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Universitatea Hyperion Facultatea de tiine Economice

ENGLISH
Suport de curs n format ID

Autori:

Lect.univ.dr. Dominte Carmen Asist.univ.drd. Bahkaya Irina

Continutul cursului de Limba Engleza

Semestrul: I / II Numarul de ore: 14 seminare / 28 ore. (14 2 = 28) Finalizarea: Colocviu la sfrsitul semestrului. 1.Obiectivul general: dezvoltarea abilitatilor lingvistice de exprimare corecta, fluenta, si la un nivel mediu de cunostiinte, att n scris ct si oral. 2.Scopul: dezvoltarea capacitatii de recunoastere, ntelegere, comentare si exersare a constructiilor lingvistice nvatate, folosirea corecta a notiunilor de vocabular generale si specifice domeniului economic. 3.Mijloace: manualul de curs practic, casete, caietul de curs practic, culegeri de exercitii gramaticale si lexicale, scrisori comerciale si de afaceri. 4.Continutul cursului practic se bazeaza pe parcurgerea unor teme gramaticale si de vocabular n diferite registre (formal si neformal, n scris si oral, fata n fata si la distanta). 5.Obiectivele: scopul cursului practic consta n deprinderea si exersarea a patru abilitati comunicative dupa cum urmeaza: a. Reading la sfrsitul semestrului studentii vor putea citi cu usurinta un text n limba engleza cu grad de dificultate medie, recunoscnd constructii gramaticale de baza, vor formula ntrebari si vor da raspunsuri pe baza textului, vor identifica sinonime, antonime si omonime, vor putea alcatui familii de cuvinte, vor putea explica formarea cuvintelor compuse si derivate, sa ordoneze paragrafe si texte scurte, sa stabileasca titlurile unor texte. b. Listening - la sfrsitul semestrului studentii vor putea ntelege usor un monolog sau un dialog n limba engleza si n acelasi timp vor reusi sa rezolve exercitiile corespunzatoare ( sa completeze un tabel, sa bifeze anumite raspunsuri, sa dea raspunsuri n scris pe baza textului nregistrat, sa retina cteva informatii din prezentarea nregistrata ). c. Writing la sfrsitul semestrului studentii vor fi n stare sa scrie compuneri de lungime medie pe o tema data, sa descrie un loc sau o persoana, sa scrie scrisori standard formale si neformale, sa completeze formulare. d. Speaking la sfrsitul semestrului studentii vor putea raspunde oral la ntrebari, vor purta conversati pe o tema data, vor face descrieri orale de locuri si persoane, vor putea discuta conform rolurilor primite, si vor putea exprima parerile personale n legatura cu diverse teme n discutie conform subiectelor propuse de manualul cursului practic.

CONTENTS UNIT 1 1. Grammar: Present Simple and Present Continuous 2. Vocabulary: suffixes and prefixes 3. Reading: A long distance teacher 4. Reading, Listening and Writing: writing to a pen friend UNIT 2 1. Grammar: Past Tense Simple and Past Tense Continuous 2. Reading and Writing: Charles Dickens 3. Reading: Inside the Buckingham Palace 4. Writing: Biographies UNIT 3 1. Grammar: Verbs not normally used in the continuous aspect 2. Reading and Speaking: Hello, people of the world. 3. Reading and Listening: Two teenage geniuses 4. Reading and Writing: Arranging jumbled texts UNIT 4 1. Grammar: The degree of comparison 2. Reading and Listening: Marks and Spencer 3. Reading and Writing: The richest man in the world 4. Vocabulary: adjectives UNIT 5 1. Grammar: Future 2. Reading and Speaking: Living in the skies 3. Reading and Writing: English food 4. Vocabulary: Nouns plural UNIT 6

1. Grammar: Present Perfect Simple and Present Perfect Continuous 2. Vocabulary: Synonyms and Antonyms 3. Reading and Writing: Paul Newman, actor, director and racing driver 4. Reading and Speaking: Allen is a little disaster UNIT 7 1. Grammar: -Ing Forms: Gerund and Participle 2. Reading and Speaking: Television 3. Reading and Writing: A life in a day of Linda McCartney 4. Speaking: role play UNIT 8 1. Grammar: Modals 2. Reading: Scots in Sweden upset by cheap jokes 3. Reading and Writing: a narrative 4. Vocabulary: the literary language UNIT 9 1. Grammar: Past Perfect Simple and Past Perfect Continuous 2. Reading and Listening: All you need is love 3. Reading: The man who could turn back the clock 4. Writing: a short story UNIT 10 1. Grammar: Indirect Speech 2. Reading and Listening: An interview with a writer 3. Reading and Vocabulary: Travellers tales 4. Writing: a CV REVISIONS AND TESTS

UNIT 1 Objectives: a. Students will be able to recognize and use the present tenses, both simple and continuous. b. Students will be able to read and speak on a given subject (level elementary). c. Students will be able to write simple, informal letters. GRAMMAR Present Tense A. Present Tense Simple Pattern Affirmative: Subject + Verb (Short Infinitive/+ -s/-es for third person singular) Interrogative: Do/Does + Subject + Verb (Short Infinitive)? Negative: Subject + do/does + not +Verb (Short Infinitive). Use 1. habitual actions: I go to work every day. 2. repeated actions: He often goes to the cinema. 3. general truths: The sun rises in the east. 4. instantaneous present: The goal-keeper misses the ball. 5. exclamations: Here comes the train! 6. planned actions: We leave London at eight. 7. the date: Tomorrow is Friday. B. Present Continuous Pattern Affirmative: Subject + am/is/are + Verb+ing. Interrogative: Am/is/are + Subject + Verb+ing? Negative: Subject + am/is/are + not + Verb+ing. Use 1. an action in the moment of speaking: He is reading a book right now. 2. a progressive action which was not finished in the moment of speaking: He is doing his work. 3. a repeated action in the moment of speaking: He is knocking at the door. 4. a temporary action: Tom is attending the Poly. 5. a planned action: We are leaving tomorrow. Practice: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct present tense (simple or continuous): 1. This book is about a man who (desert) his family and (go) to live on a Pacific island. 2. Why you (walk) so fast today? You usually (walk) quite slowly. 3. I (hurry) because I (meet) my mother at four oclock and she (not like) to be kept waiting. 4. When the curtain (rise) we (see) a group of workers. They (picket) a factory gate. 5. He never (listen) to what you say. He always (think) about something else. 6. You (hear) the wind? It (blow) very strongly tonight. 7. You (see) my car keys? I (look) for them but I (not see) them. 8. In most countries a child (start) school at six and (stay) for about five ears in a primary school. Then he (move) to a secondary school. At 18 he (take) an exam. 9. Where he (come) from? He (come) from Japan. 10. Mr. Brown often (go) to the theatre but his wife (not go) very often. He (like) all sorts of plays but she (prefer) comedies.

READING AND LISTENING

Paola is an Italian student of English at a school in London. Read and listen to her letter to David, her pen friend.

72 Newton Drive London SW 6 3rd October

Dear David How are you? Im fine. Im in London, at the International School of English. Im in a class 3 with eight other students. Theyre all from different countries- Spain, France, Japan, Argentina, Switzerland, and Thailand. Our teachers name is Peter Briscall. Hes very nice. Hes funny and hes a very good teacher. My new address is at the top of the letter. Im with an English family, the Browns. Mrs.and Mr. Brown have three children. Thomas is fourteen, Catherine is twelve, and Andrew is seven. They are all very friendly, but it isnt easy to understand them! London is very big and very interesting. The weather is good - cold but sunny - and the parks are beautiful! Hyde Park, Green Park, and St. James` Park are all in the centre. It isnt easy to use the Underground, but I understand it now. Its very expensive! English food is OK, but the coffee is horrible! Write to me soon. Love, Paola P.S. Is my English OK?

Questions: 1. Who is Paola? 2. Where is she studying? 3. What is she studying? 4. What is the teachers name? 5. Where is she staying? 6. How old is Thomas? But Catherine? 7. Is English coffee OK?

Writing: Write a similar letter to one of your pen friends.

READING AND LISTENING

The long-distance teacher

Pre-reading task

1. Look at the map. Which two countries are they? Write the names of the capital cities on the map.

Mr. Frank Garret, 65, is a schoolteacher. He is English, but he lives in France, in the Normandy village of Yerville. Mr. Garret lives in France, but he works in England. Every Monday he leaves home at 2.30 in the morning and drives 101 miles from his village to Boulogne, where he leaves his car and catches the ferry to Folkestone. Then he catches the train to Maidstone in Kent and he arrives at Manor School at 8.25. He teaches French from 9.00 in the morning to 3.30 in the afternoon, and then leaves school. He arrives home at 9.30 in the evening. The journey there and back takes twelve hours and costs only 16! Fortunately, Mr. Garret works in England only one day a week. And what does he do on the other days? He teaches English! He has a class of eighteen French students in Yerville. ' Yes, on Tuesday Im tired,' he says, 'but I love my job in England and I love my home in France. I'm happy man! '

2. Check the meaning of the underlined words in your dictionary. He leaves home. She drives to work. He catches a train at 9.00. a ferry She arrives at work at 8.30. The journey takes twenty minutes. It costs only ten pence. Fortunately

Reading Read the text. Answer the three questions. a. Where does Mr. Garret live? b. Whats his job? c. Where does he work?

Vocabulary Suffixes and prefixes

1. Identify the roots in the following derivatives: Application, blockage, booklet, boredom, bravery, breakage, capitalism, consistency, consumption, drunkard, employee, idealism, intricacy, importance, lemonade, mathematician, naturalist, relevancy, scientist, spinster, strength, supremacy, Vietnamese.

2. Attach the appropriate suffixes to the following words: a. advise, arm, boil, cigar, drop, free, hand, kitchen, mine, mouth, level, novel, percent, person, short, spoon, train, wait, wave. b. Suffixes: -age, -doom, -ee, -er, -ette, - ful, - let, - y.

3. Identify the noun forming prefixes in the following derivatives: Anticlimax, arch-bishop, co-partner, dissatisfaction, ex-soldier, forefinger, inattention, impossibility, midday, misprint, non-conformist, neo-realism, overstrain, post- meridian, predominant, pro-rector, reaction, self-determination, semi-darkness, subtitle, superstructure, undersecretary, vice-admiral.

4. Combine the suffixes with the words: a. active b. achieve c. compose d. deliver e. fair f. fellow g. man h. pagan i. perform j. supreme k. wide 1. acy 2. ance 3. ation 4. hood 5. ism 6. ity 7. ment 8. ness 9. ship 10. th 11. ure 12. y

UNIT 2 Objectives: a. Students will be able to recognize and use the past tenses, both simple and continuous. b. Students will be able to read a text and answer the questions. c. Students will be able to form Wh-questions. GRAMMAR Past Tense A. Past Tense Simple Pattern Affirmative: Subject + Veb (-ed, II) Interrogative: Did + Subject + Verb (Short Infinitive)? Negative: Subject + did + not + Verb (Short Infinitive). Use 1. a past action: I went to the opera last night. 2. a repeated action in the past: I often visited him. B. Past Tense Continuous Pattern Affirmative: Subject + Was/Were + Verb+ing. Interrogative: Was/Were + Subject + Verb+ing? Negative: Subject + Was/Were + not + Verb+ing. Use 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

a progressive action in the past: I was walking at this time last week. a progressive action interrupted by a momentary action: He came in when I was eating. two progressive past actions: She was reading while I was sleeping. an unfinished past action: He was reading a book last night. a repeated action in the past: He was always coming late to the English classes. a temporary action: He was living in Madrid when I met him. a future action which was planned in the past, but was not fulfilled: We were leaving the next day.

Practice: Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or Past Continuous: 1. He (sit) on the bench fishing when he (see) a mans hat floating down the river. It (seem) strangely familiar. 2. It (snow) heavily when he (wake) up. He (remember) the Jack (come) for lunch and (decide) to go down to the station to meet him in case he (lose) his way in the snow. 3. When I (reach) the street I (realize) that I (not know) the number of Toms house. I (wonder) what to do about it when Tom himself (tap) me on the shoulder. 4. I (pick) up the receiver and (dial) the number. To my surprise I (find) myself listening to an extraordinary conversation. Two men (plan) to kidnap the Prime Minister. 5. While I (wonder) whether to buy the dress or not, someone else (come) and (buy) it. 6. She (promise) not to report me to the police but ten minutes later I (see) her talking with a policeman, and I am sure she (tell) him all about it. 7. As the goal-keeper (run) forward to seize the ball, a bottle (strike) him on the shoulder. 8. As it (rain) the children (play) in the sitting-room. Tom (try) to write a letter but the children (keep) asking him questions.

