oab|ctocxchaocoff
B|ack'srcma|o|opawo.
67 Nc e4+ 6 K4 e 69 gS
lf69 Nd4,69... Nc2+ |sthccod.
69 WW NdS+
Ofcoum, oot69...5+ 7O K5c2!! (7O...Nb5| st|||
w|osbcauthcpawoctstothc7thraok)7INd4| cI=Q 72
NO+, w|thadraw.
ThcKo|htchcckhastwopo|ots. Io thcf|rstp|acc,7O
Kc4 a||ow7O...c2| s|occaftcr 7I Nd4thccpawo quccosw|th
chcck.
70 Kg4 Kd3!
Tak|oawayd4fromthcKo|ht.NoocofWh|tc'stac-
t|work,c..7Oc2 7I7 cI=Q 728=QQI+ fo||owcd
by73... QQ8,or7

Nb4+Nxb4 7I6Nc6 72fNc5+.


71 g Nx6+ B|ackw|os.
Thcsccoodpo|otof69. . . Nd5+. thc Ko|ht oot oo|y
protcctcd h|sfpawo,but |sa| ab|ctorccapturcw|th chcck.
Aftcr thc tcxtwc havc rcachcd thc D|aram 9 pos|t|oo d|s
cusscdcar||cr.Thccooc|us|oowas72Kf4c2 73Nc5 + whco
White r|ocd|ov|cwof73... Kc2| 74NOKdI 75K3Nc4+
76 K2 N.
Notoo|y|ostruct|vc,buta|sosuqr|s|o|s thccoumof
p|ayfromD|aram29(oothcfo||ow|opac),C.Zu|dcma P.
Bcoko,Sko

cO|ymp|adI972,Aftcrack's5Istmovc.B|ack has
two bcautu|, fau|t|css, cooocctcd, passcd ccotra|pawos,
whcrcasWh|tc'spasscdhpawocaobcrcad||ystoppcd aod
yct|tturosoutthatB|ackcaoootw|o.Thcrcarctwo rcasoos
for th|s. |nt|y,thc fact that Wh|tc'sp d pawo |s ahpawo
makcs |tharcrforB|ack'sKo|httocopcw|th |t.Sccood|y,
Wh|tc'spawoaodB|ack'spawos arc]ustc|ocoouhsothat
48
Wh|tc'sK|ocaodotwo]obs.protccth|spawoaodhc|pstop
B|ack'spawos.Wh|tc'stccho|quc |oa|o|othcdraw|s|mpc-
cab|c.
D|ar29
52 Kg3!
Wh|tc'sKo|hthasacx|b|cdact|vcccotra||oat|oo
so that thcrc |soopo|ot|o uoocccssar||yov|o|t. lIB|ack
oowp|ay52 ... Kh5,thco53NI6+chascs |tbac. ThcrcIorc
B|ackcmbarks oo ap|ccc rcdcp|oymcot. thc Ko|htw|| | b
uscd to stop thchpawo aod tcK|ow| | | tryto ass|st h|s
pawos'advaocc.
52 WWNc 53 K3! Nd8 54 Kg3 Nt 55 K3 Nb6 56 Kg Ng4
57 K3 K 58 h5!
NowthatB|ack'sK|ohas|vcou
[
cootro|oIh5,Wh|tc
cao aod shou advaoccthc pawo. Th|s mcrch|scouotcr-
chaocc.
53 WW Ke 59 Nc!
FromhcrcthcKo|htscrvcsbothtokccpoutB|ack's
K|oaodb|okadcthcpawos,c..59... c4! 6 Nxc4|
59 N6 MK4 Nt
Ncccssarytoprcvcot6IK5, but thcKo|hthcrc|s
49
pass|vc aod thcrcforc of | |tt|c hc|p for |ts pawos' com| o
advaocc.
61 Ne2!
ThcK|o

mustrcta|o h|sact|vcpos|t|oosothatatthc
momcotthcKmhthastoshou|dcrthcdcfcosc|oad.
61 WW K
Bas|ca||yaho|d|oopcrat|oo.B|acksccsthatooth|o
|mmcd|atc |soocoouhtow|oaodthustakcmct|mco
for rccct|oo, poss|b|yt|mc k||||o uot|| ad]ouromcot or to
hopcforam|stcpooWh|tc'spart.hcd|rcct6I...Kd5 |cadsto
thcsamcpos|t|oo as|othcamcaftcrB|ack's7Istmovcaod
Wh|tcdrawsw|th62h6| . Tomakcpro

rcssB|ackcvcotua||y
w|||havctoadvcch|spawos,ycttcttmcocvcrcmstob
r|pc.Nomattcrwh|chpawoB|ackmovc,thatfrccsquarcfor
Wh|tc'sp|cccsto sct up ab|ockadc.For|ostaocc,6I .. .c4 62
K3Kc5 6Nf4|or6I. ..f4 62K4Nh6+ 6K5O 53N3.
62 Nc Kg7 63 NdS! K6 6 Ne7!
Kccp|othc Ko|htact|vc. lfoow64...f4,thco65K4
fo| |owcdby6]Nd5]Nc6 (dcpcod|oupoo B|ack's p|ay)
whcothcKo|htsacr|f|cc|tsc|fforbthof|ack'spawos.
6 WWW Nd6 6 Ng8+! K7 6 Ne7 K 67 NdS Ke 6 Nc7+
Equ|va|cot |s thc |mmcd|atc 68 Nc3. W|th thc tcxt
Wh|tcdcmoostratcthatB|ack'sK|o|acksacccstod6.
6 WW. Kd7 69 NdS Nt 70 Nc! Ke6 71 Ne2
Exact|y thc samc pos|t|oo has ar|sco as aftcr Wh|tc's
6Istmovcwhco B| ackp|aycd6I. ..Kf6. B|ackoowmakcs a
morc dctcrm|ocdcffort, but Wh|tc turos |t awayw|th somc
dcfttact|O.
71 ... KdS 72 h6!!
SccD|aram3Ooothcfo||ow|opac.
5O
D|aram 3O
W|th B| ack's K|o too far away from thc k|os|dc,
Wh|tc'spawo cao advaocc. lfthcK|o hcads back, Wh|tc
drawsasfo||ows.72 ... Kc6 73 Kh5Kf6 7h7|K7 (or74... Nh8
75NN6 76Kh6)75h8=Q+| Kxh8 (75... Nxh8 76K5) 76
K6Nd6 77Kf6c4 78Kc5.
72 WNx6 73 KS Ke
Obv|ous|ythcoo|ytry.
74 K6 f4 Draw.
Thcamcwad]oumcd hcrc aodsubscqucot|y ca||cd
adraww|thoutrcsumpttoo ofp|ay. Thcfo||ow|o|mportaot
pr|oc|p|c app||chcrc. Te Kigt usually stops Kng + to
connected passed paws if its ow Kng cn help out. Wh|tc's
K| o docs] ust ct back |o t|mc. 75 K5| Kc3 76 Nc3| L
(76...c4!| 77Nd5+ aod78Nx4)77Kf5|D(77...Kd 78Nc4)
78NdI+ Kc2 79NxK 8Kc.
Section 3: Kight + 3 Pawns vs. Kight + 2 Pawns
For th|scasc a|so, thcrc arctwo broad |mprtaotpr|o-
c|p|c.
(1) N + 3 P vs. N + 2 P endgames are drawn, but only if the
psition is a "noral" one.
5I
Thcproccofmorcpawos, comparcdto thcbas|cN
+ 2Pv. + Pcodc,s||f|caot|y|ocrc thcstroocr
s|dc'sw|oo|ochcc.Thcofcod|os|dcmust havc aratcr
oorma|, symmctr|ca| pawo format|oo to ho|d thc draw. A
cxcc||cotract|ca|cxp|cofsuch adrawo p|t|oo showo |o
D|a

am I, L. Chr|st|aoo !.Kap|ao,C|cvc|aodI975,aftcr
Whttc's38thmovc.Thcoo|yprob|cm thatB|ackh|sthatthc
fpawo |s m|ss|o. W|th oodp|ay B|ack |s surc to ho|d thc
draw.P|aycoot|oucd.
D|ar3I
38 WW Ne
B|ack'soo|y|otcrcthcrc|stomakcthct|mccootro|oo
movc4O. Thcrcforcthcrc |s ||tt|c to d|scuss |orcardto thc
rcasoo|obh|odh|smovc.
39 K K 4 Nc4 K 41 Ne
Thcamcwas ad]ourocdhcrcw|th Wh|tcsca||o h|s
movc. Homcaoa|y|sshowcd thatw|th concct dcfco B|ack
caodraw.
41 WWWK 42 f4 hS!
A wc|| thouht out movc. lts pr|marypurposc |s to
prcvcotWh|tcfrommob|| |z|oh|spawocha|ov|aa|atcr4.
Aftcrthctcxt,forWh|tc toct|o4w|||rcqu|rc a||ow|othc
rout|occxchaocofhpawos,thusr|o|oB|ackc|ortothc
draw.
52
Thc sccoodarypu

osc |sto coab|c B|ackto p|ay ao


opportuoc. . . h4, thusaam ach|cv|othcwc|comc rout|oc
cchaocofhpaws.Lcoum,qu|tcwroo|s42... 5!aftcr
43 f5
h|tccts aprotcctcd passcd pawo aoda most ||kc|y
w|o.
4 K Nd8
S|occh|sK|o|sa|rcadywc||p|accd,B|ackoowmaocu-
vcrsthcKo|httoaooddcfcos|vc|ocat|oo.Atth|smomcot
43 ... h4!|sprcmaturcs|occaftcr44B|ack'shpawow|||tum
outtobascr|ouswcakoc .
4h3 Nt 4 Ke4 Ke6!
Kccp|oWh|tc'sK|ooutofd.
4 Nc4 Kf6
Yctoowthcps|t|oohaschaocdsu0|c|cot|ythat47
Kd5 caobc mctby47... 5| ,w|th B|ack ach|cv|oawc|comc
pawoswap.
47 Nd2 Ke6! 4 Nf Nd6+ 49 Kd3 Kf6 SO Ng K
B| ack's K|o aod Ko|ht havc ood act|vc |ocat|oos,
wh||ch|s aod hpawosarcrcad||ydcfcos|b|c. Forw|oo|o
purposcs h|tc has madc oo prorcss, as comparcd to our
start|ops|t|oo.
51 Ke3 Nc4+ 52 K Nd2+ 53 Ke2
Scc D| aram 32 oo thc fo||ow|o pac. Th|s movc
a| |owsaforccddraw,yct|t|svcryc|cartatB|ackwasqu|tc
wc||ho|d|o|t,yway.
53 ... Ne4!
B|ackrabs thcopprtuo|qtos|mp||fy |oto athcorct|-
ca||ydrawoK + Pcodamc. |dowaottocaut|oo thcpract|ca|
p|aycrtobc at|cast surcbcforc cotcr|ovoluntarly a
paw dowo K +Pcodamc.Thc|mpnaotpract|ca| p|ot |s
53
D|ar32.
aftcr
Wh|tc's
52od
movc
that B|ackhas oo thcorct|ca| occd to do so, s|occ aftcr c..
53 ... Nc4hckccpsthcdraw|shstatusquo.
54 Nxe4 Kxe4 55 h4
Forccdasothcrw|scB|ackp|ay ... h4w|th ao obv|ous
draw.55Kh4 56K2Kc3 37Kh2KO| 53h4K4.
55 ... K! 56 K K6! 57 Ke K 58 K Draw.
OffcrcdbyWh|tc.Thcprob|cmw|ththcpawo forma-
t|oo from Wh|tc'sv|cwpo|ot|sthatto makcprorcsshcw|||
havctop|ay4 aodw|||thcob|cftw|thaouow|ooab|cf aod
hpawo vs. pawo structurc. For |ostaocc, 58. . . Kf6 594
hx4+ 6 Kx4KD 6IK4K7aodoomattcrwhcthcrWh|tc
advaoccsthc f orhpawo,B| ackctssafc|y|ofrootofthc
rcma|o|opawo. Morcovcr, aftcr 5... K6 Wh|tc's K|o |s oot
ab|cto pcoctratcd|rcct|y,c.. 59Kc4Kc6 6 Kd4 Kd6 6I
Kc4Kc6aodB|ackkccpsthcvcrt|ca|oppos|t|oo. Thco62
Kb!!cvco a||owsB|ack'sK|otopoctratcw|th62... Kd5 aod
wm.
Somcth|o||kcam|rror|mac forB|ack of D|ar
3I |sshowo |o D|aram33, E. cl!cr L.Port|sch,Portoroz
P|ayO0I973,aftcrWh|tc's53rdmovc.Aa|othcpawoforma-
t|oo|sarathcroorma|ooc,cxccptthat|ostcadofm|s|othcf-
pawoas |oD|aram3I,hcrcB|ackh oo hpawo.Ayouw|||
scc, a|soh|sp|ayw|||bcthc m|rror |mac ofthat from D|a
54
ram3I. W|thaccuratcaod|o|ca|p|ayOMPon|sch|sab|cto
o|dthcpos|t|oo for a draw uot|| somcth|o uobc||cvab|c
happosatthcvcrycod|
D|ar33
53 WWW K
Butoot 53. . . 5! 54fx5 whco Wh|tc has apasscd h-
pawo aodftast|cw|oo|ochaocc. Wh||c|t|squ|tc tructhat
B|ackwaotstocxchaocpawos,hcoo|ywaotstodo|toohis
ter. Th|smcaosasymmctr|ca|tycofcxchao
{
c,such asf-
pawoforfpawo,orB| ack's pawo for Wh|tcs hpawoor
B|ack'sfpawoforWh|tc'spawo.Thc |astth|othatB|ack
wtstoa||ow|sapascdpawo.
54 g3 Nc SS K Nd3 5 K Nc 57 Nd6+
Aw|||bcscco |othccourscofthcamc, |t|s|osuff|
c|cotfor Wh|tcto p|ayoo|yw|th thc K|o + Ko|ht. ltwas
occcssary to start ut| ||z|o thc pawo ma]or|tyw|th 57 4+| .
Wh|tcthcrcbya|osspaccaod ao cvcotua| ...f5 cao b mctby
5|whcoB|ack'spawocaotumouttobascr|ouswcako .
57 WWW Ke 58 Ne4 Nd7!
Aocxcc||cotdcfcos|vcspot.S|occatth|st|mcthcrc|s
ooth|ov|ocrab|c |o Wh|tc's camp, ''attack|o '' movcssuch
as... Nb3or... Ndscrvcoopuqsc.Exchao|oKo|hts |cads
toaoorma||y|otK +Pcodc.
55
59 Ke
A|so 59 4 |s mct by 59. . .f5| , w|th ao attack oo thc
K|ht.
59 W f!
Thcdraw|omaocuvcrwh|ch |s thc m|rror |mac of
thatfromD|aramI. ltpara|yWh|tc'spawoma]or|tys|occ
a |atcr4 a| |ows thcsymmctr|ca| ...fQ4 pawo cxchaoc aod
w|th |ta morcsccurcydrawoforB|ackN + 2P vs.N + P
codamc.Thc tcxt turosouttobcthc |astpawomovc |o thc
amc. Th|swasB| ack'ssca|cdmovc aodthcamcwas rc
sumcd aftcr a fourhourbrcak for aoothcr two scss|oos (32
movc)ofp|ay.
W|th thc hc|p ofh|ods|htwccao oowsaythatfrom
D|aram33B|acksou|dhavcp|aycdthc |mmcd|atc53.. .f5| .
OMPort|schwasrc|uctaotto makcsuch acomm|tta| dcc|s|oo
bforcrcach|othct|mccootro|oomovc56.
60 Ng5+ Kf6
B|ack'sK|o|so|o to rcma|o ocar h|swcakcocd
pawo.Thcrc|s||tt|cp|ot|othc"a@c |vc"6 BBM Kd5.
61 Kd4 Kg7! 62 Ne6+
62Kd5! | |cadsoowhcrc.62...Nf6+ 63Kc6!Nh5aod
Wh|tc's-pawoo|ot.
62 K 6 Nc7 Nf 6 NdS Nd7!
B|ackhasach|cvcdwhattoh|m|oks||kcao |mprcoa
b|cdcfcos|vcformat|ooaodhc|sootabouttodcartfrom|t
cxcctforthc bt ofrcaos. Thcrcforc hc avo|6...Nc4!|
65ND N5|Nxh3 67Kc3|whcoh|sKo|ht|strappdaod
maywc||o|ot.
65 Nc7 Nf 6 NdS Nd7 67 Nc Nf 6 KeS NhS!
56
D|aram 34
P|cascootchowthc |ackofhav|op|aycd 574+| h
|vcoB|ack'sKo|htmorcuop.
69 Ne2 Ke7! 70 KdS Nf6+ 71 KeS NhS 72 Kd4 Nf6 73 Ke3
NdS+ 74 K Kt! 75 Net Kg7!
B|ack|smorcthaohappytokccpthcstatusquo.
76 Nd3 Kt 77 K Kg7 78 Ne Nf 79 Ke K7 WNd
lt |sobv|ousthat Wh|tc has mao oo prorovcrthc
|ast twcoty movcs. Hc aa|o rcfra|osfrom 4 bccausc of
8O...Nd5+ 8I K b4+ ctc.OM Oc||crcootcth|msc|fto
cooccdcthcdraw. Sccwhathappossoo. . .
W K6 81 NeS Kg7 8 Nc4 Kt 8 K NdS Ke2 Kg7 8
Kd3 Nf &Ke3 Kt White overtepped the time limit and lost.
As OM Oc| |crwas

|a|o 87 Kf3 h|s f| a fc| | aod


obv|ous|yhchadtobforfctcd. Howcao th|shavc happocd
|o suchao"casytop|ay'pos|t|oo!Thccxp|aoat|oo |s a|most
uob||cvab|c.A arcu|t ofam|vc mcota| b|ok |oduccd
oodoubt byovcrcxcrt|oo ofh|socrvoussystcm hc had
markcddowoooh|sscorcshcctmovc84(|ostcadofthccor
rcct88) as thc cod ofthc t|mc cootro|.Thus "w|th thc t|mc
cootro| ovcr Oc||crpa|doo morc attcot|ootothcc|okuot||
hcwasforfc|tcd.Th|swasmorcthas|o|ctracdycxact|y
th|sm|ss|oha|fpo|otprcvcotcdh|mfrom rcach|othcI974
57
Caod|datc Matchc. Ta|k|o abut "bad |uck". thc omrvaot
rcadcrw| | | havc oo doubt oot|ccd that outoI two Ko|ht
codamcw|th aoocpaw advaot@c (c a| D|@am 24|)
Oc|crscorcdcxact|yooc ha|Ipo|ot| Thc mcao|ooIth|s.
OraodmastcrstooarcvcryhumaoaoduodcrthcprcssurcoI
compt|t|vcp|aystraocth|ogcaoddocur.
(2) In N + 3P vs. N + 2P endgames, any steps toward dissimi
larity of paw confgurations signifcntly increas the strong
er side's winning chances. A passed paw is almost a sure win.
Whcocvcrthcpawo Iormat|oosarc oot ba|aoccdor
symmctr|ca|,thcstroocrs|dc hascxcc||cot chaocc Iorpoc-
trat|oo aodv|ctory. Tc |ackoIsymmctryocccssar||ymcaos
thatmaoysquarcs arcc|thcrwcakor |osu0|c|cot|yuardcd
aodthc|ht's|ohcrcot a|||tycaocq|o|tsuchIacton. Th|s
|s|omarkccootrast tothcB|shopwho |stathcr||m|tcd |o|ts
opt|oosbcau|tcaooo|yworkoosqucoI|tsowoco|or.
D|aram35
Lctus |||ustratcth|s|mpnaotp|otbycoos|dcr|othc
thcmat|cpawocooI|urat|oo oID|aram 35. ForthcsakcoI
rca||ty addK|os, Wh|tc's atI4aodB|ack's at c6 arc surc|y
rcasooab|c |ocat|oos. Wc cao tum th|spos|t|oo |oto asamc
co|orB|shopcodamcbyadd|o,c..,aWh|tcB|shopoo c
aodaB|ackB|shopooI6,|v|ousdarksqucB|shops,orby
putt|oaWh|tcB|shopooc2aod aB|ack|shopooa4wcct
a ||htsquarc B|shop codamc.Nomattcr |vco rcoa|y
corrcctp|aybyB|ack a|I thcsccodamcs arc drawo. B|ack
caoprcvcotWh|tc'sK|oIrompcoctrat|o,wh||cthcB|shop
58
by|t|fcaooot ach|cvc aoyth|oc|thcr. Howcvcr, rcp|accthc
B|shopsw|thKo|htsaodthcs|tuat|oochaocmarkcd|y|
Nowcoos|dcrD|aram36,wh|charo|oH.Rotto
L.Stc|o,Amstcrdlotcroa| I%,ahcrB|ack's73rdmovc.
D|aram36
Thcpawoformat|oo |scxact|y thcsamc a |o D|aram
35,cxccptthat,a s oftcohappos|orca| ||fc, |t |sB|ackwho
|sup thc pawo.th|spos|t|ooaroscfrom a N + 4P vs.N + 3P
codc cthcocxtct|ooforp|ayuptoth|spo|ot.Atnt
|aocc |t may appcar that Wh|tc'spos|t|oo |sdcfcos|b|c,yct
that|s|ocorrcct.|ack'sKo|htw|||soobab|ctopush back
Wh|tc'sK|oaodthco B|ack'sK|ow|||startpcoctrat|o.Th|s
|show|thappocd.
74 Nb3 e4!
Thc advaoccd pawo |ssafc aod thcrc |s oo rcasoo to
tarry. lfoow75Kd4,tco75...Kf4|.ltfa||supoothcKo|htto
tqtoho|dbackB|ack'sK|o.
75 Nd4+ Ke4 76 Nc+ Kd6
Ofcounc,oot87...Kd5!77Nc7+w|oo|othcpawo.
77 Nd4?!
Pass|vcrcs|staoccw| | | ootwork. Ko|htact|v|ty |s
a|ways ofcsscocc |o such codamcs aod thcrcforc thc oo|y
59
worthwh||ctry|s77Nd8| .
77W KdS! 78 Ne Ke
B|ackhassucccssIu||yobta|ocd h|sI|rst ob]cct|vc. h|s
K|o |ssaIc Irom chccks aod aItcr thc |mm|ocot . . . Nd5+,
Wh|tc'sK|nw|||bpushcdback.
79g3?!
Lcadsto avu|ocrab|c hpawo,thcrcbyspcd|o up thc
|oss. lo | oIcr|or pos|t|oos, always rerain from crating new
weaknesses. locv|tab|yth|soo|ymakcs mattcrsworsc. Thcrc
wasooth|obcttcr tao thcrctrcat79KI2. |othc |oo ruo
Wh|tcwou|d|os|m||ar|ytothcccoot|ouat|oo,butwou|d
oothavcthcadd|t|ooa|hd|capoIao|odcIcos|b|chpawo.
79W .gS!
Ycs, oIcoursc| B|ackkccps thc b|odcrcatcdbythc
advaoccdhpawo. Wh|tc'shpawo hasbcomcvcryw|ocrab|c
bcausc B|ackcaocas||yattack |t. Oo thc othcrhaod, B|ack's
hpaw oo|y appear wcak,bcau Wh|tc |s |o oo p|t|oo to
mcoacc|t.
Wg4 g4 81 Ngl NdS + 8 K Kd4!
K|opoctrat|oostarts.
8 Ne+ Kd3 Ncl + Kc!
AItcrthc |mmcd|atc84...Kd Wh|tccou|d coot|ouc thc
chccks w|th 85 Nb3+. W|th thc tcxt movc]maocuvcr B|ack
cosurcsthatwhco h|sK|octsto thc dcc|s|vc d2squarc,
Wh|tc'sKo|htw|||havcoochccks.
Ne Kd Nd4 Nf4
Thcvu|ocrab|||qoIthchpawo |soowobv|ous. Wh|tc's
com|oattcmpttooaItcrB|ack'shpawow|||bto||tt|cto
|atc.ctthcdcIcos|vc87Nb3+ Kd 88Nc5+ Kd4 89Nb3+
Kc5 |mthchpawoIor ooth|o.W|th atwo pawo advaotac
6
B|ackthcohc|cmcotaryw|o.
8NGNx3+ 8 K |
Thcpawow|||ctto thc7th rk|osafcty dthcrcby
cosurcthcw|o.
8 Nx4 e+ 9 Ng|Wh|tcrc|os.
Comparcdtothcprcv|ousd|aram, D|aram37, R.
Bcmard !ao|ck,Lub||ol !974, aftcrB|ack's4!stmovc,|sa
morc favorab|c cforthc dcfcodcrbcau h|sforcc havc
assumcdsomcwhat morc act|vc |ocat|oos. Ncvcrthc|css, thc
cxrapawo |o thcformofapasscraodthcho|cyB|ackpos|
t|oo,mcaothatWh|tc'sKo|htw|||bcab|ctomaocuvcrsuc
cc fu||ydthus|oduccoumtuph|sK|oforthcdcc|s|vc
poctrat|omarch.Thouhthcp|t|oo |sthcorct|ca||ywoofor
Wh|tc,|t |sootyctrc|ab|cbyB|ack.
D|aram 37
42 N2
A soph|st|catcdrcdcp|oymcot.ThcK|ht |sto nto
todaodthcop|b|yto bforcthcK|o|sccotra||ud.oo
d thc Ko|htcomb|ocs|tsoffcos|vcaoddcfcos|vcfuoct|oos
bttcrthfromc4.
42 W .g5?|
Thcsamctypcofcrroras|o thcprcv|ousamc.thc
6I
dcfcod|os|dcwcakcos|tsrcma|o|opawo.Athcamco,
th|s has oo d|rcctbcar|o,but ocvcrthc|css |swroos|occ |t
dccrcascsthcf|cx|b|||tyofpotcot|a|dcfcosc. Corrcct|s to
kccpthcstatusquov|a42... c5 43Nd+ Kf6|.
4 Nd3 NbS 4Ke3 Nc 4 Nt!
Oo thcwayto h3 fromwhcrc |tw| | | forccB| ack's-
pawotooc|arc |ts|otcot|oos.Nomattcrwhatthcyarc,Wh|tc
w|||rca|ocootro|off4.
4 NbS 4 Nh3 gh4
Eua||yuoattract|vc|s46... 4 47 Nf4 Kc5 48Nd3+|
(48Nxh5 . | Nc3| |suoc|car)48... Kf6 49Nb|Kc5(49... Nc 5
Kd3|)5O Nc6+ Kf6 5I Nd4| fo||owcdby52Kf4whcothc
ccotra||zcdWh|tcp|ccccootro|thcbard.
47 g4 Ke5 4 Nf4 Nc 49 Nd3+ Kf SO Nel!
Aoothcrf|ocKo|htmaocuvcr. lthcadsfor Owhcrc|t
w| || accomp||sh two |mportaot ob]cct|vcs. kccp out B|ack's
K|ofromc5,wh||cprotcct|othchpawo.ThcoWh|tc'sK|o
w||| bfrcctostartpoctrat|ov|athcquccos|dca|oothcd-
f||c.
SO ... Ke5 51 Nt+ K 52 Kd3 NbS 53 Kc4 Nd6+ 54 KdS
Thc rcst |s rc|at|vc|ycasy. St||| |t |s |ostruct|vc how
Wh|tcmakc uofbththcK|oaodKo|ht forthccom|o
advaoccofthccpawo.
54 ... Nt SS e+ K 56 e Nh6 57 Nd4+
Coot|oua|carc|srcqu|rcd.Thcobv|ous57c7!throws
away thcw|o aftcr 57. . . N8| whco 58 c8=Q=R=Ba||ows
58...Nf6+, wh||c58c8=NNc7+ 59Kd4Nga||oksdraw-
|sh.
57 ... Kf6 58 Kd6 Ng8 59 Nc N6 Me7 Nt+ 61 Kd7 Nxe7
62 Nxe7
62
B|ack'sKo|thooc|ot,yctWh|tc'sK|htw|||st|||
havctocomcupwtthmco|ccmaocuvcnforthcw|o.
62 WW KeS 6 Ke8 Ke! 6 K KF6!
B|ack'sK|o|sdo|oh|sbttocoota|othcWh|tcK|o.
To w|o, Wh|tc's o|ht must start a |oo]ourocy so that
B|ack'sK|o|spu||cdawayfromh|spawo]ust|oocoouhfor
Wh|tctoac|cvcawooK + hpawov. Kcodamc.
65 NdS +! KeS 66 Ne3 Kf4 67 Ngl+! Kg3 68 Kg7 B|ack
rc|os.
Aftcr 68. . . Kx2 69 K6 K3 7O K5 Kf4 7I K6
B|ack'sK|ocaoootctback|ot|mc.
Setion 4: Knight + 4 Paws vs. Kight + 3 Paws
Thcs|tuat|oo hcrc |s qu|tcc|car. N + 4P vs. N + JP
endgames are almst alwa won.
Thcburdco |s]usttoorcat for thcdcfcodcr. hc has
thrccpawostoworryabutaodthccocmyK|ht w||| bto
vcrsat||coo thcattack. Thcrc arc two mcthods]oa|sthat
shou|dbuscd|oo|oforthcw|o.(I)crcatc cocmy
[
awo
wcakocss, attackaodcapturcthc pawo, thcrcbya|om a
rout|oc|ywoocodcmopawosup,aodor(2)s|mp||fydowo
|otoawooN + 3Pv. N + 2P codamcwhcrcthccxtrapawo
|sav|ab|cp cdooc,asshowo |o|arams36aod37.
Apcrfcctcxamp|cofhowtow|ofrom am|-b|okadcd
pawo format|oo |s showo by thc p|ay from D|aram 38, M.
Ta|maoov - O. Stah|bcr, Zur|ch Caod|datcs I953, aftcr
B|ack's43rdmovc.Aa|oaB|shopcodcwou|db drawo,
)
ctaw|o|sccna|ow|thKo|hts.Wh|tc'sp|uscarcobv|ous.hc
ts up asouodpawoaodhasa c|car spat|a| advaotac.Yct
B|ackhasoouodamcota|wcakocsscs. How shou|Wh|tc
prorc ! Thc |mmcd|atctk |s fo||ow. (I)ccotra||u thc
K|o oo c4, fo| | owcd by (2) try|o tocratc a wcakocss |o
B|ack'scamp.
6
D|aram38
4K K 4 Nd6 Nc 4 Ke4 Ke7 47 t!
W|thWh|tc'sK|o + Ko|htact|vatcd|t|st|mctostan
act|oo.Thc tcxt |s thcf|ntasau|too B|ack'spawo format|oo.
B| ackcaoootaffordtocapturcas thatsadd|csh|mw|thao
|so|atcd, chroo|ca||ywcakhpawo 47...5+! 48 Nx5+ K
49Nd4| Nc7 5ONc2|K7 Nf4k6 52h4|,whcoB|ack|s
|ozuzwao.ThcKo|htmustmovcaodWh|tc'sK|opcoc-
tratcdcc|s|vc|yv|af5.
Ofcoursc, |twou|dbcomp|ctc|wrooforWh|tc to
prcparc"thcf5advaoccw|th47h3aod84s|occthata||ows
B| ackto cxchaocoffthchpawos aod rcach adraw|shpos|-
t|oo.The stronger side mst avoid routine pawn ehanges.
47 N 4 f6+!
A|o |s48

