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Making The Right Choice

Sanitizers

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Sanitation Protects Product Quality & Safety

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Benefits of Making The Right Choice


Reputation Financial Security Regulatory Compliance Customer Satisfaction & Health Profitability

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Types of Microorganisms
Spiral Bacteria

Cocci Bacteria

Rod-Shaped RodBacteria

Molds Yeast

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Definition of Key Terms


Sterilant / Sterilize
Complete destruction of all forms of life Includes bacterial spores as well as bacteria, viruses and fungi Heat and some chemicals
Effective under specific conditions

Medical industry
Laboratories
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Definition of Key Terms


Disinfectant / Disinfect
Kills 100% of vegetative cells May not kill bacterial spores Hospitals and general use on inanimate objects

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Definition of Key Terms


Sanitizer / Sanitize
Reduce microbial contamination on inanimate surfaces to levels considered safe by public health codes or regulations Two types:
No-rinse food contact surface sanitizer Non-food contact surface sanitizer
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Food Contact Surface Sanitizer


AOAC Germicidal Detergent Sanitizer Test
99 ml Sanitizer Use-Solution 25C Add 1 ml of E.coli or S.aureus
(minimum of 7.5 x 107 CFU/ml)

30 second Contact Time

0 15 30

Required Efficacy: 99.999% Kill in 30 seconds at 25C

Enumerate Survivors

Neutralize

1 ml

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List of Other Product Claims


Common Descriptions / Terms
Algaecide Biocide Antiseptic Fungicide Slimicide Preservative

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EPA
FIFRA

United States Environmental Protection Agency

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act

Sanitizer Registration
Antimicrobial efficacy data Product chemistry Toxicology data Label & technical literature
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EPA Reg. No. 1677-58


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Health Canada / Canadian Food Inspection Agency

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DIRECTIONS FOR USE:


It is a violation of Federal law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling.

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Usage Restrictions
Key Points
Prepare only in potable water Fresh solution
Not reused

Accurate concentration
Not below - questionable efficacy Not above - violates regulation

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NOTE: FOR MECHANICAL OPERATIONS prepared use


solutions may not be reused for sanitizing but may be reused for other purposes such as cleaning.

FOR MANUAL OPERATIONS fresh sanitizing solutions should be


prepared at least daily or more often if the solution becomes diluted or soiled.
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Categories of Commonly Used NoNo-Rinse Food Contact Surface Sanitizers


Chlorine Chlorine dioxide / mixture of oxychloro species Iodophors Quaternary ammonium compounds Acid-anionic sanitizers Carboxylic acid sanitizers Peroxy acid compounds
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Chlorine
Chlorine gas Sodium, calcium, lithium hypochlorites Powdered organic chlorine sources
Maximum concentration - 200 ppm available chlorine

Read and follow label Directions for Use

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Chemistry of Chlorine in Solution


NaOCl + H2O Ca(OCl)2 + 2H2O Cl2 + H2O HOCl + NaOH 2HOCl + Ca(OH)2 HOCl + H + Cl
+ -

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Chlorine Advantages
100%

HOCI Activity

50%

Broad antimicrobial activity Hard water tolerant Low temperature efficacy Relatively inexpensive No residual activity / non film forming

0%
4 5 6 7 pH 8 9 Confidential 10 Ecolab Information

Chlorine Disadvantages
Potential for toxic chlorine gas formation Corrosive Irritation Unstable, short shelf life Formation of potentially toxic by-products, THMS
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Iodophors
Iodine + Surfactant + Acid
Maximum Concentration - 25 ppm

Read and follow label Directions for Use

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Iodophors Advantages
Broad antimicrobial activity Less irritating than chlorine Low toxicity Effective pH range Broader than chlorine - 2-8 Less corrosive than chlorine Stable, long shelf life Color of use solution provides visual control
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Effect of pH on Iodophor Sanitizers

pH 4 6 10

Chemical Species

Color

Activity

I2 IO-, HIO I3-, IO3-, I-

Amber Clear

Active Inactive

Note: I2 form is most active


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Iodophors Disadvantages
Staining porous and plastic materials Poor activity against bacteriophage Poor low temperature efficacy Corrosive at high temperatures. DO NOT USE ABOVE 120F May produce excessive foam on CIP application More expensive than chlorine Odor may be offensive
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Quaternary Ammonium Chloride Compounds