Grammar Practice

Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or Past Continuous: 1. He (sit) on the bench fishing when he (see) a mans hat floating down the river. It (seem) strangely familiar. 2. It (snow) heavily when he (wake) up. He (remember) that Jack (come) for lunch and (decide) to go down to the station to meet him in case he (lose) his way in the snow. 3. When I (reach) the street I (realize) that I ( not know) the number of Toms house. I (wonder) what to do about it when Tom himself (tap) me on the shoulder. 4. As the goal-keeper (run) forward to seize the ball, a bottle (strike) him on the shoulder. 5. I (look) through the classroom window. A geometry lesson (go) on. The teacher (draw) diagrams on the blackboard. 6. Most of the boys (listen) to the teacher but a few (whisper) to each other, and Tom (read) a history book. Tom (hate) mathematics, he always (read) history during the mathematics lessons. 7. She (promise) not to report me to the police but ten minutes later I (see) her talking with a policeman and from the expression on his face I am sure she (tell) him all about it. 8. I (pick) up the receiver and (dial) a number. To my surprise I (find) myself listening to an extraordinary conversation. Two men (plan) to kidnap the Prime Minister. 9. I (meet) Paul at the university. We both (be) in the same year. He (study) law, but he (not be) very interested in it and (spend) most of his time practicing the flute. 10. My neighbour (look) in last night and (say) that he (leave) the district and (go) to Yorkshire, to a new job. I (say) that I (be) very sorry that he (go) and (tell) him to write to me from Yorkshire and tell me how he (get) on. 11. I (go) to Jacks house but (not find) him in. His mother (say) that she (not know) what he (do) but (think) he probably (play) football. 12. This used to be a station and all the London trains (stop) here. But two years ago they (close) the station and (give) us a bus service instead. 13. Ann works in the branch where the big robbery (take) place. She actually (work) there at the time of the raid? 14. When Ann (say) that she (come) to see me the next day, I (wonder) what flowers she would bring. She always brings flowers. 15. While I (wonder) whether to buy the dress or not, someone else (come and (buy) it. 16. My dog (attack) the postman as he (put) the letters into the letter box. The man (thrust) a large envelope into the dogs mouth and of course he (tear) it. Unfortunately the letter (contain) my diploma. I (patch) the diploma with Sellotape but it still looks a bit odd. 17. We (not get) much sleep last night because the people next door (have) a noisy party. I (ring)up the landlord and (say) that his tenants (make) too much noise. He (point out) that it (be) Saturday and that people often (have) parties on Saturdays nights. I (say) that the people in his house always (have) parties. 18. How you (break) your leg?/ I (fall) off the ladder whe n I(put up) the curtains. The worst of it (be) that it (be) just before the holidays and I (go) away. 19. So you (not go) away?/ No, of course not. I (cancel) my bookings and (spend) the holiday hobbling about at home. 20. As it (rain) the children (play) in the sitting-room. Tom was there too. He (try) to write a letter but he (not get on) very well because the children (keep) asking him questions.

Charles Dickens (1812- 1870)


DICKENS THE MAN Dickens had ten children, but he didnt have happy family life. He was successful in his work but n ot at home, and his wife left him. He never stopped writing and travelling, and he died very suddenly in 1870.

Charles Dickens is one of the greatest novelists in the English language. He wrote about the real world of Victorian England and many of his characters were not rich, middleclass ladies and gentlemen, but poor and hungry people.

DICKENS THE CHILD Writing His family lived in London. His father was a clerk in an office. It was a good job, but h e always spent more money than he earned and he was often in debt. There were eight children in the family, so life was hard. Charles went to school and his teachers thought he was very clever. But suddenly, when he was only eleven, his father went to prison for his debts and the family went, too. Only Charles didnt go to prison. He went to work in a factory, where he washed bottles. He worked ten hours a day and earned six shillings (30p) a week. Every night, after work, he walked four miles back to his room. Charles hated it and never forgot the experience. He used it in many novels, especially David Copperfield and Oliver 1. Write about your past. Use these ideas to help you. Born Parents School Free time First job when? work? like? sports? what? where? live? not like? hobbies? when? earn? 2. Answer the questions. a. How old was Dickens when he died? b. How many brothers and sisters did he have? c. Was he good at school? d. Why did he leave school when he was eleven? e. Who was in prison? f. What did Charles do in his first job? g. What was his next job? h. Was he happy at home? i. When did he stop writing?

Twist.
DICKENS THE WRITER

When he was sixteen, he started works for a newspaper. He visited law courts and the Houses of Parliament. Soon he was one of the Morning Chronicles best journalists. He also wrote short stories for magazines. There were funny descriptions of people that he met. Dickens` characters were full of colour and life- good people were very, very, very good and bad people were horrible. His books became popular in many countries and he spent a lot of time abroad, in America, Italy, and Switzerland.

INSIDE

Buckingham Palace
THE PALACE
There are two addresses in London that the whole world knows. One is 10 Downing Street, where the Prime Minister lives. The other is Buckingham Palace. This famous palace, first built in 1703, is in the very centre of London. It is two places, not one. It is a family house, where children play and grow up. It is also the place where presidents, kings, and politicians go to meet the Queen. Buckingham Palace is like a small town, with a police station, two post offices, a hospital, a bar, two sports clubs, a disco, a cinema, and a swimming pool. There are 600 rooms and three miles of red carpet. Two men work full/time to look after the 300 clocks. About 700 people work in the Palace.

water, one for port, and one for liqueur. During the first and second courses, the Queen speaks to the person on her left and then she speaks to the person on her right for the rest of the meal. When the Queen finishes her food, everybody finishes, and it is time for the next course! Comprehension check 1. Are the sentences true (v ) or false (x)? Correct the false sentences. a. The Palace is more than two hundred years old. b. It is famous because it is the centre of London. c. The same person starts the Queens bath, prepares her clothes, and feeds the dogs. d. The dogs sleep in the Queens bedroom. e. The Queen and the Prime Minister go out for a drink on Tuesday nights. 2. Answer the questions. a. Buckingham Palace is two places, not one. How? b. Why is it like a small town? c. Are there a lot of clocks? d. How many dogs does the Queen have? e. What newspaper does she read? f. What sort of music does the piper play? g. Why do people have five glasses on the table? h. Who does the Queen speak to during a meal? i. What happens when the Queen finishes her food? 3. Check the meaning of new words in your dictionary or with your teacher. inside (prep) to prepare (v) the whole world own (adj) famous (adj) piper (n) grow up (v) outside (prep) like (prep) course(food) (n) everybody(pron) during (prep) do the washing- up (v)

THE QUEEN`S DAY


When the Queen gets up in the morning, seven people look after her. One starts her bath, one prepares her clothes, and one feeds the Royal dogs. She has eight or nine dogs, and they sleep in their own bedroom near the Queens bedroom. Two people bring her breakfast. She has coffee from Harrods, toast, and eggs. Every day for fifteen minutes, a piper plays Scottish music outside her room and the Queen reads The Times. Every Tuesday evening, she meets the Prime Minister. They talk about world news and have a drink, perhaps a gin and tonic or a whisky.

AN INVITATION TO THE PALACE


When the Queen invites a lot of people for dinner, it takes three days to prepare the table and three days to do the washing- up. Everybody has five glasses: one for red wine, one for white wine, one for

Biographies Read the biography of William Shakespeare. Shakespeare, William, 1564 1616, English dramatist and poet, considered the greatest of all playwrights; b.Stratford-upon-Avon. He was the son of a glove maker and leather craftsman, and attended the local grammar school. In 1582 he married Anne Hathway, and his first child, a daughter, was born within six months. Two years later they had twins. Little else of his life is known before 1594, when he appeared in London as an actor and a playwright with a growing reputation. In 1594 he joined a group of actors known as the Lord Chamberlains Men, which became the Kings Men under the patronage of James I. In 1599 he bought the Globe Theatre. He retired to Stratford- upon-Avon in 1613. He wrote at least thirty-seven plays: history plays, comedies and tragedies. Their appeal lies in his human vision, which recognises the complexity of moral questions, and in the richness of his language. Ask and answer questions about Shakespeare. - When? - Where...? - What.? - Did he...? - Who..? - How many.? - What sort of..?

Read the biography of Jeffrey Archer. Archer, Jeffrey, was born in 1940, and was educated at Wellington School and Oxford University. In 1969 he became a Member of Parliament when he won a by-election. At 29, he was the youngest member of the Ho use of Commons. He resigned from Parliament in 1974 because he had debts of over $ 427,000, following the collapse of a Canadian company in which he had invested. In the same year he wrote his first novel, Not a Penny More, Not a Penny Less, which was based on his business experiences. He has been writing ever since, and all six of his novels have been best sellers. They have been translated into over fifteen languages. His most successful novel, Kane and Abel, has sold more than four million copies world-wide, and has been made into a television series. After the success of his books, he decided to return to politics. From September 1985 to October 1986 he was Deputy Chairman of the Conservative Party. He married his wife in 1966, and they live with their two children in Cambridge and London. Ask and answer questions about Jeffrey Archer. - When? - Where...? - What.? - Why.? - How many.? - How long..? - Have any..films

UNIT 3

Objectives: a. Students will be able to make a difference between the simple and the progressive aspect. b. Students will be able to recreate a text from pieces. c. Students will be able to comment about the stories presented in the texts and to express their own experiences.

GRAMMAR Verbs not normally used in the continuous aspect a. Verbs of non-durative activity: score, shoot, slam, kick, etc. Eg. He bangs the door. b. Verbs of universal truth or general characteristic: Eg. Fish swim. c. Verbs of inert perception: see, hear, smell, feel, sound, taste. Eg. The flower smells nice. Attention: These verbs can be used in the continuous aspect if they show a conscious usage of the senses: 1. by using synonymic pairs: I hear music. / I am listening to the music. 2. by using them with a different meaning: I am seeing him tonight. 3. by using the transitively (as actions): The cake tastes good. / I am tasting the cake. d. Verbs of cognition: believe, know, think, imagine, mean, mind, remember, forget, recollect, recall, suppose, suspect, guess, presuppose, realize, understand. Some of them can be used in the continuous aspect if they are used as verbs of activity. Eg. I think you are right. / I am thinking of my future. e. Verbs of feelings: like, love, care for, adore, hate, dislike, detest, regret, prefer, wish. Eg. I detest lazy people. f. Verbs of relation: apply to, be, belong to, concern, consist of, contain, cost, depend on, deserve, include, involve, lack, matte, need, owe, own, possess, have, require, resemble, seem. Eg. This book belongs to him. Attention: BE and HAVE can be used in the continuous aspect when they do not express the state or the possession. Eg. He is kind. / Why is he being so kind today? He has a new car. / We are having an interesting conversation.

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Reading and speaking Pre -reading task Work in pairs. 1. Write down the names of as many animals as you can. What can they do that people cant? Example: Birds can fly. 2. What can people do that animals cant? Example: We can write poetry. 3. Look up the following words in your bilingual dictionary and write down the translation. jungle (n) species (n) numerous (adj) powerful (adj) to record (v) e.g. sense (n) information in a book to choose (v) joke (n) to look after (v) to destroy (v)

Reading Now read the article. 1. Write down the correct question for each paragraph. a. How are people and animals different? b. How many people are there? c. What can people choose to do? d. What is the biggest difference between people and animals? 2. Check your lists of what people and animals can and cant do. What ideas did you have that are not in the article? 3. How do people communicate? 4. Why is writing a special kind of communication? What do you think? 1. Do animals have a sense of past and future? 2. How do animals communicate? 3. In what ways are we looking after the world, and in what ways are we destroying it?

writes symphonies, elects presidents, or goes to the moon.

Hello people of the World!


They are five billion people in the world and they live in all different corners of it. They live on the snow and ice of the Poles and in the tropical jungles on the equator. They have climbed the highest mountains and walked on the sea bed. Some of them have even left the earth and visited the moon. The human species is the most numerous and the most powerful of all the animals on earth. How did this happen? In many ways, animals can do things better than we can. Dogs can smell and hear better than we can. Cats can see in the dark. Birds can fly thousands of miles away and return to the same place every year. But we are different. No other animal build cathedrals, plays football, tells jokes, gets married, has prisons,

There is one thing above all that makes people and animals different. People love to talk-talk-talk. We are the great communicators! And we can communicate so many things in so many ways- with our faces, our hands, our bodies, and our voices. Most important of all, we can record what we say and think in writing, so that we can communicate through time. We have a sense of past and future, not just present. We are the only species that can change the world, and we are the only species that can choose either to look after our wood or to destroy it.