66 49 Nb5| fo||owcd by 5 Nd4,


|cad|otothctypcofpstt|ooshowo|oD|aram37.Ncvcrthc
|css, thc tcxt |s cvco stroocr as |t cosurcs Wh|tc afaotast|c
spacc advaotac aod a||ows h|sK|oto pcoctratc. Wh|tc's
rcma|o|otaskw|||thcobtodcv|awaytobrcakthcm|-
b|okadc.
B|ack'sK|ooowhastohcadbacks|occ,|f48...Kc6,49
Nb7thrcatcosbth5ONc5matcaod5ONd8+, thusforc|othc
rctrcat|o49... Kd7 5ONc5+ Kc8,aoyway.
6
48 WW Kf 49 Nb7 Na6 SO KdS Nc7+ 51 Kd6 NbS+ 52 Kd7
Nd4 53 Nc!
Estab||sh|ocootro|ofc6.Wh|tc'socxtob]cct|vc |sto
brcak at thcpropcr momcot, w|thc6. lfB|ackoowp| ays
53. . . Nf3, Wh| tc coot| oucs as | othcamcw|th 54Kd8|
(54...Nxc5 55Nd7+ w|os).
53 WWNt 5Kd8!
Thc |mmcd|atc 54 c6!| fxc6 55 Kxc6 |s prcmaturc
bcausc|t|suoc|carhowWh|tc|stoprogaftcr55...Nd4+.
Thcrcforc Wh|tc prcparcs to f|rst pus B|ack's K|oback
furthcr.
54 WWNd4 SS Nd7 + K 5 Ke8! Ne 57 Ke7! g 58 Ke8!
D|aram39
B|ack|soowa|most|ozuzwao.h|sK|ocaoootafford
tomovc,hc hasa|mostcxhaustcdthcpawo movcs,aod|fthc
Ko|ht|vcup|ts|oat|ooooc6,Wh|tcp|ayNc5fo||owcdby
c6.B| ack'soo|yhopcarcsomcKo|htchccks,butWh|tc's
K|o,bytr|aou|at|oo,putsastoptothoc.
58 WWNc7+ 59 Kd8! Ne+ MKe7! Nd4
6 w.. 4]ustdc|aythc |ocv|tab|cbyab|t. 6! Kc8| Nc7+
62Kd8|Nc6+ 6Kc7ctc.
61 Nc Nc+ 62 Kd6 NaS 63 e6!
65
Notc how hamoo|ous|yWh|tc'sp|cccarcoowp|accd
forth|sadvaoccwh||cB|ack'savcbcochad"far"away.
6 ... fe6 6 Ke7! Nc+ Ke8 Ne 6 Nxe Nt
Wh|tchass|mp| |f|cddowo to avcry favorab|ccascof
thc N + 3Pvs. N + 2P codamc. apowcrfu| far advaoccd
pdpawoass|stcdbyact|vcK|oaodKo|ht.Wh|tc'sw|o |s
oot |o oubt.
67 Ke7 g4 6 Ng7!
Thcpract|ca| approach. pr|ortouodcrtak|odcc|s|vc
opcrat|oos,h|tcforomcasurccapturcthchpawo.
6 ..W Nh6 69 NxhS Nf+ 70 Ke8 Nd6+ 71 Kd7! Nf 72 Ng7
A
}
rcttytact|ca| mot|f,wh|cha|osatcmp aod spcds
up thcwt o. Ofcoursc, thc rosa|c72 Kc6 a|sow|os |o duc
coum.72... Nd4+ 73Kc5N+ 74K5 Nxh2 75Nf4|Kf 76
N6 ctc.
lfB|ackoowcxchaocKo|hts,thcK + Pcodamc |s
hopc|cs.B|ack'sps|t|oo|src|a|c.
72 ... Nh6 73 Ke7 Nt 74 Nf B|ackrc|os.
Thc fpawo w||| cost B|ack h|s Ko|ht. 74. . . N5 75
Nh6+ Io| |owcd by 76 I7. A tccho|ca| mastcrp|ccc by OM
Ta|maoov.
loour|astcxamp|cwcw|||se howtos|mp||fythcbas|c
N + 4P v. N + 3Pcodamcdowotoaw|oo|oN + 3Pv. N
+ 2P ooc,whcrc thc cxtra pawo |s |o thc form ofasouod
passcd pawo. Oood tccho|quc mcaos thc ab|||ty to ach|cvc
s|mp|crw|oo|o ps|t|oos from morc comp||catcd ooc. l w|||
rctumoocc morctoH. Rotto L. Stc|o,Amstcrdam lotcr
oa| !9, th|s t|mc tothcs|tuat|ooaftcrWh|tc's44th movc,
as showo |o D|aram4O. B|ack |s a|m|ofor thc pos|t|oo of
D|aram 36, but how to ct thcrc! At thc momcot Wh|tc's
pos|t|ooappcarsdcfcos|bch|sp|cccsarcwc||p|accd |othc
ccotcrwh||cB|ack'shpawosccmstorcqu|rccoot|oua|protcc
N
t|oo,.YctootchowOMStc|opushcWh|tcback,stcpbytcp.
D|aram+
4WWW f6 4 Nt Nc
B|ackact|vatcs h|sKo|ht aod rcvcots Nd4. Qu|tc
wroooow|s+f5! bcau aftcr+... B|ackarcdycu a
[
rotcctcdpdpawo.Atcr45NOWh|tc'sforccop

ocot
tsthcopt|mumpss|b|cforofco.Thcrcforc|tshou|db|cft
as|s.lt|supto|acktomakcprorc |
4 Kd3 N+ 47 Ke4 Na6!
l ostcad thc |mmcd|atc 47. . . Nd5!| a||ows 48 f5 aod
47... 6! drosthc cpawo aftcr48 Nd4. ThusB|ackf|rstco-
surcthcsafctyofthccpawo.
4 Kd4 Nc7! 49 Ke4 g6!
Bysafcuard|of5B|ack c||m|oatcs thc daocrfrom
Wh|tc's f5 advaocc aod coab|cs h|s Ko|htto start act|vc
maocuvcn.
50 Kd4 Nd5 51 Ke4 Nc+!
Thcstartofa|ooroadtof5.Yct|tmustbccxccutcd
w|th prcc|s|oo, c.., ao |mmcd|atc 5!...Nc7! a||ows 52Nd4.
B|ackmustcosurcthatWh|tc'sKo|htdoootctthcoppr-
tuo|tytorcachthckcyd4uarc.
67
5ZKd3 Nb 53 Ke4 Nd6+ 54 Kd3 Nf!
Thc f|rst ma]or|otcrmcd|atc oa|hasbcco ach|cvcd.
fromf5thcKo|htprcvcotsWh|tc'sNd4aodprotcctsthch-
pawo.Thcrcforc B|ack'sK|ooow|sfrccd for act|oooothc
ccotra|froot.
55 Nd2 K6! 56 Ne4 Kg7 57 Nd2 K 58 Ne4 Ke7!
W|th B|ack'sK|occotra||yp|accd,thcrc|soowayto
prcvcotthccom|o... c5wh|chw|||y|c|dB|ack asouodpscd
c
[
awo. Yctootc thatB|ackhasdcaycdth|sadvcc uot|| h|s
Kmcaobothprotcctthcpasscd pawo aswc||ascq|o|t |ts
strcoth.
59 Nd2 e! Mfe fe 61 Ke4 Kf6 Black has a won position.
B|ack has ach|cvcd asafc aodsouodpawd pawo. For
|ostaocc,62NO |sparr|cdby62... N3+ 6Kd5c4 6Nxh4!
5.Thcocxdouomovccoos|stcdofqu|ctmaocuvcr|o,w|th
thcdcc|s|vcact|oobc

|oo|ooomorc74 sccthcp|ayfrom
D|aram36|othcprcvtousct|oo.
Section 5: Knight + 5 Pawns vs. Knight + 4 Paws
Thccooc|us|ooforth|s |s |oudaodc|car. Te endgame
of N + 5 P vs. N + 4 P is a sue wn.
Th|scodamcocunsc|dom|otoumamcotp|ay.Atthc
vcry|cast,thcstroocrs|dcw|||ach|cvcafavorab|cN +4Pv.
N + 3 Pcodamc.Thcrcforc |t|sasurcw|o aodthctcch
o|qucforthatcodamcuaraotccsuccc hcrca|.
68
Capter 4
Material Advantage - Pawns On Bt Sides
Section 1: General Principles
(1) Winnng Prospcts and Techniques
To increase its winning prospects, the stronger side
always wants pawn to eist on bth sides of the bard.
Thccocra|w|oo|oproccdurcs |s thc samc as for
B|shopcodamcaodcoos|stsofthcfo||ow|ostcps.
(I)Ccotra||uyourK|odKo|hts.
(2)Crcatcap cdpawooothcs|dchav|othccxtrapawo.
(3) lfthcdcfcod|oKo|htb|okadcthcp dpawo,dcf|cct
|tbyoffcr|otocxchaocKo|hts.
(4) lf thc dcfcod|oK|o |s busystopp|othc passcd pawo,
pcoctratcw|th yourK|ooothcothcrs|coftcboardaod
capturcsumc|cotpawostow|othcc.
(2) Drawing Prospcts and Technique
Te defending side's drawing chances are btter than in
the correspnding Bishop endgames.
Thcrcarctworcosforth|s.(I)Thcvcnat|||tyofthc
Ko|ht |ocrcascchaoccfor couotcrp|ay. (2) A pawd pawo,
cvco | fobta| ocd at hcavy matcr| a| cost, cao scvcrc|y
|mmob|||zcthcstroocrs|dc'sKo|ht.ThcB|shopcaostopa
dpawofromfaraway,whcrcasthcKo|htobv|ous|ymust
qu|tcc|osc.
Thcmococra|aproachc|oa|m|oIoradrawarc.
(I)Exchaocoffasmypawos pss|b|c,w|th thc u|t|matc
oa| of |cav|othc stroocrs|dcw|th]ustooc pawo. Th|s
approach|strucforall codamc.
69
(2)Crcatcap dpawas tot|cdwthcstroagcrs|d's
ka|ght.
Section 2: Te Stronger Side Has A Pass Paw
l|thcstroagcrs|dha|rcadyobta|acdap dpawa,
|tsw|aa|agchaaccsarccxcc||cat.1h|s|spart|cu|ar|yso|||ts
k|ad|ghtarcwc||p|accd.D|ar4I,w.Schm|dt - H.
!.ccht,w|aZ l l I972,w|th|ackoamovc,|sago
cxam|co|awoapos|t|oa.1hccharactcr|st|cso||tarc. (I)
1hcpawa |sasouadpasscdpawa, (2) 8|ack's ka|ght |s
momcatar||yab|tawkward|yp|accd,butoaaaovcra||bas|s
thck|agaadka|ghtarc|ocatcdwc||caough,(3)8|ackhas
oa|ythrccpawas|c|t.
D|agram4I
1hcpauc|tyo|matcr|a| rcma|a| agdocsg|vc wh|tc
mmcs||ghtdraw|agchaace,butw|thaccuratcp|aythcw|a|s
thcrc.
1 Nb2!
1hcka|ghtmustbcxtr|catcd|rom |tsuasc |oat|oa.
lromb2|tp|aastohcad|ora4toattackthccpawa.A gross
crrorwou|dhavcbcaI. ..O!bcauxo|2Ng4whcathctrcat
o|3Nc3+ |orccs8|acktoabaadoathc|-pawa (2. . . Nb2 3
Nc5+ kb3 4Ndw|thadraw).
2 Kc2?
70
Suchpass|v|ty|scqu|va|cattovo|uatar||yawa|t|agthc
uadcrtakcr. lmpcrat|vc|sthc act|vc2Nc8! . 8|ack'sroadto
|ctorythca|scoas|dcrab|yhardcr.2...Na4 3Nd6+ kd5 4
bc8 5Nc7+ (5kekc! 6KNxc3|o||owcdby7... bd6
aad8... Nxb4)5... kc6! 6Nxa6(6Nc6Nxc3 7Nd4+ kb6! 8
bx N5 |o||owcd by 9... Nxh4) 6...kb6! (wh|tc |ssa|c a|tcr
6
. .. Nxc3! 7kc3!)7Nb8kc7 8Na6+ kb7 9Nc5+Nxc5 I0
bxc5kc6w|thawoak+Pcadgamc.
2 WWW Na4 3 Ne4 Kd5 4 Nd2 Nb 5 Kd3 Nc4 6 NNe+
8|ackhrcgou(aadccatra||nd!)h|sk+ N d|s
thusrcadytow|aoa c.thcrs|dco|thc board. l|aow7kc2,
8|ackw|asw|th7... kc4 8Nc5a5! .
7 Kd2 t 8 Nd4 f! 9 Ke2 Kc4
8|ack's|aycoat|auctobmotthcmat|c. thc|pawa
|s uscd as a ccoyto draw away wh|tc's k| ag |rom thc
uccas|dcsothat8|ack'k|agcaacapturcbothpawasthcrc.
bv|ous|yhop|caow|sI0Kkxc|o||owcdby... Kb.
10 Ne6 Kc 11 Nc Kb 12 Nxa6+ K! 13 Nc Ng4 wh|tc
rc|gas.
8|ackrcta|asthc|pawaaadatwo pawa advaatagc|or
aacasyw|a.
A somcwhats|m| |arstatccx|sts|aD|agram42,!.Sza
|ajdcw|cz R.ma||cc,Lub||al!!I975,a|tcrwh|tc's5Istmovc.
D|agram42
7I
8|ack|sahcadapasscdbpawa,yct|shaad|cappcdby
hav|ag|m|atcdk|a|dcpawas.1ow|a,8|ack'sk|agw|I|havc
topcactratc| atoh|tc'sk|ags|dc,atthccosto|thcbpawa.
Lvcaa|tcrpactrat|oa8|ack'sp|ayw|||havctobmotcxact.
51 ... Ne4+ 52 K Nc 53 Ke Ne!
lor8|ack'sk|agtoprogrcss,wh|tc'ska|ghtmustbc
d|s|d|romd|romwhcrc|tcoatro|soaadmcaaccthc|
pawa.astcadprcmaturc|s53... b3! 54kd2b2 55kc2Nd 56
c2 whca wh|tc hasaa cxcc||cat dc|cas|vc |ormat|oa. lor
|astaacc,||8|acktr|ctomovch|sk|atowardthcquccas|dc,
wh|tcp|ayNd4w|thaaattackoathcpawa.
S4 Ne2 h4!
Prcvcat|agwh|tc'sNg3 |orcvcrmorc hc|ps sa|cguard
8|ack'sk|ag|dc.
SS Kd3 Ke7 56 Kc4 Kd6 57 Kb
wh|tcm|ghtwc||capturcs|acchchasaorcaab|c
wa|t|agmovcs.ut,o|coursc, aow8|ack's k|aggcts |ato
wh|tc'sk|ag|dc.
57 ... KdS 53 Kc Ke4 59 Kd2 Kf! !
8|ack'sk| aghaspcactratcd,a| | r|ght,butthcw|a |s
aowhcrcrout|ac.8|ack's||rstprob|cm|statbccausco|thc
prcacco|hpawas(thcRPsarcthcwontpawastohavc|or
w|aa|apurpscs|ak i Pcadgamcs
.
!,thck + Pcadgamc
tcr5...N. 6Nn4.k4 6kc2 isdrawa.
(6I. ..kg4 62kOkh3 6kgI|4 6khIO 65kgI
26I. ..kc4 62k|2|4 63kcO+ 6k|2k|4 6kcI ! kc3
66k|IO 67h3kOsta|cmatc.
l|wh|tcaowp|athcrout|ac6 kcI!! , hc|s|mmcd|
atc|y|angnaaga|tcr.B .kg2.
MKdl! 61 Kel h3!
72
8|ack'sxcoadprob|cm|sthata|tcr6I...kh2! 62K!
h|sk|agcaaaot

cto||thccdgco|thcboard (62. . . kh3 63


kO!)aadthcpsrt|oabcomedrawa.w|ththcaccetcxt
hc aowzugzwaagswh|tc,a|b|tatthccosto|opca|agupg3
|orwh|tc'ska|ght.
62 Ng3 Nd4 6 Nf!
1hcoa|ytatadc|casc.lathcgamcwh|tc|ostrou
t|ac|yattcr6Nh!NO+ 6kc2Nxh2 65Ng7N|I NNn5
Ng3+ 67Nq3k3 bk|Ih, wh|tcre|gs.
A|tcrthctcxt6... NO+ 6kc2Nxh2! 65Nxh2kh2
N kOaga|a |cadstoadrawak +Pcadgamc.ma||cc,acvcr
thc|c,hdcmoastratcdthc|o||ow|agprob|cmw|a.
6 WWW Kgl! 6 Ne Nt+ 6 Ke Nxh2 6 Nx Nf 67 Nh4
Am67Nd4|a||sto67... Nd2! !
67 ... Nd2! ! 6 Kd2
68N|5 oa|ydc|ay thc |acv|tab|c a|tcr 68... NO+ 69
kc2h2 70Ng3kg2 7INhI ! Nd4+! (Not7I...khI! 72k|I
w|thadraw - scc|agram I)72kcIN|5 73N|2Ng3! 74|4
Nn5 75NhINg3 76NOkOaad8|ackw|as.
1h|s||aa|pos|t|oadcmoastratcsoaccmorchowd|0|
cu|t|t|s|orthcka|ghttocopw|thaR.
U|agr43
73
Acursory|ookatD| agram 43, 8. lvkov R. l|schcr,
8|cdI%I,a|tcrwh|tc's57thmovc,may|cadtothccoac|us|oa
that thc rcsu|twou|dbc thc samc as |a thc prcv|oustwo
cxamp|cs.A|tcra||,8|ack|supasa|caadsouad|-pawaaad
bths|dcshavctwogopawasoathcquoas|dc.Yctthcrc|s
acruc|a|d|||crcacc.wh|tc'sact|vcka|ght|sab|ctomcaacc
8|ack'squccas|dcpawasaad8|ack's|orccsarctoo|araway
|orc||cct|vchc|p.w|th adc|t scr|cso|maacuvcrswh|tc |s
ab|ctosu|||c|cat|ywcakca8|ack'squccas|dcpawa |omat|oa
sothatthcpawasbccomcvu|acrab|ctocxchaagcs.1hca hc
succc |u||ysacr|||cethcka|ght|orthc|pawa.
57 Nt 58 Kc!
Oathcwaytoccatra|||agthck|agsothat|tcaahc|p
stopthc|pawaortohcad|or tc quccas|dcpawas.8|ack's
k|aga|mhcads|orthcccatcr.
58 W K 59 Nb!
Atthcmomcatwh|tc'sk|ag|sc|osccaoughtothc|-
pawasothatthcka|ghtcaastartbothcr|agthcquccas|dc
pawas.
59 WW m MNc a4 61 Nd4 Nd6 62 b3! Ke
1hcprcv|ousmovcswcrcobv|ouscaough,buthcrc
8|ackovcr|ookswh|tc'sd| abo||ca||aa.Oa|y62. . . |4! avc
w|a|agchaaccs,though,a|tcr63kc3b3 64kxb3 kc 65
NO+wh|tc'sps|t|oa|ssu0|c|cat|ydc|cas|b|c.
63 Nx! ! Nx
Or63. . . axb3+ 64kxb3Nx|5 65 a4,or63. . . kx|5 64
bxa4bxa4 65kcNc8 Nkb4No 67kb5.
6 bxa4 bxa4 Kc Draw.
1hcrc|saoth|agtobcdoacabout66kb4|o||owcdby
67 kxa4. Atr| umpho|thcstratcgyo|ga| a| ag adrawby
74
c||m|aat|agthcstroagcrs|dc'sawas- aad amost |mprc|vc
thcmat|caadcrcat|vcc||ortbymlvkov.
D|agam4
Comparcdtothcrathcraorma|pos|t|oas|athcprcv|
ousthrcccxamp|cs,D| agram44,!. 8c| |oa A.Pomar,
Orcasc I976,a|tcr8|ack's29th movc,appcarscxot|c.Ycta
co|cva|uat|oashowthc|o||ow|ag|cature.
(I)wh|tchastraas|ormcdh|squccas|dcmajor|ty|atoap d
pawa(actua||ydoubled p dpawas),
(2) wh|tc'scxtraapawa,though o|||tt|co||cas|vcpwcr,h
d||a|tcdc|cas|vcva|ucbcaux||8|ackcaptureoacapawa
hcw|||wou|daothavcap cdapawah|mx||,
(3)s|accwh|tchasathrccpawamajor|tyoathc quccas|dc,
8|ack'soa|yhop|sh|soacpawak|ag|dcmajor|ty.
1hcuaba|aaccdaaturco|thcps|t|oarcqu|recrcat|vc
p|aybywh|tctocasurcthcw|a.Gm8c||oacomethrough|a
l|acsty|c.
30 Kd! Ke7 31 Kd3!
wh|tcthcmat|ca||yccatra||zcsthc|asothat|tcaa
takcpartwhcrcvcrthcact|oaw|||bc.ltwou|br|skytogo
a|tcrthca-pawaw|th3INd+!| s|acc8|ackgctsstroacoua
tcrchaaccsoa thc k|ags|dc.wh|tca|rcadyhas asu||c|cat
advaatctow|a aadthcrc|orcthcmajoraccdatprcat|sto
coata|a|ack'scqctcdcouatcq|ay.
75
31 WWW K 32 Nc4 g6!
8|ack a|ms tocrcatcapasscd h-pawa,asthatwou|d
g|vcwh|tcthcmotd||cu|ty.asat|s|actoryaow|s33hq6!!
ccausca|tcr33. . . |xg6! |o| | owcdby34...h58| ackgctsa
daagcrousp dpawa.wh|tca|mcorrcct|yavo|dscatur|ag
thc apawa aad | astcad coaccatratcs oa prcvcat|ag |ack's
k|ag|dcp|ay.
33 Nd6! gS 34 gS KgS 35 Nx+ KS 36 Ke4! Kg6 37
Nx6!!
1hccrowa|agpo|ato|wh|tc'sp|ay.1hcdaagcroush
pawa |sc||m|aatcdaadthcact|vck|agw| ||hc|pthcpasscd
pawascarrythcday.
37 ... K6 38 Ke Kg6 39 Kd6 NS+ 4 Ke Nd4+
x|cs|s+# .. Nxa3bcaux8|ackdoa'tga|aa d
pawa thcrcby. w|ththctcxt8|acktr|cstosctupadccas|vc
|ormat|oa.
41 KdS NI 42 c K 4 c7 Ne7 + 4Kd6 Ke8 4 f4!
1hcrc |saowaythatthcshortraagcka|ghtcaacopc
w|thpacdpawasoabth||ks.
4 ... Nc8+ 4 Kc Ne7 + 47 Kb7 Kd7 4 c4 8|ackrc|gs.
1hcpawasmarch |acxorab|y|orward. 48... Nc8 49 c5
Nc7 50|5c8 5I|6ctc.
Section 3: Bt Sides Have Passed Pawn(s)
As a|rcadybr|c||yd|scusscd, |t |s | a|a|cr|orN + P
cadgamcs that thc crcat|oa o| a passcd pawa bccomcs a
powcr|u|draw|agtoo|bccauscthcka|ght as arcsu|to||ts
shortraagc |sscvcrc|yhaad|cap
p
cd |a cop|ag w|th passcd
pawa(s).lors|tuat|oawcrcbthsidhavc

cdpawas|t|s
d||||cu|ttog|vchardaad|astru|cs.most|yit'saqucst|oa o|
carc|u|ca|cu|at|oasaadtact|ca|crcat|v|ty|a coas|dcr|agthc
76
p
ropcr k|agmaacuvcrsaad ka|ghtjumps. 1hcs|ag|c most
imprtaatpr|ac|p|ctokccp|am|ad|sthatte R is by far te
most difcult paw for te Kigt.
A cxcc||catpract|ca|cxamp|co|thctypco|p|aythat
caarcsu|t |sshowa |rom D|agram 45,N.m|acv- k. Hoa||,
8cmI974,w|thwh|tcoamovc.8|ackhastwostroagcoaacct
cdp dpawasoathcquccas|dc,yctwh|tc'sh-pawawh|ch|s
a|rcady oa thc 6th raak crcatcsgood couatcrp|ay. 1hc two
majorstratc|ccoas|drat|oas mc. (I)1hc h-pawa |sd||||cu|t
|or8|ack'sa|ghttostop,d(2)k + Roathc7thraakv.
Qucca|sdrawa||thcstroagcrs|dc'sk|ag|sto|arawayaad
thcQuccadaotcoatro|thcqucca|aguarc.
D|agram45
w|thpcr|cctp|ayD|agr45 |sadraw.1hcgamcwas
drawa,thoughw|thaxr|ouscrrorbycachs|dcthrowa|a.
1 Ne!
1hcbcstmovc.thcka|ghthcadsbacktostopthcb
pawa.wh|tc'sk| agthcaw|||avcsu|||c|catt|mctochasc
8|ack'ska|ghtaway|romthchpawa.1hc|mmcd|atc I k|4
a||owsI . ..N|7 whcaa|tcr2h7b 3Nc5Nxc5! 4kxc5b2 7
h8= QbI= QthcQ + Pcadgamcg|vcs8|ackgoodpract|ca|
chaacc|orthcw|a.
l. .. b3 2 K4 Nh7!
wh|tchasa rout|acdrawa|tcr2... Nc6+ 3k|5N|8 4
k|6|o||owcdby5kg7.
77
f
3 Kt?
Nowwh|tc|s|ost.1hck|agcaaa|waygctto8|ack's
ka|ght.1hcrc|orcwh|tc's||rstbus|acssshou|dhavcbcato
br|abackh|ska|ghttostopthcbpawa.1hcdraw|agmctho
wNd!b2 4Nxb2kxb2 5N|5a4 6kg6N0+ 7Oi 8
Ka 9h7.
3 ... Kb2?
8|ackrcc|proatc.1hcw|awastobhadw|th3... kb!,
prcvcat|ag4Nc4+. lm m|acvprov|dcsthc|o||ow|agvar|a
t|oasascoav|ac|agpro|.
(I)4kg6kc3! 5kxh7b2 6kg7bI =Q 7h7Qxh7+a4aad
thcpawacaaaotbstoppd,
(2)4Nd+ kc4! 5Nb2+ kc3 6Na4+ kb 7Nb2a4 8kg6
a3 9Nd+kc3,w|aa|ag.
4 Nc4+!
Oa|yso.thcka|ght|ssa|c|yback aadwh|tc|ssa|c.
wh|tc|oxa|tcr4Nd+!kc2!aad4kg6!kc3! .
4 ... Kc 5 Na3 b2
Or5... a4 6kg6kb4 7NbIa3 8Nxa3! |cad|agtothc
samcpos|t|oa|athcgamc
.
6 K6 Kb3
1hcrc|saoth|ag|s6... N|8+ 7kOctc.
7 Nl a4 8 K7 a3 9 Nxa3! K 10 K8 Draw.
A|tcr I0 . . . bI=Q I I h7 Qg6+ I2kh8! 8|ackmust
chobtwccasta|cmat|agwh|tcora||ow|agthchpawa to
qucca.
Coas|dcrab|ymorcmph|st|cat|oa|srcqu|rcdtocorrcct
|yhaad|cthcpos|t|oao|D|agr+,wh|ch|sthccoac|us|oao|
amanc|ous 9studybythcDutchcompscr!. H.marw|tz.
78
wh|tc has as|ga|||caatadvaatagcbyv|rtuco|hav|agtwo
w|dc|yxparatedp dpaws,yct8|ack'ss|ag|cppaw
|stheaaughty'hpawa.h|tctop|aydw|a|stctk but
how!1hcobv|ous ! Ng6+! |cadstoaoth|aa|tcrI...kg7 2
Nxh4Nd5 3b5 Nc3+ |o||owcdby4. . . NxbNobcttcr|s!
kb2!Nd5!wheabth2Nxd5!h3or2b5!Nn4 3oNd+ 4
kc3Nc5|cadtow|as|orBlack. Othcraorma|movcsbythc
k|aga|marc|o| |cdbyI...Nd5!,as|s!Nh3!.
D|agam+
Aadthcw|aacr|s. . .
1 Kl! !
Asuqr|s|ag,thougw|ththcabvcd|xu|oa| am|ad,
rcad||yuadcmtaadab|eso|ut|oa.wh|tcp|aceh|sk|aoaa
squarcwhcrc|t|smomcatm||youto|rcach|or8|ack'sKa|ght.
1|sg|veswh|tct|mctop|ayNh3aadthcathck|agw|||b
ab|ctostartadvc|agaa|stthcb-pawa.
l ... Nd5!
St|||thcott.A|tcr I...kg7 2Nh3!wh|tcw|ass|m|
|ar|ytowhathappasatcroa.
2 b5!
A|tcr2. . . Nx|4! 3 b6 8|ack's ka|ght | acks a tcmpo
ga|a|agchccktogctback|at|mctostopthepawa.
79
3 Nh3!
Hcrctoothcrc|saott|mc|or3Nxd5!bccausc8|ack
rcachcsathcorct|ca||ydrawapos|t|oaw|th3... h3 4N|4h2 5
Nh5+ kg6 6Ng3kxg5 7b6kg4 8NaIk|3 9b7kg2 I0
b8=QkI.Notchows|m||arth|smot|||stothato|thcprcv|
ouscxamp|c.
3 ... K
Am|os|ag|s3... kg6 4kb2!kh5 5kb3bcauxthcrc
|saott|mc|or5...kg4.6g6kh3 7g7N|6 3okg2 9b7h3
I0b8=Qh2 I I Qb7+kgI I2Qb6+ kg2 I3Qn6dwh|tc
w|as.
4 K2 Ke 5 K Kd6 6 Ka4! Kc7 7 K
wh|tc'sbpawa|saowsccurcaadthccomb|aat|oao|
thc|ar advaaccd aadw|dc|yscparatcdpasscd pawas |s too
much|or8|ack'ska|ght.St|||,wh|tcw|asoa|ybyaha|r.
7 ... Kb7 8 g6 Ne7 9 g7 Ng8 10 b!
Passcdpawasmustbpushcd!
10 ... Nf 11 K Ng8 12 Ng!
1hcrcturao|thcka|ght|atothc|rayw|||bcdcc|s|vc.
8|ack|oseu|ck|ya|tcr I2...Nh6 I3NO!Ng8 I4Nd8+ aad
I2... N|6 I3c4!Ng8 I4Nc5+ctc.
12 ... Ne7! 13 Ne6! h3 14 Nd8+ Kc8 15 Nc6! Ng8 16 Ka6 h2
17 b7 + Kd7 18 b=Q h1 =Q 19 Qd8+! wh|tcw|as.
At |astsucccss. I9... kc6 |oscsto 20 Qxg8+, I9 kc6
dropsthcQuccaa|tcr2 Qa8+.
Atthcmomcatmatcr|a| |scqua|| aD|agram47,A.
Doachcako R. Ho|mov,Dubaa I973, a|tcr 8|ack's 43rd
movc.Yct|t|srcad||yapparcatthatthcc-pawa|soa|ts|ast
|cgs aad thca8|ackw||| havc thc matcr|a| advaatagc o|a
pad |pawa. Howcvcr, thcs|ga|caat|actor |a thcps|t|oa
8
w| ||turaouttobcthcRs.8|ack'ska|ght|swc|| p|accdto
capturc wh|tc's a-pawa,whcrcas wh|tc'ska|ghtcaagoa|tcr
8|ack'shpawa.lathcreu|t|agp|ay8|ackw|||havcthcact|vc
k|a

d8|ack'spadapawaw|||b|unhcradvccdthaa
whitc'spasscdh
}
awa,Ho|mov|aadcta||cdaaa|y|s|a
Shahmat Bjulletzn, #5, I975, has coav|ac|ag|y
p
rovca that
8|ackw|asb|orcc|rom D|qam47.mucho|thisaaa|y|s|s
too dcta||c |orouraccds, but thc major coac|us|oas arc
va|uab|c aad l havc madcgratc|u| usc o|thcm. wh|tc aow
p|aycd.
D|agram47
4Ne
wh|tcprotcctsthccpawaaad||chdawayby4...|4,
w|||goa|tcrthch-pawav|ag4.Oathc|acco||tth|s|sa|og|ca|
approach. Lxtcas|vc subscqucat aaa|y|s, howcvcr, hshowa
that8|ack'stkwou|dhavc bca coas|dcrab|y morc d||||cu|t
tcr4N|6+! kc5 45Nd7+! ( 45Ng8|cadtop|ays|m||arto
thcgamccoat|auat|oa.)Ho|movthcag|vethc|o||ow|a

asthc
ma|a||ac.45...kd4 +c5Nc4+ 47Nxc5 48No48Nb8
|smctby48. . . a4! )48... Nc6! kccp|agoutwh|tc'sk|a|rom
|4.)49h4h5! 50Nc8kc4 5INd+b352Nn5K 3ke
(wh|tchastotrytostop thc a-pawa.A|tcr53Ng3!! kb2! 54
Nxh5a48|ack'sRw|I|bcwc|| ahcado|wh|tc's.)53. . . kb2!
54kd2a4 55Ne!Nd4! 56kdNO 57Nc4+kb3 58Na5+
kb4 59Nc6+ kc5 6 Nd8(6 Nb8kd6! )6 .MM kd5 6I kc3
Nxh4 62kbNO 6NOkc6! 6Nh6Nc5 65ka4h4aad
8|ackw|as.wh|tc'sk|aghas |adccd coaqucrcdthcapawa,
8I
butaow|sto|araway|romthcpadh-pawa!
4 WWWf4 4 Ng4 Nxc4 4 a4
wh|tccchowhcthcrthcapawa|scapturcdoai
ora4,but|t|shard|ysurpr|s|agthat|tmake||tt|cd|||crcacc.
A|tcrthc|mmcd|atc+xh6 wh|tc'sot|s47NONb5
4Nd8,yct8|ackst|||w|asa|tcr4 ... a4 49Nc6i 5 NbNc
5Ih4a 52Nc2(or52Nxa2Nxa2 53h5Nb h6Nd+ 55
k|INc5 56h7Ng6aadthch-pawahasbccaoacmovcto
s|ow.)52. . . NdI+ 53kcI Nc3 54NaIkd3(Orthcs|mp|c
54 ... Ng2+ aad55 ... Nxh4.)55h5Nc2+ctc.
4 N 47 Nxb6 Nxa4 4 Nf
Hcad|abackv|a48N4|oscsa|tcr48... Nb2 49kc2
Nc4 5 h4a4 INd+kd4 2h5a 53h6a 54h7O+ 55
kx|3 Nc5+ 56kc2N|7whcawh| tc'sh-pawa has bcca
stoppdwh||c8|ack'sapawaquccas.
morcovcr,||wh|tc'sk|aggtostopthca-pawthca
8|ackw|asw|ththc|pawa.48kcNb2 49kd2Nc+ 50kc3
Nc5! 5INg8N

