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PETROPHYSICS

O.VIZIKA IFP

DEFINITIONS
Petrophysics:Studyofrockpropertiesandtheirinteractionswithfluids (watersolutions,liquidhydrocarbons,gases)(Archie,1950) Accumulations:Initialhydrocarbonsinplace(atreservoirconditions) Reserves: Recoverablehydrocarbonwithavailabletechniquesand underrealisticeconomicconditions Accurateknowledgeofpetrophysicalpropertiesisrequiredfor: calculationoftheaccumulationsandthereserves efficientdevelopmentoftheoilfield oilfieldmanagement predictionoffutureperformance Thebehaviorofaspecificreservoircanonlybepredictedfrom: analysesofthepetrophysicalpropertiesofthereservoir fluid/rockinteractionsfromsamplesofthereservoir

DEFINITIONS
Sedimentaryrocks:mechanicalandchemicaldeterioration,particle transportanddeposition. Petrophysicscloselyrelatedtomineralogyandgeology.Petrophysical propertiesdependondepositionalenvironmentalconditions

mineralcomposition grainsize orientationofpacking amountofcementation compaction

Dataonlyatpointlocations.Needtoextrapolatetothefieldscaleand developmeaningfuloverallperformanceestimates.

RESERVOIRCROSSSECTION

Porousandpermeableformationsurroundedbyimpermeablerocks,
TiabandDonaldson,1996

HYDROCARBONTRAPS

A:stratigraphicpinchouttrap,B:trapsealedbyasaltdome C:trapformedbyanormalfault,D:domaltrap
TiabandDonaldson,1996

SAMPLEREPRESENTATIVITY

Needtoexaminepetrophysicalmeasurementswithrespectto
geological mineralogical welllogcorrelations

OUTLINE
Structureandpropertiesofporousmaterials porosity permeability specificsurfacearea formationresistivityfactor compressibility Staticsoffluidsinporousmedia saturations wettability capillarypressure electricalproperties Multiphasedisplacementthroughporousmedia relativepermeability

STRUCTUREANDPROPERTIESOFPOROUSMATERIALS
Porousmaterial:solidcontainingholesorvoids,

connectedornonconnected,dispersedwithinitina regularorrandommanner
greatvarietyofnaturalandartificialporousmaterials poresinterconnectedornoninterconnected wholeporespace:totalporespace interconnectedporespace:effectiveporespace (contributingtotransport)

Structureparameters:completelydeterminedbythe porestructureofthemedium

porosity permeability specificsurfacearea formationresistivityfactor breakthrough(displacement)capillarypressure

STRUCTUREANDPROPERTIESOFPOROUSMATERIALS

Examplesofnaturalporousmaterials(x10):A.beachsand,B. sandstone,C.limestone,D.ryebread,E.wood,F.humanlung

(Collins,1961)

POROSITY
f :Fractionofthebulkvolumeofthematerialoccupiedbyvoids

V Volumeof pores P f = = V Bulkvolume B VB - V S f= V B


V S = Volumeof solid
Residualporosity Effectiveporosity

Usually5%< f <30%

POROSITY
f dependson grainsizeandsizedistribution grainform
Cubicpacking f =47.6% Rhombohedricpacking f =25.9%

Innaturalporousmedia f isalsoaffectedby: consolidation,compaction,chemicalleaching,physicalerosion


Sandstones:10%< f <40% CalciteandDolomites:5%< f <25% Clays:20%< f <45%

MACROANDMICROPOROSITY

courtesyC.Durand

MEASUREMENTOFPOROSITY
Directmethod
V ,V B S (crushedsample)

MercuryInjectionMethod V B (immersioninmercury),V P (injectionofmercuryathighpressure) lowprecision,intrusive Densitymethod

r B m=rSV V , m= massof sample S = r B B, j = 1r S

Imbibitionmethod(measuremassofdryandsaturatedsample) m'=m+ rWV P Gasexpansionmethod(idealgaslaw)

V a , P 1

V b P=0

V a , P 2

V b ] V P ) P = V B - V a - V b[P 2 /( 2 - P 1 P= P 2

SPECIFICSURFACE
S : Interstitialsurfaceareaoftheporesperunitofbulkvolume ofporousmaterial Finelystructuredmaterials High S