READING AND SPEAKING Pre-reading


What do teenagers like doing in your country? Think of three things and tell the others in the class.

Comprehension check
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. How old is he? Does he go to school? Where was he born? Where does he live with? Who does he live with? What does his father do? How was he different when he was very young? h. What does he do in the evening? i. Can his father speak English? j. Does he have any friends? k. What does he do in his free time? Check your answers with your group.

Reading
Divide into two groups. Group A Group B Read about Ivan Mirsky. Read about Jaya Rajah.

Answer the questions.

Ivan Mirsky is thirteen and he is the number 13 chess player in the world. He was born in Russia but now lives in America with his father, Vadim. They live in a oneroom flat in Brooklyn. Ivan doesnt go to school and his father doesnt have a job. They practice chess problems all day, every day, morning, afternoon, and evening. Ivan was different from a very young age: he could ride a bike when he was eighteen months old and read before he was two. He could play cards at three and the piano at four. When he was twelve, he was the under-20 chess champion of Russia. His father cant speak English and cant play chess, either! Ivan translates for him. Vadim says, I know that I cant play chess, but I can still help Ivan. He and I dont have any friends- we dont want any friends. Other teenagers are boring! We dont like playing sports or watching TV. We live for chess!

TWO TEENAGE GENIUSES


Jaya Rajah is fourteen, but he doesnt go to school. He studies medicine at New York University in a class of twenty-year-olds. Jaya was born in Madras in India but now lives in a house in New York with his mother, father, and brother. They can all speak English fluently. His father is a doctor. Jaya was different from a very young age. He could count before he could say Mummy or Daddy. He could answer questions on calculus when he was five and do algebra when he was eight. Now he studies from 8.15 to 4.00 every day at the university. Then he studies at home with his father from 6.30 to 10.00 every evening. Jaya doesnt have any friends. He never goes out in the evenings, but he sometimes watches TV. He says, I live for one thing- I want to be a doctor before I am seventeen. Other children of my age are boring. They cant understand me.

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT Reading Arranging jumbled texts Here are three stories about people who have started their own businesses, but the stories have been mixed up. First read the paragraphs quickly and decide which paragraphs go with which story. Then put them in the right order. James McClarty: 1 2 3 Jeremy Taylor: 1 2 3 John Glover: 1 2 3 a. James McCharty, 16, runs a part-time bakery delivery service. Every Friday evening he goes round his local village selling his wares-bread, rolls and teacakes, which he buys wholesale from a bakery. b. Jeremy Taylor has had his market garden for 18 months now, growing fruit and vegetables for local consumption. He is most proud of his early potatoes and juicy raspberries. He thought starting a business would be complicated, but in fact he found it was quite straightforward. c. He had the excellent idea of giving out free hot cross buns before Easter, and as a result he got bumper orders for the Easter weekend. Ive already expanded to include the next village, but Ive employed a friend to do the delivering. d. But there werent any. I still had 100 and my bike. Im lousy at mathematics, but my girlfriend Lynn was good at accounts, so we set up with another friend, Paul, as a third partner. e. James likes the extra money, but he does have one complaint. Im getting fat. I cant help eating the teacakes! f. At first they found it very difficult to get known. Nothing seemed to work- leaflets and adverts in the paper brought nobody. Then slowly the customers trickled in. g. Since then they have grown and grown. We use up to 20 riders and we buy ourselves a new bike every year. Weve learned a lot about management, and were now pretty confident about the future. h. But his organization is far from oldfashioned. He has bought a computer, which he uses to work out orders, costs and profit. He has had the business for nine months. i. He was given good advice by his bank manager. Start small, consolidate and expand gradually. Theres been an increased demand for really fresh vegetables, and my produce is picked, packed and sold within 24 hours. j. A clever observation by John Glover gave him and two of his friends the idea for their small business. Wed all had jobs but we were made redundant. I had seen a lot of motorcycle couriers in London, so I thought I would try and get a job with one locally. k. Ive always loved gardening, and the thought of making a living out of a hobby is wonderful. l. There hasnt been a baker in the village since the big supermarkets opened in town 10 years ago. People like the service and especially the old- fashioned bread

UNIT 4 Objectives: a. Students will be able to identify and use adverbs and adjectives in their degrees of comparison. b. Students will be able to make a person description. Reading and speaking You are going to read a magazine article about one of Britains most famous shop-Marks & Spencer. Pre -reading task Work in pairs and use dictionaries if necessary. The following people, places, and things are in the article. What connection do you think they have with Marks & Spencer? They appear here in the same order as in the text. - Princess Diana - 10 million - a Polish immigrant - shoelaces - Spain - Paris and Newcastle - Jumpers - chiropodists Now read the article quickly and discuss the list again.

MARKS & SPENCER


Britains favourite store Marks & Spencer (or M&S) is Britains favourite store. Tourists l ove it too. It attracts a great variety of customers, from housewives to millionaires. Princess Diana, Dustin Hoffman, and the British Prime Minister are just a few of its famous customers. Last year it made a profit of 529 million, which is more than 10 million a week. How did it all begin? It all started 105 years ago, when a young Polish immigrant, Michael Marks, had a stall in Leeds market. He didnt have many things to sell: some cotton, a little wool, lots of buttons, and few shoelaces. Above his stall he put the now famous notice: DON`T ASK HOW MUCH- IT`S A PENNY. Ten years later, he met Tom Spencer and together they started Penny Stalls in many towns in the north of England. Today

there are 564 branches of M&S all over the

world - in America, Canada, Spain, France, Belgium, and Hungary. What are the best sellers? Surprisingly, tastes in food and clothes are international. What sells well in Paris sells just as well in Newcastle. Their best-selling clothes are: For women: jumpers, bras, and knickers (M&S is famous for its knickers!). For men: shirts, socks, pyjamas, dressing gowns, and suits. For children: underwear and socks. Best-sellers in food include: fresh chickens, bread, vegetables, and sandwiches. Chicken Kiev is internationally the most popular convenience food. Why is M&S so successful? The store bases its most important key to its success is its happy, well- trained staff. Conditions of work are excellent. There are company doctors, dentists, hairdressers, and even chiropodists to look after the staff, and all the staff can have lunch for under 40p!

GRAMMAR The adjective and the adverb Adjective Adjectives have the same form fo singular and plural. They do not change for male or female. Most adjectives are used in front of the nouns. Some adjectives describe similar qualities (hot, cold): hot-warm-boiling, cool-coldfreezing. Comparative adjectives with one syllable are formed by adding e r to the adjective. Eg. Long Longer, Big Bigger, Dry Drier Superlative adjectives are formed by adding est to the adjective. Eg. Long Longest, Big Biggest, Dry Driest Comparative adjectives with two or more syllables are formed with more , and the superlative of these adjectives is formed with the most. Eg. Modern more Modern the most Modern Interesting more Interesting the most Interesting Irregular adjectives: Good better the best Bad worse the worst Far farther/further the farthest/the furthest Little less the least Much/many more the most Old elder the eldest Adverbs Adverbs describe actions. Most adverbs are formed from adjectives adding ly (slow slowly). Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives (fast), but some adverbs have the same form as the adjective and a different meaning for the adverb meaning (a hard question/ to work hard) Most adverbs have comparative and superlative forms in er and est (early, far, fast, hard, late). Comparatives are used to compare two separate things; superlatives compare one thing in the group with all the other things in that group. Eg. Maru is a better player than Monica. / She is the best player in the team. Intensifiers When we make comparisons the adjective is often strengthened with an intensifier: This house is much/a lot/far bigger than that one. We can also use intensifiers with more/less: The Italian film was much more interesting./ That film was far less frightening the this one. Practice: Choose the correct word: 1. The fish was so tasty as/as tasty as the meat. 2. This book is the most interesting/the more interesting. 3. The temple is the eldest/oldest in Europe. 4. That dress is a lot longer than/that the other one. 5. Nothing is worse/worst than being stuck in a traffic jam. 6. The test was not as had as/hard as I thought. 7. Today I feel more bad/worse than I did yesterday. 8. Our journey took longer than/the longest we expected. 9. Could you work more quietly/ quietly please? 10. This skyscraper is one of the taller/tallest building in our city.

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Reading and speaking You are going to read a newspaper article about the Sultan of Brunei. He is the richest man in the world. Pre -reading task 1. Have you heard of the country of Brunei? Do you know where it is? Is it in the Middle East/ East Asia/ West Africa?

2. Check in your dictionary that you understand the following words: extravagant (adj) shy (adj) wealth (n)/ wealthy (adj) reserved (adj) to share (v) e.g. a reserved person chandelier (n) outgoing (adj) despite (prep) e.g. an outgoing person Reading for information Now read the article quite quickly. As you read, check if you were right about where Brunei is. Decide what you think is the most extravagant way the Sultan spends his money. Discuss your ideas in pairs.

THE RICHEST MAN IN THE WORLD

A year ago the Sultan of Brunei gave a birthday party for his eleven- year-old daughter. It was in the ballroom of Claridges Hotel, in Mayfair, London. It cost 100,000, but for the Sultan this is not a great amount of money. He is so rich that he can buy whatever he wants. A few years ago he built the biggest palace in the world. It has 1,788 rooms, 5 swimming pools, 257 toilets, 44 staircases and 18 lifts. The dining room can seat 4,000 people. There are 564 chandeliers with 51,490 light bulbs. A servant is employed full time to change bulbs- about 200 a day. The total cost of the palace was $400 million. The Sultan invited his friends to see it but they didnt like it- they said it looked more like a multi-storey car park than a palace. What could the Sultan do? You guessed- he built another one! Brunei is one of the smallest but richest countries in the world. Its wealth comes from oil and gas. Most people think that Brunei is in the Middle East but it isnt. Its in East Asia, on the north coast of the island of Borneo. It sells the oil and gas to Japan, and earns $2 billion a year- that is $229,000 every hour- from it. And the beauty is that there are so few people to share all this money. The population of Brunei is only 230,000. The Sultan and his brothers are the government. Despite all this money and power the Sultan is a very shy man. He is 42 years old but still looks like a schoolboy. He says very little at international meetings. When he was nineteen he married his cousin, Princess Saleha, who was then sweet, pretty, and only sixteen. Time passed and she became more and more reserved. In 1980 the Sultan met an air hostess called Mariam Bell, who is half Bruneian, a quarter Japanese, and a quarter English. She is much more outgoing in her manner than most Bruneian girls, and the Sultan fell in love with her. He married her, too, and now has two wives and two families all living happily together in the new palace. The Sultans total wealth is more than $25 billion. He owns hotels all round the world: the Dorchester in London, the Beverley Hills Hotel in Los Angeles and the Hyatt Hotel in Singapore. He has a fleet of private planes, including an airbus. One o f his London houses has the biggest garden in the city, except for Buckingham Palace. With all this, is he a happy man? Nobody asks him that.

UNIT 5 Objectives: a. Students will be able to recognize and use the future tense. b. Students will become familiar with the other ways of expressing the future. c. Students will be able to make predictions, and imagine how their lives will be in the following centuries. GRAMMAR Future A. Future Simple Pattern Affirmative: Subject + will/shall + Verb (short infinitive) Interrogative: Will/Shall + Subject + Verb (short infinitive)? Negative: Subject + will/shall + not + Verb (short infinitive). Use 1. an action in a future moment: He will come back tomorrow. 2. a spontaneous intention: I will open the window. 3. a premeditated action: I will sell that book no matter what you are saying. 4. the refusal: I will not go there. 5. an invitation: Will you come in, please? 6. a request: Will you help me? 7. a request for an opinion: Shall I buy this dress? Other ways of expressing the future: 1. Be about to + Verb (short infinitive) = an immediate future: We are about to leave. 2. Be to + Verb (short infinitive) = an arrangement (I am to move house soon) and an order (You are to return before nightfall) 3. Be going to + Verb (short infinitive) = a future action very close to the moment of speaking: (You are going to see a film); a future action that will take place because of a present intention (We are going to spend our holiday in the mountains); and a future action that will take place as a result of a present cause (Its going to rain). B. Future Continuous Pattern Affirmative: Subject + will/shall + be + Verb+ing. Interrogative: Will/Shall + Subject + be + Verb+ing? Negative: Subject + will/shall + not + be + Verb+ing. Use 1. a future continuous action: I shall be walking at two oclock tomorrow. 2. a future continuous action interrupted by a momentary action: When he comes, I will be sleeping. 3. two future continuous actions: He will be reading while I shall be watching TV. 4. a future unfinished action: She will be having her piano lesson when you come. Practice: Rewrite each sentence so that it contains will or going to. 1. I plan to study engineering in France. 2. I predict a score of 3 0. 3. We have an appointment at the doctors, so we can not come. 4. Martins wife is pregnant again. 5. Sarah does not plan to get married yet. 6. There is a posibility of snow tomorrow.