4! 2h3|3 53kd2Nh2! 54N|6+kc5 55


Nh5O(Homov.
WW Nc 49 Ng +
1hcothcrroutc|s49Nd6+kd5 5 Nb7(50Nc8kc5!)
50...a4 5I k|3Nc4! 52kx|4a 53Na5Nc5! , butwh|tc's
ka|ght|scuto|||romstopp|agthcapawa.
49 WKd 50 Ne6 Kc4!
Justas|athcprcv|ousaotc,8|ack'sgoa||stoprcvcat
wh|tc'ska|ght|romgctt|agbacktostopthcapawa.8|ack's
|orcearcwc||
p
|accd,wh|tc'sk|ag|sto|araway- thcrc|orc
8|ack'ssucccis urcd.
51 Nx4 a4 52 Ng6 a3 53 Ne+ Kb! wh|tcre|gas.
1hc||kc|cadwou|dhavcbcca.54N|3 a2 55Nd4+
kc4 56Nc2kb 57NaI+ kb2.Notcaga|athcd|mcu|tythc
ka|ghthasw|thaR.
82
wew|||aowcoas|drs|tuat|oasw|thmorepawas.
D|agram48
D|agram48showsP.8raadts L. meda|s,NewYork
I952,a|ter8|ack's46thmove.wh|tehastheadvaatqe.hchas
the act|vek|ag,thc act|veka|ght,apassed|aradvaaccd h
pawa,aada|terthe|mm|aeatcaptureo|theg-
p
awaw|||b a
pawaup.8|ack'sdraw|agpropctsretw|thqmck|ycreat|aga
passedpawa oa thequeeas|de(ascaa beseea hc hasjust
stanedoath|s)tot|edowa wh|te'sk|ghttherc. 1hca8ack
hopestout| ||zch|ska|ghttogetatwh|te'sk|ags|depawas.
1hegamecourseshowsthat8|ack|sjustab|ctoach|cveh|s
a|m.
47 NgS+ Kg8! 4 ab NxbS 4 Ne6 aS! SO KgS Nd6!
1hcgpawa caa' tbc dc|caded (50. . . k|7!! 5I h7,
50 # kh7! 5IN|8+) aadthcka|ght| sacedcdtouardboth
the|-pawaaadtheOsquarc.Luck||y|or8|ack,thea|ghtw|||
oa|yhavetob|aact|vc|orashortpr|o.
Sl Kxg6 a4 52 Nc
1hestreagtho|wh|te'sh-pawahasbeaaeutra||ndby
8|ack's apawa. S|ace 52 h7+!. kh8
j
ust makes wh|tc's h
pawavu|aerab|ewh||ega|a|agaoth|agm tum,wh|te'sk|ght
mustheadback.8|acktadvce|spaedpawaas|ar
p|b|eaadtheascadh|ska|ghttcrwh|te'spawas.
8
S2 W . 53 Nb3 a 54 K Ne4+ SS Ke
wh|tewtsto||ntcapturethed-pawas a toobta|a
aaotherp edpawaa u|ckya p|b|e.
SS WWW Nxg MKd Nf 57 Ke Nxe 58 Nal
Aterthe |mmed|ate58k|4,8|ackga|as t|me|orde
|eaxw|th58M..Nc2 59dNd4|.
S8 WWW K7 59 K4 Nc4 MKK6 Draw.
1hereareaow|aa|agchaacc|e|t.
A||aeexamp|eo|howtohaad|eatwopawamajor|ty
oaoaes|de|sshowastan|ag|romD|agram49,. meda|s R.
l|xher,I96]M.S.Chp|oash|p,ter8|ack's4Istmove.
D|agram49
O|coune,8|ackdaothavesuch amajor|tyyet,but
mygeaeros|ty''makes|t|mmed|ate|poss|b|e.Atercom|ag
throught|mepressurewe||eaough thoughm|ss|aga|orced
draw)aadaowhav|agaaotherhouroathec|ok,lthought|e
|y bth||tera| |yaad||gurat|ve|y p|ayed.
42 Nxa7??
1here|saorat|oaa|eq|aaat|oa|orsuchamove.wh|te
takeso||aaua|mportaatpawa|ar|rom thesceae o|act|oa

wh| | e|orgett|agabouteveryth|age|se.Justa|ewsecoadso|
actua|thinking wou|dhaveshowa thatoa|ythcact|ve42ke5|
makcsease.1hea42... Ng2|sham|ebcauseo|43h5p5
44k5.moreovcr,42... Nd3+ 43k|6Nm 44kxg6|4 45
Nd4 a|so |ooksqu|tesa|e|orwh|te.A|tcr42ke5|adraw|s
thc||kc|yrcu|t.
42 WW Ng 4 Ke?!
G|v|ag8|acktwocoaaectcdp dpawas|sproveato
behoe|ess.1here|ore,abetterpract|ca|trywas4h5gh5
4k| h4 45ke2h3 +k|I,eveathoughwh|tc'spropcts
rema|ab|ea|ter+... Nh4 47kgINO+.
4 WW Nx4 4 Kf4 g5 + 4 K Ng6 4 a4
wh|tedoes haveaaextra pawa oathequeeas|dc,but
Gml|xherw|||w|theasedemoastratehowtomake |tharm-
|e.
4 WWW f4+ 47 K g4 4 Nb5 NeS!
8|ackcxccutesthethcmat|cp|cccp|aystrategy. w|th
th|smovcceatra||z|agthcka|ghtaadoathcaextmovc,thc
k|ag.
49 Nc Ke6! 50 b Nc!
8| ack

ara|yzes wh|te's queeas|dep|ay.Hedoesaot


eveag|vewhiteachaace|orav|ab|epaedpawatherc.
51 t?!
lt|ss|mp|wroagtomake |teas|er|or8|acktoobta|a
coaaectedpasscdpawas.8etter|s5Ib5.
51 W b5 52 b5 NeS! 53 fg4 h4 54 K Nd3+ 55 Ke2 Nr!
8|ack's ka|ght t|cs dowa wh|tc's, wh| |e estab||sh|ag
|tse||oa aa act|vc at|oa.Gml|xhcr'stecha|que,whcreby
hecoat|aua||ymm|ah|schaacewh||em|a|m|z|agtho
o|h|soppaeat,|sexemp|ary.
8
56 K K 57 Kg2 KeS 58 Kf Nd3+ 59 Ke2 g3! 60 K
Net + 61 Ke2 g 62 K t wh|terc|gas.
l cou|d have doae sow|th acIearcoasc|eace a|ready
some movesear||er.8|ack'saextmovesw|||be63...Nd3(+),
M... N|4,65... Nh3(+).
Section 4:
Te Stronger Side Can Force (Create) A Passe Paw
l|thestroagers|dedoesa'tyethaveapassedpawa,|t
waatstocreateoae.there|ore,oacethepre| |m|aarystepso|
k|agaadka|ghtceatra||zat|oahavebeeaaccomp||shed,|t|s
t|metoworkoacreat|agap dpawaoathes|dehav|agthe
extrapawa.Parto|thet|med|rectawaadvaaccw|||dthe
job.However,theoppoaeatw|||bu||yawareo|th|sa|maad
w|||trytopreveat|t. 1heathew|aa|agprocedurecoas|stso|
paetrat|a|atotheothers|deo|thebard,wh||ethede|eader
rsbusytrymgtopreveatthecreat|oao|ap dpawa oathe
aorma|s|de.
1h|s|aterp|ayo||acton|swe|||||ustrated|romour||nt
examp|e,D| agram50, L. lucak S. Cvetkov|c,Yugos|av|a
I968,8| ackoamove.8| ackhasaa|ce,aorma|,oaepawa
advaatageps|t|oa.1heextrapawa |spano|ahea|thyPv.
Pk|ag|demajor|ty.H|saextstepshou|dbto|urthermob|||a
h|sk|ags|depawasasth|sw|||t|ewh|tedowaoathats|daad
g|ve8|acktheopportua|tytopaetrate|atowh|te'squeeas|de.
|ack'saextmoveopasbthv|st|oreq|orat|oa.
D|agram5
N
l WW Ne!
1heceatra||zedka|ghtcoversboths|deso|theboard
baut||u||y,threatea|a

2...I aadb|ag|tse||readytojumpto
c4.wh|te|satde|easivecrossroads.wh|chs|deo|theboard
shou|dheworkoa!
2 Ng?!
Hedec|dctopreveatthe|mmed|ateadvaaceo|the|
pawa.Yetthecost|s heavys|acethedeceatra| |zat|oao|the
ka|ghta||owbth8|ack'sk|agaadka|ghttomeaacewh|te's
queeas|de.lb||evethattheateat|vewasbtter. 2b3|4 3
NdI |,g|v|ag8|acktwoopt|oas.
(I)3. . . kd5,wh|chcaabeparr|edby4Nc3 +kc5(4... kd4! 5
Nb5+)5Ne4+whea5...d4!| |sr|s[bcauxo|6Nd6aad|t
|suacerta|a||8|ackcaaw|a,e.g. 6... kc3 7b4kb3 8Nxb7
K 9b5kb4 I0Nd6,w|ththethreatI I Nc8.
(2)3... NO| |scorrect,threatea|a4... Nd4+. l|4b4,8|ack's
k|agw| | | peaetrate thequeeas|destart|agw|th4... kd5, ||4
kd,8| acorcesapassedpawa.4... g3| 53|xg3 6Ne3
ke5| 7Ng2Nd4 8b4N|5aad|aduecourse|ack'sgpawa
w|||costh|teh|squeeas|de.Neverthe|ess,th|swoudhave
beaabtterchce|orwh|te,s|aceaherthetextmove8|ack
hasaae|ert|me|apaetrat|ag.
2 WWW Nc4! 3 Nf4+ Ke 4 Nd3+ Kd4 S a4 Ne!
Receatra||z|agtheka|ghtmakeswh|te'ska|ghtg|ve
way,thusa||ow|ag8|ack'sk|agtogetatwh|te'spawas.
6 Nf4 Kc4! 7 Ne K 8 Ke b!
8ypreveat|agaNc5(+),8|acksa|eguardsh|squeea
s|de.
9 Kf4?!
A8|ack|sbouadtow|awh|te'squeeas|de,arout|ae
pawa|orpawaexchaageoathek|ags|demustbe|ahereat|y
ope|ess.Oa|y9Nd4a4 I0 No|(ers ab|to|pract|ca|
87
chaaces,thougho|coune8|ack'spos|t|oarema|aswoaa|ter
I0 ... kb3.
9 W Nd3+ 10 K Nx 11 Kf4 Nd3+ 12 K4 Nxb2 13 K
Nxa4
1wocoaaectedp dpawasw|arout|ae|y.1hecoac|u
s|oawas.
14 KeNcS 15 Nd4 aS 16 Nc6+ Kc 17 Nd4 a4 18 Nb5+
K 19 Nd4 a 20 Nc+ K3 21 Ka 2 KcIKcwh|te
rc|gs.
D|agr5I
1hestroagers|de'stask|scoas|derab|yharder|rom
D|agram5I, D.L|c m.D|m|tr|jev|c,kragujevac I977,atter
8| ack's36thmove.wh|te'soa|yadvaatage |stheextrapawa,
8|ackhas the act|vek|ag aad the poteat|a| |y more act|ve
ka|ght.wh|te's||rstordero|bus|amustbetocoaso||date
thepawaadvaatagedthentstep|stoceatra||athek|ag.
37 K! Kc 38 Na5+ Kb5
1hetext doessucceed |a |orc|agbackwh|te'ska|ght
(39b!ka4 +Nc4kb3),buta||owh|te'sk|agtoach|eve
adom|aeer|agceatra|ro|e.Ab|tmoreprom|s|ag|or|oager
termrc|staace|s38...kd5|.
39 Nc4 Nc 4 Nd2 a5 41 Ke
8
1hcquccas|dc|ssu|||c|cat|yprotcctcdsothatwh|tc's
k|ag|srcadytohcad|or8|ack'sk|ag|dpawas.
41. .. Ne 42 h4! a4
l|8|ackdocsaoth|ag,wh|tcwa|ks |aw|thkc4, kc5,
ctc.,wh||crcta|a|agh|squccas|dcmajor|ty.
4b
lt|sd||||cu|ttorcs|sthav|agaprotcctcdpasscdpawa.
Howcvcr,ac|carcrw|a |sto ohadw|ththcd|rcctk|ags|dc
pactrat|oa approach.43bxa4+! kxa4 4kc4K 4kc5
Nc7 +Nc4!kb3 47N|6h6 48Ng8ctc.
4 ... Nc7 4Kd4
AIrcadythc||ntprob|cm|sapparcat||4k4!! ,8|ack
gctscouatcrp|aya|tcr... Nd+ 45g4Nxb! .
4 ... h5 4 g5 Kc 4 KeS Nd5 47 Kd4?!
wh|tc uaacccssar||ygcts co|d |cct. 1hc k|agshou|d
rcma|a act|vcaadthckmghtuscd |or dc|casc v|a47NbI ! .
8|ackthca|s,| ac||cct,| azugwaagaadwh|tcw|ascas||y,c.g.
47... Nc7 4k|6kd 49Nc3ctc.
47 ... Ne7 4 Kc4 Nf 49 b+
Act|v|ty|samust,as49N|3!! Nd6+ 50kd3kd5has
8|ackthrcatca|agbth5I.. .Nb5aad5I.. .Nc4.
49 ... Kb 50 K Nxh4 51 Nc4+ Kc7 52 NeS! Kd6
SccD|agram52oathcacxtpagc.
l|8|acktcmpr|aw|thh|sk|ag,wh|tctco||thca
pawaaadw|asrout|ac|yw|ththctwocoaacctcdpasxdpawas.
1hcrc|orc 8|ackhasto|rcc h|ska|ght.1hctcxt |orccwh|tc
toadvaaccthc bpawa w|th thc rcsu|tthat |tswcakacssw|||
prcvcatwh|tc|romcaptur|agthcapawa.Yct,a||th|sc||ort|s
|oraaught wh|tcst|||hasaw|a.
89
D|agram52
53 b Nf 5Nxg6 Kc SS K Kb7 S Nf4 h4 57 g6
w|ththeapawa|oraow|mmater|a|,whatwehave|saa
eadgameo|ab aadagpawav. theh-pawa. 1h|ssames|tua
t|oaex|sted|athestudyyJ. H.marw|tz|atheprev|oussec
t|oa - seeD|agram46. 1heso|ut|oa |ath|spract|ca|game |s
qu|tes|m||ar.
S7 WNg7 58 K Nf 59 Nh3 Ng7 MNg!
1hew|aa|agproedurew|||ba |o||ow. (I)1ogetthe
b-pawatothe7thraak,wh|teaodtocheckoad8,mtat(2)
theka|ghtcaa gettoc6, thuscover|agthequeea|agsquare.
Dur|agth|sproe ,8|ack'shpawaw||Ib|reetoavaacem
thatwh|temustt|meh|smovcmotexct|y.
M WWNe8 61 K Ng7 62 Nt h3 63 Nd8+ Kc8
1hegamecoat|auat|oa|sreachedmaera|ter6.N N kb8
Mka6h2 5Nc6+.
6 b7+ Kc7 6 Ka6 h 6 Nc! hl =Q 67 h8=Q+ Kd7
Obv|ous|y67..N kd!! dropsthe Queea a|terb Qb7+.
(1h|swou|da|mhavebeathecoac|us|oa||8|ackhadp|ayed
W
6... kxc6!|.)
6Qb7+ Kd6
68 ... ke8 ruas|atomatcby69 Qe7or69 Qc8,6 .MN ke6
dropstheQueeato69Nd4+or69Nd8+.
69 Qe7 +! KdS 70 N+ Kc4 71 Qt + 8|ackrc|gs.
A|ter7I . . . kc5 72Qxg7 wh|te |supaka|ghtaada
passedpawa.
D|agram53
l aD| agram 53, 8ajec O. 1r|agov, Ljub|jaaaI969,
wh|tetomove,8|ack|su

amuadqueeas|depawa.1he|mge
aumbro|pawasrema|ag|avon |ack,however,theexce|-
|eatp|acemeato|wh|te's|ghtmakc|tveryhard|or8|ack
tocreateapassedpawa|rom h|squeeas|demajor|ty.Asw|||
bexea,8|ackw|||aeedaverycreat|vemethotoaccomp||sh
th|s. |aaayc,8|ack'sntobjotmustbk|agact|vat|oa.
Herea|soth|smeaask|agceatra||mt|oa
1 t K 2 K Ke7 3 a4 b!! 4 Nx6
wh|tem|ghtaswe| | take,asa|terthepass|ve4Nd3
Nb7| 8|ackeveahasthe|unryo|cho|age|ther...a or.W. C
ash|sbre.
4 WWW Kd8
8|ackp|aastowa|kovertob7,|orc|agwh|teto g|ve
9I
backtheawaw|thb5.A'aoma|''coat|auat|oaaowwou|db
5ke2kc 6kdkb7 7b5cxb5 8axb5Nxb5,whea8|ackhas
obta|aedapassedpawaaadw| ||w|a us|agthetecha|queso|
Sect|oa2.
S|acesuchacoum|sratherprospct|e|or wh|te,he
dec|dctotrytotakeadvtageo|theabseaceo|8|ack'sk|ag
|romthek|ag|detogeaeratemmeact|oathere.Notea|mthat
5a|a||satter5...bxa5 6bxa5Nc4dwh|te|othea-pawa
|oraoth|ag.
5 hS!? ghS!?
8|ackacceptsthecha| |eage.o|course,hecou|d have
coat|auedw|ththeaoma|5...kc8,buttheawh|tewou|dhave
ga|aedarout|aeexchaageo|oaek|ag|depawa.
6 K Kc 7 K3 f!?
8|ackaga|achothemotdyam|cway.1hes|mp|e
7... kb7a|sow|asaaddom''s|mp|er.
8 ex
worse|s8kh4!!|xe4 9|xe4kb7 I0b5c5! I I kh5
Nxe4d8|ack'stwop dpawas|eadtoaaeyw|a.
8 Nx 9 b c!
1here|saoreasoawhy9. . . cxb5 shou|daotbegood
eaough| athe |oagrua. However,thetext|sstroageras |t
|mmed|ate|yg|vc8|ackapwer|u|p dpawa.
10 K?!
1o|o||owupact|vep|ayw|thp |ve |sse|domadv|sa
b|e.Oa|yI0a5! !|sworthtry|ag,eveathoughI0 .B M c4 I I b6
c3 I2Nb4Nd4mustu|t|mate|y|eadtoaw|a|or8|acks|ace
hew|| | capturethebpawasaadtheabtwopawasup.
10 h4!
92
L|thcrd|sso| v|agthcdoub|cdpawasor crcat| ag a
pwcr|u|pacdhpawa.
11 f4 e4!
ausua|,butwc||taoughtout. wh|tc'srcu|t|agpad
|pawaw|||b|mptcat,whcrc8|ackw|||havctwopwcr|u|
aadw|dc|yxpmatcp dpawas.
12 g4 c4! 13 N c 14 K Nd4+ 15 K4 c 16 Nd3?!
wh|tcovcr|oksthcprcttyrcspoasc.Ncccssary |s I6
Nxc2Nxc2 I7k4,though I7 . . . Nd4 I8kg5Nc6+ I9kO
Nc5orI9... Nm4w|as|or8|ack.
16 WW Nf! ! wh|tcrc|gas.
wh|tc'sk| ag |st|cdtostopp| agthc hpawa aad h|s
ka|ght|scha| acdto thccIsquarc.us8|ack'sk|agcaa
uapnurbdddcc|s|vc|ypactratc|atowh|tc'sps|t|oa.
D|qam54
wh|tc|s|ortuaatcthat |t |s h|smovc | athc rout|ac
apcar|agpos|t|oao|D|agram 54, L. Port|sch O. 8arcza,
uagaryI68.l|8|ackwou|dboamovc,hcwou|dcapturc
oagdthcrcu|t|agp|t|oathca|sdrawa|orthc|o||ow|ag
rcas.(I)wh|tc|s|cw|thoa|y3pawas,(2)8|ack'sk|ag|s
propr|yp|accd|orcop|agw|thtcpawa, aad (3) thcwcak
acsso|wh|tc'sbpawaocsaot a||owwh|tc'ska|ghttogo
attcr8|ack'sbpawas|acc8|ack'ska|ghtthcaattackswh|tc's
93
pawaw|th...Nd6.
1ow|a,GmPort|xhmustcomeupw|thaaoa-rout|ae,
oaut||u|aadstrateg|ca||ywe||just|||edp|aa.
1 f+! ! g
Notcaptur|ag|sworse.I. ..kO!! 2gh5!gh5 3ke5!
(wh|tehasobta|aedastroagpadpawaaadadm|aeer|ag
k|

g|oraoth|ag.)3... Nc7 h4!Ne8 5Nd5aadwh|tew|as


eas|Iy.
2 g5
wh|te hascreatedaaouts|depassedpawa the RP
be|agthemostd||||cu|toae|ortheka|ghttostop aadw|||
usetet|methat8|ack'sk|agaeedstostop|t,toact|vateh|s
owak|agaadka|ght.
2 W K 3 Nd +!
wh|te muststr|kequ|ck|y|ess h|s advaatage |sgoae.
1os|ow|s3 h4!! |4!whea8|ackhassurpr|s|ag|ycoua-
terchaacc,e.g.4ke4kg7! 5k4K6 6ke5Nc7

aad8|ack
ho|d.
3 WWW Kg5 4 Ke! KS 5 Ke f4 6 Kd7!
1|mecoat|auesto be o|esseace. lasu|||c|eat|sthe
greedy6Nx4+!! . 6... k5 7Nd5Ng7+ 8kd7N|5 9kc7Nd4
0k6Nm5! I I bK4 I2N|4kg3,w|thadraw.
6 Ng7 7 Nxb Nf 8 Nc4
Comparedtotheprev|ousaote,wh|te |sadec|s|ve
tempoaheadoathequeeas|de.1h|seaab|ch|sbpawato||ve,
wh||etheka|ghtcaagetback|at|metostopthe|pawa.
8 WW Nd4 9 b N 10 Kd6!
Preveat|agI0 ... Nc5(+)aadxa||ag8|ack's|ate.
94
10 WWW t II b7 f I2SeS 13 h8=Q Sc4+ I4Ke Sxe 15
Q+8|ackrc|gas.
g3.
wh|tep|cko||the|pawaw|thachecke|theroa|4or
D|agram55
1hepos|t|oao|D|agram55, R.Ho|mov - V. mo|seev,
Uzh

oro I972,a|ter8|ack's42admove,a
p
pantobuaex
ceptroaa|.wh|te|supagopawaoathekrag|de,thequeea
s|de|ssymmetr|ca|w|theachs|dehaad|cappedbyaweakb
pawa d at the momeat8|ackhasthemore act|ve k|agaad
a|ght.wh|te'sgeaera|p|aa |stheusua|oae. create ap d
pawaoathek|ag|deaadwh||e8|ack|sbusystopp|ag|t,pae
trate8|ack'squeeas|detocapturebthpawas.
I havex|ectedth|s''aexcet|oaa|''ps|t|oa todemoa
stratehowexceed|ag|ycomp||cateka|ghteadgcare.1he
ka|ght|sjustsoversat||ethat both s|des have maay|og|ca|
poss| b| | | trestoexp|ore.1ogeteveac|osetothetruth,a
tremeadousamouato|work |srequ|red.Gm Ho|movhas
pub||shedadeta||edaaa|ys|so|thisead|ag|aShakhmatny
Biulletin, #5o|I973aadlhavemadegrate|u|useo|someo|
h|swork.
Lveathoughwh|te'sgeaera|p|aa |sappareat,hemust
makeaspc|||cdec|s|oaaow. shou|dhea|mtocrateapad
pawaoathe| orh|||e!Aadtheaaswer|s. . .
4 hS!
95
1heh|| | e! thereasoasarestrateg|ca||yc|ear.the h-
pawa|sthemored|mcu|toae|ortheka|ghttostopaad||the
|agstops]capturc|t,hew|||boaesqume|artheraway|rom
thequeeas|dethaa ||hehadcapturesthegpawa.1here|ore
thetext|ssupr|orto43g5.
4 WW Ne
lhavechoathetexta thema|a||ae,bcauxtome|t
|sthemotrat|oaa|de|eaxs|ace|ta|mstomaketheg5break
mored|0|cu|ttoach|eve.1hetwoma|aa|temat|vcare.
(I)4 W Ke
1h|s|sthegamecoat|auat|oa.wh|tewoaa |o||ows.4
kd4Nc7 45Nc4N|6jHerea|mtherearemoa|temat|vc.(a)
45... Nc5|eadstoa|otk&Peadgamea|ter+Nxa5Nxa4 47
bx4bxa5 48 kc5, (b)theact|vat|oa o|thek|agw|th45... k|6
46kd5kg5 a|soturasouttobe |asu|||c|eat.4kc6N|6(Or
47...4 kxd7Kh5 49Nxok4 50b! ,or47... Nc5 48
Nxa5! 4 49 KNd7+ 50kb5Kh5 5I Nc6kg5 52a5
N|6 53 e7Ne8 54kh6!aadtheapawaueeas.)48Nxb6
k4(u|va|eat|s4 ..B Nq4 49Nc4kxh5 50b! 5Ia5
b3 52b2! Ne5 + 53kc7aadaga|atheapawa caa'tbe
stopped.)49Nc4kxh5 50b4!b4 5I a5b3 52Nb2!Ne5+
53c7aadaga|athea-pawacaa'tbestopped.)49Nc4kxh5
50b4! b4 5Ia5 b3 52 a6Ng4 53Nb2!Ne5 + 54kc7,
w|aa|ag.j46Ne3! (w|thwh|te'sk|ag|apos|t|oatohead|or
b5,there|sao reasoatoa||ow8|ack|mmed|atecouaterp|ay.
moreover,+..B kd6|spreveatedbcauxo|47N|5+ |o||owed
by4 Nxh6.)+..B K 7kc4Nd7 4N|5!Ne5+ 49kb5Nq4
50Kke6 5INxh6!(1hecu|m|aat|oao|wh|te'sp|aastart
|agw|th+Ne3! . 8|ack|s|e|tw|thoutpawasaadcouaterp|ay.
1he s|owka|htcaaaotcopew|thw|te'sw|de|ysearated
passedpawas.5I. ..Nxh6 5kxa5kd7 53kb6kc8 4ka7!
|ackres|as.1here|saoth|agtobedoaeaboutthecom|ag
advceothebpawa.
(2)4 WNd7
8|ackprotectsthebpawa,buta||ow|agtheg5break
%
|eadtoa|a|r|yrout|ae|o.
NO+ ke6(A|ter .N . k|6 45kd48|ackmuste|ther
a||ow|mmed|atepaetrat|oabythek|agortraas |atothe
ma|a||aew|th45...ke6.)45g5|5 +q5+ (a|ter
46. . . k|6wh|te'sk|aghasareadroutetotheueeas|de47
Ne4+ kg7 48kd4|kh6 49k5b5| ! 50b a4 5Ibxa4
Nb6+ 5kc6Nxa4 53Naadwh|tew|as.)47h6kg6 4h7
kg7 49kd4kh8 50kc

Nc5 5INO|kxh7 52Nd2(Now


thath|s pawas are protected, wh| te caa cruach both o|
8|ack's.)52 . . . kg6 53kb5Nd7 54kc6Ne5+ 55kxb6 |o|
|owedby56K,w|aa|ag.
4Nt+ K
w|thoutprospcts|s4... kd!| 45g5|5 46h6N0
47 Nq5.
4 Kd Nc7
D|agam56
8|ackpreparestotrytokeepoutwh|te's k|ag|rom
bthb5aadd.
1hes|ga|||caata|teraat|ve| stogo|oracouaterattack
w|th45... Ng5. GmHo|movdmoastratcthe|o||ow|ag|orced
w|aaga|ast|t.+Nd2Nh3+... ke5 47kc4k|4 4k5kq4
49kb6kxh5(Or49... N|
}
50kxa5kxh5 5Ikb6Nd6

2
Nc4| etc.)50b4| b4 5Ia5 N|7 52kc7 aad the apawa
caaaotbstoppd.j47kc4NO 48kb5Nq4 49Kke6 (l|
97
49... kg5,wh|te'saawagetstorua.50b4! b4 5Ia Ne5
52a6Nd7+ 53kc7.)50ka5N|6 5IkoNh5 52aN|4 53
a6Nd5+ 54kb7kd7 55a7Nc7 56b!aadwh|tew|as,s|ace
8|ack|sde|ease|eaga|asthew|aa|agadvaaceo|thebpawa
to o.
4Kc4 Ke6
g5.
8ecauseo|zugzwaag8|ackhastoa||owe|therkb5or
47 gS! h 4 NxS+ Kf
1hew|a|sustasthemat|ca|ter48... k|5.49NO! k|6
50Nd4kg5 5INb5!Ne6 52kd5Nc5 53Nd4kh5 54kc6
kg5 55K.
49 Ne4+ Kg7 SO Nc3! Kh6 51 NdS Ne6 52 Nxb6 KxhS 53
Nd7 KgS 54 Nc Nc7 SS Nb7 K MNxaS wh|tew|as.
Section 5:
Te Stronger Side Canot Force (Create) A Passed Paw
1herecaabeaaumbero|reasoaswhyapassedpawa
caaaotbe|orceduadersat|s|actorycoad|t|oas|rom aoae
awaadvaatageps|t|oa1hetwomot |mprtaatreasme
|a |ocat|oa(tede|ead|agk|aghasthemoreact|ve |oca-
t|oa) aadpawacoa||gurat|oa (thestroagers|de'spawasare
backward,b|okadedorpart|yb|okadedoub|ed). 1h|sxc-
t|oaw|||coas|der|ourthemat|cs|tuat|oas.
1he|o| |ow|ag|mportaatpr|ac|p|eshou| da|waysbe
remembered. if the stronger side cannot turn its one pawn
advantage into a ufl passed pawn, its winning chancs are
sigfcntly reduced. Oen there is no win.
Our||rsteamp|e,D|agram57,k.Regaa - m.Rohde,
New York (marsha||o|chberg) lateraat|oaa| I977, a|ter
8|ack's49thmove,shows8|ackhaad|cappedbyboth o|the
|actors meat|oaed above. C|ear|y,wh|te'sk|a

|sthemore
act|veoae|agett|agtothequceas|de.8|ack'skmg|sa|mto
98
|arbackatprcscattocqcct to pcactratc wh|tc's k|ags|dc.
morcovcr,tocrcatcaspasscdpawaoathc
(
uccas|dc,|ack
w|| | havctobrcakw|th... b3,thcrcbysacr|||cmgapawa.1hc
s| |vcr||a| aghcrc|sthatthcrcsu|t|agpasscdc-pawaw| | | bca
|aradvccdoacaadth|sprcvcatswh|tc'sk|a|romwaadcr-
| agtoo|ara||c|d.myovcra||cva|uat|oa|s.h|tchas|a|r
pract|ca|draw|agchaacc,but8|ackprobab|yhasathcorct|ca|
w|a.
D|agram57
50 Ke2
8oth acccssarytoprcvcat thc thrcatcacd50. . . b3 aad
dc|rab|cs thatthck|agcaahcad|orc4.
50 WNc
A|tcrthcmorcact|vc50. . . Nd5,wh|tcdocsbcstb
b|agact|vch|mx||. 5I kd| (5I !| wcakcasthc ka|dc
5I. . .N|4+ 52kc4Nxg2 53kxb4

c 54kxc3NO 5kc4|
Nxh2 56kd5 aadthcpasscdcpawa shou|dg|vc su|||c|cat
couatcrchcctosqm|c8|ackoathck|ag|d.
51 Kd3 Ne+
1hcrcsccms | |tt|c |o|c |a push|ag wh|tc's k|ag |or-
ward.morctothco|at|sI. . .|5 , c.g.5kc4k|6,whca 53
kc5!!|src|utcdby3... b3.
52 Kd4 f 53 Ne8+
9
wh|tccorrcct|ya|mstouxh|ska|ghttogoa|tcrthcb
pawa.O|coum,53kxc5!!|a||sto53...b3.
53 WW K
1houghat||mt

|aaccthctcxtappamtob|eact|vc
thaa53... kh6,ccatra|iz|ag thc k|ag|s thc morc |og|ca| ap
proach.
S4 Nc7 Ng4?
8uttrad|a

o||thcquccas|dcpawas|orjustthch-pawa
|sabadbarga|asmcc8|ackr|sksw|ad|agupw|thathcorct|ca|
|yqu|tcdrawacad|ag.
1hccorrcctp|aa|sto ho|doatothcquccas|dcpawas
|oras|oagasoss|b|cstart|agw|th54...Nc6 +! .lorcxamp|c.
55kc4k|6! 6Nd5+!! kc5 57NxbNxb4 58kxbkd4! 59
g3 kc3! ! 60kb3! (60kxc3! |oscsto60... 5 6Ih4gh4 62
gh4|463 h5|3 64h6O 65h7|I =Q h8=QQaI+ |o|-

dby67...Qxh8.)6 ...kc2! 6I kb!kd2 62kb3g5 6h4


gxh464gh4|4 65h5|3 66h6|2 67h7 |I =Q 8 h8=Q
h5+ 6

ka3Qb2+ 70ka4Qxc2+ |cadstoawoa Q&P


cadgc.
1hcrc|orc,wh|tcwou|dhavctovaryw|th56Na6kc5
57Nc5orcvcacar||crw|th55kd3.Howcvcr,|ac|thcrcasc
8|ackkccpsrca||st|cw|aa|agchaacc.
SS Nd!
Corrcctaadc|carcst.thoughwh|tca|sodrawsw|th55
kc4Ne+ 56kxb4Nxc2+ 57kxcNe 58 N|I 59kd!
Nxh2 6 ke.Howcvcr,wroag|s55h3!b3! kxcbxc2 57
kxc2Nc3+ 58kc3Nq2,whca8|ackhasmanc|ousw|aa|ag
chccbcauxthc|pawa|sp daadwh|tc'shpawaqu|tc
vu|acrab|c.
ss WW b3 56 Kxc bxc 57 Kc Nx ss Kd!
As a|rcadyd|scusscd |a Chaptcr3,Scct|oa2, aorma|
pos|t|oaso|N +2Pv. N +Pw|tha||pawasoathcmcs|dc
I0
are|a|r|yeydraw.Here,wh|tehaod||cu|t |aprotect-
|agtheg-pawa,wh||e8|ackcaa'thoptocreateadpawa
exceptbytherout|aeexchgeo|apa|ro|pawas.hep|t|oa
|sdrawa.
SS WW .S 59 Ke2 Ke MNc KeS 61 K Kd4 62 NS+ KdS 63
Nc7+ Ke 6 K3 Draw.
Rout|aep|ayw|||aotwork|or8|ack|romD|ag 58,
A.Szaap|k 0. Romaa|sh|a, wor|d Studeathamp|oash|,
arac I976, a|ter wh|te's4Ist move. lor|astaace,4I...g5