Benzalkonium chloride Substituted benzalkonium chloride Dual quat Twin chain quat Read and follow label Directions for Use for approved use concentration
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Quaternary Ammonium Chloride Compound Advantages


Odorless, colorless Non-corrosive Temperature stable Relative stability in presence of organic soil Broad antimicrobial activity Residual antimicrobial film Some detergency and soil penetrating ability Stable, long shelf-life Mold and odor control
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Quaternary Ammonium Chloride Compound Disadvantages


Incompatible with anionic wetting agents Low hard water tolerance Limited low temperature activity Excessive foaming in mechanical applications Antimicrobial activity may vary depending on formulation

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Acid Anionics
Anionic surfactants + acid Double action: sanitize & acid rinse Read and follow label for approved use concentration
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Acid Anionics Advantages


Stable - long shelf life Generally non-corrosive Non-staining Low odor Not affected by hard water Removes and controls mineral films Good bacteriophage activity
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Acid Anionics Disadvantages


High cost pH sensitivity, (optimum pH 2 - 3) Limited and varied antimicrobial activity poor yeast and mold activity Corrosion potential High foaming Skin irritant Inactivated by cationic surfactants
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Carboxylic Acid
Fatty acids + organic acids + mineral acid Double action: sanitize & acid rinse Low foam Read and follow label approved use concentration

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Carboxylic Acid Advantages


Low foaming CIP application Broad bacterial activity Stable, good shelf life Not affected by hard water salts Remove and control mineral films Non-staining
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Carboxylic Acid Disadvantages


Limited and varied activity against fungi pH sensitivity - optimum activity pH < 3.5 Inactivated by cationic surfactants Temperature sensitivity, use at > 55F Corrosion potential & equipment compatibility issues
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Peroxy Compounds
H H2O2 + CH2COOH H C H
Hydrogen Peroxide Acetic Acid
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O C O O H

Peroxyacetic Acid

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Peroxyacetic Acid Advantages


Low foam Broad temperature range of activity Combine sanitizing and acid rinse No residue Generally non-corrosive to stainless steel and aluminum Relative tolerance to organic soil Phosphate free Broad bactericidal activity Active over broad pH range up to pH 7.5

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POAA and the Environment

Peroxyacetic Acid & Hydrogen Peroxide

Breakdown Into

Water Oxygen Acetic Acid


(Vinegar)

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Effect of Temperature on Sanitizer Efficacy


Peroxyacid vs. Acid Sanitizers
Peroxyacid Peroxyacid Acid

Effect of pH on Sanitizer Efficacy


Peroxyacid vs. Acid Sanitizers
Peroxyacid Acid Peroxyacid

LOG REDUCTIONS

5 5
LOG REDUCTIONS

Acid

Acid

40F

70F

1 3.0 pH 5.0

Staphylococcus aureus Escherichia coli


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Peroxyacetic Acid Disadvantages


Metal ion sensitivity Corrosive to soft metals Odor of concentrate Varied activity against fungi

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Relative Antimicrobial Activity of Chemical Sanitizers


% RELATIVE EFFICACY
GRAM + BACTERIA

GRAM BACTERIA

YEASTS

MOLDS

Sanitizers vs. Microorganisms


Peroxyacetic Acid Chlorine Iodophors Acid Anionics Quats

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Peroxy Acid/Organic Acid Compositions


Original Peroxy Acid
Acetic acid Hydorgen peroxide Peroxyacetic acid

Mixed Peroxy Acid/Organic Acid



Acetic acid Hydrogen peroxide Peroxyacetic acid Organic acid, e.g., Octanoic acid Surfactant