LIFE IN THE 21 st CENTURY PRESENTATION

Where will people live in the Twenty-fist century? Read the next text about JAPAN .

Living in the skies Louise Hidalgo considers life in the 21st century, with two-km high buildings, and Japanese cities that touch the sky. Imagine a building one third of the height of Mount Everest, built by robots, and containing a whole city. Imagine you can walk out of your front door in a T-shirt and shorts on a cold winter day and take a lift down 500 floors to school. Imagine you can see the sea a mile below you. Imagine you can never open a window. Imagine Well, if Japanese architects find enough money for their project, in the 21st century you will be able to live in a building like that. Ohbayashi Gumi has designed a two-km high building, Aeropolis, which will stand in the middle of Tokyo Bay. Over 300,000 people will live in it. It will be 500 floors high, and in special lifts it will take just 15 minutes to get from top to bottom. Restaurants, offices, flats, cinemas, schools, hospitals, and post offices will all be just a few lift stops away. According to the architects, Aeropolis will be the first city of the sky. When we get to the end of this century, Tokyo will have a population o over 15 million people, said design manager Mr. Shuzimo. There is not enough land in Japan. We are going to start doing tests to find the best place to build it. I hope people will like living on the 500th floor. Will not people want to have trees and flowers around them? We are going to have green floors, where children can play and office workers can eat their lunch-break sandwiches. What about the fires? If there is a fire, it will be put out by robots. I hope we will get the money we need to build. As soon as we do, we will start. This will be the most exciting building in the world. What do you think? 1.Would you like to live in Aeropolis? 2. Mr. Shuzimo expresses two future intentions and to hopes. Find them in the text.

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT: READING AND SPEAKING ENGLISH FOOD What do you think influences a countrys food? Have you ever tried English food? READING FOR GIST: Read this magazine article about English food.

I am always both amused and annoyed when I hear foreign people criticize English food. `Its unimaginative, ` they say. `Its boring, its tasteless, its chips with everything and totally overcooked vegetables. ` ` Its not ambitious, ` say the French, `all you do is roasts with jam. ` (We eat apple sauce with pork.) Thats the bit they find really shocking, but then the French are easily shocked by things that arent French. When I ask these visitors where they have experienced English cooking, I am astonished by their reply. `In Wimpy Bars and McDonalds Hamburger restaurants, ` they often say. I have won my case. Their conclusions are inexcusable. I have a theory about English cooking, and I was interested to read that several famous cookery writers agree with me. My theory is this. Our basic ingredients, when fresh, are so full of flavour that we havent had to invent sauces and complex recipes to disguise their natural taste. What can compare with fresh peas or new potatoes just boiled (not over boiled) and served with butter? Why drown spring lamb in wine or cream or yoghurt and spices, when with just one or two herbs it is absolutely delicious? It is interesting to speculate what part factors such as geography and climate play in the creation of a countrys food. We complain about our wet and changeable weather, but it is the rain which gives us our rich soil and green grass. `Abroad, ` says Jane Grigson, `poor soils meant more searching for food, more discovery, more invention, whereas our ancestors sat down to plenty without having to take trouble. ` If you ask foreigners to name some typically English dishes, they will probably say `Fish and chips` and then stop. It is disappointing, but true, that there is no tradition in England of eating in restaurants, because our food doesnt lend itself to such preparation. English cooking is found in the home, where it is possible to time the dishes to perfection. So it is difficult to find a good English restaurant with reasonable prices. It is for these reasons that we havent exported our dishes, but we have imported a surprising number from all over the world. In most cities in Britain youll find Indian, Chinese, French and Italian restaurants. In London youll also find Indonesian, Lebanese, Iranian, German, Spanish, Mexican, Greek Cynics will say that this is because we have no `cuisine` ourselves, but, well, you know what I think.
COMPREHENSION CHECK 1. What is the authors main point of view? 2. Why does not he agree with foreign peoples criticism of English food? 3. What is the comparison that Jane Grigson makes? 4. Why are thee few English restaurants? 5. What kind of person wrote this article? What makes you think so?

6. Who do you think Jane Grigson is? 7. Do you agree with this article?

Vocabulary

Nouns

1. Form the plural of the following nouns: a. baby, brush, echo, fox, fly, girl, hat, hero, joy, knife, lily, motto, peach, photo, rose, solo, toy. b. Brother, child, cow, die, foot, goose, man, mouse, ox, tooth, woman, stop, pot, paragraph, month, roof, chief, belief, grief, council, piano, idea, bath, bus, box.

2. Give the singular of the following nouns: allies, alligators, brethren, cargoes, children, cuffs, cups, casinos, concertos, gates, geese, guitars, loaves, meadows, mice, negroes, rushes, shelves, studios, teeth, fathers- in- low, passers-by, men- friends.

3. Give collective nouns for the following word groups: a multitude of soldiers, a collection of ships, a group of animals, the soldiers and officers on a ship, members who appreciate a competition, members who run an enterprise, members who run a country, political groups, people listening to a concert, students always working together.

4. Use the nouns in brackets in the singular or plural according to the meaning: a. She longs for the bracing (air) of her mountain village. She is too intelligent to put on (air) b. What is the (good) of staying so late? The order (good) have not been delivered yet. c. So much (sand) makes driving difficult, I suppose the wind had blown it from the (sand). d. Look at this manuscript, the (writing) shows an extremely delicate nature. Yes, and the authors (writing) show the same thing too. e. The demonstration was a fine (spectacle). Where have you put my (spectacle)? f. Shall I put the (content)at the beginning or the end of the book? I appreciate the substantial (content) of your paper. g. As soon as you get through the (custom) youll find yourself in a country with the original and interesting (custom). h. She is full of (grace). She has never been in her (grace). i. The (pain) in his leg hindered his progress. She took great (pain) in doing this job.

UNIT 6 Objectives: a. Students will be able to identify and use the Present Perfect Tense b. Students will be able to ask and answer question to each other about a persons life. c. Students will write about someone they admire. GRAMMAR Present Perfect A. Present Perfect Simple Pattern Affirmative: Subject + have/has + Verb (past participle: -ed, III) Interrogative: Have/Has + Subject + Verb (past participle: -ed, III)? Negative: Subject + have/has + not + Verb (past participle: -ed, III) Use 1. an event in the past but without a definite time: Tom has broken his leg. 2. a state or repeated action lasting until the present, and still happening: He has lived here for ten years. 3. to explain a present situation: I have hurt my foot. 4. to describe experiences in the past: I have visited Italy. 5. to describe how many things are completed so far with no exact time mentioned: I have read a hundred pages of this book. B. Present Perfect Cotinuous Pattern Interrogative: Have/Has + Subject + been + Verb+ing? Affirmative: Subject + have/has + been + Verb+ing. Negative: Subject + have/has + not + been + Verb+ing. Use 1. past events connected to the present: I hae been waiting here all morning. 2. to emphasize the length of the action: I have been writing the entire afternoon. 3. to emphasize that the action is recent: My hands are dirty because I have been repairing my car. 4. to emphasize the action is temporary: I have been staying in a hotel for the past month. 5. repeated actions: I have been phoning her for days, but she is never at home. Contrasts: 1. Present Perfect Simple and Preset Perfect Continuous: the simple aspect shows that the action is finished, but the progressive aspect emphasize that the action is still going on: I have written five letters./I have been writing letters all day. 2. Present Perfect and Present Tense: Present Tense describe habits or states in the present, and Present Perfect describes the time until the present: I live in London./I have lived thee for ten years. 3. Present Perfect and Past Tense: Past Tense describes a definite event in the past, and Present Perfect shows an indefinite event, according to the speakers point of view: I arrived here in September two years ago./ I have left my umbrella on the bus this morning. Adverbs: 1. since : the length of the period of time: We have been studying English since January. 2. for: the beginning of the period of time: I have been waiting here for half an hour.

PRESENT PERFECT 1. We (walk) for three hours. Simple or Continuous 2. That boy (eat) seven ice-creams. 3. We (walk) ten km. 4. He ( not stop) eating since he arrived. 5. The driver (drink). I think someone else ought to drive. 6. I (pull) up 100 dandelions. 7. I (pull) up dandelions all day. 8. What you (do)?/We (pick) apples. 9. I (sleep) on every bed in this house and I dont like any of them. 10. He (sleep) since ten oclock. Its time he woke up. 11. What a lovely smell!/Mary (make) jam. 12. The students (work) very well this term. 13. I only (hear) from him twice since he went away. 14. I (work) for him for ten years and he never once (say) Hello. 15. He (teach) hundreds of students but he never (meet) such a hopeless class. 16. Why you (be) so long in the garage?/The tires were flat, I (pump) them. 17. I (look) for mushrooms but I (not find) any. 18. It (rain) for two hours and the ground is too wet to play on, so the match (be) postponed. 19. He (hope) for a rise in a salary for six months but he (not dare) to ask for it yet. 20. Mr..Smith, you (whisper) to the student on your right for the last five minutes. You (help) him with his exam paper or he (help) you? 21. Why you (make) such a horrible noise?/ I (lose) my key and I try to wake my wife by throwing stones at the window. You (throw) stones at the wrong window. You live next door. 22. Ann (fail) her driving test for three times because shes so bad at reversing. But she (practice) reversing for the last week and I think she (get)

a bit better at it.

23. The police (not find) the murderer yet, but the dead mans brother (be) in the station all day. The police say that he (help) them with their enquiries. 24. They (pull) down most of the houses in this street, but they (not touch) the old shop at the corner yet. 25. I (wait) for the prices of the house to come down before buying a house, but I think I (wait) too long. 26. Peter (be) a junior clerk for three years. Lately he (look) for a better post but so far he (not find) anything. 27. We (mend) sheets all morning but we only (do) three, and now the sewing machine (break) down so well be even slower with the next one. 28. Ann (fail) her driving test three times because shes so bad at reversing. But she (practice) reversing for the last week and I think she (get) a bit better at it. 29. Why you (not bring) me the letters for signature? You (not type) them yet? 30. The police (not find) the murderer yet, but the dead mans brother (be) in the station all day. The police say that he (help) them with their enquiries. 31. They (pull) down most of the houses in this street, but they (not touch) the old shop t the corner yet. 32. Tom is convinced that there is gold in these hills but we (search) for six months and (not see) any sign of it. 33. I (wait) for the prices of the house to come down before buying a house, but I think I (wait) too long and the prices are beginning

Paragraph 1

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Reading Pre -reading
You are going to read an article about Paul Newman, the Hollywood film star. What do they tell you about Paul? 2. Work in groups. On a separate piece of paper, add to the charts. What I know about Questions Id like to ask about Paul Newman Paul Newman Hes made a lot of Has he ever won an Oscar? films. How old is he? 3. Compare your information and questions as a class. 1.

a. to use badly or unproductively (e.g. time/ money) b. a profession or occupation Paragraph 2 c. a person who is the `property` of someone else and who has to work for them Paragraph 3 d. a lucky opportunity that leads to success e. the state of being a star Paragraph 6 f. more of something (e.g. a drug ) than is safe g. using something in a wrong way Paragraph 7 h. a persons understanding of what is right and wrong i. an organization that helps people who need help j. to do something again and again Writing Write about a living film star, or a musician (or group) that you admire. Write about their background, their successes, and why you like them. Vocabulary There are many words in English h with the same pronunciation but a different spelling and meaning. Example: /hi?/ here - Come here! hear- I cant hear you! 1. For each of the following words, find a word in the text about Paul Newman with the same pronunciation but a different spellin g. waist ___________ knew _____________ roll ____________ our ______________ too ____________ sun _____________ brake ________________ 2. Think of the homophone fir these words. there _________ ate __________ red ___________ sea __________ been ___________ check ___________ sail _________ fair __________ by ____________ week ____________ I __________ right ____________ 3. Write the words in exercises 1 and 2 on the correct line according to the vowel sound. a. /?/ _______ c. /et/ _______ c. /u:/ two d. /i:/ ________ e. /e/ __________ f. /e?/ __________ g. /at/ __________ h. /au?/ _________ i. / ?u/ __________

Reading
Reading the article, and try to find the answers to your questions.