42hxg5hxg5 43O|5+ 44kd4 |eaves8|ackw|th aov|ab|e


|o| |ow-up,e.g.44... g4 45 |xg4x4 46ke4a||ows wh|te aa
edraw.1here|ore,8|ackmusteavethekiag|de a|oae aad
||orotherp|aas.
D|agram58
8| ack'spart|cu|ar prob|em |sthatthere |soa|yoae
wh|te pawa ava||ab|e |orcapture oa the queeas|de aad,
moreover,8|ack'sbpawa|svu|aerab|etoaaattackbwh|te's
ka|ght.1here aretwov|ab|ep|aas|or8|ack.1he||rst |sto
s|mp|yexchaageo||thebpawasaad a|mtow|aoathek|ag
s|debtak|agadvaatageo|theweakaesso|wh|te'shpawa.
1heateat|ve|stohead|or thequeeas|dewh||e|eav|agthe
k|ags|depawasas|s. lae|thercase,8|ack's||rstmove|sthe
same.
41 Nc+ 42 Kf4
1hepass|ve 42 kO makes ||tt|esease, because a|ter
I0I
42...Nm5 43NxNd4+ Kf4 h5|(45K5!NO+)thcbt
thatWh|tccaoach|cvc|sthcamccoot|ouat|oo.
42 WW Nxb
Ao |otcrcst|opract|ca| aodpsycho|o|ca| momcot,
bcauB|ackcho thc||ocwh|ch cota||suro r|skfor h|m
wh||c,hchop,st|||rcta|o|osuff|c|cot|yrca||st|cprosctsfor
thc w|o. Thcorct|ca||y, thc morc amb|t|ous 42...Nc4|! apan
stroocr. 43 Kc4f6| ( 43. . . h5 44 Kf4 Kd5 45 Nc3+ c5 46
Kc5a||owWh|tccouotcrp|a.)Kf4Kd5 45Nc3+ Kc5 +
N4 Kxb5 47 Nxf6 Kc4 48 Nc4 aod oow 48. . . Kd5| kccps
h|tcsK|oout,wh||cprcpar|othcbpawo'sadvaocc.
4 Nxb Nd4 4 Na4 Nf 4 Kg4 K
Nowthcrcarctwoa|tcmat|vc.
(I)4 hS?? = Occoot|ouat|oo.
Th|s|s]ust horr|b|cbccauscooh5thcpawow|||bc |o
|mm|ocotdaocrofo|o|otforooth|o.
4 W .5 47 Nc Ng7 4 Ne4+ Ke 49 Nx
Fa||sfor as|mp|ctact|ca|rcasoo,butthc"oorma|49
N3 |cadstoaoc|cmcotaryproa|c|mofthc hpawo.49. . .f5+
5 K f4 5INc2Nx5.
49 W hx SO KS
Or5O h6Nc8whco5Ih7! |srcfutcdby5I...Nf6+.
so WWW Ne+ st K6 K6 s2 K7 Ng7!
B|ack|stt|oupazugaops|t|oo.
53 h6 Nf 54 f4 Ke Wh|tcrc|s.
Zugao|shcrcaodthchpawoo|ot.
(2)4 Nc = Concctcoot|ouat|oo.
IO2
Wh|tc shou|dbr|o thc Ko|ht back, crcatc oo ocw
wcakocsscsaodhopcforthcbst.hcmat|cp|ayoowwou|d
b:
4 WWW b5+ 47 K3 KeS 4 Nd3+ Ke4 49 Net f
49...Kf4 5ONd+ K!a||ow5INc5+.
50 Nc Kt 51 N Ne7!
Wh|tchasasurcdrawaftcr5I. ..K! 52Nd55 53
Nx64+ 54NQ4.
52 Nd3 w|thcoot|ou|odraw|ochccforWh|tc.
Aftcr52 ...Kc2,Wh|tchas53Nc5|,aftcr52...5 53hQ5
5, Wh|tcp|ay54 Kh2|,whco54... Kc2 55Nc5K! a||ow
5

Nc4+fo||owcdby57NQ5.
lo D|aram59,V.Korchoo| B. Spass[, Soch| I966,
aftcrB|ack's 9th movc, W|tc's chcc arc p rfortum|o
h|scxtrapawooothcquccos|o |otoav|ab|cpawdpawo. lo
add|t|oo,Wh|tc'spawocoof|urat|oo |s]ustto|of|cxb|cto
d|rcct|y accomp||sh aoyth|o by pawo advaoccs. Thcrcforc,
Wh|tcshou|d |cavc h|spawsa|oocaod a|m ntforpoctra
t|oo| otoB| ack'ss|dcofthc board.Soph|st|catcdK|oaod
Ko|htmaocuvcrsw| | | bcrcqu|rcdtomakcprorcss. Gm
Korchoo|'smaocuvcr|o- ut|||z|othcwho|cbard |softhc
h|hctordcr.
D|aram59
IO3
S|occWh|tc'sKo|ht|spr|yp|accdoothccdcofthc
baord,thcntstcpshoudbtoct|tccotra||ud.
50 Ne2! g5 51 Kd3 b5?!
Acootrovcrs|a|movc.Oothcoochaod,|tprcvcotsa4
aodprcttymuchcosurcthatB|ack'smopawoscaoho|dback
Wh|tc's t

rcc pawosoothcquccos|dc, oo thc othcrhaod,thc


bpawobccomcsoowmuchmorcvu|ocrab|cto ao attackby
Wh|tc'sK|o.l osuchuoc|cars|tuat|oos,thcu|d|osp|r|t
shou|dbcthcru|cofthumbwh|chsay. ''Doo'ttouchapawo
uo|cssthcrc|sa vcryoodrcasoofor |t, bccauscyoucao't
movc|tback| ''Bccauscthctcxtv|o|atcdth|s' ' ru|c' ' ,l havc
attachcdthcdub|ousmark.
52 Ne3 Nt 53 Kc
W|thWh|tc'sK|o&Ko|htwc||ccotra||zcd,thc ocxt
quct|oo |swhcrctotrytopoctratc.Obv|ous|ythcf|nt|o|ca|
cho|cc |sthcquccos|dc.Rccoo|z|oWh|tc'sp|aos,B|ackscod
h|sKo|httodcfcod.
53 ... Nd8! 54 Kb2! Nc 55 Kb3
Thcb|toftr|aou|at|oooomovcs54 aod 55 byWh|tc
hascauscdB| acktooowbcoomovc.Toprcvcot|mmcd|atc
damac,B|ack'srco |sforccd,|v|oWh|tc t|mctorcdc-
p|oytc Ko|htw|touthav|otoworryabutpoctrat|oo by
B|ack'sK|o.
55 .. Kd6 56 Ndl Ke 57 N K
B|ack |s |o oo cood|t|ooto p|ay57...Kf5 58 Nd3 4!
bccauscWh|tcw|oscas||ytcr594+K4 6 Nc5+ Nxc5
6Idc5Kf5 62Kb4.
58 Nd3
WhathasWh|tcaccomp||shcdbymov|oh|sapparcot|y
wc||p|accdKo|htfrometod!Wc||,|tstwc||ooe,but
IO
hadooprospcctsforfurthcrmcaofu| act|oo. Fromd3|tcao
hcad|otoB|ack'sps|t|oov|ab,core5.
58 ... Ke6 59 Kb2 Kd6 MNc Na 61 Kc!
Wh|tc|s]u||othcposs|b|| |t|csforK|opcoctrat|oo
oobths|dcs wc||thatB|ackod|t|mp |b|ctocopw|th
a||thcthrcats.lfoow6I...Nc6,Wh|tch62Na6|Na5 6Kd
Nc6(63... Kc6! |otoMNc7+.)MKc2Nc7 65KNf5 6
Nb4Kc6 67Nc2|Kd6 68K

2Kc6 69Kh3whcoB|ackw|||
ootbc ab|c tokccp out Whttc's K|owh||c s|mu|taocous|y
protcct|o thcwca b aod dpawos. or cxamp|c, 69. . . Nh6
thcpawoaftcr7ONa oocmorccxamp|cofthcfau|ts
|o5I...b5!| .
Coov|occdthatp |vcdcfco|shop|c ,Gmp ky
dcc|dcsto act|vatch|sKo|ht.Th|s,howcvcr,a| |ows h|tcs
K|otocttothccurc|a|buarc.
6l WW Nc4 62 Nd3! Ke
By oow |t's too |atc for thcKo|ht to tryto rcturo.
62... Na5 63Nc5| Kc6 64Kb2Kf5 65 a3Kf4 66 Kb4 aod
Wh|tc w|os. Thus B| ack'sK|o |mmcd|atc|yhcadsforthc
K|og|dc.
63 Kb3! Nd+ 6 K Nl
Pcrhaps a b|tofabcttcrpractical try |s64... Nx!| as
thco thc |mmcd|atc 65 Kxb5!| a| |ows 65... 4| w|th cxcc||cot
couotcrchcc. lostcad,Wh|tcoccdtof|ntp|ay65NQ| aod
oo|ythcocapturcthcbpawo.
Nf K 6 Nb3
Wh|tcp|aosto protcctthc cpawo]ust|oocoouhto
b ab|ctotco0thc bpawo aodstartthcapawooo |tsruo.
P|vcp|aybyB|ack|saa|ohop|c..6... Kf6 67NI K5
68Nc2Nd2 69 Kxb5N 7Oa4ctc.B|ack,thcrcforc,scods
h|sK|o|otoWh|tc'sp|t|oo,cvcoatthccotof|v|oupaoy
drcamsofhav|oap cdpawo.
IO5
6 WW.4 67 f4+ K4 6 Nf+ Kf 69 Ndl Ke2 70 K!
Thckcy,cvcrs|occMKb,hasbcototumthcapawo
|otoat|cr. Thctcxtcoab|th|s,thcocxtmovccosurc|t.
70 WWKdl 71 Kb! Kc2 72 a4 B|ackrc|os.
Thca-pawocao'tbcstoppcd.72... Nxc3 73 a5Nc4 74
a6 Nd6 75a7.
D|aram6
Aoothcr uoba|aoccd pawo coof|urat|oo |s showo | o
D|agam6, A.Ador]ao O. skov,BaocuxI975,aftcrB|ack's
25th movc. Thc k|od ofs|tuat|oo cp|ctcd happcos oftco
coouhtobccoos|dcrcd|mportaot.h|t'scxtrapawo |s|o
thcform of aoorma|3Pv. 2P quccos|dc ma]or|ty, thouh
w|thout aoy ocar tcrm prospccts ofcrcat|o a passcd pawo
thcrcfrom. Oo thcothcrs|dc ofthc boar thc pawo story
cmstob a|| B|ack's. apawdc-pawowh||ch|s-pawo cao
haod|cbthofWh|tc's-pawos.
Thcrcforc dyoam|cfactonbcomcthcs||caotooc.
B|ack'sK|o |sshuotcdoffto ooc comcrofthcbardd h|s
Ko|ht m|sp| accd oo cxact|ythc othcrcorocr. As sooo as
Wh|tc act|vatcsh|sKo|ht,var|ousB|ackpawosw| | | bc | o
troub|c.
2 Ne4!
W|th a pwcrfu| ccotra| |oat|oo. thcKo|ht thrcatcos
I0
tooto5tocaturcthccpawodtoctomcoaccbththc
h aodcpawos.omcth|ohto|vc.
2 WWWNc7?!
As so oftco ha
[
pcos |o ao actua| amc, thc dcfcodcr
chooscsa | | ocwhcrcmhchassomccouotcrchaoccs hcrc
com|ofrom ho|d|oootothccpawo. Ncvcrthc|c , thccot
|svcryh|h. Wh|tcobta|osa3Pvs.Pquccos|dcma]or|tyaod
B|ack's apawo rcma|osw|ocrab|c. Bcttcrchaocc for adraw
wcrctobchadw|ththc dcfcos|vc aod cxchao|o26... b5| 27
b5b5 2N5+ Kg 29Nxc6Kf6 YNd4Nc.Thcsma||
oumbcrofpawos rcma|o|oaod thc offcos|vc |mpotcocc of
Wh|tc's cxtrapawo mcaothatWh|tcfacc r|oustccho|ca|
d|ff|cu|t|c |o rca||z|o

h|s matcr|a| advaotac. Morcovcr, |t |s


B|ackwhohasthcacttvcK|o,c.

.3I KI Kc5 32NO+ Kc4,


mak|oWh|tc'staskcvcomorcdtfcu|t.
27 a!
|x|ogB|ack'squccos|dcthwartsao

oss|b|cdcfcosc
badoo... b Wh|tcaa|othrcatcos2Nc5aod2Nd6)aod
thc oo|yway to savc thc bawo |s27. . . Nb5 28 Nc5 Nd6,
a||ow|othccpawo too.Back |s rc|uctaot to p w|th that
pawo bccausc h|s drcams of couotcrp|ay wou|d bc dashcd.
Ncvcnhc|c ,|twasthcr|htdcc|s|oo.
27 ... K6?! 2 Nd6 K 29 Kl! KeS 30 Nxb7 Kd4 31 Kf g6
Thc baokruptcyof B|ack's ' ' couotcrp|ay'' stratcy |s
dcmoostratcd by thc cho|cc ofthc tcxt movc. B|ack has oo
mcao|ofu|wayofprcss|ogao attackaodthcrcforc sat|sf|cs
h|msc|f|osafcuard|ogthcpawoaa|ostapotcot|a|Nc6+
(c..3I...Nd5 32Nd8 33No+)M
32 Nd8 eS 33 Nc+ Ke4 34 c4
Kccp|oB| ack'sKo|htawayfromboth b5 aod d5. lt
hastochfor|oocrroutcoow.
34 WW Ne8 35 Ke2!
IO7
Thc ccotra| |zcd K|o b|okadc thcpasscdpawo aod
kccpB|ack'sK|ooutofthcquos|o.
3S ... Nd6 36 b Nf 37 g4 Nh4
Ruos|otoaprcttyrcfutat|oo.B|ackhadooth|osat|s-
factory,yway.ThcK& P codamcaftcr37... Nd4+ 3Nxd4
|shop|c aod37... g3+ 38 Kf4 a||owW|tc to cho
btwcco39Nc7,39N

aod39b.
38 Nxe! B|ackrc|os.
H|sKo|htctstrappcdaftcr38... Kxc5 393N2 4O
K.
I0
Par 11
Positional Considerations
Ofcounc,p|t|oo coos|dcrat|oo a|cx|st|os|tuat|oos
whcrcooc s|dc has amatcr|a| advtac dmoostratcd |o
maoyofthccxamp|cs|oPartl. Ncvcrthc|css,thccootro|||o
c|cmcot|oPlwashav|oamatcr|a| advaotac. loth|spart
thckcyfcaturc|ss|t|ooa||ooaturc.
BccauscthcKo|ht |sashortraocp|ccc,thcrc |s ooc
ma]ord|ffcrcoccbtwccoKo|htcodamcaodthoofothcr
p|ccc. thc|ocrccd|mrtccofp cdpawos.Thcrcforca
coos|dcrab|c amouotot|mcw|||bcspcotoopasscd pawos
aodth|s|sthcntsub]ccttobcoos|orcd.
I0
CHAPER 5: PASED PAWS
Section 1: Te Role of Pass Pawns General Considerations
ThcK|ht'scharactcr|st|havcbthaos|dcaoda
bads|dc|ocodamcw|thpawdpawos.
Good side = Bccauscof|tsf|cx|b|||ty,thcKo|htcaocootro|
aoysquarc | ofroot of|tspasscdpawo aodthcrcbyhc|p |t
advaocc.
Bad side = Bccau|t|sashortraocp|ccc,thcKo|htcaooot
hc|p|tspasscdpawo advaocc uo|css |ta|rcady |sc|osc to |t,
corrcpod|o|y,thcK|hthasrcat prob|cms |ocatch|oup
toafaradvaoccdcocmypawdpawo.
Thctwococra|s|tuat|oosarc. !. )oo|yoocs|dchasa
passcdpawo,ll.)bths|dchavcpascdpawos.
l. Only One Side Has A Passed Pawn
lfthcpasscdpawo|ssccurcaodthcdcfcodcrsarcoot
ocar,th|s|vcscxcc| |cotw|oo|ochaoccs. Apart from thc
obv|ouss|tuat|oowhcrcthcpawo quccosbyforcc,whatoftco
happos|sthat thc dcfcoonrush tostop thc p dpawo,
thcyarcforccdto |cavco
j
oaroadthrou wh|chthccocmy
forcccao|of|||tratcdcc|stvc|y|otoaoothcrpartofthcbard.
D|aram6I
I IO
Aocxcc||cotcxamp|c|sfromD|aram6I, P.Bcoko S.
Tartakowcr,Budapcst 48,aftcrB|ack's39thmovc.B|ack's
passcd pawo oo d4 |s |so|atcd aod mayap
[
car''s|ck|y'',yct
Wh|tc'sp|cccarcoot |o ap|t|oo tocffccttvc|ycopw|th |t.
B|ackuorcdao|ostruct|vcw|ofo||ow.
4Nel
Octt|orcadytob|okaoood.OM Bcoko'sAoa|y|s
showsthatthca|tcmat|vcarcoobttcr.
a)4Of4d 4Ic5 Nxf4| 42cxd6 Kf7 43 Nc3 d2 44 K3
Nxd5 45Nd| KodB|ackw|os.
b) +K3 K6 4I f4 Nx4+| | 42 Nx4 Kc5,whco''Wh|tc's
chaocc|okd|m''(Bcoko).
4 ..W K 41 Nd3
Thc |o|ca| fo||ow upto thc prcv|ous movc. Thcrc |s
||tt|cpo|ot|o4I NO d 4K2 N+ 43 KfI h6| Kc|
Nh3| 45 b3 5 46 hx5+ h5 47 Kd2 4 48 Nh2 Nx2
w|tharout|ocw|o(Bcoko).
41 .. .g!
B|ackmustworkto|of||tratcw|th h|s K|oora|tcroa
t|vc|ycrcatctwow|dc|yscparatcdpasscdpawos. ThusB|ack
w|osrout|oc|yaftcrboth 42 Kh3 Nf4+ 43 Nx4 4 44
K4 d 45 K Kc5 aod42 5+ K5 43 c5 (othcm|
4. . . Nf4w|os)43. . . dxc5 55 d6 Nf6 45 Nxc5 Kf5 (46 d7
Nxd7|)ctc.
42 K g4 4 f4
Wh|tchopcsto bu||dao |mprcoab|cwa||,but B|ack
omoostratcthatthcu|t|matckcytothcp|t|oo|sh|spawd
d-pawo.
4 Wb3+! 4 K3 Nx4+! 4 Nx4 Ke 4 K Ke 47
Ng KdS
B|acka|rcadyhasthrccpdpawosfor thcp|ccc aod
Wh|tc's Quccos|dc rcma|os |ocfcos|bc. For|ostaocc,4 b3
I I I
d fo||owcd by 49...Kd4. Wh|tc'sK|ocoot hc|
[
thc Ko|ht
oothcQuccos|dcasthcothchpawow|||ruo.Whttc|s|ot.
48 K Kc4 49 Nf4 Kb3 50 Nd3 d5 51 Nb4 Kb2 52
Nxd5 K 53 Nc7 K! 54 Ne Kc 55 Nc7 Kc4 B|ack
woo.Thc|astmovcsarcootava||ab|c. A||kc|ycodcou|dbc
56Na6 b 57Kc2 b3 58 Kd2 d 59 Kc| h5ctc.
Evcowhcothcdcfcodcrsarcwc|| p|cascd,thc
[
asscd
pawo |s usua||ya tao|b|c advaotac. Coos|dcr oow Dtagam
62, L.Po|uacw[ H. Mcck|o, I977 Match,Oamc I I, aftcr
B|ack's39th movc.Wh||cthc dpawo c bcurc|yb|okad-
cd,B|ackhasptcot|a| |o|trat|oo routcv|ab df4. Wh|tc
thcrcforcmustdcfcodvcrycarcfu||y. Thcntstcp|stob|ok-
aoood.
D|aram62
4 Nc! Kd6 41 Nd3!
Wh|tcp|aycdth|smovc qu|ck|y, thus forc|oB|ackto
sca| h|s rcspoosc. Th|swastob amostd|ff|cu|tcc|s|ooas
B|ackhasat|castfourrcoab|cmovc.Morcovcr,thcoaturc
ofthcp|t|oo |ssuch thatthcvar|at|ooscootbca|cu|atcd
to acooc|us|oo|othcvcry | | m|tcdt|mc(Ihour)ava| |ab|c.
Thus,B|ackhtorc|ymot|yooh|s|otu|t|oo.OMPo|uacv-
s[scood,OMV|ad|m|rBa|rov,hadtodthchcavya|y-
s|s work dur|othc ad]ouromcotaod haspub||shcdh|sf|od
|og.Whatthcyshow|sthatthcad]oumcdps|t|oo |scxtrcmc
|ycomp||catcd.Whatlw|||bc|vm|sooythcma|o| |ocsof
Ba|rov'swork.
I I2
41. Nc6!
Thccxtcos|vc aoa|y|sshowcdthatthctcxt |sthcbcst
wayto rcta|o w|oo|ochaocc. Thc |o|ca| a|tcmat|vcarc. I)
41 WW Nxd3?! wasthcamccoot|ouat|oowh|ch |cdto arathcr
c|car|ydrawoK&Pcodamc. 42Kxd Kc5 43a5| Kb444
Kxd4 K3 45 Kd5 K + a6 Kb5 47 Kc6 K6 4 K6
h6 49 Kc5| Kb5 5O f4| 4 5I Kx4 a5 52 Kc3 Kc5 53
h4 Kd5 54 Kd Kc5 Draw.
2) 41 W Na2: 42 Kd2 43 Kc2 a5 4 Kb2 Nc 45 Kc2 Nc2
46 b4| NI 47 bxa5 Nx3 48 Nb4+ Kc5 49 a6 Kb6 5O
Nd5+ Kxa6 5I Nx6 Nxh2 52 Kd Ka5 53Kxd4
Kxa4w|thcqua||ty,asthcK|og|dcpawosw|||a| od|p-
par.
3) 41. NdS: 42 NQ Kc5| 43 Nc4+ Kb 4 Kd K3 45
Kd4 Nf4 46 a5| Kb4 47 a6 Kb5 48 Nx6 Kxa6 5O Kc4
w|th cqua| chaoccs. Bccausc of h|s act|vc pos|t|oo, Wh|tc's
K|o |swc||p|accdtocopcw|th thcapawo,wh||c thccxtra
K|og|dcpawo|vcWh|tccoutcrp|ayoothcK|og|o.
Thc |mponaotpractical qucst|oo,ofcoursc,|showto
sc|cct4I ...Ncfrom thcmazc oposs|b|||t|csasB|ack'sbcst
movc.ABa|rov'sworkhshowo,thcrc |soorca|subst|tutc
fort|mcaodcffort.Yctwhco|odoubt,st|cktobas|cpr|oc|p|c.
oo dthcKo|ht |sccotra||yp|accd wh||cprotcct|othcva|u-
ab|cpascdpawo.
42 Nf Kc! 4 Nd3+
Wh|tcmustf|rstpract|ccdcfcos|vcmcasurcs,s|occ43
Nc4+!Kb4 44 Kd3 Kxb3 45 Nx6 h6| 46 N8 Kxa4 47
Nxh6 Kb3| |cavcsB|ack'sK|otooact|vc,comparcdtoboth
thcvar|at|oosaftcr4I...Nd5aothc|atcrma|o||oc.
43 ... KdS 4 Nf aS! 45 Ne4 h6! 4 Nxf6+ Kc 47 Kd3
K 4 Ng8
S|occ |o thc |ooruo thcs|tuat|oo oo thc Quccos|dc |s
hop|c ,Wh|tcmustcrcatccouncrchaoccoothcK|og|o.
II3
4 W Kb3 49 NU6 Kxa4 S ND Kb3 51 N@ a4 51 Ne
Nb+!
Wh| tc |ssafc aftcr52 . . . a3 53Nd2+. 53. . . Kb2! | 54
Nc4+, 53 ... Kb 54 Kc2.Thcrcforc,B|ackp|ayouth|sma]or
trump.s|occthcR|sthcmotd|mcu|tpawforthcKo|htto
stop,B|acka|mstomob| ||u|ta qu|ck|ya ps|b|c.
53 Kxd4 a
D|agam6
Thc obv| ous 54 Nc3! docs oot | osc to thc faoc
54. . . Nd5!(w|ththc|dca55Nxd5 a2)bccauscof555| Nc3
56 lostcad,thcprm|c54... Nc6+ 55 Kd Nc5+ 56 Kd4
N

+ 57 Kd Nc5+ 58Kd4 NQ4 dthc]ob,c..59h4


Nf66Kd Nh5 6IKd4 Nf4ctc.
Thcrcforc,Wh|tc'sofcos|vc p| mustb much morc
soph|st|catcd.
54 Ndl+! Kc 55 Kc4! a M N Nc! 57 Na|+|
Thcrc |sooothcrofcoto thcthrcatcocd57... Na5+.
W|ththctcxt Wh|tcuscsawc||koowo mcthod |odcfcod|o
aa|ost thc RP. hc sacrc|f|ccs thc Ko|ht to |mpr|soo thc
stroocrs|dc'sK|o.
57 WW Kbl 58 Kd3! N+ 59 Kdl NU+ 60 Kdl Kxal 6I
Kc! Draw
I I4
B|ack'sK|htcootooys|mu|taocous|ybth cI aod
c2toWh|tc'sK|o.Th|scxactpos|t|oo|sdrawocvcow|thout
thcK|og|dcpawos se D|@amI |
ll. Bt Sides Have Passed Paws
Thcma|o||ocp|ayfrom D|aram62cou|da|rcadbc
coos|dcrcdtohavcbcoao |otrouct|ootothcs|tuat|oowcrc
both s|dcs havc passcd pawos. Now l sha|| coos|dcr "
[
urcr"
cxamp|c Bccau Ko|hts arcs|ow movcrs, thcmot tmpr
taot actor |o os|t|ooswhcrcboths|dcs havc passcd pawos
bccomcshowaradvaoccdthc rcspcct|vcpasscdpawo |s. lo
othcrwords,thcs|dcw|ththcfurthcradvaoccdpasscdpawo
hasthcadvaotac.
D|agamM
Thcf|nt|ostruct|vccxamp|c|sD|aramM,Domoot l.
Rocrs,B|c|l l I983,B|ackoomovc.Thc |ocat|oosofthc
rcpct|vcapawos|okuorca|,butarcqu|tccou|oc.Bccau
B|ack'sa-pawo|srcadytoqucco,Wh|tc'sKo|ht|smuchmorc
t|cdto|tspass|vc |ocat|oothao |sB|ack'sKo|ht. Morcovcr,
B|ack's K|o cao ct at thc cocmypasscd pawo fastcr thao
Wh|tc's K|ocao do thcsamc. Th|sfactor | |bcratcs B|ack's
Ko|htforthc|mprtaotoffcos|vcduty.B|ackwooasfo||ow.
l WW Kd6! 2 Kc7 3 K Nxc 4 Ke7 Ne 5 a7
Aftcr5f6 Nx6 6Kx6 Kb6 7Kf5 Kxa6 8Kf4 Kb5
B|ack'sK|octsdcc|s|vc|y|otoWh|tc'sps|t|oo. 9Kc Kc4
IONaI Kc3 I I Kc2 Kxd4 (oot I I...KbbcauofI2Kd|
I I5
Kxa| I3KcI thcsamcmot|fas |othcprcv|ouscxamp|c) I2
Kd2 Kc4| I3Kc2d4 I4Kb2 d I5b3 Kc3 I6Kxa2 d2
I7Nxd2 Kxd2 I8Kb3 Kd I9Kb Kd4 2 Kb3c 2I Kc2
Kc4aodB|ackw|os.
S WW Kb7 6 Kd7 c! !
Eosur|othatB|ackrcma|osw|ththcdpawo cosurcs
thcw|o.Wh|tcdrawsaftcr6... Kxa7! 7Kc6 N 8Kb5or8
Kd6.
7 dc Ka7 8 c Nc+ 9 Nxc
Accord|otoOMRo

crs,Wh|tc'sbcsttrywas9Kd6|
Nxb3 IOc7,but|ackst|||wmsaftcr IO ... Kb7| I I Kd7 Nc5+
I2 Kd8 aI=Q I3c8=Q+ Kb.
9 WWa1 =Q 10 c7 Qg7+ 11 Kd6 Qf+ 12 KdS Qx+ 13
Kc Qc8 14 Kd6 Qe8 15 Na4 Kb7 Wh|tcrc|os
A far advaoccd passcd pawo cao cas||youtwc|h thc
matcr|a|d|sadvaotacofapawo.Th|s|swc|||||ustratcdfrom
D|agam65,A.Sydor l.Dodmao,Wanaw I98,tcrB|ack's
54thmovc.Wh|tchasaocxtrapawodtwopdpawos,but
B| ack'sfar advaoccdpasscdpawo |sfu||compcosat|oo.P|ay
coot|oucd.
D|aram65
SS c4
I I6
Shonoft|mc,Wh|tcdcc|dcto mob|||ubthofh|sp d
pawos.Th|sshou|d havcbcosu0|c|cottodraw,yctas|mp|cr
wa |s|vcoby OM Dodmao.55 Kb3 Kc5 56 Kc2 d Wh|tc
hoaftcrbth56...Nxc4 57Nxc4 Kxc4 58Kd2 Kf459 KcI
K4 6OKQ| h5 6Ic4 h4 62c5aod56...Kf4 57Kd2| K3
58 KcI.
55 Kc 56 K Kd4 57 c Ne! 58 c Ke 59 Nl t 6
Nx
Thcotyawomustbc||m|oatcd. lo thcamcWh|tc
|aycdthcr|d|cuous6ON3!!!aod|ostaftcr6.M.Nd4+ 6I
c4 Nxc6 62Kd5 Kf4| 6 NfI Nc5 645 NO 65 c5Nxc5
6Kd4Nf Wh|tcrc|os.
6 WWWK 61 Kc4 K
Thcrcarc oow|oo|ochaoccsaftcr6I . . . Kc3,c..62
Kd5 Nc7+ 6Kc5fo||owcdby6K5.
62 Kd5 Nc7+ 6 Kd6 Nb+ 6 Kc Na7
Thcoo|ytry for aw|othouhfrauhtw|thsomc r|sk,
s|occthcKo|ht|sp|accdoothccdc.AItcr64...Nc7,Wh|tc
drawsw|th65Kd6or65c5.
6e
D|aram6
Th|scodamcshowsoff thc rcat d|ff|cu|tythatthc
I I7
Koiht has |o cop|ow|th asscdpawos. !ostcad ofthc tcxt
|os|o|s65Kb!

xc6 Kc64, s|occ Wh|tc's K|o |s


ooc suarctofarawayaftcr67Kc5 Kf4 68Kd4 Kx4 69
Kc 7OKc2 K2.
6S ... Nc
B|ack |oscsaftcr65...4!! 66 Kb6 Nc8+ 67Kc7
Nc7 6 Kd7,hcdaftcr6