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Mixed Peracid Efficacy Against Yeast and Mold


12 deg C 5 minutes Mixed Peracid Sanitizer 1300 ppm Peracetic Acid Sanitizer 2000 ppm

Log Reduction Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) Geotrichum candidum (Mold)

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Hot Water
Time / Temperature Combination is Critical to Hot Water Sanitizing

PMO - Minimum of 170F for 5 minutes IDF - Minimum of 185F for 15 minutes

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Hot Water Advantages


Inexpensive Easily available Broad antimicrobial activity Non-corrosive Penetration

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Hot Water Disadvantages


Slow Film formation Equipment damage Condensation formation Safety Cost
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Maximizing Sanitizer Effectiveness


Clean surface Intimate contact Temperature Concentration Contact time pH Composition of makeup water Type of microorganism Number of organisms
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Why Should Cleaning & Sanitizing Be Carried Out As Two Steps?


The presence of any residual soil can chemically or physically impair the efficacy of sanitizers Soil may shield microorganisms from the necessary direct contact with the sanitizers

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Effect of Temperature on Sanitizer Performance


Sanitizer Type
Sodium hypochlorite Iodophor QAC Acid Anionics Peroxyacetic acid
+ Good Activity + Variable Activity - Substantial loss of activity
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70 F 55 F
+ + + + + + + + + +

40 F
+ + +

Sanitizer Optimum use Solution pH


Sanitizer
Chlorine

Optimum pH
Generally more effecitve as pH is reduced. (As pH approaches 4 increasing amounts of toxic chlorine gas is formed.) Generally more effective at pH 2-5 but also have acceptable efficcy toward neutral pH. Neutral pH Acidic pH <3.0 <3.5 Use solutions typically pH 3-4.5 Effective up to pH of 7.5
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Iodophor Neutral Quat Acid Quat Acid Anionic Carboxylic acid Peroxyacetic acid

Descending Order of Resistance to Germicidal Chemicals


Bacterial spores Mycobacteria Non lipid or small viruses Fungi Vegetative bacteria Lipid or medium sized viruses
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Sanitizer Application
Spray Circulate Foam Fog

NOTE: Follow label usage instructions

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General Guideline for Sanitizer Application


1. Sanitizer applied as the final step in the cleaning program 2. Resanitize if time between completion of sanitizer program and startup exceeds four hours
128 256

64

Number of Bacteria

32

Lag Phase

16 8

Rapid Growth

20

40

60

80

100 120 140

160

180

200

220 etc.

Minutes After Cleaning


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Effect of Sanitizers on Waste Treatment Plants


Four Factors That Determine Impact:

Inactivation Absorption Biodegradation Acclimation

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Chlorine Dioxide - CIO2 Advantages


Strong oxidizing chemical More tolerant of organic matter than chlorine Less corrosive to stainless steel Less pH sensitive

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Chlorine Dioxide - CIO2 Disadvantages


Toxicity Sensitive to light & temperature Cost

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Ozone - O3 Advantages
Powerful oxidizing gas Broad germicidal activity

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Ozone - O3 Disadvantages
Unstable pH sensitive Temperature sensitive Safety issues Toxicity Cost Corrosive
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Ultraviolet - UV Advantages
Activity independent of pH and temperature No residual taste or odor Low toxicity

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Ultraviolet - UV Disadvantages
Poor penetration Safety issues Bacterial regrowth Interferences Costs

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Ideal Sanitizer
Broad antimicrobial activity Rapid Kill Easily prepared and soluble in water Stable Tolerant of soil, hard water, etc. Environmentally compatible and non-toxic Noncorrosive Economical Safe to use
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Ideal Sanitizer
Broad antimicrobial activity Rapid Kill Easily prepared and soluble in water Stable Tolerant of soil, hard water, etc. Environmentally compatible and non-toxic Noncorrosive Economical Safe to use
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Why Do We Sanitize?
Product safety Product quality - extend shelf-life Comply with government regulations

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