Comprehension check
1. 2. 3. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 4. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Which of your questions were answered? What interested you most about Paul Newman? What did you learn that you didnt know before? Here are summaries of the seven paragraphs of the article. Match them to the correct paragraph. ______ Some of his films. His rise to stardom. The end of one marriage, the beginning of another. His early life. ______ The highs and lows of his later life. __ His first professional work. ______ Newman the person, not the movie star. Here are the answers to some questions from paragraph 1-3. What are the questions? In 1925. After graduating. While they were acting together. In 1949. Three. He was thirty. A Greek slave. No, he didnt (enjoy making the film). About Graziano s childhood. Write some questions based on paragraph 4-7. Ask the rest of the class your questions.

Vocabulary
1. There are two other words that mean a film in the text. Find them. Which one is mainly American English? Match a word in the text to the following definitions.

2.

PAUL NEWMAN- actor, director, racing driver


1. Paul Newman, actor, director, and racing driver, was born so good-looking that people said it was a shame to waste such beauty on a bay. He was born in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1925, and did some acting in high school and college, but never seriously considered making it his future career. However, after graduating, he immediately started working in the theatre. He met his first wife, Jackie Witte, while they were acting together, and they got married in 1949. They had three children, a boy and two girls. 2. He found work in the theatre and on several TV shows in New York. When he was thirty, he went to Los Angeles and made his first film. It was what Newman called an `uncomfortable` start in the movies, in the role of a Greek slave. The experience was so bad that he went back to the theatre, and didnt accept another film role for two years. 3. The film he chose was his big break. He played the boxer, Rocky Graziano, in the film Someone up There Likes Me. Newman is a method actor who believes in living the part before beginning the film. He spent days- from morning till night- with Graziano. He studied the fighters speech and watched him box, and they endlessly about Grazianos childhood. The picture brought Newman stardom overnight. 4. He was living in Los Angeles away from his family when he met Joanne Woodward, an actress who he had first met in New York. They worked together in The Long Hot Summer. His wife, Jackie, and Paul recognized that their marriage wasnt working, and got divorced. Newman and Miss Woodward were married in Las Vegas in 1958. 5. Newman went on to make films such as Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, The Hustler, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid , The Sting and Towering Inferno. He has made over forty-five films, and has won many awards, but he has never won an Oscar. 6. His marriage to Woodward is one of the longest and strongest in Hollywood. They have three daughters, and they have co-starred in six films. Ever since the film Winning , Newman has been passionately interested in car racing, and in 1979 he came second in the twenty-four hour Le Mans race. But the end of the 1970s was not all good news for him. In 1978 his only son, Scott, died of a drug overdose, and as a result Newman created the Scott Newman Foundation to inform young people on drug abuse. 7. He has a strong social conscience, and has supported causes such as the antinuclear movement, the environment, and driver education. All the money from `Newmans Own` salad dressing, popcorn, and spaghetti sauce, now a multi-million dollar business, goes to charity. He is more than just a movie star. `I would like to be remembered as a man who has tried to help people to communicate with each other`, says Newman, `and who has tried to do something good with his life. You have to keep trying. Thats the most important thing`.

Reading and Vocabulay

The boy who fell down stairs, drank antiseptic, chopped off a finger and then plunged into an empty swimming pool

Allen is a little disaster


ACCIDENT PRONE Allen Davies is only five, but already his parents are convinced hes a walking disaster.
The youngster has cracked his head falling into an empty swimming pool, has chopped the end of his finger off with a penknife and has made himself ill by drinking half a bottle of Dettol. Each time another disaster strikes Allen, he is taken to the Childrens Hospital in Sydenham, where he has been such a regular visitor he believes the nursing sister is a member of his family. Now Allens grateful father, street trader Alan Davies, has raised 6500 for the hospital to buy a neonatal monitor to measure babies` breathing and temperature. Stitches His wife Margaret said, `It all stated when little Allen was a year old. He fell over and cut himself and had to have stitches in his forehead. Since then he hasnt stopped. Hes been taken to hospital at least ten times. The latest accident happened when he climbed on to a shelf and managed to open his fathers penknife. He chopped the end of his finger off and had to have it sewn back on. ` Doctors at the hospital also had to stitch Allens head when he plunged headlong into a pool. Mr. Davies, supported by the Lewisham and Berwick Street Traders` Association, raised the cash with the help of celebrities including actor Richard Harris, songwriter Andrew LloydWebber and Spike Milligan, who donated possessions to be auctioned at a charity disco and buffet. Mr. Davies, of Avondale Road, Bromley, said, `Little Allen is a regular patron of the hospital. Hes always having accidents. Hes been going there since he was just one. ` Holidays `Everyone in the hospital has known him for years, and he firmly believes hes got a real sister in the hospital because he knows the sister who looks after him so well. ` A sister at the hospital said, `Whenever we see Allen coming in again, we all shout What have you been doing this time? ` Allens older brothers have also had their share of accidents and had to be taken to the Childrens Hospital. Robert, 15, tore some ligaments on a skiing holiday and slipped off his crutches, breaking his ankle a few days later and Lee, 13, injured his neck doing a motorbike stunt . Vocabulary : Try to guess the meaning of the words in italics. Can you guess 50%? / 90% / 100%? In the article about Allen, first it says: Allenhas chopped the end of his finger off but later: He chopped the end of his finger. Why are both tenses possible?

UNIT 7 Objectives: a. Students will be able to identify all the ING forms (Gerund and Participle), and they will also make a difference between Gerund and Infinitive. b. Students will be able to comment on a given subject and also they will have information in a group work activity. c. Students will talk about their favourite TV programme, and will describe their favourite show. d. Students will write about their favourite pop star. GRAMMAR - ING forms A. Gerund 1. Present Gerund: the action is simultaneous with the action of the personal verb: The teacher enjoyed talking children to the museum. 2. Perfect Gerund: the action is anterior to the action of the persona l verb: He denies having seen her. Use: 1. after prepositions: She keeps healthy by keeping a strict diet. 2. after nouns with prepositions: He has a lot of experience in teaching. 3. after adjectives with prepositions: I am delighted at her winning the first prize. 4. after verbs with prepositions:I object to your leaving so early. 5. after transitive verbs: You must avoid being late in the future. 6. after verbs of mental activity: I hate their arriving late. 7. after its no use, there is no use, its worth: Its no use trying to leave. The book is worth reading. 8. after verbs indicating a process, the beginning, the cotinuation, the end of an action: They started talking. B. Participle 1. Present Participle: the action is simultaneous with the action of the personal verb: Running across the park, he heard someone calling his name. 2. Perfect Participle: the action is anterior to the action of the personal verb: Having run across the park he felt tired. 3. Past Participle: it is used to form the passive voice and to form other perfect tenses, such as: Present Perfect (He has read the book), Past Perfect (He had read the book), Future Perfect (He will have read the book), Past Conditional (He would have read the book). Use 1. after the noun, when it emphasizes the verbal feature: The things not wanted were given away. 2. before the noun, when it emphasizes the adjectival feature: These are portraits of the wanted men.

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT: READING AND SPEAKING Reading for specific information

A LIFE IN THE DAY OF LINDA Mc CARTNEY


We live in a two-bedroom house; so as soon as James starts calling `Mummy, Mummy`, around seven every morning, he wakes everyone up. Being his mother I like to be the first to greet him, so up I get. I take him downstairs and start getting breakfast ready. Before long the other kidsHeather (almost 17), Mary (10) and Stella (8)are also down. If Paul is recording or we are touring I try to make sure hes not disturbed. But if he isnt working he gets up the same time and joins the kids at breakfast. Hes an excellent father, very involved and protective towards them. It seems mad to have moved from a large house in London to a small place on the South Coast, but its so much cosier. Paul and I are in the kind of business where we can be totally detached from our kids and hardly see them grow up. If you have enough money to live in a big house, one kid could be up in the attic and another could be in the west wing and youd hardly see them. The kids travel everywhere with us. When touring abroad we usually rent a house and make it our base, so we can return to the kids each night. Were all vegetarian, so breakfast is eggs laid by our own hens, home- grown tomatoes fried, vegetarian sausages, cereals and wholewheat bread. During the bread strike Paul baked the most beautiful bread! Quite often Paul comes with me when I drive the girls to school. Mary and Stella go to a local primary school and Heather attends a nearby art school. I drive a Mini because being American Im used to wide roads, so with a small car Ive no fear about scraping it. I buy most of the kids` clothes at Mothercare. I look at their catalogue or go into the shop and pick out things that are made from natural fibres. I myself feel most comfortable in jeans and T- shirt. I dont really spend that much- even though Paul pays all the bills! Because we live locally Im regarded as just another mother who takes her children to school and has a house to keep. I try to keep my life close to what it was before we married. Because we have a big breakfast and a big dinner about six we dont have lunch. So about that time Im doing jobs around the house. Paul never helps me. He likes tidiness but is not too tidy himself! If Im working or going out I have a woman in to do the cleaning. But I always do the cooking because I enjoy it. I cook for six every day. For dinner I make things like quiche Lorrainewithout baconaubergines, spaghetti, salads and Pauls favourites, which are pea soup or cream of tomato soup, made from home-grown tomatoes and onions. I also make coffee milkshakes, which I love. Im a real baby that way! If Im lucky during the day I go for a ride on my stallion called Lucky Spot. Hes got a lovely temperament. Horse riding is a marvellous form of exercise, both physically and spiritually. One interest we share closely is football. We rarely get to the matches but we always watch it on television. Paul is a great Liverpool fan, so we support Liverpool. Because we live in the country we dont socialize that much. We think thats also partly because were too lazy. Theres so much Id like to do, especially in the photographic field, but I hate to leave the life I lead in the country unless I absolutely have to. I get various offers to take photographs, and sometimes I might find one particularly attractive. But when it comes down to it I just cant bring myself to leave the kids and go to take pictures. So I stay at home and take pictures of them instead. Most of our evenings are spent in front of the television. I watch Dallas, Top of the Pops, Old Grey Whistle Test and some quiz shows. Before I turn in for the night I always go to the kids bedroom and give them each a kiss. Trouble is James often wakes up and doesnt want to go back to sleep.

READING A life in the day of is a feature which appears in the Sunday Times newspaper every
week. Well-known people describe an ordinary day in their life, and they talk about their habits ad routines, their families and their work. The article you have just read was about Linda McCartney, the wife of Paul McCartney, who was one of the members of the Beatles in the 1960s and 1970s. Pre -reading task: 1. What do you already know about Linda? 2. What do you want to know from the article? Write questions about Linda. Ask about the following topics: Daily routine: food / hobbies / car Family life: children / house / school Work: what? / Where? / How often? After reading task: What do you think? 1. Do you think Linda is happy in her life? Why? 2. Is there anything in the article that surprises you? 3. What do you think takes up most of Lindas day? If you think Linda spends most of her time gardening, put 1 next to Gardening. a. Riding b. Cooking c. Looking after children d. Taking photographs e. Gardening f. Doing the housework g. Watching television h. Visiting friends SPEAKING ROLEPLAY A. Student A You have just arrived in London for the first time. You have come for a holiday and to learn English. London seems a little strange and you need to ask for help. There are some of your problems, you may add any other question you want to ask: 1. You need to change some travellers cheques, but you do not know where to find a bank. 2. You need to buy some stamps and postcards. 3. You want to find a good English language school. B. Student B You live in London. You meet a foreigner who has just arrived and who seems to have some problems. Try to help him. The following information is for you. International School: 106 Dover Street, phone: 4912596 High Street Post Office: Opening hours: everyday from 9.00 to 5.00, Sunday is closed. Baclays Bank: Opening hours: everyday from 9.00 to 3.00, Sunday is closed.

Television
1. How many TV channels are there in your country? 2. Is there any difference between them? 3. What kind of programme do you like watching? Look at these descriptions of different types of TV programmes. What kind of programme are they? Match them with one of the words below.

01 02

Boxing from the Albert Hall and racing from York. A new production of Shakespeares Richard III at the Lyric Theatre, London. Cagney and Lacey as the American cops. In this weeks episode theyre chasing heroin dealers. Geoff Hamilton is in the garden, telling us what to do at this time of the year. This weeks top twenty, with disc jockey Mike Reid. A laugh a minute as the northern comedian Les Dawson entertains. More adventures from Disneyland with Donald Duck. Superb filming in this programme about the disappearing forests of South America. Will the world continue to have oxygen? More families try to answer the questions and win fabulous prizes, with host Lesley Crowther. Terry Wogan`s guests tonight belong to the sporting, theatrical, and business worlds. Tomorrows weather. The Magnificent Seven, 1960 classic western starring Yul Brynner, Steve McQueen, and Charles Bronson.