Measurementmethods(indirectmethods) Adsorption:Quantityofavaporwhichcanbeadsorbedona surfacedependsontheareaofthesurface Quantitativestereology:Imageanalysisofphotomicrographsof polishedsectionswithsufficientcontrasttodistinguishthe poresfromthesolidmatrix Fluidflow:Equationsrelating S tothepermeability(Kozenyor CarmanKozenyequation)

FORMATIONRESISTIVITYFACTOR
F: RatiooftheelectricalresistanceR 0 oftheporoussample saturatedwithanionicsolutiontothebulkresistanceR w of thesameionicsolutionoccupyingthesamevolumeasthe poroussample F=R ,F>1 0 /R w Empiricalrelationship:Archieslaw

F = j -m , m= cementatio n exponent
Typically1.3<m<2.5

PERMEABILITY
K: Propertyofaporousmaterialcharacterizingtheeasewith whichafluidmaybemadetoflowthroughthematerialbyan appliedpressuregradient permeability=fluidconductivity

P 1 Q
Liquidflowrate

DP

P 2

Q = (KA/m )( DP/L )

Darcyslaw
m =fluidviscosity D P=pressuredrop A=normalcrosssectionalarea Q=flowrate L=samplelength

PERMEABILITY

Units Q A
.
.

SI
3 m /s 2 m
.

CGS Practical
3 cm /s 2 cm
.

3 cm /s 2 cm

P L m

Pa
.

.b

bar yes
.

.a

atm
.

m
.

cm

cm
.

Pa.s
.m

poises
.p

cp

2 m

per m

Dar cy

PERMEABILITY

1 Darcy=

1 ( cm /s ) 1 ( cp ) 1 ( cm ) 1 ( atm/cm )
2 2

1 Darcy= 0 . 987 mm 1 mD= 10 Darcy


- 3

Ordersofmagnitude:0.1mD<K<10000mD

PERMEABILITY Radialflow
Q=2 p Kh(P P )/(m ln(r /r )) 2 1 2 1
Q=Flowrate r 1 =drainageradius r 2 =wellradius P ,P 1 2 =Pressure h=Layerthickness m=Viscosity K=Permeability

r 1 P 2 r 2 P 1 h

PERMEABILITY DarcyslawforpermeabilitytoGAS
2 2 A P P 1 2 = K 2 LP 2

Axialflow

Q =

2 h

2 2 P P 1 2 r 1 2 P ln 2 r 2

Radialflow

PERMEABILITY DarcyslawforpermeabilitytoGAS SlipeffectandKlinkenbergcorrection


Variationofthegaspermeabilitywiththepressureofthegas Origin:Meanfreepathofgasmoleculesisofthesameorderof magnitudethanporediameter Slipofthegasmoleculesontheporewalls

b Kgas = K + liquid1 m P
P +P )/2=meanflowingpressure m =(P 1 2 b=constantcharacteristicofthegasandtheporousmedium
Athighpressureslipeffectcanbeneglected Atverylowpressuretheflowprocessreducestoadiffusionalprocess

PERMEABILITY Klinkenbergeffect:exercise

b = Kgas = K + liquid1 2 2 A(P m P 1 - P 2 )


P +P )/2=meanflowingpressure m =(P 1 2

Q 2 LP2

K gas b K liquid
Correction LowforhighK(<1%) HighforlowK(>50%)

1/P m

PERMEABILITY Compositeporousmedia
L l Q 1 h 1 h 2 K 1 K 2 P Q 2

Inparallel K e gives DPforQ +Q 1 2

( Q 1 + Q 2) L P =Q = Q = 1 L 2L lh lh l(h K 1 K 1 2K 2 1 1 + h 2K 2)
L P = (Q 1 + Q 2) l(h 1+ h 2)K e h 1K 1 + h 2K2 Ke = h 1 + h 2

PERMEABILITY Compositeporousmedia Inseries K e gives Qfor DP +DP 1 2


l P 1 P 2 h Q K 1 L 1 K 2 L 2 Q

QL 1 P 1 = lhK 1

QL2 P 2 = lhK 2
L L L 1 + L 2 1 = + 2 Ke K K2 1

Q L Q L L 1 2 1 + L 2 P = + = lh K lh K K 2 e 1

PERMEABILITYPOROSITYCORRELATION
Experimentalcorrelation log(k)=Af +B
10000000

k= permeability(millidarcys) f =porosity(fraction) A,B=Constants

1000000

100000

10000

Permabilit

1000

100

10

1 0 0.1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

0.01

Porosit

PERMEABILITYPOROSITYCORRELATION

Kf relationship K=f(f) Rocktypes

STATICSOFFLUIDSINPOROUSMEDIA
Saturations

V V W SW = SO = O V V P P

S g =

V g V P

S W +S O + S G = 1 V V W + O + V G = V P
Grains Oil Water

Measurementmethods Volumetricbalancemethod DirectWeighing Electricalresistivity Xorgammarayabsorption(localsaturations)