.. Kf4 6Kd6 Nxc6!! 67c6|


s|occ67... Na7|smctby6 Kd7aod67 ... Nd4by6 c7B|ack
|acksthcchcckoof5.lostcadof66... Nxc6!!thcdrawcao bc
rcta|ocdw|th6...Nb5+ 67Kc5or67Ko.
6 KdS!
Butoot66c6!!Kx4aodB|ackw|osbccauscWh|tc's
K|ocaoootpoctratcftcoouh.
6 ... K4 67 Ke K!
B|ack'sK|o mustb |oapos|t|ooto hc|pstopthcc
pawo.Los|oarc7...h5! 68 Kd Nb6+ 69 Kc7 Nd5+ 7O
Kd6aswc||as67... Kf4! 6 Kd7 Nb+ 69Kc7 Nd5+ 7OKd6
Nb 7Ic6.
68 c7
S|mp|cst,thouhWh|tca|sodrawsw|th68Kf h5 69
c6 h4 7Oc7 h3 7I c8+Q Nd6+ 72K0 Nxc8 73Kxc8 h2
74 c7.
Howcvcr, thc rout|oc 68 Kd7! oow actua|| |oscs.
68... Nb6+ 69Kc7 Nc4| . (a) 7Oc6 Kf6 7I Kd7 Nc+ (b)
7OKb7Kf5| 7I c7Kxc5 72 c8+QNd6+, (c)7OKb8Nxc5 7I
c7 Nc6+ 72 Kb7 Nc7.
68 ... hS 69 Kd7 N+ 70 Kc Nc 71 Kd7
7Ic6!!Kf6w|osforB|ackas hcthcohas ...Nc7, b|ok
ad|oaodw|oo|o.
71 ... N+ 72 Kc Draw
I I8
Nc|thcrs|dc cao afford to avo|d thc movc rcpct|t|oo.
Thcp|ayfrom D|aram 66 was awoodcrfu| cxamp|c ofthc
ro|cofthcKo|ht|ocop|ow|thpdpawos.
Thcu|t|matccodamcw|th faradvccd pawdpawos
|swhcoboths|dcshavcthc pawooocstcpawa
)
fromqucco-
|o.Awooodu||y|ostruct|vcps|t|oo |ssowo m d|agam 67,
Dudk|o Oofmao,USSRI98,B|ackoomovc. lt|structhat
B|ack'spawdpawo |s rcadytoqucco,wherc Wh|tc's|ack
thcsupportofthcK|otodos. Yctthccpawo|satrcmco-
douspowcra|soaodB|ackmayootuodcrratc|t.l sha||f|nt
|okatB|ack's|mmcd|atcpromot|ooaodthcothcmuchmorc
soph|st|catcd, corrcct p|ao.Mywork |s most|ybascdoo OM
V|ad|m|rov'spub||shcday|s|s.
D|aram67
A) B|ackrshes to quen: l. .. el =Q? 2 Nxel Kxel 3 Kc
Wh|tc's K|ooow|s||bratcddthis|vc]ustcoouh
couotcq|aytodraw.
3 WWNd+
Thcdraw|ss|mp|craftcr3# .. Nxa4+ 4Kc4 Nb6+ 5
Kb5 Nc8 6 Kxa5 Kc2 7Kb5| Kc 8Kc6 Kf4 9Kd7 Na7
IOKc7 K5 I I K.
4 Kc4 Nxc7 S Kc
Wh|tc'spr|o d]oyhooc |ot, butthcocwthcmc
I I9
ofthcKo|htb|o ashortd|staoccp|ccc aod hav|opan|cu
| arprob|cmsw|th passcd RPs a||ows Wh|tcto ach|cvcthc
draw.
s Ke2
Thcrc |s oot|mcfor 5... Nc6+ 6 Kb6 Nx5 ccausc
ahcr7K Nc4 8Kb Nd2 9Kc5 f5 IOa5| N+ I I Kd5
Nxa5 I2Kc5B|ack'spawoo|ot.
6 K NdS+ 7 K Nc
Wh|tc'sK|o |s a|so fastcoouh aftcr 7. . . Kc3 8 Kb5
Nc3+ 9Kc6| Nxa4 IOKd6 Kf4 IIKc7.
8 Kb! Nxa4+ 9 Kc Nc 10 Kd6 Ne4+ 11 Ke7 Nx 12 Kf6
Draw
B) Bringing about zugzwang starting with l. .. Kd1! = Game
continuation
Bccausc2Ka3oowor|atcra||owsB|acktoquccow|th
Wh|tc's K|o m|sp|accd, B|ack starts tr|aou|at|o w|th h|s
K|os toputWh|tc'sKo|ht|ozuzwao.
2 Ne+
Hop|c |s2Kc3 bcauof2 ... Nd5+ 3 Kc4 Nxc7 4
Kc5Nc6+ 5Kb5 Nf4| thc c
[
awo |smuchmorcva|uab|c
thc|thcrWh|tc'sorB|ack'sKotht.
2 ... Kcl 3 Ng2 Kd2 4 Nh4 Ke1! ! Scc D|aram 68 oo thc
ocxtpac.
Oo|y so. Thc matcr|a| |st|c4... cI=N! 5 6 hx6 6
NQ6 Nc87Kc4a||owsWh|tctocapturcB|ack's|astpawo.
Thc amc comt|ouat|oo was 4. . . Kc! 5 N2 Kd! 6
Nc3+ KcI!(B|ackcou|dst|||

ct |oto thcw|oo|o||ocw|th
6... KcI 7N2 Kd2 8Nh4 Kc! 7Nd5| | Nc8 8Nf4 Nb6 9
Nd5. Thc amc was oowca||cdadraw, thouh B|ackcou|d
havc coot|oucd to p|ay oo w|thout r|sk. Ncvcrthc|c , w|th
I2O
D|ar6
thcmat|cp|ayWh|tcdosdrawaftcr9..WNc8. IONf4Kd2 I I
Nxc2 Kxc2 I 2 Kc4 Kc3 I3Kb5 Kd4 (I3 . . . Kf4 I 4 Kxa5
K@5 I5Ka6 f5 I6Kb7|sa|drawo) I4Kc6| (Wh|tc|m
tcrI4K!! Kc5) I4...Kc5 I5 Kd7 Na7 I6Kc7,s|mp||fy-
|odowotocqua||qtcr I6... Kf5 I7K K5 I8Kc6|ctc.
Ng+
Aftcr5NO+ KdI | thczg|s|ostaotcous.
S WW K! 6 Ne+ Kgl! 7 Nc K 8 Kc
!ust as uopa|atab|c |s 8Ka3 cI=Q 9NxcI IO Kb3
Kd2 ctc.
8 WWW Nd5+ 9 Kc4 Nxc7 10 Kc Ne6+ 11 Kb6 Nd4 B|ack
w|os
Scct|oo2. Outide Pas Paw
lt|swc| | koowothat |o K|oaodpawo codamcs,thc
s|dcw|ththcouts|dcawdpawohama]oradvaotac.Thc
rco |s thatwh||ctcofcod|oK|o|ssto
[
p|oth|spawo,
thcothcrK|ocaopcoctratc|otothcothcrsdcofthcboard
aodcocra||ya|o coouh matcr|a| tow|o thc amc. Yct |o
Qucco aod pawo, Rook aod pawo aodB|shop aod pawo
codc,thcquct|ooofthcouts|dcpawdpawo|scocra||y
I2I
| rre|evaat.A|| theseare |oagraagcp|cccsaad thushavcao
d|mcu|ty|astop|agyk|ao|apadpawa|rom|araway.
However, |a iteadgc,thcouts|dc

dpawa aga|a
becomesas|ga||caat|actor.1hereasoa isthattheka|ght,
bc|agashortraagep|ecc,hasgrcatd||||cu|ty|astopp|ag|ar
awaypasscdpawas.yde||a|t|oa,thcouts|depasscdpawa|s
thepaedpawa |anhctaway|rom thc majoru|t|mate xeae
o|act|oa.
Apr|cctcxamp|co|thcrca||mt|oao|thcadvaatagco|
hav|agthcouts|dpaedpawa|sshowa|rom D|agam D.
8roastc|a A. Ch|sqov, I978moowChamp|oash|p, a|tcr
8| ack's50thmovc.wh|te'spasscdgpawa |s muchgreatcr
threatthaa8|ack'spteat|a|p dc-pawaaadhcwoaa |o|-
|ows.
D|agram69
51 g!
Passcdpawasmustbpushcd!
51 WWW Nd4 52 g6 Ne 53 K!
lasu0|c|cat|s53g7!! Nq7 54kq7 c4aad8|ackhsa
ccrta|adraw.wh|tc,o|coum,waatstoqucea|oraoth|agaad
thcre|orew|th thctext movc prcveats 8|ack's threateaed
53... N|454g7 Nh5+, |o||owcdby55 .. .Nxg7.
53 WWW c4?
I22
Gm8roastc|aaowdcmoastratcsa|orccdw|a.lmC.
Crouchhas po|atcdout thatth| ags arc aotso c|car a|tcr
53...Nd4! . (I) 54k|6Nc6rcpatsthcps|t|oa,(2) 54NONc6
a|sosccmstoho|d,(3) 54g7 N|5 5g8+N c4g|vcs8|ack
sumc|catcouatcrp|. wh|tc'sw|aa|agchaacc rct oa|yw|th
54N|I!,work|agtocay8|ack'ska|ghtthccruc|a||5uarc.
S4 Ne4! Nd4
8|ack|ookstosacr|||ccthcka|htv|a|5.Oathcobv|-
ous54...b,w|aa|ag|sthcaoa-obv|ous5Nc5| | .55... kxc5(Or
55... c>bxc bxc 57 Nxc6 c2 58 N|4+ kc4 59Nc2) 6
kxc6 c6Ibxc3 bxc3 62 g7 c2 6 g8+Q cI =Q M Q8+.
55 Nc! !
Aga| athcrc |saoth| ag | a55g7 N|5 56 g8 =Q
Nh6+.
55 WNt
8oth55...kxc5aad55...a5arcmctby56k|6!aadthcg
pawacaaaotbprcvcatcd|romqucca|ag.
56 Nxa6 Nh4
Aads 8|acksuccccd|asacr|c|agthcka|ght,butthc
|actthatwh|tc'ska|ghthascapturcdoaa6g|vcwh|tcsu|
c|catmatcr|a|tow|a.l|56... c3,wh|tcw|asahcr57b3! d58
Nb4.
57 a3 Nxg6 58 Kxg6 Kd4 59 Nb4 c3 60 b3 c2!? 61
Nxc+ Kc
8|ackhassctaa|cctrap|atowh|ch acarc|css wh|tc
c|a|| . 62a4 bx4 6bxa4 kc4! Mkf6kc5 65kc6kb6!
6kd5ka5,w|thadraw.
62 Nal! 8|ackrc|gs
8othwh|tc'spawasarcsa|cdbr|ag|agbackthck|ag
w|ascas||y.
I2
D|agam70
Howcvcr,todcmoastratcthatthcouts|dp dpawa
|sadvaatagc,youmustactua||yttout|||n|t.A cxcc||cat
cxamp|co|what not to do |s showa |rom D| agram 70, S.
mm|aov|c- A. G|ps||s,8c|grad I%,wh|tcoamovc.wh|tc
hasap dbpawa,whcrc8|ack'scxtrapawoathck|ag-
s|dc,bc|agdoub|cd,w|||aotbcab|c tobccomcpasscd.Yct
aotchowwh|tcam|utc|ygoaowhcrc.
1 K?!
k|agccatra||mt|oaw|thIkO!|s|aordcr.
l WW .S 2 Kf?!
Log|ca||s2Nd4! kg6 3 Nc2,|o||owcdby4b.
2 WWW K6 3 Ke
Notcthat|thtcawh|tcthrccmove|astcado|thc
aorma|twotogo|romgItoc.Aga| a3Nd4! makcs morc
scax.
3 WWW K5 4 h3 Nc
A|tcr4...Nb,stroag|s5kd4! .
Kd?
I24
wh|tcapparcat|yhaotyctaot|ccdthathca|mha
ka|ht.Gow|aa|achccwcrcst|||tobhada|tcr5Nd4!
Nd5+6K kg6 7 c2,|o||owcdbyb.
s WWW Ne4! 6 g4+ Kg6 7 Ke
8|ackaowhascaoughcouatcrp|ay|orthcdrawaad|a
part|cu|arhcw|||a|sogctapasscdawa.Nobcttcrthaa thc
tcxtarc7Nd4 N|2+ 8kc3 N 9gx|5 + kh5! I0|xg5
N5 w|thcua||(mar|c)or75 bg

8N0+ kg7 9g5


Nc +! I0c4xb3! I I Nc6+ k|6 I2kxb3 kx|5,w|th
8|ackhav|agaoprob|cmsata|||adraw|ag.
7 WW Nc! 8 g+ K 9 Nd4+ Kg6 10 f+ KS 11 K
Kh4 12 K g4 13 hxg4 Kxg4
8oths|dcshavc outs|dcpasscd pawas aowaadthc
chaaccarc|u||ycqua|.
14 b NdS 15 bS Kf4 16 K3 Ke4 17 Ne6 K 18 Nf
h6 19 K4 Draw.
D|agr7I
1houghthcouts|dcpasscdpawa| susua||yaaadvaa
tagc,thatdocsaotmcaathat|t|sacurca|||oraayaada||
s|tuat|oas. 1h|s |sshowa|romD| agram 7I, D. kopcc w.
8rowac,CaaadaI976,a|tcr8|ack's32admovc.Dcsp|tcthc
rcduccdaumbro|pawas,8|ackdohavcac|caradvaatagc,
s| acch|spasscdcpawa |s asouad,protcctcdoacwhcrcas
wh|tc'scpawa |smorco|awcakacssthaastrcagth. wh|tc
I25
shou|dworkaowto |mprovcthcpos|t|oa o|h|ska|ght aad
k|ag.lorth|s,movcsucha 33kor33Ndcomc|atov|cw.
lastcad,hcbcomcmcmcr|zcdw|th thc |dcao| ach|cv|ag a
ka|ght cadgamc whcrc wh|tcw||| havc thc outs|dc passcd
paw.
33 Rb?! Ne4 34 Rb?! Rb 35 Nxb K!
wh|tc'sm|ss|oahasbccaaccomp||shcd,yctthcwar|s
|ost.lathc|| rstp| acc,thcc-pawa|sjustab|to|aaouts|dc
passcdpawa.Aadcvca morc |mportaat|y,|t|squ|tcwcak
crc,rcqu|rc|agmuchcarcaad cmoastrat|ag ||tt|c powcr.
wh|tc|st.
36 Nd7 + Ke7 37 Ne5 g! 38 h3 f 39 Nd3 Kd6 4 K
e5! 41 g3
S|accthcccatcr|sa||8|ack's,wh|tca|msqu|tcconcct
|yatcrcat|agatru|yusc|u|outs|dcpasscdpawa,thchpawa.
8ut8|ack'sccatra|act|v|tycomcnt.
41. WNd2! 42 c+ Kd5 4 h4 e4 4 Nel Nc4!
Lasur|agthatthck|ghtcgctbackv|ac5tostopthc
h-paw.
45 c6 Kc 4 h5 Ne5 47 Kh3 Nt 4 g4 Kd5 49 Kg3
Kd4 50 K Nh6 51 Nc2+ Kc!
8|ack'sact|vck|ag,|acomb|aat|oaw|ththccnrapawa
|athc|ormo|apasscdcpawa,|sdcc|s|vc.
52 Ne3 Kd3 53 Nf Nx 54 g e3+ wh|tcrc|gas
8|ackquccasw|thmatca|tcr55kcI g4 56 h6 g3 57
h7 g2 58 h8=Q gI=Q.
la comp||catcd cvca w||d |ook|agpos|t|oas |t |s
|mportaattorcmcmbcrthc | ahcrcat
p
owcro|thc outs|dc
p dpawas |a ka|ghtcadgamc.1hispr|ac|p|c|s|||ustrat
cd pcrcct|y|rom | aram72, m. 1a|maaov- 8. Larsca,
Lca|agrad latcraa| I73,aftcrwh|tc's 45th movc.
I26
D|agr72
Lamahadqu|tewroag|ya|rmed|orth|sp|t|oa.Oaa
surc|a|b|s8|ack'sp de d |-pawasapparpwer
|u,a|dedastheyarebytheact|ve|yp|acedk|agaadka|

ht.
yetth|spwer|saoth|agcomparedtothatre|d|ag|awhrte's
outs|dp edpawas.h|tehawoaps|t|oa.
4 K 4 N!
1heka|ghtheadsbacktostopthemostdaagerous
padpaw.theepawa.
4 W e 47 Nc! e4 Draw!!!
whatacur|ousa|sh!A|terwh|te's47th movcLama
o||eredadraw,whereupoa1a|maaovcorrect|yaskedh| mto
||rstmakeh|smove.Lamead|daada|ter30m|autesthought
1a|maaovacce

ted.l a|act,a|tere|theroaeo|h|saorma|
move,wh|tewmsby|orce.(I) 48 b e 49Nxe kxe 5
b5 Nd5 5Ih5aadtheh-pawaqueeas.
(2) 4a4 e 49NeI+! (Not49Nxe! kxe 5 a ke4! 5I
a6 Nd5,stopp|aga| | o|wh|te'spawas.) 49... ke4 50a kd5
5INc2! e2+ 52K kc5 53 + kb5 54Nd4+I K 55
Nxe2aadoaeo|theRokpawasw|||bv|ctor|ous.
1heRookpawa|sby|arthemostd||||cu|toae|orthe
k|ghttostop.1herearemoreas|orth|s.l|nt|y,|t|sthe
mostouts|depawa.Secoad|y,oacetheRhreachedthe 7th
I27
D|qram73
raak,theka|ghtby|tse||caaaotcopw|ththeeaemyk|agaad
thusw|||go |ost.Ac|eaacr|spexamp|eo|the ||rstreasoa |s
show|romD|agam73,V||e|a August|a,PragueI98,wh|te
oamove.wh|teoa|yhoaepawad|t|soa|yoathe|ourth
raak.Yetb|agthea-pawa,|tw|as.
1 Kc! !
8|ack'ska|ghtby|tx||w|||aotbab|etostopthepawa
aad |t |s | mperat|vetopreveatthek|ag|rom he|p|agout.
lasumc|eat|sI a!bcauxo|I. ..kd6! 2a6 Ne5!|oI|owedby
3... Nc6.
l WWW f
Putt|agh|shooathe|pawa,s|acetheka|ghtcaaaot
getac,e.g. 1. ..Ne 2a6 Nd7+ 3kc6! Nb8+ kb7aad
tewms.
2 a f4 3 a6 t 4 Nc4!
whcreas8|ack'ska|ghtcaaaothaad|etheRokpawa,
the|couts|de8|shoppawa|saoprob|em|orwh|te'ska|ght.
4 f S Nd2 Nf 6 Kc!
Care|sa|waysrequ|red.1he|mpat|eat6a7! a||ows
6... Ne4+!aadadraw.
I2
6 WWW Ne 7 Nf 8|ackre|gas
D|agam74
1hc ua|ucpowcro|a RP oa thc 7th raak caa bc
dcmoastratcd rom D| agram 74, k|k| |ashv| | | - Ncuroaov,
.S.S.R.I977,wh|tcoamovc.lacar||crp|ay,wh|tchadcr|-
||ccdthrcc(!)awastogcth|shpawaoathc7th. 1h|sshou|d
havcocasuc|cattodraw.P|aycoat|aucd.
1 K!
wh|tc'sk|agwaatstogcttog7wh|chw||||orcc8|ack's
k|ghttog|vcupwatchovcrtckcyh8squarc.
l WWW c 2 K4 c4 3 N! !
wh|tc'ska|ghtmustbcp|accdsothat|tcaacomb|ac
c||cct|vc|ydc|casc aado||casc. la thcgamcwh|tcput thc
ka|ghtoa ac|umsys
(
uarc w|th3Nb2! ! . A|tcr3. . . c5 hc
comm|ttcdak|ag|acgcrror,4k|5!,aad|ostas|o||ows.
4. . . Nh8! 5kc6 4 6NdI c4 7kxc7 |5 8k|6 c3 9Nxc3
kxc3 I0k5(A|tcrI0kg1 c3 I I kxh8 c2 I2kg8 cI =Q
I 3h8=Q Qc8+ 8|ack's|pawa|sthcw|aacr.)I0 ... c3 I I k|6
c2 I2kg7 cI=Q I3 kxh8 k|4! I4kg7 kg5! I5 h8=Q
Qc7+ Ikg8 kg6 aadwh|tcre|gacd.
Howcvcr,|astcado|4k|5!, thcmorcd|rcct4kh5!
sccmstodraw. 4. . . c4 5NdI ! kd4 6kg6 Nh8+ 7kg7 c3
(Atcr7...e!!!8Nxe kxe 9kxh8 c I0kg7 c2 I I 8=Q
cI=Q I2Qh6+ 8|ack'sQucca|s|ot.) 8Nxckxc9kxh8
I29
c I0kg7 e2 I I h8=Q eI =Q I2Q8+| kb3| I3Qb7+ I4
Qd5+ aadwh|te'sthreatso|perpetua| checkw||||orcethe
ga|ao|thee-pawaaadw|th|tadraw.
3 WW Kc7
Lqua||y|astruct|ve|sthe|aya|ter3... kc5 4Nc2 c3 5
K5| kd6 6k ke6 7k7 daowtheka|ghtheadto
de||ectb|ack's|ag|rom e|easeo|h|ska|ght 8NeI | |4
(Or8... e4 9Ng2||o||owedbyI0N|4+.) 9N| c2 I0Nc5+
K5 I I Nb3|,w|th8|ackhav|agaoth|agbtterthto acqu|-
esce |atherepet|t|oao|movca|ter I I . .. ke6 I2Nc5+ etc.
(a|y|sbyGu|e|daadm|||c).
4 KS! Kd7 5 NdS! Kd6
ead| ag back w|th 5. . . ke8 |s|o| |ed by the act|ve 6
Nc7+. (I) 6... 7Ne6+ ke8 8Nc7+ etc., (2) 6... kd8 7
Nd5 e6 8kg6| Nh8+ 9kg7| aad8|ackmustrushtodraw
w|th9. . . ke8| (I0Nm6+ ke7 I I Ng8+ ke8 I2kxh8 k|8
etc.).
6 Nc3! f 7 Kg6 Ke6 8 Kg7! Nh8! 9 Na41! f4 10 Nc+
KdS 11 K8 t 12 Drawa
8oths|dcw|||queea,w|ththercu|t|agQ +Nv. Q +
3Peadgameo||er|ag8|ackaorea|w|aa|agchaaces(aaa|y|s
byGu|e|daadm|||c).
O|coum,examp|csuchtheprev|ousoaearerare|a
pract|ca|p|ay.Yet,aa|mportaatparto|aaymaster'sbago|
tr|cks|oreadgep|ay|sthekaow|edgethataR|athero|e
o|aaouts|depassedpawacaaturaarouadaaotherw|serou-
t| aeeva|uat|oao|apos|t|oa.Aa|astruct|veexamp|e|rom
pract|ca|p|ay|sshowa|romD|aam75,L. meda|s- Sp [,
or|dStudeat Champ|oash|p,aI958, a|ter 8|ack's40th
move.8|ack |sapawa upaad wh|tecaa'trega|a |tw|th4I
Nxg5! becauseo4I. ..Nc5.Neverthe|ess, |t |s wh|te who |s
s|ga|||caat|ybetterbecause o|the poteat|a|o|creat|ag a
p edapawa.1hegamewtobaouedhereaadwh||el
wasprepar|agto sea|, GmSpass[o||eredmeadraw. l re
|used|tv|axa||agmymove
I30
D|agram75
41 a!
1he| mmed| ate 4I Nd6! has aopuach because o|
4i . . . b6.8uta|terthetext42Nd6becomesathreatwh|ch
caaaotbeparr|ed.8|ackhastotryto||adawaytom|a|m|ze
thedamagetocome.
41. K!
Atera|u||a|ghto|aaa|y|s8|ackadtheoa|yconect
de|ease, act|vat|agthe k|ag aad b|ockad|a wh|te's to-be
passedapawabyp|ac|agthe ka|ghtoa a. 1hea wh|te's
paedpawa|skeptbacka |ma pss|b|e.
la|er|or|s4i ...b5! 42b4! , aadeveaa|ter8|ack'sbct
de|ease,42... k|8 43Nc5 ke7,w|th44a6! Nb6 45kOkd6
46ke4wh|teestab||shessuch atota| b|adovethepos|t|oa
that8|ack'ss|tuat|oa |s hope|ess. lor|astaace,46. . . Na8 47
kd4 kc7(or47.. .|6 48Ne4+ ke6 49kc5) 48Ne4 ko 49
Nq5 kxa6 50Nm,whea8|ack'sp|eccme |a ao coad|t|oa
tostopthegpawa.
42 Nd6 Nc!
1houghth|smayapparux|cs,s|acetheka|ghtdo
aotactua||yprotectthebpawa, Gm Spassky's aaa|y|shad
demoastated that hemust keeph|sk|ghta act|ve a ps|-
b|e.Aga|a|a|er|or|s42... b5! 43a6No ( 43... ke7! 4Nc8+
I3I
|o||owedby45a7.) a7 Na8 45Kke7 +Ne4 |6 47ke3
ke6 4kd4whea8|ackhaskepth|smater|a|advaatage,but|t
|s wh|tewho has awoa pos|t|oa.Athemat|cexam|e|or
ka|ghteadamesthea |s48...|5 49Nxg5+ k|6 50h7+!
kg6 5I+ kxh7 52kc5 kg7 53kxc6 k|6 54kb7aad
h|tewms. lasuchvar|at|oas,theaby ma||oat|oao|8|ack's
ka|ghtoaa8|sjusttomucho|aburdeatoovercome.
1here|ore,OMSpassky,atthecosto|h|sextrapawa,
traas|em theka|ghttothe much more super|or b|okad|ag
squareo|a6. l mustadm|stthat|amyaaa|ys|sl hadg|vea
scaatatteat|oatothetextmove g|v|agupapawawh| |est| | |
a||ow|agwh|teapassedapawajust|ookedobv|ous|yhope-
|ess. heoa|yexcuse|ormy|aatteat|oacou|dbeyouth l
wasoa|y2I!
4 Nx7! Na6
Obv|ous|ybth43... Nxb7!!&43... Nxb3!!|otoa6.
4 K Ke7 4 Ke4
So|arsogood- aadl|e|tqu|tecoa||deathere.wh|te
hastheouts|depassedpawaand theact|vek|ag. w|thsuch
obv|ousadvaatageswhyshou|da'twh|te have aa easyw|a!
whatreasoaab|emovesdoes8|ackhave!8|ack|osesapwa
a|ter45...ke6! +Nd8+, a|tere|ther45.. .|6or45...kd7,h|te
p|a+kd4!dthead|sp|acc8|ack'ska|ghtby47Nc5.
4 c!!
ltwasoa|yatterth|smovethatlrea||adthattheremay
aot be aw|a a|tera|| . 8|ackpreveatskd4 aad threateasto
wa|kovertoc7aadcapturewh|te'ska|ght.wh|tethere|ore
mustp|aye|ther+kd5or+ke5.
A|ter46 ke5 kd7! (Not46...|6+! 47k|5 kd7 48
k6 kc7 49Nxc5 Nxc5 50b4! aadwh|tew|as.) 47Nd6
8|ackdrawsbyaha|ras|o| |ows.47...|6+ 48kd5 Nc7 +! 49
kxc5 Na6 + ! ! (wh|teetsap|easaatQ + bpawa vs. Q
eadameatter49... Ne6+ ! Nko! kxd6 5Ia6 Nc7 52a7!
|5 3g5 g4 54 |6 g3 55 kb7!etc.)50kb6 kxd6 5Ikxa6
I32
|5 52g5 g4 53kb5 g3 54a6 g2 55a7 gI =Q 56a8=Q
Qc5 +! 57c4 Q4+! 58kb5 (8b QaI +) 58...Q5+
w|thprptua|chcck.
4 Kd f! !
D|agam76
w|thwh|tc'sk|agaowrcmovcdbyoac squarc|rom
thc k|ags|dc, 8|ack| mmcd|atc|ycstab||shcs couatcrp|ayby
crcat|agapacdpawathcrc.
47 Nxc
1hca|tcraat|vc|s47g5 g4! 48kc4 g3 49kO k|6
50kq3 k5whca8|ack'sact|vck|agcasurcthcdraw.1hc
sacr|cc52Nxc5 Nxc5 52b|sacutra||adby52 ... Nd7.
47 f4!
wh||c|t|stmcthatthck&Pcadgamctcr47...Nxc
4 kxc5 |4 49kd4 kd6|sdrawa,wh|tccdbttcrw|th49
a6! (|astcado|49 kd4) 49. . . |3 50 a7 |2 5Ia8=Q |I=Q,
whcathcQ&Pcadgamcw|thaacxtrapawa aadwc||p|accd
p|cccg|vccxcc||catw|aa|agchaacc.
8|ackthcrc|orcprc|crsto sta |a a ka|ght cadgamc
whcrc hchop thcp cdgpawsw|||g|vc|msuc|cat
couatcrchaaccs. 1hc uturcshowsGm Spassky to bc r|ght.
Obv|ous|yaow4 Nxa6|oxto4 ... g.
I33
4 Ne4 Kd8!
8| ack's k| ag must hc| p out thc ka| ght | a
stopp| ag]b|ockad|ag thc pawas. ut |a|cr|or |s 48. . . kd7!
bcauxa|tcr49N|6+ kc7 50Nq4wh|tc|s b|okad|agthc
gpawaoacuarccar||cr.
49 Kc
wchavc aa |astruct|vc aad thcmat|cpos|toawhcrc
wh|tc,|ac||cct,|sapawupaadcachs|dhasp dpawas
oaopps|tcw|ags.8c|agoa thcg|||c,8|ack'sp cdpawa |s
|ar caough away |rom thc Quccas|dc (aa outs|dc passcd
pawa)aadb|agoa|tshhraak|t|ssu|0c|cat|yadvaaccdto
s||caat|yt|cdowa wh|tc'ska|ght.l havc aotbcaab|cto
||adaw|aorwh|tc.
49 WW .3
1hcrcw aoaccd|orth|ssacr|||ccaada|mao appar
catbac||t|rom |t.Pcrha
p
s8|ackwaatcdtomakcsurcthat|a
somcacbu|ous|uturchcisaotthwancd |aasta|cmatcb|dby
aacxtragpawa.
SO Nxg3 Kc8 Sl Ne4 g4 52 K
Or52kb5 Nc7+ 53ka4 kb7 54b4 kc6aadb|ack
hasasu0|c|cat|ymb|okadc.1hcaa|tcr55Nc3 g3 56b5+
kb7! (A|tcr5. . . Nxb5! 57Nxb5 g2 58Nd4+ kd5 59NO
kc4 NNg|wh|tcw|asbyoactcmpo.) 57Nc2(57b6 Nd5!
58Nc2 Nxb6draws.) 57. . . Nxb5! 58kb5 g28| ackhas a
thcorct|ca|draw.
S2 WWW N 53 KbS
Nc|thcr|sthcrcaw|aa|tcr53a6 kb8.
S3 WWW Nc 54 Kc?!
1h|sa||ows8|acktosctupab|ockadc.8|ack'stask
wou|dbccoas|dcrab|ymorcd||||cu|ta|tcrthc|mmcd|atc54
b4!,though54... kb7shou|dho|d,c.g.55ka4 Nd4 56b5 Nc2
IM
57Nc5+ kb8 58Nd g59NcI N|4 mo 6INO Nd5
62kb5 Nc7+! 6bxc7+(Or6kc6 Na6!) .. kxc7 Mka6
kb8aad8|ackjustdraw.Notcthatbthhcrcaad|athcvar|a
t|oag|vcaahcrwh|te's52admovc,wh|te'sprob|cm|sthathc
|s|c|tw|thaR.w|thaayothcrpawawh|tcwou|dw|a.
S4 WW K7 SS b K6! 56 Sg1 Sa
8|ack'sk|agdka|ghthavccxcc||catdc|cas|vc |oa
t|oasaadwh|tecaaaotmakcaayproge .
57 Se Sc Draw
A|tast|cdc|cas|vcpr|omaaccby8|ack!
Scct|oa3. Protete Passe Paw
1hc|ahcrcat|ysupr|orp cdpawatohavc |swhat |s
ca||cdthcprotected passed pawn, |.c.arasscdpawawh|ch|s
protcctcdbyaaothcrpawa.1hcva|uco thcprotcctcdpad
pawacomc|rom|mxcur|q,bcaux|tcaaaotbattaccdby
aaeacmpawaaad|tcaabccaputrcdbyap|cccoa|yatthc
costo|tatp|ccc's| ||c. Oacc tccadgamc|srcachcd,th|s
xcur|ty|rcc|tsk|agaadp|ccc(s)|orattacks|aothcrpanso|
theboard,wh| | cthcprotcctcdpasscd pawa p| asdowa thc
cacmytoprcveat|tsu|:|matcqueca|ag.
O|a||thcp|cccs,|t|sthcka|ghtwh|ch|stheprem|er
b|okadr.morcovcr,bcauxo|thcaaturco||tsjumpmovc,
|t|sab|ctoattack|rom|tsb|okad|ag|oat|oathcpawathat|s
protcct|ag thc protcctcd passcd pawa. 1hcrc|orc, ka|ght
cadgamcmcthcbtcadgamctoa|m|orwhcayouhavcto
copcw|th aprotcctcdpasscdpawa.O|coursc,thcprotcctcd
p dpawa|sac|caradvaatagc|aka|ghtcadgamca|m,but
mth|aothcrcadgamc.lath|sxct|oalw|||d|xuthc
|actorsthathc|pdctcrm|acthcva|uco|thcprotcctedpasscd
pawa|aka|ghtcadgc.
whattomcsccmsthcmostp|cturcr|cctcxp|co|
thcva|uco|thc protcctcdp cdpawa |a ka|ghtcadgamc|s
showa by D|agram 77, m. 8maa P. 8cako, Hast|ag
I35
D|agram77
I973]74,ahcrwh|tc's24thmovcaadthcp|aythcrc|rom.Just
oathcprcv|ousmovcwh|tchadu|tccnoacous|yo||crcdthc
cxchaagco|Quccas(2Q c Qxc 24dc)tom|vc
at D|agram 77.8|ack's d-pawa |s awoadcr|u| aad sccurc
protcctcdpasscdawaOa thcothcr haad, wh|tc has ao
p
rospccts|orav|a|cpasscdpawaoathcQuccas|dc.Othcr
maat|caturco|thcps|toaw|||bcomcc|carthcp|ay
uao|ds
2 WWW Nc!
w|thadua|purp.|mmob||||agwh|tc'skn|ghtd
prcvcat|agb.8ccauxh|ska|ght|sstuctoprotcct|agthcc-
paw,wh|tchxaatchaacc|ormc|agu|couatcq|ayoa
thck|ag|dc.1h|sg|vc8|ackp|catyo|t|mctoworkoa |a|||-
trat|agv|athcQuccas|dc.
2 a a 2 b
wh|tcprcvcatsthc|u|ago|h|sQuccas|dcw|th2.N a4,
but |oscs atcmpo|oract|vat|agh|sk|ag.L|thcrs|tuat|oa|s
uap|casaat.
2 W K 27 K Ke7 2 Ke2 Kd7 29 Kd3
Aw|||bxca,wh|tccaaaotstab|||nh|sQuccas|dc|a
aaycvcat.1hcrc|saosat|s|actoryd|cax,butbttcrpract|ca|
chaaccarco||crcdby29h4,w|tthc|dcao|Yg4aad3Ig5,
I36
||29...h5,thca wh|tccaap|ay30kc3aad3I k|4aadc|thcr
rcdcp|oyh|ska|ghtortg5.
29 ... Kc7 30 g4 gS!
Stopp|agaayptcat|a|k|ag|dcp|ay.
31 Kc b! 32 cb+ Kb 33 Kd3
33a4|sa|somctby33... kc5,cqua||yhopc|css|s33b4
b4+ 34b4 kb5.
33 ... Kc 34 Ke a4!
Opca|ag up |a|| |trat|oasquarcs. l|aow35 b4+ kc4
8|ack'sk|ag|s|aaadhchasthcdom|aaatprotcctcdpasscd
pawa a) 36Nd2+kc 37ND Nxb| 38b4a,w|aa|ag,b)
6kd2 Na7| 37kc2 Nb5 38kb2 kd,w|aa|ag.
35 bxa4 Kc4 36 aS NxaS 37 Nd4 Kc 38 Kd3 Nc4 39 f4
1hc|ocaaboa|ydc|aydw|th39Nb3+ ko|ctc.
39 WWNb2+ 4 Kc
Or+kc3NdI+ 4I kd NO+ 42kc3 g4ctc.
4 ... Kxd4 41 fgS hxgS wh|tcrc|gas
1hck + Pcadgamca|tcr42kxb2 kxc5 |shopc|css.
1hcdcc|s|vcc|cmcatwas 8|ack'sprotcctcd passcd d-pawa,
cvcathough|tacvcrhadtomovc.
H|stor|ca| |y,thc|avor|tccxamp|co|thc va|uco|thc
protcctcdpasscdpawa|aka|ghtcadamcs,asprcscatcd|a
rc|crcaccb koathccadgamc(Gmcual|ac,GmYur|
Avcrbakh ctc.) has bcca | aram 78, H. N. P| | |sbury - l.
Guasbrg,Hast|agI895,a|tcr|ac's26thmovc.wh|tchasa
sccurc passcd cpawa, yct |tsccms rathcrb|ockadcd aad ||
8|ackwou|dhavct|mc|or27...Nc6,thcdc|casccou|daotbc
brokca.Howcvcr,w|thacharactcr|st|cpawabrcakwh|tc|s
ab|ctouadcrm|ac8|ack's|axcurcccatra|pawa|omat|oa.
I37
D|agr78
27 f!! gS
l| 27... g5 g5 em5,29 N|4 w|||g|vewh|tecoa
aectedp dpawas|atheceater,a w||| 27... em5 2g5 g5
29Nb4,27. . . c6|osesto28N|4 Nb4 29 a Nc2 30Nxe6
Nxa3 3INc7 a 32Nxd+.
2 Nb! a 29 c!
1hemomeataryawkward|oat|oao|theb|ackka|ght
a||owsth|stact|ca|shot.1hethreateacd30c7|orces8|ack's
rep|y.
29 WWKd6 30 fe Nxc 31 Nxc Kxc 32 e4! !
1hekeytothewh|te'sprev|ousp|ay.hew|asthek&P
eadgebyoaetempa arcu|to|creat|ag|atheccatcr|m
advaacedcoaaectedpaedpawas.1h|s|saa|mprtaattheme
|a k&P cadgames,butdosaothave much todo w|th the
themeo|theprotectedp dpawa|aka|ghteadgc
8|ackm|ghta we||take,s|ace32... kd6 33exd5 ke7
34ke kd6 35ke4 kc7 36k|5 b 37d6+ kxd6 38k6
|shop|c.
32 ... de4 33 dS + Kd6 34 Ke b
OrM...|5 35g5 b 36|6a4 37r ke7 38d+ k0
I38
39d7ctc
.
35 Kxe4 a4 36 Kd4 hS 37 ghS a 38 Kc4 t 39 h6 f4 4 h7
8|ackrcs|gas.1h|s|astrouadgamccaab|cdthc uahcra|dcd
P|||sburyto||a|sh||rst,ahcado|1ch|gor|a,wor|dChamp|oa
Lmaauc|Laskcr,1arrh,Stc|a|ctc.
D|agam79
Howcvcr,||wcrcturatothcprcv|ousgamc]ustaha||
movccm||cr,thccva|uat|oabccomcd|||crcat.Dragram79
showsthcpos|t|oa|aH. N. P|| |sbury I. Guasbrg,Hast|ag
I895,a|tcr wh|tc's26thmovc.lathcgamc,Guasbrgp|aycd
thc carc|c26... Nb8!. lastcad, Lmaauc| Laskcrsumqucat|y
rccommcadcd.
2 W .a5!
8ccauscwh|tc'ska|ghtao|oacrhasacccsstob4,
8|ack|srcadytocoat|aucwith27...Nbaad28... Nc6,w|tha
stab|cpos|t|oa.A|tcrthctcxt,P|| |sbury'spawabrcak|sao
|oacrsuccc |u|.1hc|o||ow|aga|y|s|sbyLmuc|Laskcr
|atctoumcatb k.
27 f?! gS! 28 c6 Nb6 29 NcS exf 30 gf Kd6 31
Nb7 + Kc 32 NxaS+ Kc7!
Laskcrhcrcg|vcthc|o||ow|agcva|uat|oa. 8|ackhas,
||aayth|ag,thc bcttcrchaacc,ashcthrcatcas33... Nc4|o|-
|owcdby34 ... Nd6.
I39
8ecauwthede|eas|veka|ght|ssuchageatb|okadr,
evea pos|t|oaswhere the protectedpassedpawa |saa extra
p
awamayaotbwoa.Suchp|t|oasusua||yhavetheb|okad
mgka|ghtattack|agtheprotect|agpawa.l|mt,wew|||coa
s|derpos|t|oaswherea||thepawasareoathesames|de. la
D|agr8, Y. Averbakh I95,wh|te|supaprotectedp d
|pawa,buth|sgpawa|sv|aerab|e.1here|saow|a,e.g..
D|agam8
1 K
Or I kd4 k|7 2ke5 ke7 aad there |saoway|or
wh|tetoprogc.
1WW Nd7! 2 Ke4
wh|te'sk|ag|stoopass|veaher2Ne4Ne5+ 3 kg3
kh6.
2 W Nf+ 3 Ke K 4 Kd6 Ne8+ 5 Kd7 Nf6+ 6 Kd8 K
Draw
Lvea ||we m|sp|ace8|ack'sk|agbyatemo |a D|a-
gram8tog|veD|agr 8I (oa the|o||ow|agpage,Y.Aver
I955,therexemstobaow|a.
1 KB!
1hereaga|a|saoth|a|a Ikd4 kg7 ke5 k 3kd
Ne8+ 4kd7 N|6+ 5kd8
I40
D|agram8I
l. WW Nd7!
1hcpass|vc 1. . . kg7 2 Nc4 Nh7(|orccd),a| | ows
wh|tc'sk|agtos|mp|march| a. 3kc3 k| 4kd4 kc7 5
kc5 k 6kd6 k0 kc6 kg7 8kc7 kh6 9k.
2 Ke4
Aga|a,thcrc|saoth|ag|a2Nc4 Nc5+ 3kg3N|ctc.
2 W 3 KdS K!
Avcrbakhg|vcasthcma|a||ac3. . . N|6+ 4kc6 Ng8
5Nc4 Nh6 6|6+ k6(6... kg8 7Nxg5 Nxg4 8|7+ kg7 9
Nh7) 7Nd6!Nq48 kg7 9kc7aaW|tcw|as.
4 Ne4
aadw|as - Avcrbakh.Yct8|ackhadc|cax.
4 Ke7! S Kd4 Ke8!!
lt|s|mcrat|vcthatwh|tc'ska|ght aothavc achcck
a|tcr6Nq5N.
6 Nx
what c| sc A|tcr 6 kc3 or 6 kc4 ! 8| ack has
6... Nc5(+).
I4I
6 WW Nf6 7 Ke Nx4+ 8 Ke K 9 N7 + K Draw
wh|tedw|a ||wemovethep|t|oaupbyoaeraak
because 8|ack has |ess maaeuver|ag room. la D|agram 82,
A verbh I955,thew|a|sach|eveda |o||ow.
D|agram82
1 Kf4! Nd8 2 Ke Nf + 3 Ke K 4 Kd7! Nh8 S Ne Nf
6 Nx+
A6NxK 7kd6K 8D|K 9kd7w|as.
6 K 7 Ne7 + K 8 g wh|tew|as.
D|agram8
Athemat|cexmp|ewherea enra
p
awa|athe|ormo|
aprotectedp dpawa|s|asu0|c|eattowm,eveaw|thpawas
I42
oabths|dco|thcbmd|sshowa|aD|agram 8,m.8otv|a
a|k- G. L|ss|ts|a,moscow I935, wh|tc oa movc. wh|tc's
ka|ghthasacccsstothc|dca|dc|cad|ag]attack|agd3squarc
aadth|s|ssu|c|cattoho|dthcgamc.
1 Kd2 Ng6
I...kc5 2Nd3+ kc4!! 3Nxc5+ kb3 4Nc6 caaaot
o||cr8|ackw|aa|agchaacc.
2 Kd3 Nf 3 Kc4 Ne 4 Nd3! Ng4
1hck& cad|aga|tcr4... Nc5 5Nxc5! bxc5 6a5! |s
drawa,c.g.6... kd7 7kd3c4+ 8kxc4kd6 9kbd I0kc3
kc5 I I b6axb6 I2b6 kb6 I3kd3kb5 I4kc3kc5 I5
kdkb I6kd2!ctc.(l|ac).
S Net Ke 6 Kb!
lt |susc|u|to|cavcd3ava||ab|cto thcka|ght. la thc
gamcwh|tcchoscthcpass|vc6kd3,butst|||hc|doaa|tcr
6... kd6 7kc4Nh3 8NdNgI 9NcI kc6 I0kd (I0kb4!)
I0 .... Nh3I I kd2k|6 I2kkc7 I3kc2kd6 I4Nd3Ng5
I5 Nb2N|7 I6Nd3Nd8 I7Nb2Nb7 I8 kd2Nc4 I9kc2
kc6 2 kdIctc.1hctcxt|sasugct|oabyGml|ac.
6 ... Nh3 7 Nd3 Ngl 8 Net Kf
1hcattcmptto|a|| |tratcthck|ags|dcw|||aotwork
bccauscwh|tc'sk|agcaaaowpcactratc8|ack'ss|dco|thc
board.8ut||8. . . Nc2 9kb3Ng3 I0Nd3N|I I I kc2k|6 I2
kdI8|ack'sk|agrcma|ascha|acdtoh|scpawa.
9 Kc4 KgS?! 10 KdS Kh4 11 KxeS Kg3 12 Kxd4 Nxf+ 13
Nx K 14 e Drawa(l|ac)
whatcvcrw|aa|agchaaccsthcrcarc bc|oagto wh|tc
a|tcr I4... kg2 I5c6O I7c7Q I8c8=Q|I =Q I9Qg8+
kh3 2 Qh7+ |o||owcdby2IQxa7. 1h|sshowsthatattcmpts
by8|acktop|ay|oraw|abyabaadoa|agh|sccatcrpawascaa
bomcraagvcrycas||y.
I43
Capter 6
Paw Structures
8ccauscthcka|ght|s|ahcrcat|yashortraagcp|ccc,by
|arthcmost|mportaatc|cmcato|awastructurcs|aka|ght
cadgamc|sthccx|stcacco|pacdpawa(s) d |a part|cu|ar
thcouts|dc
p
asscdpawa.1c |mportaataspcctso|passcd
pawas|akmghtcagamcwcrcthorough|ycovcrcd |acar||cr
scct|oas.Hcrc lw|||takca |ook atthcrcma|a|ag|mportaat
subjcctsrcgard|a