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e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o.

a music programme a detective story a cartoon a sports programme a film a quiz a play a chat show a comedy weather forecast a documentary

p. a gardening programme

UNIT 8 Objectives: 1. Students will properly use modal verbs. 2. Students will summarize a story. GRAMMAR Modals 1. Can / Could : a. Mental and physical ability: Tom can speak two foreign languages. b. Permission: Can I borrow your umbrella? c. Possibility: You can ski now, there is a lot of snow here. d. A request: Can you wait a few moments? e. A negative deduction: She could not have typed the report. 2. May / Might : a. To ask and give permission: May I go? b. A present or future possibility: He may come today. c. Requests: You might give me a copy of that paper. d. Reproach: You might have told me what have happened. 3. Must / Have to: a. Obligation: We have to go. b. The lack of obligation: You neednt come early. c. Logical deduction: She must be at home, she left an hour ago. d. A habitual obligation: I have to be at hospital at eight, I begin work then. 4. Shall : a. Obligation: The seller shall supply the parts in due time. b. A suggestion, an order: Where shall I put the flowers? c. An offer: Shall I help you? 5. Should : a. The logical necessity: You should read that book. b. A supposition: He should be here by now. 6. Ought to: a. An action that should have been done: You ought to have crossed when the lights were green. b. After a verb in the past: He told me you ought to attend the conference. 7. Will: a. An impersonal command : You will come here at once. b. The insistance of doing an action: He will study chemistry whatever his father says. c. A repeated action: He will sit on the bench for hours. d. An invitation: Will you have another cup of tea? e. A request: Will you sign the register? f. A spontaneous intention: Ill fetch you a glass of water. 8. Would : a. A negative intention: He would not help me. b. A very polite request: Would you do me a favour. c. The insistence of doing an action: He would keep silent for hours, no matter what arguments I used. d. A repeated action: She would wait for me in front of the school gates. e. Would rather / Would sooner (d sooner) = preference: I would rather / d sooner listen to the concert than see the film. 9. Used to a. A past habit: I used to swim in the river when I was a child. b. A past habit that still lasts: They used to spend their holiday in the mountains.

Reading Pre -reading task Work in groups. Write as many facts and opinions about Scotland and the Scots as you can. Compare what other members of your group have written. Reading for gist Read the article. What does a mean person not like doing?

Comprehension check 1. What is the advertisement that the Scots dont like? 2. Who have they complained to? 3. What is the name of their organization? 4. What is the point that Mr. David Webster is trying to make? 5. What is amusing in the last paragraph? What do you think? Do you think the Scots were right to go to the European Commission for Human Rights, or do you think they took it too seriously?

Scots in Sweden upset by cheap jokes


By Dennis Barker

1. Scots working in Sweden have complained to the European Commission for Human Rights that jokes about mean Scotsmen in advertising are an insult to the image of their race. 2. A case was put to Strasbourg by the Scottish Group for Civil Rights in Sweden, an organization formed recently of Scots people working there, to protest against Swedish Railways using such a traditional joke in an advertising campaign. 3. It showed two Scotsmen accepting the offer of travel for two for the price of one first-class ticket, while a third hides in the luggage rack. 4. `We are not against Scots jokes in everyday life, ` said Mr. David Webster, a 38-year-old marketing manager working near Stockholm, who helped to form the group. `There are nationalistic jokes like this in every country. What we dont like
Summarizing Match the summary with the correct paragraph. a. b. c. A description of the advertisement they are complaining about. The commissions reaction. The exact reason why they are complaining.

is the frequency of such jokes in commercial advertising. ` 5. But the commission did not feel that the group had fully explained its case, and has asked for more information on some points before it decides whether the case can continue. 6. `There is even one group of cut-price shops in the Stockholm area that has changed its name to the Scot, ` said Mr. Webster. `Their motto is, You cant get it cheaper anywhere else. `These things are offensive only because they happen so often, we believe. ` 7. Apart from the further information demanded by the European Commission for Human Rights, the Scots in Sweden are up against another difficulty. They have so far spent several hundred pounds on their campaign, but voluntary contributions from group members have totaled only 50.
d. e. f. g. A financial problem for the Scots in Sweden. Some Scottish people have complained to the European Courts about an advertisement. Another example of their reason for complaining. They formed an organization and explained why they were complaining to the court.

Writing
Narrative

Here are two version of the same story. Compare them, and decide which one you prefer, and why.

James was a student. He did not have much money. Last year he decided to go to Manchester to visit some friends. He decided to hitchhike. He got a bus to the motorway. It was cold and he got wet. After waiting two hours he got a lift from a lorry driver, who was going to Manchester. He felt pleased. The lorry driver was a nice man, and they talked a lot. Then a police car overtook them and made them stop, and they had to go to the police station. The police thought the lorry was carrying stolen goods. A policeman asked James a lot of questions, and James spent the night in the police station. He was released the next day. The lorry was carrying stolen television sets. James said he would not hitchhike again.

James was a student at Oxford University, where he was studying law. Like many students he did not have much money because his grant was only just enough to live on. Last year, during the autumn term, he decided to go to Manchester to visit some friends for the weekend, but he could not afford a train ticket, and even the coach was too expensive, so he had to hitchhike. He caught a bus to the beginning of the motorway and waited. It was a cold, windy November day and while he was waiting he got soaked to the skin. After waiting two hours he finally got a lift from a lorry driver, who was in fact going all the way to Manchester. James felt extremely relieved. The lorry driver seemed a friendly fellow of around 35, reasonably well-dressed, and he and James talked a lot. Suddenly, as they were driving along the motorway, a police car raced passed them and made them stop. They were taken to the police station because the police suspected that the lorry was carrying stolen goods. A detective interrogated James for two hours, and he even had to spend the night in a cell. He was eventually released the next day. Apparently, the lorry was carrying stolen television sets. James swore that he would never hitchhike again.

1. What makes a good story? Consider the following. Organization - setting the scene - relating the narrative - concluding the story Description - people - places Language - vocabulary - the use of adjectives and adverbs - sentence construction 2. In the second story, box all the linking devices that join two sentences, like this for example: where 3. Write about a memorable journey that you have made.

UNIT 9 Objectives: a. Students will be able to identify and use the Past Perfect. b. Students will be able to use the axis of tenses. c. Students will be able to summarize a story and to present a parable. GRAMMAR Past Perfect A. Past Perfect Simple Pattern Affirmative: Subject + had + Verb (-ed, III) Interrogative: Had + Subject + Verb (-ed, III)? Negative: Subject + had + not + Verb (-ed, III) Use: 1. a past action finished before a past moment: I had finished the book by ten oclock before yesterday. 2. a past action finished before another past action: When Tom arrived at the cinema, the film had already started. 3. I indirect speech to replace the Present Perfect or the Past Tense: Tom said the he had spoken to Mary about it. B. Past Perfect Continuous Pattern Affirmative: Subject + had + been + Verb+ing Interrogative: Had + Subject + been + Verb+ing? Negative: Subject + had + not + been + Verb+ing Use: 1. a past action started before another past action and lasting until it: I had been waiting for my friend for half a hour when he finally arrived. 2. a repeated action in a limited period of time: He had been writing poems fo two years when I met him. 3. a past action anterior to another past action, being the cause of it: He was carrying a hammer because he had been mending the fence. 4. in indirect speech to replace the Present Perfect and the Past Tense: She said she had been reading for two hours.

Practice: Look at the following sentences, what is the difference in meaning between them: 1. The concert started / had started when we arrived. 2. When the police arrived, the robber climbed / had climbed / was climbing out of the window. Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Tense or Past Perfect: The police suspected that John (break) the window at his house because he (want) to make them think that a burglar (steal) his valuable stamp collection. They (think) that John (do) this because he (need) money. However, they (not know) that John (fly) to Brazil the week before, and (be) abroad when the burglary (take place).

All you need is love The following are summaries of a magazine called Hot Lips. Read and compare the two versions A and B. The story so far.. A Marsha met Felix at a party one Saturday night. They fell passionately in love and got married the following Saturday. After the wedding, Felix moved into Marshs flat. Marsha phoned her parents and told them her news. They were surprised and angry. Unfortunately, after a few months, Felix met another woman and his marriage with Marsha started to go wrong. B Marsha ad Felix got married one Saturday in June. They had met only one week earlier at a party and had fallen passionately in love. Marsha rang and told her parents her news after the wedding, when Felix had moved into her flat. They were surprised and angry. Unfortunately, after a few months, their marriage started to go wrong. Felix had met another woman. In version A the events of the story are given in chronological order. Put under B the order in which the same events are given in version B. Two have been done for you. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B 2 1

Marsha and Felix met. They fell in love They got married Felix moved into Marshas flat Marsha told her parents They were angry Felix met another woman Their marriage started to go wrong The story goes on

Had met Got married

Felix came home and packed his suitcase. Then he wrote a letter for Marsha. Before eight oclock he left the house. When Marsha came home she found Felixs letter. The end of the story Marsha .(read) Felixs letter and then she.(walk) slowly into the kitchen. She(buy) his favourite food for dinner. She..(throw) it in the rubbish bin. Why.he..(do) this to her? She remembered how happy they.(be) in the beginning. They..(laugh) a lot then. Marsha. (feel) desperate. One hour later the phone(ring) in the flat. It was Marshas parents, but she.(not answer) the phone. She. Now finish the story!

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT READING AND SPEAKING You are going to read a parable written in the nineteenth century. A parable is a short story about everyday things which is told to make a moral or religious point. Pre -reading task Work in groups. Tell each other a parable or a fable. What is the moral of the story? Reading Read the story and answer the questions:

The man who could turn back the clock


Once upon a time there was a man who had the power to turn back the clock. Whenever he regretted something he had done or said, he could repeat the event in the light of experience. Now, one day it happened that this man was out for a walk when it started to rain, so he took shelter in a barn. After a few minutes the man was joined by a very beautiful young lady and her dog, who were also seeking shelter. The downpour lasted about an hour. The man went home to his wife and told her why he was late. Immediately his wife was suspicious of her husbands behaviour with the young lady. She questioned him about what had happened. The man replied in a surprised and hurt voice:Why, nothing happened. I was a perfect gentleman. What do you expect? Especially when she had such a large dog with her. His wife was furious:What! Only the dog stopped you? The man realized his mistake and immediately he turned the clock back a few minutes and tried the conversation again. This time when his wife expressed her suspicion, he said:Its true the girl was very beautiful ad she seemed to like me but my deep love for you gave me the strength to resist temptation. However, his wife was even more furious. What!! You wanted to kiss he! An immoral thought is as bad as an immoral deed. Comprehension check: 1. How man times did the man turn back the clock? 2. What mistakes had he made? 3. How did his wife react? In the story, two possible endings are given. Be fore you read them, work out an ending. What would you do if you were the man with the power? Now read the two endings? Is either of them like yours? A. The man spent a long time thinking. There must be some way to please his wife! Finally he turned the clock back again a few minutes. Once more his wife asked how he had behaved wit the beautiful young lady. But this time he replied: What? She wasnt beautiful, she was ugly. I am a man with good taste, which is why I married you my darling! When she heard this, his wife, who in fact was rather un attractive, flung her arms around his neck and cried, I love you! B. The man felt that his wondeful power had not helped him at all. Except to teach him that it was impossible to please his wife, and he had suspected this for a long time. Therefore he turned back the clock once more, not just a few minutes, but a few hours. He went back to the beautiful young lady in the barn, in the rain. Which ending do you prefer? Why?