WETTABILITY
Onaflatsurface
Tendencyofonefluidtospreadonortoadheretoasolidsurfacein presenceofanotherimmisciblefluid
w ater w ater o il

q
o il

Waterwetrock Wettingfluid:contactangle q <90

Oilw etrock

Wettabilitytooilduetopolarcomponentsinoilortoadsorbedproducts ontherocksurface

CONTACTANGLEMEASUREMENTS

FromDullien(1992)

CONTACTANGLEHYSTERESIS

FromCraig(1971)

SURFACEORINTERFACIALTENSION
s =forceperunitlengthnecessarytocreatemoresurface(interface)by bringingmoleculesfromtheinteriorofonephaseintothesurfaceregion

DefinitionofsurfacetensionatapointPandcapillaryequilibriumofa sphericalcap(Defay andPrigogine,1966)

STATICSOFFLUIDSINPOROUSMEDIA
Interfacialtension
s =forceperunitlengthnecessarytocreatemoresurface(interface)by bringingmoleculesfromtheinteriorofonephaseintothesurfaceregion

Typicalvalues INTHERESERVOIR Oilwater sow Gaswater swg Gasoil sog

3 N/m 154010 3 N/m 356010 3 N/m 01510

LABORATORY 3 N/m Airbrine swa 7210 3 N/m Mercuryair sHgair 48010


3 N/m 1dyne/cm=1mN/m=10

CAPILLARYPRESSURE

( 1/r1)+ ( 1/r 1/R 1/R 2)= ( 1)+ ( 2)


Capillaryforces=pressureforces
P '' - P' = s [( 1/r 1/r 1)+ ( 2)]

Laplacesequation
1 1/r = 1/r 1/r m 1)+ ( 2)] 2[(

r =meanradiusofcurvature m Capillaryequilibriumofanonsphericalcap(Defay andPrigogine,1966)

EFFECTOFSURFACEROUGHNESSONCONTACTANGLE
qT<90

WETTABILITYANDCAPILLARITY
Insideacapillarytube

2 scos q P =P P = C A B r P A =P atm P h(r rair )g B =P atm w P =h(rw rair )g C


Dependson: wettability poresize interfacialtension, s

2r q A Air Water B
h

Capillarypressure=pressuredifferenceincapillarymediumbetweenthe wettingfluidandthenonwettingfluid

CAPILLARYPRESSUREINAPOROUSMEDIUM
Air 2r q A B
h 0 S W Pcd 100

Air

P C

Water

Water

P C =

2scos q

r:differentporeradii P =f(S) C ForafixedPcwecancalculatethecorrespondingr Everyporewithradius<risfilledwithwettingphase

CAPILLARYPRESSUREINAPOROUSMEDIUM
r0 r3 r1 r2

P C

P C

P C

2s cos q P C = r0
Pcd 0 S W 100 0

2s cos q P C = r 1
Pcd S W 100 0

2s cos q P C = r2
Pcd S W 100

r:differentporeradii P =f(S) C ForafixedPcwecancalculatethecorrespondingr Everyporewithradius<risfilledwithwettingphase

Wettabilityofaporousmedium
Thewettabilitydetermineswhichfluidwillbeincontactwiththerock surface Waterwetrock:watercoverstherocksurface,oiloccupiesthe bulkoflargepores Oilwet:oilcoverstherocksurface,wateroccupiesthebulkof largepores Intermediatewetorneutralwet:nopreferenceforeitherfluid Mixedwetorfractionalwet:Continuouspartsofthesolidsurface arewaterwet,othersoilwet Thewettabilityplaysamajorroleonthefluiddistributionwithinthepore structure.Thusitaffects Relativepermeabilities Capillarypressures ResidualSaturations