pawastructurc.thcQuccas|dcpawamajor
|tyaadcharactcnst|cdcc|cac|c|apawnstructurc.
Section 1: Te Queenside Paw Majorit
1hcs|dc hav|ag a pawa major|tyoa thc Quccas|dc
gcacra||yhassomccadgamc advaatagc. Assum|agthatthc
pawamajor|ty|shca|thyaadcaa|cadtoapasscdpawa,th|s
passcdpawawou|dbcan outside passed pawn. l|thccacmy
|aggctst|cddowatostopp|agsuchapawa,yourk|agaad
ka|ghthavccxcc||catchaacc|ordcc|s|vc|y|a|||trat|agoathc
othcrs|dc.
P|caxaotcthatl us|agthctcm Quccas|dcpawn
major|tybccausc |t |s thccommoa oac aad |s |aby|arthc
maor|tyo|cascsa|sothcaccuratcdcscr|
p
t|oa.Yctthctru|y
accuratccxprcss|oawou|dbcthcgcacncoac.Qua||tat|vc
Pawamajor|tyOa OacS|dc.Youcaav|sua||zcthat||both
s|dcarcct|cdoathcQuccas|d,thatthca |t|sthcKngide
pawamajor|tythat|sthcptcat|a|advaatagc.
Avcry|avorab|cco|thcQuccas|dcpawamajor|ty|s
showa |a D|agram84 (oa thc|o||ow|agpagc),l. Radu|or - !.
P|atcr,Pcm|kI978,a|tcrwh|tc's3Istmovc.Lvcathough |t|s
8| ackwhoa|rcadyhas apasscdpawa, thcpotential h|tc
passcdpawaoathcQuccas|dc|sthcs|ga|||caat|actor|athc
pos|t|oa.8|ackdocshavcthcmorcact|vck|ag,yctthc|act
that wh|tc'ska|ght|sthcact|vcoac morcth outwc|ghsthc
k|ag|actor.1hcgamccoat|aucd.
31. f
I4
D|agam8
1he attempt at |mprov|agthe ka|ghtpos|t|oaw|th
3I . . . Nd6!|a||sa(ter32Nd8| , threatea|ag33Nc6+. l|thea
32 ... kf6,33kd4,i|32 ... a6,33Nc6+ke6 3Nb8Nb7 35b.
32 b! g5?
A||ow|agwh|te'sb-pawatogettob5 mustbsu|c|da|.
wh|te|sreaqtocreateapwer|u|outs|dp dpawawh||e
the | mportaat de|eas|ve c6 square |s dea|ed 8|ack. Oa|y
32 . . . Nd6 o||ered chaaces|orde|ead| ag because, at th|s
momeat,thek&Peadgamea|ter33Nkxd6 34kd4kc6
appemdrawa.
33 b5! h5
Now|t'sto|ate|or33...Nd6 34Nxdkxd6s|aceafter
35kd4wh|tegetsadc|s|veouts|dp dpawa.
34 Nd8! g4 35 hg4 hxg4
35. . . |xg4 getsthesame36g3 respoase. 8| ackhas
succeeded|aoa|yexchaag|ago||oaek|ags|depawa,|eav|ag
h|mw|thmopteat|a||yvu|aerab|epawasthere.
36 g3 Kd6 37 Kd4 Ne7
Ater37. . . kd7,wh|teputs8|ack |a zugzwaagw|th38
Nc6kd6 39a6|(lmm|aev).
I45
38 Nf + Ke 39 Kc! d4
A|tcr39 . . . k +oaxo 4I thcbpawaquccas.
Pa|vcd|caxw|th39...Nc8|oto+Nd8+ 4I Nc6+
kc4 42Nxa7+! . wcarcxc|agaga|athcprob|cmthcka|ght
has|astopp|agouts|dcp dpawas.
4 NgS+ K6 41 Nh7 +! 7
Now8|ack'sk|ag|stoo|araway|romthcQuccas|dc,
but||4I. ..kc5wh|tcquccasw|thchccka|tcr42b6!b6 43
b6d 4b7d 45bQ.
42 Kxd4 Kxh7 43 KcS Nc8 Kc6 f4 45 Kd7 fg3 4 fg3
N 47 a 8|ackrc|gas
AadsothcQuccas|dcmajor|tywoaby|tsc||.wh||c
8|ackwaskcptbusysatcguard|agh|spawasc|xwhcrc,wh|tc
|a|||tratcdthcQuccas|dc.
whcrc thc Quccas|dc pawa major|ty |ssouad, but
chaacc|or crat|aga v|ab|couts|dcpasscd pawa scaat, thc
ps|t|oamot||kc|y|s|a(amcba|aacc.1h|smcaasthatw|th
corrcctp|aythcgamcw|||bdrawa,butthatthcrc arcp|caty
o|opprtua|t|c|or oacs|dto m|sp|ayth|ag. A |astruct|vc
cxp|c |sshowa|romD|agram85,A.kotov S. Rchcvs[,
Zur|chCaad|datcI953,a|tcr8|ack's49thmovc.
D|agr85
wh|tchasahca|thyQuccas|dcpawamajor|ty,yctthc
I46
prospccts|or asucccss|u| brcakw|thc5 arc8oor.la thc
mcaawh| | c8| ack | s rcadyto rcspoadto 5 k|3! w| th
50. . . Nd2+, w|aa|agthcc
p
awa.wh|tcthcrc|orc prcvcats that
thrcatbyact|vat|agh|skaight.
50 Ne a4?!
8|ackscr|ous|ym|sjudgcsthcpos|t|oaaadbyp|ay|ag
|oraw|ar|ska|o.w|ththctcxt,hcmwh|tc'sa-pawaoa
id
p
|aastop|aythcka|ghttobI,captur|agthcpawa.Yct
thcpsrt|oatumsouttobmuchmorccomp||catcdthaathat.
Concct|sthcrout|acN ..Wb 5I whcawh|tc'sQucca
s|dc|ssccurc,ycta|mthcrc|saowaytoprogcthcrc.1hcrc
|orc:coat|au|agcqua||ty.
51 K g
1hc||rstc|oudstartstoappcaroa8|ack'shor|zoa.lt
tumsoutthata|tcrthcd|rcct5I...d2+ 52keNbI! 53kd
Nxa3 54b5 8|ack'ska|ght|strappcd. 1h|ssamcmot||w|||
appar|atcra|m.
52 Ke! g4
wh|tchc||cct|vc|yccatra||adh|sk|agaadsuddca|y
8| ackhas aoattract|vccoat| auat|oaoa c|thcrs|dco|thc
bard.
w|tacthcothcrtwoma|a||ac.
(a)52 ... Nc! 53kdNbI 54kc2Nxa3+ 55kb2h4 56K
hxg3 57NO+ kc7 58Nxg5. 1hcgpawagctsstoppcd aad
w|tcw|as.
(b)52. . . Nxg3! 53N|7+ kc7 54Nxg5 aadtocxtr|catcthc
ka|ght8|acw||||o at|ctthch-pawa.
53 hg4 hg4 53 Nxg4 Nc?
8|ackkccpsdrc|ago|aw|aoa thcQuccas|dcwhca
thcaccdwtowarch|oradraw|ag||ac.lorthatthcaoma|
54 . . . Nxg3 55N|2N|I+ 56kdc5scqucaccshou|dbcgood
caough.
I47
SS Ne! Nl 56 Kd Nxa 57 b!
1rapsthek|ght,asa|readyg|vea |athe aoteto8|ack's
5Istmove. la|er|or|sthe|cy57 (threatea|ag58kb2)
becauseo|57... b5! 58c5+ kd5whea 8|ack'ska|ght|ssa|e
aadtheps|t|oadrawa.
S7 W NxbS
8|ackgrabstwopawas|orh|ska|ghts|ace aherthe
''aorma|''57...c5hewou|dw|adupw|th |ess.58Nd7+ kb4
59NxoNbI 6Nx4!kxa4 6Iodthepawaqueeas.
58 cbS Kc 59 Nt K 6 Nd4+ K 61 Kc! e
8|ackhopestoweakea wh|te'spawasaadto use h|s
coaaectedpadpawastokeepwh|te'sk|agpa|ve.8uth|s
s|tuat|oa|smashowatobhop|c .
62 fe Kc 6 e Kd6 6 Kc bS 6 K Ke7 6 Kc! a 67
KdS 8|ackrc|gs
1hek|

htstops8|ack'spawas|eav|agwh|te'sk|ag|a
chargeo|aroutme|ywoak&Peadgame.
O|coume,hav|agtheQueeas|depaw major|tyw|||aot
by|tse|||eadtoadvaatage.Youmustpurpse|u||yworkto
cap|ta||zeoa |t,bye|thermob|||z|agthepawas, thek|agor
both. Otherw|sethepoteat|a|advaatage |sa||eet|aoae.
lasmct|ve|adeed|sthexqueaceo|p|ayromD|agam (oa
the|o||ow|agage),A.karpv !.|mmaa,l|aa|Cd|datc
match I9,ame2,a|ter8|ack's27thmove.
lt |stru|ac|ass|ca|themat|cpos|t|oa. wh|tehasa
muad Queeas|emajor|ty,8|ackahea|thyk|ag|d major|q,
w|thae|thermajor|tyasyetmob|||nd.wh|te'smaor|qshou|d
meaaataag|b|eadvaatage,ytsehowqu|ck|y|t|ppam
2 f4?!
Gm1|mmaaca||sth|saotagood move''lasteadhe
was won|ed abut the|mmed|ate2k!|5 29 ke c Y
I48
D|agram86
Nb5| . |athcpost mortcm,bcstp|ay|orboths|dcssccmcdto
bY... k|6 3I kdkg5| (8|ackmust|ok|orcouatcrp|ayoa
thck|a|dc.A|tcr3I...kc6| 32kc4|wh|tc|smak|a

s||
caatr|s|cssprogrcss.)32Oh5 33kc4h4 34kd4 35
hxg3 c4| 36 |xc4|4| 37 gx|4 + kx|4,whca,accordgto
1|mmaa,thcgpawashou|dguaraatccthcdraw.|th|akthat
th|s|scorrcct,ycta |oaga wh|tc|s|ap|t|oatomcr|cch|s
ka|ght|orthcgpawa,wh|tc'sprospcctsoa thc Quccas|dc
mcaa that oa|y hc hasw|aa|agchaaccs. Rcmcmbcrwhat
happacd|athcp|ay|romD|agam84|
w|ththctcxtwh|tcmakcs|tposs|b|ctocxchaagco||
8|ack'scpawa|orh|s|pawa,butat thc |argccost o|a|ost
tcmp|ork|agact|vat|oa.1|mmaarcmarkthataftcrthctcxt
8|ack|saotwom.
2 ..W f 29 Na4
1hcka|ght'srout|ag|cadaowhcrc.8cttcr|s29K.
29 ... K 30 Nc N 31 Nd3
3Ia4| kc7 32a5Nd5oa|ywcakcaswh|tc'sQucca
s|dcpawas.
3l ... Nd7 32 Nb?!
Coat|au|agto |oscva|uab|c t|mc. |a ordcr|s32k|3,
I49
w|thadrawak&Pcadgamcrcu|t|aga|tcr32...c5 33bc5+
Nxc5 34Nxc5kxc5 35c3.
32 ... eS 33 Nc a6 34 fe Nxe 35 Nd4
A|rcady|t|stoo|atc|or35Nxc5!kxc5 36k|3kd4!
aadthccxtratcmpoa||ows8|ack'sk|agtogct|ato wh|tc's
Quccas|dc|orthcw|a.
35 ... Ke7 36 Kf?!
morc|ott|mc.Corrcct| s36h3|o||owcdby37Kaad
38 ke.
36 ... Kd6 37 Ke2 Kd5
8ccausco|wh|tc'starry|ag, |t|s8|ack'sk|agwho |s
|ordo|thcboard. 1hctcxtkccpsthcadvaatacbut |tcou|d
havcbccaca|argcdw|th37. . .kc5! 38Nc2g! |o| |owcdby
39.. .|4!(1|mm),whca8|ackhascrcatcdapwcr|u|outs|dc
sscdpawa.Notc thcchaagco|thcthcmc o|thcpos|t|oa.
cauthcptcat|a|daagcr|or wh|tcaow|sthcQuccas|dc,
thc|-pawabcomcaaouts|dpadpawa.
38 Nc2 Ke4?!
8|ackgcts awoadcr|u||yact|vc ccatra||zcd k|ag,yct
a||ords wh|tcthcchaaccto ||aa|| mob|||zc h|sQuccas|dc.
lastcadcorrcct|s38. . . a5! 39a (3b4!a4cr|t|ca||ywcakcas
thcc4squarc)39. . . kc4whca a|tcr40h3 wh|tc'spos|t|oa |s
vcryuapcasaatbutst|||d|cas|b|c.
39 a4! Nt 4 b
S|mp|cr|s40h4aada|tcr40...|4, 4I k|2. Yctuadcr
staadab|y, tcrthcprcv|ouspass|vcsu||cr|ag,karpvprc|cn
act|v|ty.
4 ... Nd4+
Asa|cty||rst ap
p
roachtothc |astmovco|thct|mc
coatro|. morccoas|stcat is+.. # Nxh2,cvcathouhsubqucat
aaa||sshowcdthatthcps|t|oa|sdrawaa|tcrI b5 b5 42
I50
axb5kd5whcaa|tcrc|thcr43keor43Nd4wh|tccaasacr|
||cch|sk|ght|at|mc|orcaougho|8|ack'spawas.
41 Nxd4 Kd4 42 b Draw
A|tcr42... am5 43am5kc5 4kekxb5 45k|4kc5a
drawrcu|tsattcr+kg5kd4or+h4kd4.
Section 2:
Caracteristic Defciencies in Pawn Structures
If a double pawn is par of a pawn majorit, this is a
serous handicap. 1hc rcasoa |ss|mp|ythat |t |smuchmorc
d||||cu|ttocrcatcapasscdpawa|romsuch a|ormat|oa.A
moc|cq|o|tat|oao|th|s|actor|sshowa|romD|am87,k.
Pytc| !. 8|c|czyk,Po|aa|caZdroj, I976, a|tcr8acks 23rd
movc.
D|agram87
wh|tchasaqua||tat|vcpawmajor|qoathck|ag|sdc
aadcxcc| |catprospccts |or crcat|agav|ab|cpasscd pawa
thcrc.8|ack'scxtrapawa,b|agdoub|cd,w|||bmuch|co|a
hc|p|a crcat|agapasscdpawa oa thc Quccas|dc.wh|tc's
p|cccatthcmomcatarc mot|yp|accd, thcrc|orc,h|s||nt
ordcro|bus| acss| sto act|vatcthcm. Thcrcw| | | bct| mc
caoughtostartmob|||z|agthck|ag|dpawas.
2 K! Nd6 2 K K 2 K4! Nc4 27 b Na3 2 c a 29
I5I
Ng!
8ccaux 8|ack's ka|ghthassuccccdcd |a |osca|agu
p
wh|tc'sQuccas|dc,8|ack'schccthcrcmustb takca scn-
ous|y.1hus thc |mmcd|atc 29 g4!! |sprcmaturc bccausc o|
29... c4 30g5+ k.8uta|tcrthctcn,29... c4caabmctby30
Nc4+ kg6(30... c6 3INg5+)3I kc5!,w|th wh|tc'sk|ag|a
ps|t|oatopactratc8|ack'sQuccas|dc.Ncvcrthc|c ,8|ack's
chaaccsarcrca|caougha|tcr3I ...cxb3 32b3b5! aadth|s
wasthcwaytogo.Asp|aycd,8|ackturasouttobcs|owoa
c|thcrs|dco|thcbard.
29 ... h6?! 30 Ne4+ Ke6 31 c4!
G|v|ag8| ackaomorcchaaccs|or. . . c4, aad thcrcby
mak|agthccrcat|oao|apasscdpawaamuchmorcd||||cu|t
job.
31 .. .4 32 g4! ab3 33 ab3 Nc 34 h4!
wh|tc'sk + Nstaadwc||caoughsothat|t|st|mcto
gctthcpawasgo|ag.
34 ... Nd4 35 Nd2
Accord|agto lmP
)
tc|,thc|mmcd|atc35g5hxg5 36
kxg5! |sw|aa| ag.Yct |trs morc thaa uadcrstaadab|cthat
wh|tchasao|atcrcst |a mak|agsuch a dcc|s|oa bc|orcthc
t|mccoatro|oamovc+.morcovcr,thcrc|saoaccd|or|t.
35 ... Kf6 36 Ne4+ Ke6 37 Nd2 K 38 Ke4 Ke
8|ack'sc-pawad|sappcarsa|tcr38. . . b5! 39cxb5cxb5
+kd5(+... Nc6 4INc4+).Howcvcr,a|tcrthctcxtwh|tcc
para|y8|ack'smajor|ty|oagcaoughw|th...
39 b! Kd6 4 bxc + Kxc
A|tcr40. . . bxc5 4IN|3!wh|tchasar|sk|csswoapos|-
t|oa,yctthccouatcrp|aya|tcrthctcxt|stos|ow.
41 Ke! bS 42 gS! hxgS 4 hxg5 Nc
I52
43..bxc4justdropstheka|ghta|ter44Ne4+ kb4 45
kd4.
4g6 Ne 4 K4!
Preveat|agtheka|ght|romgeu|agback( 45g7!!Ng4+
+ke5Nh6|sa|asta|ce||a|sh|agtouchtowh|te'sexemp|ary
p|ay.
4 WW bxc4 4 Ke 8|ackrc|gas
The isolated d-pawn by itsel is not a serious problem.
1h|s|sbecausethe||ex|b|eka|ghtcaabeusedtoe|therpro
tectthepawaorthekeyuarcarouad|t,astheaeedmayb.
1hep|ay|romD|agam88,V. korchao| G.kaspmov,Sem|-
l|aa|Caad|dates match I983,Game8,a|ter8| ack's25th
move,demoastratesthecorrectap
p
roachtocop|agw|thth|s
s|tuat|oa.Apart|rom hav|agtherso|ated d-pawa, there |s
aoth|agwroag|a 8|ack'scamp aadw|ththepropercarehe
drawsw|thouttomuchsweat.
D|agram8
26 Nc
1here |saoth|ag|a2OK 27Kke7 2kekd6
29Nd4Ne7 aad evemha |ssecure |a8|ack'spos|t|oa(30
Nb5+!kc5 3INxa7! . k.
2 Nd6 27 K
I53
Hcrctoaaa|y|sbykasparovaadSharovshowthat
27|3|6 k|2kO 29kc3|scas||yparr|cb29... b6|(Not
29... Nc4+! Ykd4whca8|ackha||owcdwh|tcsp|octo
bccomcvcryact|vc.)30Nd3kc6 aad8|ack|ssa|cs|acc3I
kd4|smctby3I...Nb5+.
27 W K 2 KKe7 29 K4 f 30 h4!
wh|tctr|ctobthgrabmmcspaccaswc||to|aducc
potcat|a| |ydamag|agwcakacsscs| a8|ack'sos|t|oa1hus
0 ... h5!| 3IOo 32dkc6 33g4|hq4 4Nc4 35h5
wou|d |cadtosomcpcrmaacatwcakacsso|8|ack'sg-pawa.
1hccom|agwor|dhamp|oarc|usctob|tc.
30 W .g6! 31 g4 b 32 Na6 Ne4! 33 t Nc 34 Nc7 d4!
work|agtocxchaagco||h|swcakae ,c.g.35Nbd! .
Nc|thcrcaa3b4d 36Nd5+kc6 37c4d2 8Nc3Nd+
39kcNv +Kd |cadtoaayadvaatagc|orwh|tc.A|tcr
34... 4!8|ack|saotwom.
35 NdS+ Ke 36 N a 37 Nd3 KdS 38 g t 39 K3 Nxd
Draw
S|acc 8|ackhasaow|aa|agchccc|thcr,OMkpa
rovs|mp||||c|atoadcaddrawa&Pcadgamc.
Pawn forations which have unquestioned strengths in
opening and middlegame pla can well tr out t be a weakness
in endgames.
D|agam89
I54
Coas|dcraowD|a