UNIT 10 Objectives: a. Students will be able to use the indirect speech. b. Students will be able to turn into the direct speech a related interview. c. Students will be able to work in pairs for a given task. GRAMMAR Indirect Speech Tenses changes after a past reporting verb: 1. Present Simple to Past Simple: I need some help. / She said she needed some help. 2. Present Continuous to Past Continuous: We are having our lunch. / He said the were haing their lunch. 3. Present Perfect to Past Perfect: I have lost my key. / He said he had lost his keys. 4. Will to Would: I will be back at 6.00. / She said that she would be back at 6.00. 5. Past Simple to Past Perfect: I wrote two letters to her. / He said he had written two letters to her. 6. be going to, to was/were going to: They are going to see a film. / He said they were going to see a film. Commands and requests : 1. Commands are reported with tell and the infinitive: Wait! / I told him to wait. 2. Requests are reported with ask and the infinitive: Please, wait! / I asked her to wait. Yes/No Questions : 1. These questions are introduced in the reported speech by the conjunction if . The order of words is the order of the affirmative and not of the interrogative: Does the London train stop here? / She asked if the London train stopped here. 2. whether = means ifor not. It is used to report questions linked with or: Are you staying the night or are you going home? / He asked me whether I was staying the night or going home. Wh- questions : Questions beginning with when, what, where, who, why, how, etc are introduced into the reported speech by the interrogative word, the order of words remains the same as in the affirmative, and there is no question mark: Where is the bus-station? / She asked where the busstation was. Reporting verbs: 1. advise: I advised John not to buy the car. 2. agree: Mike agreed with Jill. 3. apologize :Mary apologized for being late. 4. ask: I asked Sue to help me. 5. congratulate: I congratulated Tom on passing his exam. 6. decide: Helen decided to become a doctor. (a decision about the future or a plan) / Bill decided to have an apple pie.(a decision of the moment) 7. invite: I invited Pam to the cinema. 8. offer: Peter offered to carry Dawns case. 9. promise: Ann promised to be home by eight. / Peter promised Helen that he would wait for her. 10. refuse: Carol refused to open the door. 11. remind : I reminded Sue to send her mother a birthday card. 12. suggest: Tom suggested spending the day at the beach.

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT Reading and English in use An Interview with a Writer Read the following report of an interview with Celia Young, the writer of the magazine Hot Lips I asked Celia Young why she had written another romantic novel. She asked that she found romantic fiction easy to write, but that her next novel wouldnt be a romance. She was hoping to write something different, possibly a detective story. I told her that I was interested in the character of Felix, and I asked if he was anyone she knew fro real life. Celia laughed and replied that she was glad that she didnt have a Felix in he r life, and that she had been happily married for over fifteen years to Richard Marsh the politician. I said that she had now written five novels, and I asked when she had started writing. She answered that she had written stories and poems all her life and that she would continue to write even when she was an old lady. I thanked her for talking to me and said that I hoped that Hot Lips would be successful. On a separate piece of paper write the actual words of the interview in direct speech. The beginning has been done for you. Interviewer: Why have you written another romantic novel? Celia Young : I find romantic fiction easy to write, but my next novel wont be a romance. Im hoping to Vocabulary Many words have more than one meaning. In the following sentences the words in italics have more than one meaning. Look up each word, find the right meaning and translate it: 1. Guidos a popular restaurant, so you have to book a table in advance. 2. Im not a fan of Rolling Stones. Their music is too loud. 3. Wood doesnt sink in water. It stays on the top. 4. Your mother is a very kind lady. 5. Holland is a flat country. 6. Car workers are on strike. They want more money. 7. Dont forget to turn the tap off. Water is expensive. 8. Do you have change for a five-pound note? 9. I dont like mean people. 10. Give me a ring tonight. Ill be home by seven. 11. There is a branch of most banks in all big towns. 12. There was a good play on TV last night. 13. My suitcase is in the car boot . Match a line in A with a line in B: A 1.Hello, Jane! B a.Sleep well! 2.How are you? b.Yes, can I help you? 3.See you tomorrow! c.Good morning! 4.Good night! d.Fine, thanks. 5.Good morning! e.Not at all, dont mention it. 6.Cheers! f.Thanks! 7.Excuse me! g.Thanks! Same to you! 8.Bless you! h.Thats very kind. Thank you! 9.Have a good weekend! i.Bye! 10.Thank you very much indeed. j.Hi, Peter! 11.Make yourself at home. k.Good health!

Travellers` Tales
1. Every year a magazine called Executive Travel organizes a competition to find the Airline of the Year. Travellers from all over the world 5. are invited to vote for the most efficient, the most punctual, the safest and the friendliest airline. The winner in 1985 was British Airway. The competition asked travellers what for 10. them was most important from an airline, and the results were as follows: Punctual departures and arrivals Attentive cabin staff Comfort Safety Good food and wine 35% 35% 18% 9% 3% 35. one traveller a bit of a shock. Dressed only in trousers, shirt and socks, he had been allowed by the stewardess to leave the aircraft to see if he could get a colleague aboard. He returned a few minutes later to find the 747 closed up and about to start moving- with his shoes, wallet, passport and lugages inside. Banging frantically on the door got him back inside. A similar event was seen by a businessman on a flight from Bangladesh. Passengers were waiting for take-off when there was sudden hysterical hammering on the door. At first the cabin crew paid no attention. The hammering continued. When the door was finally opened, the pilot got in. One frequent flier lost a certain amount of confidence when the cabin staff asked him to sit in the lavatory during take-off, so that they could occupy the seats nearest the emergency exit. Another lost faith in the pilots navigational skills when passengers were given lifeboat drill on a flight between London and Manchester. For nervous fliers, a journey to be avoided was one between Gatwick and Montpellier, where the in-flight entertainment consisted of watching pieces of the engine falling off. Another passenger was asked to hold the aircraft door closed at take-off and landing. Baggage is a rich source of horror stories. There was the unlucky traveller who left Chicago in minus-23 weather. He was going to an important meeting in Dallas, where the temperature was 80-plus. Unfortunately his suitcase had gone to LA, where it spent the next two days. The customers he was trying to impress were more than a little surprised to see him going round in a thick suit, heavy overcoat and fur hat.

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The competition also invited travellers to tell their most horrific stories of the nightmare side to international travel. Replies included six hijacks, fiftythree cases of engine failure or trouble with the landing gear, eleven lightning strikes, twenty-three bomb scares, thirteen cases of food poisoning, eleven near misses and two collisions with airport trucks. Bad flying experiences begin on the ground, naturally. One American airline managed to double-book an entire 747, but this is nothing compared to what happened on an internal flight on a certain African airline. The flight had been overbooked three times. The local military sorted the problem out by insisting that all passengers with boarding cards should run round the plane twice, the fastest getting the seats. An overbooked flight that was going from Heathrow to America gave

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80.

Reading
Pre-reading task 1. What for you is most important from an airline? Put the following in order of importance: safety: comfort; punctual departures and arrivals; good food and wine; attentive cabin staff. 2. Flying is probably one of the safest ways to travel, but there can be problems. Discuss what can go wrong on the ground and in the air. Reading for information Now read the article opposite. A group of air travellers was invited to comment on their flying experiences. Was their order of importance the same as yours? Did they mention any of the problems that you discussed? Comprehension check 1. Look at the list of disasters in paragraph 2. Which happened on the ground? Which happened in the air? Which could have been both on the ground and in the air? 2. After paragraph 2, how many disasters are described? 3. Why did some passengers have to run round a plane? 4. Why did a passenger and a pilot have to knock on the plane door to get in? 5. Why was it surprising to have a lifeboat drill on a flight from London to Manchester? 6. What does in-flight entertainment usually consist of? (lines 67-68) was this experience entertaining? 7. Why was the Dallas businessman inappropriately dressed? What do you think? 1. The competition was answered by very experienced travellers. Why do you think they put safety so far down on their list of importance? 2. Why do airlines overbook? 3. Why do you think the cabin staff on one flight wanted to sit near the emergency exit? 4. Which of the stories were funny but dangerous? Which were funny but not dangerous? Pair work Student A You have just had one of the terrible experiences described in the article. Tell Student B about it. Use your imagination to add more detail. Student B Listen to Student A and ask questions to get more information. Begin like this: Student A: Ive just had a terrible journey! Student B: Why? What happened? Student A: Well, I was going

Fill in the following CV, according to the items given:


Private and Confidential Please complete this form and return to the Personnel Director Which post are you applying for? How did you hear about it? Surname Permanent home address Present address (if different from above) Date of birth Nationality Marital status Number of children (sex/age) Forenames Mr/Mrs/Miss Telephone Telephone Place of birth Maiden name(if applicable)

Name and address of the next kin (please state relationship)

Have you ever been employed by us before?(if so, please give details) Please list school, colleges, universities attended: Date/Name/Subjects taken/Results

What training courses of further studies have you undertaken?

Languages (state proficiency)

Technical or professional qualifications

Give names and addresses or previous employers, working backwards from present/last job: Dates/Name and address/Salary/Job title and duties/Reason for leaving

Signature

Unit 11

Revision Test 1

Level Elementary 1. Choose the correct phrase underlined in each sentence. a. What time go you/do you go to bed on Saturdays? b. Why are you waiting/do you waiting outside the door? c. Dont ask Tim. He doesnt know/not knows the answer. d. I having/Im having my lunch at the moment. e. When you leave/do you leave the house? f. I dont understand. What is happening/is happen? g. This is a great party. Im having/Am I having a lovely time. 2. Put each verb given into Past Simple or Past Continuous. a. When Harry (wake up).., we (tell)..him the news. b. Where (you leave)your wallet when you (go) swimming? c. Everyone (wait)for the concert to begin when a message (arrive) d. When Tom (finish)..his letter, he (take) in to the post office. e. Pam (want).a relaxing holiday, so she (choose) a small island. 3. Put each verb given into Present Perfect Simple or Continuous or Past Tense Simple or Continuous. a. Last week I (lose) my scarf, and now I (just lose) my gloves. b. I (work) for Blue Bank at the moment but I (decide) to change jobs. c. We (be) here for hours. Are you sure we(come) to the right place? d. (you see) my calculator? Im sure I (leave) it here earlier. e. We (have) some coffee after that and then (catch) the bus home. f. I (never eat) octopus, but once on holiday I (eat) some fish. g. I (hope) you arent a vegetarian. I (cook) you some lamb chops. h. Recently a lot of young people (take up) skating. i. When we (reach) the cinema, there (not be) any tickets left. j. Please come quickly! Nick (have) an accident and he (go) to hospital. 4. Write a who or what question for each answer. a. A family of three members lives next door. b. I play with my little brother. c. Mrs. Dawson teaches me math. d. I usually eat a sandwich for lunch. e. Horror films frighten me. 5. Put a/an or leave the space blank. a. ..love makes the world go round. b. Sheila has ..German car. c. Rita works in .office in West Street. d. I have..friend who is electrician. e. Paul goes to.special school for musicians. f. You aresilly boy! This is..cat notdog. g. Jack is in .hospital and doesnt go to.school. h. Carol wants to go to university and study to be ..doctor.

6. Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence. a. Jane met a friend of hers/her in the street. b. The desk next to the window is my/mine. c. Excuse me, is this your/yours seat? d. We havent brought our/ours books with us. e. The dog is black and white, and its/its ears are very long. 7. Correct the spelling where necessary. a. decideing b. foto c. qestion d. knowen e. beatiful 8. Choose the correct spelling from each pair. a. takeing/taking b. lying/lieing c. washeing/washing d. riding/rideing e. studing/studying 9. Choose the correct spelling of each pair of words. a. felt/fellt b. shopping/shoping c. heard/heared d. thoght/thought e. plaied/played 10. Add a prefix from the list to the word in each sentence. -over, -under, -inter. a. My alarm clock didnt go off, and so I .slept this morning. b. Peter packed some shirts and socks, somewear, and his jeans. c. You have to go to the ...national airport to catch a plane to the USA. d. Its very cold this morning, so wear your coat. e. Helen decided to ..line all the important words in her French book. 11. Complete each compound word from the list. Ache, clip, cut, glasses, lace, path, post, table. a. Make sure you walk on the foot, because the road is dangerous. b. I need to fix these two sheets together. Have you got a paper? c. As I was doing up my shoe, the shoein one of them broke. d. On our first day at school, we copied down our time . e. Tom had a hair yesterday and his friends made fun of him. f. Its really sunny today, and Ive forgotten my sun . g. Could I have a couple of aspirins? Ive got a terrible head. . h. The bus swerved to avoid a dog and hit a lamp- . . 12. Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word given Davids mother is a famous. . science At nineteen, Tony became a professional .. . crime Ive always wanted to be a jazz .. . music It will take Kate years to become a . law Margaret decided to have a career as a .. . politics

Level Pre -Intermediate 1. Make questions about the missing information: a. Peter has.children. (Two? Three?) b. Im reading..at the moment. c. They went to.on holiday last year. d. She works in theshop. (Shoe shop? Book shop?) e. I got up early this morning because. . f. The supermarket closes at . g. I go swimming. . (Once a week? Once a month?) h. I borrowed.. car. (Toms? Anns?) i. She earns.. a year. j. Ill studythis year. 2. Put the verb in brackets in the correct tense: a. Emma.(spend) every school holiday in Scotland. b. Why are you under the table?..you(look) for something? c. In my country we.(not have) lessons on Saturday. d. My wife(not like) football, but I..(love) it. e. I(buy) a new pair of shoes yesterday. .you.(like) them? f. Ian Fleming ..(work) as a stockbroker when the Second World War(start). g. Margareta Simons .(come) from Norway, but now she..(live) in Britain. She (meet) her husband, Noel, while she..(learn) English. h. Its Friday evening and the Brown family are at home. Mr.Brown(listen) to a concert on the radio, Mrs. Brown ..(read) a book. i. Mr. Brown always(read) his newspaper in the evenings. Mrs.Brown sometimes ..(knit) but she (not knit) tonight. j. He never..(listen) to what you say. He always(think) about something else. 3. Put the necessary preposition into each gap: a. I listened.the news..the radio. b. Ill see you .9.00the morning. c. I livea flatParis. d. Im looking..my neighbours cat while shes on holiday. e. I waited twenty minutes.a bus yesterday. f. What are you doing.this evening? g. She arrived..England two years ago. h. Im goinghome. i. I spoke.Mary a few days ago. j. My sisters coming to stay..19 December. 4. Put a form of going to or will into each gap: a. Why have you got so much food? Because I..(cook) a meal for ten people. b. Someone told me youve got a place at university. Thats right. I..(study) maths at St. Andrew, in Scotland. c. My car isnt working. John.(help) you. d. I passed my driving test! Thats great! I.(buy) something to celebrate. e. Why have you got your old clothes on? Because I(cut) the grass.