Wettabilityanddisplacementmechanisms

Drainage: oildisplacementbywater oilwetsand

Imbibition: oildisplacementbywater waterwetsand

Craig,1971

Wettabilityandresidualsaturations

ROCK

Interstitialwater

Smallpore water

Largepore water

oil

Wettabilityandresidualsaturations

ROCK

Interstitialwater

Smallpore water

oil Largepore water oil

Wettabilityandresidualsaturations
Nonwettingphaseblocking 2r
PA P B= PC P D = 2s R 2s r cos q

2R
cos q

PAPD= 2 s (

1 1 )cos q r R
(q = 0)

Supposesolidisperfectlywaterwet
mm et r = 0,5 mm R =5 s = 30dynes / cm

PAPD= 1bar

MAINDRAINAGEANDIMBIBITIONMECHANISMS

FromDullien(1992)

THEPOREDOUBLETMODEL
Imbibitiontypedisplacement

FromDullien(1992)

THEPOREDOUBLETMODEL
Imbibitiontypedisplacement:experimentalvalidation

ndecane

water

FromDullien(1992)

THEPOREDOUBLETMODEL
Drainagetypedisplacement

FromDullien(1992)

THEPOREDOUBLETMODEL
Drainagetypedisplacement:experimentalvalidation

ndecane

water

air

FromDullien(1992)

HYSTERESISOFCAPILLARYRISE

imbibition, surfaceroughnessand advancingwettingfilms

FromDullien(1992)

ReservoirWettability

Untilthelateseventies,allreservoirswere consideredtobewaterwet Inthe80swettabilitydeterminationmeasurements demonstratethatoilwetreservoirsdoexistand arenotjustexceptions(Elf,Amoco,BP,IFP) Currentlyabout2/3ofreservoirsareconsideredto bemixedwetorevenstronglyoilwet

FACTORSAFFECTINGWETTABILITY

Oilcomposition Rockmineralogy FormationBrine PressureandTemperature Thicknessofwaterlayer

WETTABILITYvs.HEIGHTABOVEOWC

120 HeightAboveOWC,m 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 0,5 0 AmottWettabilityIndex 0,5 1

Oilwet

Waterwet

WETTABILITYvs.HEIGHTABOVEOWC

1 AmottWettabilityIndex

0,5

0,5

4%NaCl+0.5%CaCl2
1 0 10 20 Swi,%
Jadhunandan&Morrow,SPE22597

30

40

RESIDUALOILSATURATIONvs.WETTABILITY

60 50 40 Sorw 30 20 10 0 oilwet neutralwet Wettability waterwet

Morrow

MEASUREMENTOFWETTABILITY

Contactangle(estimation) SpontaneousImbibition(estimation) Displacementtechniques(measurementofWI) Amott/Harvey USBM Relativepermeability(estimation)

AMOTT/HARVEYWETTABILITYTEST
PluginitiallycontainingwaterisoilfloodedtoS wi Plugimmersedinbrine,spontaneousimbibitionismeasured, DS ws Brineisinjected,forcedimbibitionismeasured, DS wf DS = DS wt ws+DS wf Plugimmersedinoil,spontaneousimbibitionismeasured, DS os Oilisinjected DS of DS = DS ot os+DS of

DSws I w = DSwt

DS Io = os DSwt

WI = Iw - Io

COMPLETEPcCYCLE

DSws I w = DSwt

DS Io = os DSwt

WI = Iw - Io

TERNARYDIAGRAMFORWETTABILITY

PrudhoeBayfield Jerauld& Rathmell Jerauld&Rathmell SPERE97 SPERE97

USBMWETTABILITYTEST
6

WI = log(A 1 /A 2)
4 2 Pc,bar

A1
0 0 2 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8A2 1

4 6 Sw

WETTABILITYCLASSIFICATION

Wettability Water wet

WIRange +0.3to1.0

Slightly Water Wet +0.1to+0.3 Neutr al 0.1to0.1 SlightlyOilWet 0.3to0.1 OilWet 1.0to0.3

FLUIDDISTRIBUTIONINAHOMOGENEOUSRESERVOIR

CAPILLARYPRESSUREINTHERESERVOIR

Well Z

MeasuresRFT

P C

O Oil WOC Log WaterS =1 Test W FWL Pcd P =0 C h 1 W 0 S W 100

P =gh CD 1

FWL:FreeWaterLevel

CoteFWL#CoteWOCWOC: WaterOilContact

CAPILLARYPRESSUREANDTRANSITIONZONE

FromthezerocapillarydepthPc=0 Pc:Drainagecurve P (Sw)=Dr gh c P (Sw)P = c CD ThereforeS =f(h) w REF:F.W.L. REF:W.O.C. accumulationcalculation

reservoirwatersaturationvs.Depth P c S wi

CAPILLARYPRESSUREMEASUREMENTMETHODS
MercuryInjectionforporesizedistribution(mercuryporosimetry) Porousplatetechnique ambientorreservoirconditions(P,T) modelorreservoirfluids Centrifugetechnique ambientconditions(modelfluids)