ram 89, m.|eturssoa m. mar|a,


maa||a!atcmaa| Iw,with8|ackoamovc.1hcpawa|orma
t|oaoathc|c|ts|dco|thcboard|sa|rcqucatgucst|agamcs
whcrc 8|ackhchoathck|agslad|aaor8caoa|dcca.
wh|tc'sdpawa,supprtcdbytbcc4 pawa,htakcacoatro|
o|thcdaadosquarc |a8ack'ss|do|thcbmdaadpro
v|dc wh|tcausc|u|sacc advaatcdur|agthc oa|agaad
m|d|cgamcpha. ctthc pit|oadw|ad|cwatothc
cadgc,thcacgat|vcstarttocomcout|oudaadc|car.c5 |s
accc|b|cto8|ack'sp|cccaadthcc4pawa|svu|acrab|ctoaa
auack,pan|cu|ar|y|aaka|ghtcadgamc.8y|tsc||thc|acton
wou|daotbc |cta|butwbcaaddcdtosomcth| agc|sc - |a
D|agram89thcwcakaco|wh|tc'shpawa thccomb|aat|oa
cdcad|y.lmmm|a,w|thh|soutstaad|agp|ay,provcthat
8|ackhasa|orccdw|a.
1WWW Nf+!
8|ackrcps|t|oasthcka|ghts that|tcaarcad||yattack
both vu|acrab|c po|ats. c4 aadh4.Accord|agto l mmar|a,
a|tcr I . .. k|6!wh|tccaasctupadc|cas|vc|ormat|oaw|th2
Nh3! .
2 Ke Ng4 3 Nt
Obv|ous|y3Nh3!|oto3...Nc5.
3 WWW K 4 Nd NeS S K h6!
1hc|mmcd|atc5...Nd+ 6kc2Nb2 7k|2kc5|cads
toaoth|aga|tcr8N|3 + (8...kc4! 9Ng5+). 1hcrc|orc8|ack
br|agsthchpawatosa|ctyoah5|aawaythathc|soamovc
aga|aw|thwh|tc'sk|agoaO.
6 Kg3 hS! 7 K Ng6 8 Nt
8|ack'sk|agbrcak|aa|tcr8kg!!kc5 9kh3|4!
8 WWW NeS! 9 Nd
A|tcr 9 Nxc5! kxc5 I0 k|3 8| ack puts wh|tc | a
Zugzwaagw|thI0 . . . a6! I I a4a5aadw|ascas||y,c.g. I2k|2
I55
ke4| I3ke2|4etc.
9 ... Nd3+ 10 K
lm mar|ag|vesthe|o||ow|avar|at|oa a|tcr I0kc2.
I0 ... Nb2 I I k|2ke5 I2k|3a6! I3kg3 a5! I4k|3 a4! I5
kg3NdI ! I6k|3Nc3aadwh|tc|s|augwaagaad |oses''.
1h|s|sobv|ousa|tcrI7N|INbIwe||as I7kOkNe4+.
l t |s|essobv|ousa|terI7kg2,thoughI 7 . . .|4 I8kO

|xe3 I9
kxe3NdI+ 20ke2Nb2 2I ke3k|5 22k|3Nd3shou|dbc
gocaoughtow|a.
10 .. .a6! 11 a4
A|tcrI I kc2Nb2 I2k|2kc5 I3k|3 a5! I4kg3,
dcc|s|vc|sI4 ... Nd! I5K |4aad8|ackbrcaksthrough.
11. .. Ke5 12 Ke2 Nb2 13 aS f4 14 Kf fe3 15 Ke3 K 16
K Nd3! 17 Ke2
wh|te'sugwaag|scomp|ctca|tcrI7kg3Nc5.
17 ... Ne5 18 Ke3 K4 19 Ke4 Ng6! wh|tcrc|as
l mmar|ag|vesthc|o| |ow|agcxhaust|veaaa|ys|sas
pr|thatwh|tc|s|ot.2 NONxh4 2INc5+ (2INxh4kh4
2kf5kg 2ke6h4 24kxd6h3 kc7h2 2d6hI=Q 27
d7QeI ! w|as)2I.
.
.dxe5 22d6N|5 2d7Nd6+ 24kd5Nb7
25kc6Nd8+ 26kc5h4 27kd6h3 28kc7Nb7 29c5h2
30c6hI=Q3Ic7Qh7+aad8|ackw|as.
A weak point in a blocked position is usually deensible.
But i the opponent alo has a considerable spatial advantage, be
ver carel you do not wind up with another peranent weak
ness in your position. w|tacsswhathappcas|romD|agram90
(oatheacxtpagc),G.kparov R.Hubacr,1ra|a|agmatch,
HamburgI95,Game4,aer8|ack's33rdmove.8|ackhasaa
obv|ousweakacoab,yctthat|sdc|cas|b|crcad||ycaough.
Howcvcr,wh|te'sspat|a|advaatagcwh|chdcr|vc|romthed
c4 |4pawa|ormat|oacramps8|ack'ssty|c.lor8|ackaotto
bcomcsu||oated hew|||accdtomakcmmedcc|s|oaabut
h|sk|ag|depawa|ormat|oa.Awcw|||m ase, |tbtterba
I56
corrcctdcc|s|oa!
D|agamW
34 Na4 K
Shorto|t|mc,8|acktr|caottomakcar|s[dcc|s|oa.
Yctwhat|srcqu|rcd|sto
(
rcvcatwh|tc|romgctt|ag| ato
8|ack'sk|ag|dc.lorthat|tisbt||8|ackp|accpawasoag5
aad h5. 1hcrc|orc, OM kasarovsugcststhc o||ow|ag as
8|ack'sbtdc|cax.34... g5! 55(8|ack|ssa|ca|tcr35K
h5! )35...|xg5 36g4kg7 37kg3g6 38h4g4+ 39kxh4
h6! . wh|tc'sk|agcaaaot
p
rogrcssbyh| msc||aad ||wh|tc
startsbr|ag|a

backthckaight,8|ackact|vatch|sw|th ...Nc7
ctc.1hcp|troarcma|asdrawa.
35 K
P|ayab|c,butbcttcr|s35...g5!. wh|tcprcvcatsthatw|th
h|sacxt.
36 h4! h6??
A|rcadthcdcc|s|vccrror. Concct |s 36...h5! aada|tcr
37|5,37 . . . g! aadaga| awh|tcw| | | aot bcab|ctobrcak
throughoathck|ag|dc.Howcvcr, ||37... g5! wh|tchasthc
|o||ow|ag|astruct|vcw|a,g|vcabykarov38cm5 k

7 39
g44+ 4 k4K6 4INc3Nc7 42c4Nc8 43NN7
4|o||owcdbykc3,kd,kc3aadbrcak|agthroughoatc
Quccas|dcw|thb.
I57
37 g4! g5
8yaow,do|agmmcth|ag|oddoaaoth|ag|o.
Gmkparovprov|dthc|o||ow|agaaa|y|s. a)37... cn4 38
km4g5+ 39hq5hg5+ 40k|5Nc7 4I c5!dxc5 42Nxb6
aadwh|tcw|as,(b)3 ... kg7 38h5!k 39kg3kg7 +Nc3
Nc7 4I NdINc8 42Nek 436+k kh7 45
Nc7|o||owcdbyNc8.
kasparov docs aot coas| dcr 37. . . h5 as a dc|casc.
Prcsumab|y38|5w||||cadtop|ays|m||artothatg|vca|athc
var|at|oasabvc.
38 tg5 tg5
Atcr38... hxg5 39 h5 thc padprotcctcdh-paw |sa
tcnor,ycta|tcrthctcxt8|ackhaswcakaeoah6(aadd6)
addcdtothcor|g|aa|oacoab.
39 h5 Ke7 4 Nc Nc7 41 Ndl Ne8 42 Ne Ng7 4 Ke2 Kd7
4Kd3 Kc7 4 Kc Kc8
tay|agoathck|ag|da||owswh|tctow|aas|o||ows.
45... kd7 6bkc7 47kb3K 4bxc5bxc5 49ka4Nc8 N
N|5N|6 5I Nxh6Nxc4 52N|5 53 h6kO 54h7|Nxh7 55
Nxd6+kc7 56Nc4N|6 57d6+kc6 58Nn6K6 59kb5c4
Nkc6(kasparov).
4 b!
8|ack|ssccurccaoughoathck|ag|dc,butw|||aotb
ab|ctoa|mprotcctthcQuccas|dc.
4 WWW Kc7 47 Kb3 Kb7 4 Ka4 K
A|tcr48... ka6 49 N|5! Nn5 50cn5 wh|tc's Qucca
matc8|ackoaa8.
49 bxc bxc 50 Ka5! Kb7
l|50... ka7Wh|tcaga|a|orccsawoa Q + Pcadgamc
w|th5IN|5. 5I. ..Nn5 52g5g4 53|6g3 54Og2 55Q
I58
I =Q 56Q7+ Ka8 57KbQbI + 58Kc6.
Sl K Kc7 52 Ka6 Kc8 53 Kb Kd7 54 K7 Ne8
Wh|tc has bcco p|a|o, |ocffcct, awoo K & P cod-
amc. lf|ostcad, 54...Kd8,W|tc prorcsscs furthcr w|th 55
Kc6Kc7 56Kc7Nc8+ 57Kb|N7 8Kc6 (Kasparov).
SS Nf Nf6 56 Nxh6 Nxe4 57 Nf Nf6 58 h6 e4 59 Kb6 Nh7
6 K B|ackrc|os
GmHubocrdoootwaottobshowoGmKasparov's
w|oo|omctho.thcK|orctumstoc2,thco Wh|tcp|ayN3
aodfo|lowsw|thNxc4.
I59
Chapter 7
Te Active King Ad Knight
What|sthcva|ucofaoact|vcK|o!Ofcoum,thcK|o
h|msc|f|spr|cc|css,but |s|tposs|b|c to ass|oaoctworthto
h|mas adocr! OMM|kha||Ta| hassu@cstcdthat|tsva|uc
thco|sabout3po|ots,|.c.thatofam|oorp|ccc.Sucharc|a-
t|oosh|makcsscosc tomc. Howcvcr, |tsf|c|d ofact|v|q|s
qu|tc d|crcot from that ofthc |ooraoc |shop. Yct thc
K|o aodKo|htarcboth short raoc p|cccs aod thcrcforc
K|oaodKo|tcodamc|vcao ccc||cotdcmoostrat|ooof
thc usc ofthcsc p|cccs, both |o combat w|th cach othcraod
whcouscda atcam.
ThcadvaotacofthcbttcrK|odthcbttcrKo|ht
caotumouttobtraos|cotooc.Thcf|c|b|cKo|htcaooftco
chcckawaythc cocmyK|ofrom |tsact|vc |oat|oo,thcmorc
act|vc Ko|htcao bc dcf|cctcd awaybya dcfcod|oKo|ht.
Morcovcr,thc|oab|||qofthcKo|httobr|oabutzugao
ps|t|oos||m|ts|tspwcra aoattackcr.
Hcrc l w||| |ookat thrcc d|st|octs|tuat|oos. f|rst, thc
act|vc K|o aodact|vcKo|htparatc|y,aod thcothc comb|
oat|oooftcact|vcK|oaodact|vcKo|ht.
Section 1: Te Active King
D|aram9I
I6
lw|||stanoIIw|th amost|ostruct|vcaodIorpract|ca|
p|ay|mrtaotcxp|c, showo|oD|aram9I, A.Sca|- B.
lvkov,SaoPau|oI978,aItcrB|ack's22odmovc.
lo car||crp|aythcBra|||lM hadrushcdtocxchaoc
ofIp|cccsw|thoutbothcr|otooot|ccthatB|ack'suocast|cd
K|o

|s much morc act|vc|yp|accd thao Wh|tc's ct|cd K|o

.
Whttc'spawo Iormat|oo |s au|t|css (B|ack |s thcoochaodt-
cdbydub|cdpawos) aod h|sKo|htccotra||ud - yct thc
d|crcocc |o K|os |s too much to ovcrcomc. B| ack woo as
fo||ows.
2 K Kd6 2 Ke Kd5 Nt
cad|oIord2tokccpB|ack'sK|ooutofc4,buthas
thcdcmcr|todcact|vat|othcKo|ht. Yct thcrc |s ooth|o
good,c.g. 25b4b4 26 axb4 Na6

27 b5 Nc5 Io||owcd by
NN.Kc4w|||bthck|soIoathfor thcbpawo.AItcrKd2
OM l vkov |vcs thc Io| | ow|o w| oo| o | | oc Ior B| ack.
25. . . Nc4+ 26Kc2Kc4 27 ONc5 Kd2c5 29NI5 (or29
Nc2)29... Kb3N
WW e 2 Nd2 e!
Bytak|oawayacccsstodfrom Wh|tc's K|og,B|ack
scvcrc|ycramps Wh|tc'sdcfcoscs. Bccausc aItcr27 B|ack
cao support h|s c4 stroopo|otw|th 27...I5, Wh|tc str|vcs to
prcvcotthatbyh|socxtmovc.
27 g4 Na4 2 b Nc+ 29 K
S|occIrom cI thc K|ohas oofuturc, Wh|tcscodh|m
backtothcK|os|dc.
29 WWW b5! 30 K a4 31 b Ke!
Wh|tc'sQuccos|dchasbco |oocdup (c4|) aod thc
a pawo madc vu|ocrab|c, but bcforc uodcrtak|o dcc|s|vc
act|oothcrc,B|ackputsh|s tcot|a||yvu|ocrab|cK|og|dc |o
ordcr. loaoyca,3I...N!

32KgNxb!! 33b4 afa||s


to34NbI.
I6I
32 K f4! 33 gK 34 f Ke 35 K1! K Ndl 37
fe4 Nxe3 38 exf Nxf+ 39 Kf Kd4 40 Kf4 Nd6 Wh|tc
rc|os
B| ack's act|vc K| o w| | | pcoctratc dcc|s|vc|y |oto
Wh|tc's Quccos|dc,c.. 4I h4 Kc3 42Kc5Nc4+ 43Nxc4
Kxc4aodB|ackw|os a||paworacc.
Comparcdto D|aram9I, Wh|tc |sbcttcroff|o D|a
ram92, M. Ta|maoov - L. Po|uacvsky, U.S.S.R. Champ|oo-
sh|p I976, aftcr B| ack's26th movc, yct B|ack'spowcrfu| |y
ccotra||zcd K|o|vc h|m a c|c advaotac. lo fact, Wh|tc's
ps|t|oo|sc|mtocr|t|ca|.
D|agam92
27 e?
Bycrcat|oapmaocotwcakoeooOaoddwh||c
dc|ay|oK|o

act|vat|oobyamovc,Wh|tca|rcadymakcsh|s
pos|t|oocr|ttca|.Maodatory|s27KcI, whco a|| thcK & P
codamcaftcr27... Kc5 Kd2Nb(or .MM Nd4 29Nxd4)29
aarc]ustdrawo.
27 WW Kc Da
Uoavo|dab|c s|occ Kc2! Nb4 w|os for B|ack. But
aftcrthctcxt B|ackcao forcc furthcrwcakocsscs |oWh|tc's
Quccos|dc.
D W .! 29 a4
I62
Wh|tc oow cts squcczcd |oto a prctzc| . Thcrcforc
worthtry|owas29 Kc2| !a4 3Obxa4,thouhWh|tc'spros
pcuarcmotuop|caotaftcrY. .Kc4.
29 WWW N 30 Net
Eoab||othc Ko|httootod3 |fB|ack'sKo|htoow
movc.Aftcr3ONd4Na2| 3INc2B|ackw|osw|th3I...NcI 32
Nd4 Kb4.
30 ... e5! 31 Ke2 e4 32 Kd2 Nc! 33 Nc
Or33 Kc3Nc5fo||owcdby.. N4 aoothcr |cacyof
27c!.
33 ... Ne 34 hS
A straoc a |t cms, Wh|tc |s a|rcaq |o zugao. a
Ko|htmovca|!o34... Kb4, 34 Kc |oto34... N4, 34 Kc2
|oto34... Nd,thrcatco|o35... NcI+.
34 ... Nt+ 35 Kc gS 36 Na3 h4! 37 gh4 hS 38 N Nxh4
39 Nd4 Nt
Thcouts|dcp cdpawo|othcformofthchpawo|ss
powcrfu| thatB|accao afford to|vcupthcfpawo,c.g.4O
Nxf5 h4 4IKb2Kb4 42 Kc2 h3 44N3 h2 45 NhI 5,
fo||owcdby...Nc6aodNc4.St|||,Wh|tc'sco|ccofrcma|o|oa
pawodowo|oahop|c ps|t|oomakcoooata||.
4 Ne+ Kd6 41 Nf4 h4 42 Kc4 Ng1 Wh|tcrc|gs
Wh|tchada|cd43Kb5,butrc|cdw|thoutcoot|ou-
|o thc gamc |o v|cwof4J... h3 44NxhNxh3 45ka Kc6
foocdby+... Nx.
lt |s|mportaotthatthc s|dcw|th thc act|vcK|o

docs
oot bccomctoocomp|accotbccauscthc a||cKo|httsvcry
capab|c of crcat|o

couotcrp|ay. Th|s |s wc|| dcmoostratcd


from |agram93 o thc fo||ow|ogpagc, l. Bo|cs|avsky P.
Kcrc, SAb|utc hamp|oos|p 94I,aftcrB|ack's58th
movc. B|ack's act|vc K|o|vcs h|m thc advaotac, yct thc
I63
fuodamcota|pawo wcakocsscsoo d6 aod5 makcs thc u|t|-
matcrcu|tuoccrta|o.Thcccoot|oucd.
59 Nc+?
D|ar93
Apoormovc.Atth|spo|otWh|tcapparcot|yfc|tthat
str|ct|ydcfcos|vcmcurcw|||bsumc|cottodraw.S|occth|s
w||| bc |osuff|c|cot, |mmcd|atc act|v|tyw|th 59 Nc4| shou|d
havcbcotr|cd.Thcma|o||octomcthcocmstob59... Nb5
6NbNd4 6INc4Kc5(6I...Nx 62Nxd6 |sO.K.forWh|tc)
62Na5| Kb(62... Nx 6Nb7+ Kb 64Nxd6 |saa|osat|s-
factoryforWh|tc)63Nc4+ Kc7 64Nd2Kd7 65 c3Nc2+
66Kc|whco66...NI!! 67KdINx3 68 KcI trapsB|ack's
Ko|ht. lt |so|coursc poss|b|c that awaycxists to |mprovc
B|ack'sp|ay|o thcabovc||oc,yct Wh|tchaschaoccsforrca|
couotcrp|ay.
S9 ... Kb3 60 Net Na6 61 Kd2 Kc4! 62 Nd3 Nc7 63 Kc2 NbS
6Nb2+
Byoow|thasbccomc apparcotto Wh|tc thatpass|vc
p|ayw|||ootdo,c.g.6NcINd+ 65Kd2Kb3| 6KKb4|
67Kd2Kc4 6 KI Kc 69KcINc2+ 7OKdINgI aodB|ack
w|os.Howcvcr,Wh|tcstartsh|sact|v|tyuodcrcoo|t|ooss|g|f-
|caot|y|ofcr|ortothoava||ab|catMovc59.
6 WW Kc 65 Na4+ K 6 Nb Nd4+ 67 Kd3 Nx 6 Nd7
Wh|tc hasooth|obcttcr thao th|sb|uff, but |tshou|d
I64
havcbcoca||cd. 6 ...NI 69Nxc5 dc5 7Od6O 7I Kc D|
72KNxh3+ 73 KONf4 74 d7Nc6 dWh|tccao rc|o.
lostcad,bytry|o tobccarcfu|,B|acka| |ows Wh|tccou|oc
couotcrp|ay.
68 ... Nd4? 69 Nf6 Nb3 70 Ke2 Nc 71 Kf Nb3 72 Ke2 Nc
73 K Kc! 74 Ne8 Kd2 75 Nxd6 Ke1 76 Nc4 Kfl ! 77 Nd2+
B|ack's act|vc K|oprcvcots 77 Nxc5! bccausc aftcr
77... Nb3|B|ackmatcc|thcrood4ord.
77 K1 78 Nc4 Nd7?
B|ackputstoo muchcrcdcoccoo h|s act|vc K|o aod
ootcoouhoothcact|vcKo|htsforbths|dc.OMBotv|oo|k
hasdcmoostratcdthcfo||ow|ow|o.78 ... Nb3| 79Kc2(Othcr-
w|sc 79... Nd4 Matc) 79... Nd4+ 8OKd3 O 8Id6 O 82Nc3
Nc6 8Kc4Nf4| 84d7N2.
79 Nd6 Nc WNc4 Nd7? 81 Nd6 K2??
St| | | coamorcdbythcact|vcK|o,B|ackcvco |oscs.
Atcr8I. .. Nc5 Wh|tc cou|dhavcc|a|mcd adrawbccauscof
thrccfo|drct|t|oo ofthcps|t|oo (|ov|cwof82Nc4),but a
draw|sa|otttcrthaoa|m .
82 Nf Kxh3 8 NxgS + K2 d6 h3 Nxh3! Kxh3 &gS
B|ack's Ko|ht caoootstop both passcd pawos, wh||c
Wh|tc'sp|vcK|ocaod|ts]ob.
&WWW Nc 8g6 Ne 8 d7 NgS+ 8 Ke2 Kg3 Wd8=Q B|ack
rc|os
Thc f||p s|dc of thc act|vc K|o

|s ooc so pass|vc|y
[
|accdthat|tootoo|yhoohopofbworth3
J
|ots,but
ts ao |osuffcrab|c | |ab| | |ty. Such ao |ostruct|vc sttuat|oo |s
shownfromD|aram94(oothcfo||ow|opac),S.Tartakowcr
- M. Botv|oo|k, Oroo|oco I946, aftcr B|ack's 4Ist movc
(4I . .. h5).Notoo|y|sWh|tc'sK|ousc|css,but|s|o|mm|ocot
daocrofb|omatcdaftcr42 ... h,439W. g,4MM. 2.Wh|tc|ost
asfo||ows.
I65
D|agam94
42 Nc4+
Thc Ko|ht hcads back to hc|
[
|ts K|o. Ofcoursc,
uo|cssWh|tccaomob|||zch|sQuccostdcpawoshc|ssurcto
|m|othc|ooruo.Howcvcr,thcattcmptw|th42a4fa||sbya
movcaftcr42... Nd2| 43 a5h4 44 a6whco OM Botv|oo|k
f|vcthcfo||ow|ovar|at|oos.
I45a7| a8=QfI =Q+ 47Kh2NO+.
2)45 +a72+ 47Kh2NO+ 4Kh3I =Q 49
a8=QQh2+ 5O K3 Nc5+ 5I KO Qf2+ 52 K (52 Kc4
QO+ 53 Kd4 Qd3 Matc) 52 . . . Q3+ 53 Kf5 Q+ 54 Kf6
Q6Matc.
42 W Kd 4 Ne + Ke 4 a4
A bcttcr pract|ca|try|s44b4whco B| ackmust p|ay
44. . . Nd4| (prcvcot|o thc |mmcd|atc 45 b5), fo||owcd by
45.@.K,w|oo|obyatcmp.
4 WWW Kd 4 Nd Ke 4 Nf4+ K 47 Nx3+
Wh|tc|sa|soatcmposhortaftcr47Nxh53 48Nx3
K3 49ah2 Na6N5 5Ia7Nc4 52a8=QNMatc.But
oot|cc thatB| ackcaooot a||ow thcbpawoto qucco |o such
v|at|oos.
AftcrthctcxtB|ackcaoa|sow|ow|th47...h3,butOM
Botv|oo|kchooscsamorcthcmat|ccoot|ouat|oowh|chdocs
I6
ootrcqu|rcapan|cu|ar|ydcmd|oca|cu|at|oo.
47 WW K! 4 Nf4 g3 49 Ng K! 50 a h4 51 Nf4 K
To cosurc that aftcr . . . h3, Wh|tc cao'tcapturcw|th
chcck.
52 Ng h3 53 Ne3+ K 5 Ng4+ Ke2 Wh|tcrc|os
Thc"bad"K|octsmatcd.
Section 2: Te Active Knigt
Thcrc |s||tt|cpo|ot |o |ook|oatthctr|v|a|s|tuat|oos
whcrcoocKo|ht|sp|accdwc||that|trout|oc|yobb|cup
thc vu|ocrab|ccocmypawos. For |ostruct|ooa|purposcs thc
| mportaot cascs arc whcrc thc morc favora|y s|tuatcd
(act|vc) Ko|htcaocausc a |ootcrm stratc|c dcc|cocy |o
thccocmycamp.Th|sw|||bcwoodcrfu||y|I |ustratcdfrom
D|aram 95,A. Yusupov V.lvaochuk, L|oarcs I9I, aftcr
Wh|tc's32odmovc.
D|aram95
Oo thcK|os|dccvcryth|o (|oc|ud|othcK|os) |s
rathcrcqu|va|cot,cachp|aycr hasao |so|atcdapawo,W|tcs
Ko|ht|sthcoocdccpcr|otococmytcrr|tory. Yct|t|sB|ack
whohasthctru|yactive Ko|htbccausc |tcaoach|cvcsomc-
th|os|o|f|caot|oshortordcr,thcrcby|v|oB|ackas|o|f|-
caot advaotac. lo mycommcots thatfo||ow l havc madc
I67
ratcfu|uofOMYusupv'soca|y|s|oInornt #51.
32 WW N2! 33 a Nc4! a6 f! 35 K K
B|ack's Ko|ht has chascd Wh|tc's apawo dccp |oto
B|ack's tcrr|torywcrc |t |s vu|ocrab|ctoao attack byboth
B| ack's K|o aod Ko|ht. Morcovcr, B|ack's K|o a|os a
va|uab|ctcmpo bythcattackooWh|tc'sstraycdKo|ht aod
thuscaoumcapwcdu|ccotra||ud|oat|oo.
36 Ke2
Furthcr ''act|v|ty '' by 36 Nb8! |cads to ao |mmob||c
Ko|htaftcr36...Na5 37Kc2Kc7da|ostK&Pcodamc.
38Kd6 39Kc3Nc6|ctc.
36 ... Ke7 37 Nc Kd6 38 Nb7+!
Kccp|othc Ko|ht tru|
)
act|vc, byafford|o |t thc
opprtuo|tytoct |otoBack'sKg|o. Aw||| bco |atcr,
th|sw|||tumouttobWh|tc'ssav|oracc.
38 WW KdS 39 t e?
Abadmovcfortworcos. (I)lt|cadtoa|oo|o
ofB|ack'sK|og|dc,thcrcby|v|oWh|tcuorcdcouotcr-
chaoccs, aod(2) B| ack'sstrooKo|ht rcpos|t|oo|o v|a
39 . . . Nc5||sootoo|ydc|aycdbutcvcorrcvcotcd.Aftcr39. . . Nc5
B| ack thrcatcos to s| mp|y so|p of Wh|tc's apawo aftcr
4O...Nc6aod4I. ..Nb4.Thcrcforc4ONa5 |sforccdwhco OM
Yusupv|vcthc fo||ow|ocoov|oc|ovar|at|oo. + .MM Nc6 4I
c4+ (Or4I Nb3c5| 42 Kc4) 4I. . .Ixc4 42 fxc4+ Kc5 43
Nb3 + Kc4 44 Nd2+ Kb5 aod aftcr captur|othc apawo,
B|ack'spropctsforaw|oarcbr|ht.
Aftcr thctcxt movc, thc pos|t|oo |s a|rcadydrawo
thouhootw|thoutswcatooWh|tc'spart.
4 g4! g6
OMYusupv|vcthcfo||ow|oa|tcmat|vc.
(I)+. W.fx4 4I c4+ Kd4 42hx46 43Nd8Kc5 44NDh5
I68
455fo||owcdby+Nh8w|thsumc|cotcouotcrp|ay
(2)4O. . . f4 4Ic4+ Kc6 42Nd8+ Kb6 43h4a6 4h5fo|-
|owcdby45Nc6,aa|ow|thfu||couotcrp|ay.
41 Nd8 Nd6 42 g
lo h|sootcOMYusupv|vcthctcxt adub|ousmark
aod|ostcad rccommcods42 h4 as thcs|mp|crdraw|o

||oc.
42 ... 4 43 4c4(Wh|tc|ssc aftcr43... h5 4khQ4+
45Kx4Nf5 46 K5w|ththcthrcat47 h5.)44 Kf2 h5 Or
44 ... g 455hx5 46Kc2Kc4 47Nc6.)45K3 hx4 46
Nf5 47