5. Put a/an/the or nothing into each gap: a. China hasbiggest population in .world. b. ..Yangtze River flows into..East China Sea. c. Do you like.Chinese food? d. We had some forlunchfew days ago. e. I wanted to go to..Italian restaurant. f. I come to.school by bus, but I get..lift home with friend. g. Is therechemist near here?/Yes. Theres one next to..post office. h. We arrived in .Paris on..third of August. i. Last night we had.dinner in restaurant. j. I went to..bed late. 6. Put the verb in brackets in the correct form (the infinitive or the ing form): John Frantz is American. He has a wonderful lifestyle and he wants..(share) it with an English girl. He enjoys (go) on exotic holidays, but he wouldnt like..(live) outside the United States. He hopes.(find) an English wife through the English Rose dating agency. Hed like.(meet) someone who is independent and who likes ..(travel). 7. Put some or any into each gap: a. Id like.tea, but I dont want..biscuits. b. Is there..sugar? I cant see . c. I boughtsugar yesterday. d. I didnt buycoffee, because I thought we had . e. We need.bread. Ill get it later. 8. There is one mistake in each of the following sentences. Find it and correct it: a. How many money have you got? b. I only have a little potatoes. c. I dont have many time, so I cant help you. d. The Sultan of Brunei owns a lot hotels. e. Close your eyes. Ive got anything for you. 9. What are the superlative and comparative forms of the following adjectives? Fast, funy, expensive, rich, hot, interesting, good, bad, easy, important. 10. Match a line in A with a line in B: Whats the weather like? Horse riding. Whats Ann like? Theyre a bit strict. What was the film like? OK, but boring near the end. What does she like doing? It changes a lot. What are her parents like? Shes very nice. 11.Writing Choose between A or B: A. A long time ago you discussed a trip through South America with a friend. This is now possible for both of you. Write a letter to your friend suggesting a route and a timetable. B. You left Britain in a great hurry and left lots of things in the flat of a friend. Now youd like the friend to send them to you. Youd also like to know about work permits in Britain. Write to your friend requesting your things and inquiring about permits.

Unit 12

Revision Test
Level Intermediate 1. Put each verb given into Present Simple or Present Continuous. a. What (usually, you, do) at the weekend? b. Dont worry about the cat. It (only, eat) once a day. c. I cant work out the answer. (you,know) what it is? d. Whats the matter? Why (you, stare) at me like that? e. Excuse me, but (you, speak) English? Im looking for a hotel. f. Helen (stay) with her brother while her house is being repaired. g. You should go on a diet. (you, put) on weight. h. (they, speak) French or German? I cant tell the difference 2. Put each verb given into Past Simple or Continuous or Past Perfect. The police suspected that Brian (break) the window at his house because he (want) to make them think that a burglar (steal) his valuable stamp collection. They (think) that Brian (do) this because he (need) the money. However they (not know) that Brian (fly) to Brazil the week before, and be abroad when the burglary (take place). 3. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning. a. I came to live here three months ago. I ..for three months. b. Mary is out at the shops at the moment. Maryto the shops. c. I have had French lessons since March. I French since March. d. Im still reading this book. I.reading this book yet. e. Paul left the room moment ago. Paul has..the room. 4. Choose the most suitable words underlined. a. I dont think you could/should tell anyone yet. b. You couldnt/shouldnt possibly leave without paying. c. That mustnt/cant be the hotel Jane told us about. d. There are times when the traffic here can./could be really heavy. e. We are enjoying our holiday, though the weather could/must be better. 5. In the a. b. c. d. e. space put a/an or the, or leave the space blank. Im going to stand for .Parliament at .next election. When I left.station, I had to stand in queue for.taxi for..long time. We took..trip around London and saw.Tower Bridge. happiness of the majority depends on.hard work from everyone. most main roads in this part of ..country followline of roads built by Romans.

6. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the words in capitals. a. We believe that the government has prepared a plan. HAVE b. We are thinking of getting someone to paint the house. PAINTED c. In the end I was unable to find a garage to service my car. GET d. People say that Mr.Turner was having business difficulties. BEEN e. The treasure is thought to date from the thirteenth century. IT 7. Complete each sentence with a noun made from the list. Dark, friendly, happy, lonely, short, sick, silly, thin, tired, thorough a. The ..of the journey surprised me, as I thought it would be longer. b. Sue was impressed by the..of everyone in her new school. c. We knew it was going to rain because of theof the sky. d. Old Mrs.Holtswas cured when she was given a pet cat. e. The doctor told Peter that his..was a resultof overwork. f. Wendys teacher was impressed by the of her work. g. We wished the bride and groomin their new life together. h. Joes teachers began to grow tired of his.. in class. i. I felt rather cold when I arrived because of the in my clothes. j. Jean took a travel pill, and then she felt much better. 8. Complete the expression based on the word time in each sentence using a given word. Spare, Pass, High, Tell, Time a. Come on, John! Its ..time you started doing some work. b. What do you most enjoy doing in your.time. c. I dont go sailing often, but I enjoy doing it from time to.. . d. When I have to wait at the airport, I do a crossword to.the time. e. When Carol was given her first watch, she learned to .the time. 9. Choose the correct word underlined in each sentence. a. When her bike was stolen, Jill became extremely angry/nervous. b. Peter felt ashamed/embarrassed when he had to make a speech. c. I always write thank- you letters, just to be gentle/polite. d. You never do anything to help me! You are so lazy/tired. e. Sue never does anything silly. Shes very sensible/sensitive. 10. Put the verbs from the list in a suitable form: move, take, put, turn, get. a. Ive got nowhere to stay tonight. Can you.me up? b. Weve bought a new house but we cant ..in it until next month. c. Adrian doesnton with his neighbours, because they are so noisy. d. Jan likes cooking, but she says it..up a lot of her time. e. Dont forget to..off the television before you go to bed. 11. Write a letter in reply to this advertisement, which you saw in a magazine called Today. You also want to know about accommodation and the cost of living in London. Is there any other information you would like? ACCORD SCHOOL: The experts in English teaching in the centre of London General English classes/Executive classes/Social club. For a brochure contact: 20 Spanish Place, London W.1, England Tel. 0149125998

Level Upper-Intermediate

1. Put each verb in brackets into the most suitable present tense. a. I (hear) that you have been promoted. Congratulations! b. British people (drink) more and more wine, apparently. c. I hope Sarah will be here soon. I (depend) on her. d. Please be quiet! You (continually interrupt). e. Hey, you! What (you think) youre doing. f. Could you come here please? I (want) to talk to you now. g. Jane is away on holiday so Linda (handle) her work. h. To be honest, I (doubt) whether Jim will be here next week. i. Youve only just started the job, havent you? How (you get on)? j. Pay no attention to Graham. He (just be) sarcastic again. 2. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word or words in capitals. a. I intended to call you yesterday, but I forgot. GOING b. We used to spend Sunday afternoons working in the garden. WOULD c. Paul had the irritating habit of making trouble. ALWAYS d. Diana wasnt always as rude as that. BE e. I felt happy about the improvement in Jeans condition. BETTER f. I wasnt very keen on sport in those days. USE g. I might possibly go to the theatre tonight. WAS h. I had to go past your house so I decided to drop in. PASSING i. Susan booked out before we go to her hotel. BY THE TIME j. What did you do at the moment of the explosion. WHEN 3. Complete each sentence with an appropriate ending. a. I havent been feeling very well. 1. time and time again. b. I went to the dentists 2. all my life. c. Ive lived here 3. so far. d. Don t worry. I havent been waiting 4. for the time being. e. Ive written two pages 5. for the past hours or two. f. I waited outside your house 6. yet. g. Ive warned you about this 7. till half past eight. h. I havent made a decision 8. for a while. i. The repair worked 9. the other day. j. Ive decided to believe you 10. long. 4. Say e whether each sentence is grammatically possible or not. a. If you havent received a letter yet, you havent got the job. b. If it isnt for David, we are missing the bus. c. If its raining, we go to the pub on the corner instead. d. If you didnt lend us the money, we would have gone to the bank. e. If you should happen to change your mind, drop me a line. f. If it wasnt for the rain, we would have been home by now. g. If you will drive so fast, no wander the police keep stopping you. h. If I knew you were coming, I would have met you at the airport.

i.

But for you helped us, we would have taken much longer.

5. Choose the most appropriate words. a. Jack is/is going to be sixty next month so he retires/will be retiring. b. Helen and Andrew are due to separate/are on the point of separating. c. Dont be so impatient! Ill just come/Im just coming. d. I have to be back at 3.30 so Im leaving/I leave before lunch. e. What do you think youll be doing/youll do five yearstime? 6. Correct the errors in these sentences. a. The time you spend on the relaxing pastime is good for you. b. Dont you work in record shop in High Street? c. A new campaign against the smoking is directed at the young women. d. The leader of the team is usually called captain. e. A half the time I get phone call its wrong number. 7. Complete each sentence with one of the words given. Agent, competitor, executive, industrialist, producer, client, dealer, foreman, labourer, trainee a. Nowadays you often find that the topin a company is a woman. b. If you have any problems with your work, talk to the.. . c. Happy Chips is the number oneof potato crisps the country. d. Im starting next week as a chef in a large hotel. e. Our company is the for several large insurance companies. f. David was not content until he had become a rich . . g. Our firm is quite a long way ahead of our nearest. . h. With mechanization it is difficult to find work as an unskilled . i. I have been working at a used car..for the past six months. j. A company should make everyfeel important. 8. Replace the words underlined in each sentence with one of the words given. Rioted, dispersed, pardoned, neglected, swindled a. At the end of the demonstration, the crowd went off in different directions. b. The problem is that the government has not done anything about this problem. c. Hundreds of young people ran out of control in the stress, looting shops. d. It turned out the employees had cheated out of their pensions by their employer. e. Dave was officially released from his punishment after the police discovered new evidence. 9. Complete each sentence with one of the words. Respectable, oppressed, diplomatic, courteous, reactionary. a. If you are, you are tactful when dealing with people. b. If you are, you have a good reputation in you community. c. If you are, you are polite. d. If you are, you are strongly against any kind of change. e. If you are, you are being ruled unjustly or cruelly. 10. A bookshop has sent you some books by post, and the bill. Write to the bookshop enclosing a cheque, and asking for the receipt. Also, a friend has recommended a cookery book called The Italian Food but could not remember the author. Ask if the bookshop has this book and can send it to you.

Bibliography 1. John and Liz Soars: Headway: Elementary, Pre-Intermediate, Intermediate, UpperIntermediate / Student s Book, Workbook, Oxford University Press, 1996. 2. Michael Vince: Intermediate English Practice, Macmillan Heinemann, 1998. 3. Michael Vince: Advanced English Practice, Macmillan Heinemann, 1999. 4. Georgiana Galateanu Frnoaga: Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Editura didactica si Pedagogica, Bucuresti, 1995. 5. A.J.Thomson and A.V.Martinet: A Practical English Grammar, Oxford University Press, 1996. 6. A.J.Thomson and A.V.Martinet: Exercises on English, volumes 1 and 2, Oxford University Press, 1997. 7. Jennifer Seidl: Exercises on Idioms: Oxford University Press,1996. 8. Jennifer Seidl: Exercises on Phrasal Verbs, Oxford University Press, 1997.