Commonlyusedfluids
airbrine airoil wateroil specificreservoirfluids

CAPILLARYPRESSUREMERCURYINJECTION
Fast Porousstructurecharacterization(porediameters) Hg/vacuumnonrepresentativeofreservoirfluids wettability,Swi,trappingmechanismsnonrepresentative

CAPILLARYPRESSUREPOROUSPLATEMETHOD

Poroussamples

Nonwettingfluid (gas) Semipermeableplate

wettingfluid (oil)

Wettability,Swirepresentative(realfluids) Long(severalmonths)

CAPILLARYPRESSURECENTRIFUGEMETHOD

P c (R 1) = D r
R2 R1 oil w water

w 2

2 ( R22 - R 1 ) 2

Sw
Pc(R2)=0

S w

S1

Wettability,Swisemirepresentative(agedsamplesbutmodelfluids) Fast(1dayperstep) Highcapillarypressure mathematicalinterpretationofthemeasurementneeded

CAPILLARYPRESSURE CorrectingPcdatatoreservoirconditions

[s cosq ](res) Pc(res) = P c(lab) [s cosq ]( lab)


P c s q res lab = = = = = capillarypressure interfacialtension contactangle reservoirconditions laboratoryconditions

CAPILLARYPRESSURE CorrectingPcdatatoreservoirconditions

CAPILLARYPRESSURE Correlatingexperimentaldata

K J( Sw) = (P c /s cosq ) f
LeverettsJfunction:reducedcapillarypressurefunction
SuccessfulincorrelatingPcdataforaspecificlithologic typewithinthesameformation Cannotcapturethestructuredifferencesfromonerock typetoanother Notofgeneralapplicability

RECONCILINGSwDATA
WatersaturationdistributionfromLogcalculations

RECONCILINGSwDATA
Differentcapillarypressuresfordifferentrocktypes

RECONCILINGSwDATA
ReconcilingSwfromLogsandcapillarypressuredata

ELECTRICALMEASUREMENTS
FormationfactorF=R /R 0 w

F = j -m , m= cementatio n exponent
ResistivityIndex RI=R /R /(FRw) T 0=R T Archieslaw

R -n RI = T = Sw , n= saturationexponent R 0
R n w Sw = F R T
1

R :electricalresistivityofthesamplesaturatedwithbrine 0 R :electricalresistivityofthesampleatS T w R :bulkresistivityofthebrineoccupyingthesamevolumeasthesample w

ROCKCOMPRESSIBILITY

sv sh sH P p
porepressure

Inthereservoir, sV, sH and sh arealldifferent

Compressibility Changeofporevolumewithpressure
1 Unit:Pressure Orderofmagnitude Water Sandstone Limestone

1 V p C p = - V P p

4 bar 1 0.510 4 bar 1 0.2to110 4 bar 1 0.1to110

ROCKCOMPRESSIBILITY

sa er sr
s e

e = f( s ) Isotropictest
sa and sr areincreased P p constant Measurement: ea and er

ea
stress strain

Oedometrictest
sa isincreased P p constant er controls sr : er =0 Measurement: ea and sr

ROCKCOMPRESSIBILITY
Reservoirpropertiesaffectedbythestress zporevolume zporosity zresistivity zpermeability zfracturing
Assumptioninreservoirsimulations Compressibility=constantinsidethesameRockType Inspecificcases(perRockType) Compressibility=f(P p ) Compressibility=f(S w ) Chalk:Ekofisk Futuredevelopment(perRockType) Compressibility=f(s (x,y,z,t),s (x,y,z,t)) a r

ROCKCOMPRESSIBILITY
Effectofnetoverburdenpressureonporosityasa functionofrockcompressibility

Tiab&Donaldson,1996

ROCKCOMPRESSIBILITY

Effectofnetstressonpermeability
Importantforpressuretransient tests,drawdown,buildup Couldaccountforskineffects

notnecessarilycausedbymud filtrateinvasion

Tiab&Donaldson,1996