5| Nxc3+ 48Kf4 '|thadraw''.Howcvcr, |fwc


coot|oucth|sby]ust a b|t w|th 48. . . g5| 49 Kxc3 h4, |t bc
comcc|carthatB|ack'spawocao'tbstoppd.Thcrcforc |t|s
h|h|ydub|ousthat42h4dothc]ob.
42 W 4 h4! Kc 4 e4! fe4
Wh|tc |s happytocxchaogca||thcK|og|pawos,but
4.. .f4a|sodoootw|o.45Kd +KcKa6 7Nc6ND
48 Kc4Kb6 49Kd| a 5ONxa5|K 5I Kc6Kb 52K
Kc3 53K6Kd4 54Kxh6Kc3 55K5Kx3 56 h5 Kc4 57
h6O 58hQ 59h8=QfI =Q 6Qa+ (Yusupv)dthcQ
&Pcodc|sdrawo.
4 fe4 Kb
Obv|ous|y45..Nxc4a||ows+NDw|thadraw.Atcrthc
tcxtWh|tc'sK|omustb uscd tostop thc apawowh||cthc
Ko|ht mcoaccs thc K|ogs|dc pawos. Thcrcforc |os|og |s 46
h5| 47Nc6Nc8| N5Nf6 49NDNd7whco|ack's
awosarcsafc,Wh|tc'sapawogo|otdh|sK|ocao'tct
acktothcQuccos|dc|ot|mc.
4 Kd3! KbS! 47 hS! Kb! 4 Ne!
Thaoks to tr| aou| at|oo, B| ack has forccd Wh|tc's
Ko|htto|vcup|tsbcst|ocat|oo,yctthcKo|ghtsact|v|ty|s
st| ||good coouh to draw. lo thc car|yp|ay| acks act|vc
Ko|t|cdtoh|sadvaotac,oowWh|tc'sact|vcKo|htsavcs
thcdraw.
I69
4 W Kxa6 49 Nc+ K 50 Nd6 Nf 51 Kc Kc
Nor |s thcrc aw|oaftcr5I...a5 52 Kb3 a4+ 53 Ka,
c..53... Kc4 54Kxa4Kd4 55Nf6Kc3(55 ... N5 56N4) 56
K5Kf4 57Kc5K5 58Nd7 K5 59 Kdw|th a draw
(Yusupv).
52 Nf Kc 53 Nd7 + K 54 Nf a6 55 Nd7 Kc MNf Kc
57 Nd7 + K 58 Nf Ng
Hcrctoo 58M M.a 59 Kb3 a4 (Or 59...Kc5 6O Ka4) 6O
Ka3 |cadstoooth|omorcthao |o thc ootctoB| ack's5Ist
movc.
59 Ng4! Nxe4+ 6 Kc Ng3 61 Nxh6 e4
B|ackcao'tsavcthcc-pawo (6I...Nxh5 62Nf)aodthc
codamcofN + a-pawv. N|sarout|ocdraw.
62 Nf Nxh5 6 Nd6+ Draw
Section 3: Te Active King and Te Active Kight
S|occwc a|rcadysawthc trcmcodouspowcr that]ust
thc act|vcK|obyh|msc|fcao cocratc, |t |sto bcccctc
that thccomb|oat|ooofao act|vc K|ow|th ao act|vco|ht
wou|d b doub|y pwcrfu|. lf thc dcfcos|vc s|dc a|so |s
D|aram96
I7O
burdcocdw|thachroo|cstructura|wcakcss,thco |odccd |ts
||fccqctaocy|sshort.Coos|oroowD|@am9,!.Smc]ka|
K. aocwc, W|]k aao Zcc I975,Wh|tcoo movc.B| ack's
K|o|s |o abox aod h|s Ko|ht |sback homc to protcct thc
prob|cmch||doo h6.Wh|tc'sact|vcK|o+ Ko|htduobrcaks
throuh|mmcd|atc|yw|th.
1 Nxh6! Nxh6
lo ||cu of cxpcr|coc|o thc |ocv|tab|c, B|ack actua||y
rc|cd.l coot|ou|ow|ththcma|o||ocas|vcobylMN.
M|ocv.
2 KS Ng8 3 h6 Nxh6 4 Kxh6 Kd7 S K Ke
Wh|tchthcproprtcmp movc w|ththcfpawoa|
aftcrthcothcrK|ostcpsootothccf||c.
a5... Kc7 6O|Kc6 7f4Kc7 8f5Kc8 9f6.
b5... Kc8 6f4|Kc7 7f5ctc.
6 f4! Ke7
6... Kf5 7KKc4|smuchtoos|ow, 6...f5fa||saftcr7
K6.
7 f Ke8 8 f Wh|tcw|os
D|aram97
Thcwcakocsscsdoo'thavctobca||thatfuodamcota|
forthcps|t|ootob|odcfcos|b|c.Th|s|sshowofromD|@am
I7I
97, R. Erv|o - P. Bcoko, Looc P|oc I976, aftcrB| ack's 25th
movc. lfWh|tc'sK|owou|d a|rcady bc oo c2, Wh|tccou|d
ho|dthcamc.Buthcrcthcrc|sooofco.
2a
Aftcr26a4Nd3| 27Nd2(27Kc2! a||ows 27... NcI+)
27 . . . Kd5 28Kc2Kd4 B| ack a|so |of| |tratcsdcc|s|vc|y| oto
Wh|tc'sQuccos|dc.
2 WW Nc! 27 a4 KdS DKe2 Nal! 29 b
Or29Nd2Kd4fo||owcdby3O...Kc3.
29 WW Nc 30 b Nd4+
Nowthat Wh|tc'sQuccos|dchasbcco |ooscocd up,
uo| |kcthcs|tuat|oothatcxistcdatMovc28,thcK &Pcod
amc|sasurcw|o.
31 Kd3 Nx 32 gKc 33 Kc hS 34 f4 f Wh|tcrc|gs
Thc||kc|ycoot|ouat|oo |s35Kb3 Kd4 36 Kb4b6 37
Kb3Kd 38KbKc2ctc.
l opos|t|ooswh|ch arc b|ockcdorscm|b|ockcd oftco
thcw|oo|omctho |sto sacr|f|ccthcKo|hts thatthcK|o
cao pcoctratc.
D|aram98
I72
Th|s |swc|||||ustratcdfromD|aram98,A.Z|ch|ch|
V.Hort,Vco|cc I969,Wh|tcoo movc. |ack has morc spacc,
thc morc act|vc K|oaodthcmorcact|vcKo|ht.Yct

h|tc
sccmsto havccovcrcd a|| thc bascs. How |sB|ackto brcak
throuh!
t Net Kf4 2 K Nc!
ThcKo|htctsrcpos|t|oocdf|rstto c5 aodthcotof4
so that |t oot oo|y mcoaccs d3 but a|so attacks othcr kcy
squarc.
3 Ng2+ Kt 4 Net NeS S Kg3 Ng6 6 K Nf4 7 Kg3 aS 8
K
Aftcr8 b3 B|ack w|os thc bpawo aod thc amc w|th
8...Nc2+ 9KQNcI. Aftcrthctcxtrout|ocp|ay|s|osuff|c|cot,
c..8. . . 4!| 9 hx4+ 4 IOKI K3 IKfI aodWh|tc,
thouh pass|vc, |s safc.

roocrmcasurcs arc rcqu|rcdto


a||owthcK|otopoctratc.
8 ... Nxh3! ! 9 K3 K4 tO K Ke3
B|ack's K|o hasbco uo|chcd ooto Wh|tc's Qucco-
s|dc aodthcpawosw|||dro
[
||kcf||cs.Wh|tcdcc|dcstoact|-
vatch|sK|oaodKo|htsmccpass|vc p|ay|sw|thout pros-
pccts, c.. I KfI4 I 2b33 I3K2Kc2 I4NOKd I5
K@3 Kc|ctc.
tt Nt Kxd3 t2 Kf Kxc4 13 Ke2 Kb3 t4 NxgS Kxb2! tS
Kd3 Kb3 t6 Ne4 Kxa4 17 Kc4
Wh|tc'sK + N havcsuccccdcd |o ctab||sh|ot|sfac-
torydcfcos|vcp|t|oos,butfouro cooocctcdpawdpawos
arctomuchforthcKo|httocopw|th.
t7 ... h t8 Nf6 a4 19 NdS Kb2 20 Nxb a 2t Na4+ Kc2 22
Nxc a 2 Nb3 Kb2! Wh|tcrc|os
Draw|oprospctsdcpod oo c|thcrcxchao|ooffa||
thcstroocrs|dc's pawosorcrcat|osufc|cot couotcq|ay. A
modc| cxccut|ooofthc f|rst approach |s dcmoostratcd from
I73
D|agam9,L.Evaos D. Vcrdua, LAoc|c I98, Wh|tc
oomovc.
D|aram9
B|ack's K|o aod Ko|ht havc dom|occr|o |ocat|oos
aod Wh|tc's prospccts |ook |odccd b|cak. For |ostaocc, I
Nc2+!Nxc2 2Kxc2Kc |cadtoa|otK&Pcodamc,wh||c
I Kc2! a||owsB|ackthcsamctypc ofw|oo|osacr|f|ccas |o
thcprcv|ouscxamp|c. I. ..Nxa2| 2Nxa2Kc3whcoB|ackw| ||
dcvourWh|tc'sK|og|dcaodw|o.Thcoo|ydraw|ochaocc |s,
as OMEvaosputs |t sowc||,"| |qu|dat|opawos as fast as
pss|b|cwh||ckccp|oB|ack'sK|oout".Thcrcforc.
1 g4! g4?!
Th|shc|psWh|tca|| across thc board. apawo |scx-
chao

cdoffaodWh|tc'sK|o||bcratcd. Morc|othcsp|r|tof
kccpmab|od|sI. . .f4,thouhWh|tckccpsdraw|ochaoccs
aftcr25|(Evs).
2 fg4 Ne4+?!
Aodhcrc2 . . . Nd5|| smorc rcct|vc,a|m|oto kccp a
b|odoobths|dc,c..3NdNc3 4NNc4+|.
3 Ke2 Nf6 4 K Kc S Kf4! K2 6 Ne2 a 7 Nd4!
Wh|tc'sK|ohasbco||bratcda||r|htaodoowWh|tc
mustcosurcthath|sKo|htcaobsacr|f|ccorthcapawo.
I74
7 Kxa2 8 NbS Kb2 9 Nxa3 Kxa3 10 hS! ! ghS 11 ghS
NxhS+
Wh|tc|sa|safc aftcrI I ...Kb I2Kf5|N8(I2 ... Nx5
I3K5) I3Kc6fo||owcdbyI4k.
12 KS Ng 13 Kh6 Draw
B|ack's|tpawow|||b|tcthcdust.
Oo|o

forcouotcrp| ay|sthc oo|yaproach thatcao


savcWh|tc m D|aram I, O.Barcza T. cordzc,Dcc|o
I975,Wh|tcoomovc.
D|@IO
B|ack's K|oaodKn|ht arc rcadytopcoctratc |oto
Wh|tc'sK|os|dcaodWh|tc'sK|o|s|ooocood|t|ootoprc-
vcotthat. Thcoo|yhopcthatWh|tchas|stoscodh|sKo|ht
aftcrB|ack'shpawo.Thcrcforc.
1 NhS! Kd3
Wh|tc'stask|scas|craftcr I...Nc2 2Kc2| Kd4 3Kd2
NI 4Nf6|Nh3(4... NO+ 5K2Nxh4 6N8h5 7Nf6a||ows
h|tc'sKo|httocapturcthch-pawoaodsacr|f|cc|tsc|ffor
thcf-pawo.)5h5| Nx4 6N8Nxh5 7Nxh6 f4 8Kc2 Kc4 9
N4aodw|th Wh|tcK + Nwc||p|accdtostopthcf-pawo,thc
draw|sccrta|o.
2 Nf6! Ne2 3 hS!
I75
Butoot3N8!!h5 4Nf6Ng|aodWh|tc'spawosw|||
o|ostwh||cB|ack'ssur|vc.
3 WWNx4 4 Ng8 NxS 5 Nx6 f4 6 Nf!
S|occWh|tc'sK|ocao'tctbacktothcK| os|dc,thc
act|vc Ko|ht hasto do thc]obby |tsc|f. Thc pawo mustbc
prcvcotcdfromcross|oO |osafct. For Wh|tc'sKo|htf |s
thc|dca||oat|oos|occ|tcaorcachthofthccr|t|ca|squc.
caod 5.
6 ... Nf 7 KcK 8 NgS Ne4 9 Nf!
Los|o|s9Nh3!!O IOKc2N5| I I NQ5O.Butaftcr
thctcxt9... O |span|cdby IONc5 O I I N4+ fo||owcdby I2
Nx.
9 WW Kc2 10 Ne Nd !! K2Ne4
I I...Nc4+ I2Nxc4O|sfo||cdbyI3Kc2O I4Nd2.
!2 KcDraw
B|ackhasoowayofprogc |o.
D|agam IOI
Evco|odpratcs|tuat|oosthcptcot|a|act|v|tyofthc
Ko|htcao|vchcantothcofcodcr.A|ostruct|vcd|ucky
(for mc) cxamp|c|sshowofromD|aram IOI,E. Mcdo|s S.
Rcshcvsky, U. S. Champ|oosh|p I957]58,aftcrWh|tc's54th
I76
movc.
B|ackhthcmorcact|vcK|o,morcact|vcKo|htaod
thc bcttcrpawoformat|oo sma||woodcrthatWh|tc|s|ost|
Yct,whcrc"thcrc|saoact|vcKo|ht,thcrc|shop"aodWh|tc
oabuttry|otoact|vatch|sKo|ht.
S4 W d4! SS K Nf 56 Kg Ne4 57 Nf4! Nx 58 Nd3 Ne4 59
NeS+ Kf4 6 Nc4
Wh|tc must

o forcouotcrp|ayoo thc Quccos|dc, cvco


atthccostofa||owmB|ack'sK|opcoctrat|oobccauscrou-
t|ocp|ayapawodowow|ththc|ofcr|orps|t|oo |ss|mp|ywa|t-
|oforthcuoonakcr.
6 WWW Nf6 61 NxS Ke 62 K
Wh|tcmustprcvcot62...Kc2,coab||othcfpawotoruo
v|ctor|ous|y.
62 Kd 6 b!! ob 6 Nc
Wh|tc'soa||ss|mp|c.hcwaotstocxchaocoffasmaoy
pawosp|b|c.
6 WWW b?
lo waot|otoo much, B|ackcomcs upw|th too ||tt|c.
Thcs|mp|c aodprosa|c64...Kxc2 65Nxd4+ Kb2 66Nx5
Kc3|w thcoo|ywaytow|o.B|ack'spaworcachcb3 (|.c.thc
6thraok)|osafctyaodWh|tc'sK|o|skcptaway|othcpass|vc
"tothcs|dcofthc paw" |oat|oo.thcmat|c|||ustrat|vcvar|a-
t|oothco|s. 67Kc2b3 68Nc3Nc4 69NdI+ Kc2 7ONc3+
KcI 7I NdI (7INc4Nd6|)7I. . .Nc5 72KcI Nd3+ 73 Kc2
Nf4+ 74KcIN2+ 75Kc2Kc2aodB|ackw|os.
6 o d3 6 b!
Wh|tc'soo|y hopc |sthat thcpasscdb
[
awo cao t|c
dowB|ack'sKo|ht|oocoouhfor

h|tctoc|tm|oatca||of
B| ack's pawos. h|s]ustturos outto bc poss|b|c - by ooc
tcmp.
I77
6 W Kcl 67 Nd4! NdS
E|crforWh|tc|s67...d 6 Nb3+Kc2 69Nxd2Kxd
7OKD|Nd 73KOKd 74b5Kd4 75b| K 76Kf4.
6 bS Kb2 69 Nt! Kc 70 Kel N 71 Kdl Nc4 72 Kel
Wh|tc hassctupao uousua| b|ockadc,wh|chB|ack
caoootbrcak. For |ostaocc, 72 . . . d2+ 73Nxd2Nxd2 74b6
Nf3+ 75 Kf2Nd4 76b7 Nc6 77Kc3 Kc4 78 Kf4,w|th a
draw.
72 ... f4 73 Kdl Kb 74 b!! Nxb 75 Kd2 Kc4 76 Ne+ Kd4
77 Nxd3 t 78 Ne! Draw
Wh|tccomc]ust|ot|mcaftcr78 ... Kxc5 79Kc.
I78
Chapter S
Small Advantages in Knight Endgames
Thcpract|ca|p|aycrshou|dstr|vctow|os||ht|ysupr|-
orpos|t|oos,whcthcrthcybc m|dd|camcs or codamcs. lo
pan|cu|,s||ht|ysupr|orcodcarc
[
|caottop|ays|occ
thcrcduct|oo|omatcr|a|mcaosthatthcnskofa|mhbco
dccrcascdwh||cthcprospcctsofaw|orcma|o.Sma||advao-
tacs |o Ko|htcodamcs|vc cxcc||cot
[
rospcctsforaw|o
bccausc thc dcfcodcrtcosto uodcrcsttmatc thcsupcr|or
s|dc'schaocc.Atcra||,thcKo|ht|sbutam|oorp|ccc aoda
shortraocoocatthat - howmuchdamaccaoocur!Yct,
especialy the Kight |scxcc||cot |ocq|o|t|osma|| advaotgc
bcauof|tswoodcrfu|cx|b|||qaoda|||ty. Hcrc lw|||takc
a|okatmc |otcrct|o|ostruct|vccxamp|c.
F|rstlw|||showthccourscofp|ayfromD|aram IO2,
M.Botv|oo|k R.Ho|mov,MouowTcams I969, aftcrWh|tc's
3Othmovc.
D|ar IO2
Wh|tc hcrc has thcsma||cst of advaotacs. thc morc
act|vcK|o.yctthcK|ocaoootcoctratcfurthcr,B|ack's
m|oorp|cccsarcwc| | p|accd aod|spawo format|oosouod.
Thcpos|t|oo |squ|tcdrawo,butOM Ho|movdoootapprc-
c|atcthcposs|b|cdaocrs aod qu|ck|y|aods |o ao uotcoab|c
s|tuat|oo.
30 WWW h5?!
I79
Thcrout|octcxt|s|ocxct.AOMBotv|oo|kh|ot
cdout, thcpcrccpt|vc3O . . . Bd8| |s |oordcrto chasc h|tc's
K|oawayfrom |tscxcc||cotccotcr|oat|oow|th3I...Nc7+. lt
shou|dbaddcdthatcxchaocofKo|htsoffcnooprom|to
Wh|tc,as B|ack'spos|t|oo |o apurc|shopcodamc |s rock
so||d.
31 Bg7! B8
A|soaftcr3I... Bd6Wh|tc"prcvcots thcKo|htchcck
ooc7bymcaosof32Bf6|
32 Bf! Bb
Wh|tc |sc|car|ybcttcraftcr32 ... Nc7+ 33 Bxc7 Bxc7
34 Nc5+ Kc8. l o th|s scqucocc, thc damac from 3O...h5!|
comcs throuh vcryc|car. bccauscofthcwcakocss oo 6,
B|ackcaoootchathcKo|tawayw|th.. .f6.Wh||cthctcxt |s
O.K.,thc p|aobch|od|t t

ccxchaocofB|shops |soot. lo
aoyca,lwou|d|cavcthcB|shopoothch4 h8d|aooa|aod
p|ay32... Bf6.
33 Bc Ne7+
33...Bc7or33...Bd8makcmorcobcauthcB|ack
B|shop|saodcfcodcr.
34 Kc4 Bxc?!
Aodhcrc34. . . Bc7makcsB|ack'sdcfcos|vc]oba |ot
cas|cr.
35 Kxc Kc7?
Arcady thc dcc|s|vc crror bcau Wh|tc's Ko|ht cao
oow causc a fuodamcota| wcakco|o of B| ack's K|os|dc.
Concct|s35... Nc8|daftcr36N5,36 ... Kc7.B|ack'sp|t|oo
thcorcma|osdcfcos|b|c.
36 NgS!
What ad|ffcrcoccooc movc cao makc| B|ack oow |s
I8
forccdtocrcatcama]orpmaocotwcakoc .
(I)36.. .f5 37Kd4Nc6+ (Or37...Kd6 38Nf+ Kd7 39 Kc5.)
38Kd5Kd7 39Kc5Kc7 +Nc6+ (Pachmao).
(2)36...b+ 37Kdf6 38Nh7N8 39Kd5Kd7 +N0+.
l ocachofthcqucoccWh|tcw|osapawo.
36 ... f6 37 Nh7 f
Wonc|s37.. . N8 38Kd5Kd7 39N0+.
38 h4! f4
B|ack|sa|rcadya|most|ozuaoAftcr38... b+OM
Botv|oo|k|vcsthcfo||ow|ovar|at|oo.9Kd4Kd6 4ON0|
Nc6+ 4IKc3Nc5 42Kf4aodthc-pawoo|ot.
39 Nt b+?!
OM Botv|oo| kcoos|dcrs B|ack's bcst chaocc tobc
39...f3| 4O3Nf5 4I Nx6Nx3| ,whco aftcr42 Kd4 Wh|tc
w|||capturcthcf-pawodthus apawoup,butB|ackkccp
rcaoab|cpract|ca|draw|ochaocc.
4Kd4 Nf+
lt'sto |atcoowfor+... O!| 423Nf5+bcauWh|tc
has 43 Kd| .
41 Ke4 Nxh4
Or4I...O 42KNxh4+ 43KgNf5+ 4Kf4.
42 Ne6+ Kc 4 Nx4 K
lostcad43...5 a||owsawooK&Pcodamctcr4|
4 45 h4.Accord|oto OM Botv|oo|k,th|s|swhat

M
Ho|movhadovcr|okcdwhcop|ay|o39... b+!| .
g3 Nf 4 Nxg6 Nh6 4 Ne!
Thccom|oKo|htmcuvcrstopsB|ack'scouotcq|ay
I8I
oo thc Quccos|dc, a||ow|o Wh|tctorca||u h|s advaotgc oo
thcK|og|dc.
4 Ka4 47 Nc4 Kb3
Thcw|o |sa|so rout|ocaftcr 47. . . Kb5 48 Nb2, |t|s
prcnyaftcr47 ... b5 4NcK 49Nc6| .
48 Nxb6 Kxa3 49 Nd5 Kb3 50 f4 Kc4 51 Nc7 Kxb4 52
Nxa6+ B|ackrc|os.
Aftcr52. . . Kc4 53 Nb8 N4 54Nd7 Wh|tc has ao
c|cmcotaryw|o.
WhcrcWh|tchadoostructura|supcr|or|qatthcstart
ofthc prcv|ouscxamp|c, h|s s||ht advaotac |o D|@am IO3,
V. Ba|rov - E. Svcsho| kov,Lvov I978,aftcrWh|tc's32od
movc, |s a||structura|. thc potcot|a| wcakocss ofB|ack's b-
pawo aod morc ccotra|spaccbccauscofthcc5pawo. Yct
othcrw|sc B|ackstaodswc||. agood Ko|ht aod a K|o ooc
tcmpc|oscrtothcccotcrthao
h|tc's.Thcrcforc |t|sooth|o
shonoftouod|ohowqu|ck|yB|ack|f-dctructs.
D|ar IO3
32 W .5?
Apparcot|yB|ackoo|ycxpccts 33 3!| whco aftcr 33
gxf4 34 4 K7asctof pawoshavcbccocxchaocd aod
h|tc's

pawo |s a ocwstructura| wcakocss. Thcrcforc


chccarccqua|.
I82
Concct|ostcad|sthc mot dos|b|c32N N. Kc7 33
Kf2f6| 34cx6+ 6.Wh|tc'sccotra|r|p has bccobrokco
dB|ack'sps|t|oo|sfu||ydcfcos|b|c.
33 f! hxg?!
Th|sa||storout|oc,w|thB|ackootoot|c|othathc
|scrcat|oaocw |ootcrmstructura|wcaI.oc oo .Nccc-
sary|s33.M.Nxc5 34h6 K8.Atcrrccaptur|othchpawo
B|ackw||| havcauodc aodfpawocoup|ct.W|tc rcta|osa
c|carcdcbccauscofhav|otcouts|cpasscdpawo aod
opportuo|t|cs of |of||trat|o thcQuccos|dc but B|ack |soot
w|thoutchaocc.
34 Nd3 Kg7 35 Kf f?!
Bya||ow|o Wh|tc's oo|ywcakocss thc cpawo to
d|sappar,B|ack |aod h|m|I|o ahop|c s|tuat|oo.At|ct
forthc

rotB|ackshou|dtokccpthcstatusquoaodp|ay
35... K0
36 e6+ Kx6 37 Ke K 38 h3 a 39 g4+! Kg6 4 Nc Kf6
41 Ne4+ K6
Aftcrthctcxt B|ack'sK|orcma|os aspcctatorwh||c
Wh|tc'sstartsh|sworkoothcQuccos|dc.Atcrthcact|vc
a|tcmat|vc,4I... Kc5,OM B|rov|vcthc fo||ow|ocoov|oc
|ovar|at|oo.42Nx5a4 4 h4 44 b3 Nc7 45NO+ Kf6
+Kd4 Nd5 47Nd2K 48 Nc4 K 49 Kc4 Nc+ 5OKxb4
Nxg4 5IKxa3Kf5 52 Nc5 c5 53

b4c4 54Nxc4| Kxc4 55


Kc5aodWh|tc'spawosw|o.
42 Kd3 Ne+ 4 Kd4 Nd7 4 Kc4 Nf 4 Nc4 e 4 N7 Ne4
47 Nxa
Thc start ofasuccc fu| d|smaot||o

ofB|ack's Qucco-
s|dc.B| ack'scouotcrp|aycomcstoo|atcsmccWh|tc'sp|cccs
cao stop thc c
[
awo whcrcas B|ack |s dcfcosc|css aa|ost
Wh|tc'sQuccostdcadvaoccs. Thcouts|dc passcd pawow|os
aa|o|
47 WNf 4 Nc Kf6 49 Nxb Nxh3 50 a4Ke6 51 Kc! e4 52
I8
a4 e 53 Nc e 54 a6 Nf4 55 a7 Nd3+ 56 K5 B|ackrc|s
A br|cf|ookat D| aram IO4, O. !skov B. | arsco,
D|shhamp|oosh|pMatchI975,Oc I,aftcrB|ack's3Oh
movc, cao cvco |catothccrroocouscooc|us|oothatWh|tc
hassomcadvaotac. B|ack'sapawo maybvu|ocrab|c, B|ack
hdoub|cdfpawosaodao|atcdh-pawo.
D|aram IO
Thctruth, howcvcr,|s]ustthcopp|tc. |t|sB|ackwho
|ss||ht|ybttcrbcauofspat|a|advaotacaodthcoppnu-
o|qtobu||dastrooccotcrw|th ...f6aodMMM c.B|ackdoot
havctoworryaboutthchpawobccauscWh|tccao'tctat|t
aodB|ackcaodcfcodthcapawowc||coouh.Oothcothcr
haod,|t|sWh|tc'scpawothat|sabackwarpawo,w|||bcof
oooffcos|vc hc|paod |sptcot|a||yvu|ocrab|c.Thcrcforc,thc
p|aycrw|th thc s||ht d|sadvaotac must uodcrstaod thc cs-
occofthcps|t|oosooottostumb|c|ototroub|c.Yct,]ust
as |o thc
[
rcv|ouscxamp|c,sooo (w|th|o scvco movcs|)hc|s
|ost.Th|stshowWh|tcbrouht|tabut.
31 f4
P|ayab|c,butootvcqrccpt|vcbcau|twccosthc
cucatat|mcwhcoB|ack's|

hthasrcadyaccc to|t.
OM Larsco hsuctcd thc fo||ow accuratc way to hcad
towdscua||ty 3 Na5| Nc7 32Nb7Nc6 33 f4| fo||owcdby
34K ao354.
31 ... f6 32 h4??
I84
A am|utc|ycr|m|oa|movc.Wh|tccrcatca|ootcm
ptcot|a| prob|cm ooh4aodforcc|mthcp|b|||
Q
o||qu|-
dat|othcK|og|dcpawosaItcra|atcr4,wh||cachtcv|ooot
ao |otaofva|uc |orctum.OMLosu@ctsthcos|bc32
KQ,fo||owcdbyact|vat|othcKo|htw|th33Na5,a|m|ofor
thcpIaoprccotcd|o thcprcv|ousootc.
32 WWW K 33 K Ke7 34 K Kd7 35 K Kc7 36 K Ne7! 37
a??
Aftcr ' ' cr|m|oa||y touch|o h|s hpawo oo Movc 32,
Wh|tcoowdocsthcsamctothcapawo.Thcoo|y

a|oIrom
thctcxt|sthath|sKo|hthaspart|a|accc tob and|cu|ous-
|ysma|| rcturo for crcat|o a hopc|css|yvu|ocrab|c apawo.
NowWh|tc|stota||y|ost.H|sps|t|oo|suop|casaot,ofcoum,
butthat|shard|ythcrcao formak|othcs|tuat|oowom.A
oorma|scqucoccwou|db37KOKc6 38Ko6 39K c5
39fxc5 (Or39Nd2Kd5 ctc.) 39...fxc5 4O Nd2Kd5fo||owcd
by... c4.
37 ... Nc8 38 kel Kc6 39 K Kd5 4 Kel e 41 K Ke6 42
Kel Ne7 4 K
Bccauscofthcwcakocssofthchpawo, Wh|tccaooot
avo|d catur|oooc5,thcrcbyd|sso|v|oB| ack'sdoub|cd
pawos. MLarsco|vcsthcfo||ow|ocxamp|c.43Nd2N6
44 Kf3 Kd5| (44. . . g4! 45 Nx4+ 46 3N

6 47 Nf3
a||ows Wh|tcasucccssfu| b

ockadc.)whco W|tc ts |ozuz-


waoaodmustp|ay45bc5.
4 WW Ng6 fe fe 4 K ne7 4 Ndl Nc8 47 Kel Nd6 4
Nt?!
Throw|o awaythc a
[
awo |s p|a|o s|| |y. Aftcr thc
oorma| 48 Nc4,OMLarsco tvcs two mcthods for B|ackto
rcach awoopos|t|oo (I)48... Nb7fo||owcdby... Nc5d ...c4,
(2) 4.. Nb5o||owcdby.. . Na3 forc|oWh|tc'sK|oto protcct
thccpawo,dthco... c4.
4 ... Nb7 49 Ng5+ Kf6 50 Nh7+ Ke7 51 Ng5 Nd8
Ofcounc,thc|mmcd|atc5I...Nxa5|sf|oc,butthcpawo
I85
woo'tmoaway.
52 Nt Nc 53 K K 5 Ndl NxaS
B|ack|s acoodpawo upwh||crcta|o|oa||h|sprcv|
ous advaotacs.spacc,ccotcr,opportuo|tytocrcatcc|thcra
passcd c or passcd Ipawo, vu| ocrab|||t oI c2. Thc oo|y
rcma|o|oqucst|oo|sB|ack'scxactp|ao.Larscodcc|dcs
oot|c|odwoWh|tc'sK|otoc2andthcocrcat|oapdI-
pawo.
SS Kel Nc MK Ne7 57 Kel NdS 58 Nc4 Ke 59 K Nc
6 N N 61 Kel Na3 62 Na4 Kd6
Thcrc|soorcao to a||owWh|tctoact|vatch|sKn|ht
aItcr62 ... Nxc2 6Nc5+.
6 Kdl f4!
A|so63... c4w|os, butB|ackchooscsthatpasscdpawo
wh|ch |sIunhcrIromWh|tc'sK|o.B|ackw|||uthct|mcthat
Wh|tcoccdsIorstopp|othcIpawotobrcakthrouh oothc
Quccos|dc.
6 g4 e4 Nb Ke 6 Kel Nxc 67 K K 6 NdS aS!
69 Ne7+
Aftcr69Nx4,59... a4|sthccrushcr.
S9 WKe6 70 Nc a4 Wh|tcrc|os
Our |tcxamp|c,|aram IO5, O.Fustcr S. O||or|c,
Portoroz lotcrzooa| I958, atcr Wh|tc's 4Ist movc, shows a
pos|t|oowh|ch |sthcorct|ca||yIOO%drawo aodshou|dbc at
Icasta9%pract|ca|draw.
Thct|mccootro| has bccorcachcd,thcamc |s ad-
]oumcdovcm|ht,a||pawosarcoothcsamcs|o,thcrcarcoo
wcakocsscs |o Wh|tc's pawo structurc. B| ack's oo|y s||ht
advaotac|sabit morcspacc.ApurcB|shopcodamc w|th
B|shopsooc|thcrco|or |s atota|drawaodcvcow|th thc
I|cx|IcKo|htsooboard,thcrcshou|dbc oodoubtoIthc
I86
rcu|t.draw.Yct, ooth|oor|htw|th lM Fustcr'shd||o
ofthcp|t|oo.
D|aram IO5
41 Nc
Thcrc |s ooth|o |othc"act|vc"4I...Kc3 42 Na4+ Kd2
43KI KdI Nb2+ ctc.
42 Ndl N3 4 N2
Why put thc Ko|htoo thccdcwhco aoodccotra|
suarc | sava| | ab| c! fcoursc, bcttcr | s43Nc3| aod | f
4... Kc5,4h4,a|m|oforarout|occxchaocofthchpawos.
4 WW Nd2 4 Ndl Nc4 4 K
Wh|tchas"maoacdto sta|cmatc h|s Ko|ht,butthc
pos|t|oorcma|osqu|tcdrawo,|ooWh|tcdoo'tp|ayc,
wh|chwou|d a||ow B|ack's K|o to march |o to d2 v|a d3.
Ncvcnhc|, |ostcadofthctcxmovc,prccpt|vc|s45h4|,s
that |fB|ackwaotstoct |o ...5 aod.. .f4hchasto a||owthc
rout|occxchaocofthchpawos.
4 WW .5! 4 K h5 47 h4?!
P|aycd at qu|tcthcwroomomcots|occthcpawooow
|smorcvu|ocrab|cooh4thao |twou|dhavcbccoooh3. OM
O||or|csucstsascorrcct47KfI aodaftcr47... h4 48h4
h4 49K B|ack|acksav|ab|cp|aotooforaw|o.
I87
Evco so thcpos|t|oorcma|osqu|tcdrawo dcsp|tc
Wh|tc's|ofcr|or43rd,45thaod47thmovc.
47 .. .g4 4 Kgl e3
B|ack m|ht as wc|| try to coofusc Wh|tc s|occ thc
Ko|htcodcrcma|oss drawo.OfcoumthcK|o&pawo
codamcacr49Ixc3+| Nxc3 5ONxc3 Kc3 5I fI 4 52
Kf4 53K2Kc3 54KfI |squ|tcdrawo a|sobccausc

|ackcaoocvcrcxpcct.. . 3towork. Howcvcr, lMFustcr,


a|rcadyshortoft|mc,dcc|dcoottor|skth|scodamc.
49 K? O SO Nx
Th|s|s thcbttcrrccapturcasthcKo|htcts |otop|
t|ootootodaodthcof4.
so Ne3+ st Kgt r4 s2 g4??
Wh|tcprompt|y''for
[
cts''thc
[
|otofh|s5Othmovcaod
sudoo|y|s|ot.AOMOor|cptsout,Wh|tcdrawsaftcr
52Nd3| O (52... 53 N |scvcos|mp|cr.) 53Nf4NdI | 54
cxg 55Nxh5Kc 56Nf4.
S2 ... Nt 53 Ndl?
Wh|tc]ust a| |ows B|acktowa| k a|| ovcr h|m. Somc
pract|ca|chaoccarcoffcrcdby53c4.
S3 ... Ke4! 5e Kf!
Thc comb|oat|oo ofthc act|vc K|o,act|vc Ko|ht aod
faradvaoccdpascdpawosw|ocas||y.
SS K Nxh4 56 Kgl nt 57 K h4 58 Kgl g3 Wh|tcrc|os
AcodamcthatWh|tctru|ydcncdto |o.lfyoud
cvcryth|owroo,shou|do'tyou|o!
I8
r
$12.95
Grandmaster Edmar Mednis resumes his best-selling
Practical Chess Endings series with this comprehensive
treatment of knight endings. This book continues the
emphasis upon guidance through principles, rather than
any memorization. 1 05 diagrammed positions provide
the reader with ample practice to comprehend and apply
the elements of proper handling of knight endings in
their own games. While the very nature ofthe knight
moves makes knight endings more complex, this
"practical " guide will remove the mystery fom this
type of ending. There is material for study here for all
levels of players.
ISBN 0-450470-3 5-53