Sunteți pe pagina 1din 226

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

DEVELOPING A CONCEPT FOR THE FUTURE


Matthew Steenhoek Final Submission: May 8th, 2013

Major paper submitted to the faculty of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Urban and Regional Planning Dr. Elizabeth Morton, Chair Dr. Terry Holzheimer, Committee Member Dr. Derek Hyra, Committee Member Copyright 2013 Matthew L. Steenhoek

Keywords: Washington, DC, Hains Point, Redevelopment, Growth, Zoning, Land Transfer, Parks, Mixed Use, Sustainability, Public Finance, Monumental Core, Urban Form, Density, Transportation, Economic Impact

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Special thanks to my wife, Lori, for her constant support and encouragement. Her assistance in creating many of the graphics and imagery used to illustrate Vision Hains Point 2040 helped to portray my ideas when words support over the past four years as I pursued my graduate education while continuing to work full-time. struggled. Also, thanks to Monty Hoffman, and the entire PN Hoffman & Associates team, for their continued

I would also like to thank my committee members, Dr. Elizabeth Morton, Dr. Terry Holzheimer, and Dr. Derek reviews of my drafts as I completed Vision Hains Point 2040. This paper builds off of the research that I Hyra. Many thanks go to my committee chairperson, Dr. Morton, for her insightful comments and frequent completed in an independent study under Dr. Holzheimer during the Fall 2012 semester. These papers,

Holzheimers guidance on these earlier papers was invaluable for setting the framework of Vision Hains Point framework. work and allowed me to structure my own path within the Virginia Tech Urban Affairs and Planning 2040. Finally, Dr. Hyras role as my graduate advisor has helped to guide me through my graduate course

Impact of the Redevelopment of Hains Point, can be found on-line at: http://www.scribd.com/msteenhoek. Dr.

entitled District 2040: Building Towards a Sustainable DC, and Breaking New Ground: Measuring the Economic

Vision Hains Point 2040 is purely an academic study that does not represent an actual proposal for the

redevelopment of East Potomac Park; it has not been reviewed, endorsed, or otherwise approved by any local or federal agency, nor should it be viewed in a context outside of an academic study. Among many other to the District of Columbia, similar to the transfer of Poplar Point through Public Law 109-396, the Federal and District of Columbia Real Property Act of 2006. I know of no actual proposals for a transfer of this nature nor of any conversations by appropriate parties related to such a transfer. The cost estimate data used is based roughly on existing pricing and trends in the Washington, DC regional market as well as other national benchmarks, and the economic impact analysis has not been reviewed or directly assisted by a tax professional, nor has it been reviewed by any agency with taxing and bonding authority. The tax and things, the redevelopment of Hains Point would require a transfer of ownership from the federal government

economic impact metrics and approach used were referenced from several recent major redevelopment projects in the District, including the Southwest Waterfront, O Street Market, and Saint Elizabeths East Campus, but they include my own projections and assumptions. All errors and omissions are my own.

Vision Hains Point 2040 is intended to engender conversation about how the District will grow, how public the coming decades.

land is best used, what the Districts urban future entails, and how the entire metropolitan region will look in

-Matthew L. Steenhoek

Planning Context ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Table of Figures ...........................................................................................................................................................................

Abstract ..........................................................................................................................................................................................

CONTENTS

Vision Hains Point 2040 by the Numbers .....................................................................................................................

Site Context....................................................................................................................................................................... 2 Site History ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

Historic Planning Context......................................................................................................................................... 11

Contemporary Plans and Visions .......................................................................................................................... 17 Zoning, Land Use, and Land Ownership ............................................................................................................. 24

Master Plan .............................................................................................................................................................................. 51

2040 Market & Development Projections ......................................................................................................... 39

Goals and Objectives ................................................................................................................................................... 52

Development Framework......................................................................................................................................... 55

Block Structure ............................................................................................................................................................. 64 Land Use .......................................................................................................................................................................... 74

Density and Built Form........................................................................................................................................... 101

Public Realm ............................................................................................................................................................... 107 Monumental Core ..................................................................................................................................................... 121 Transportation ........................................................................................................................................................... 134

Business Improvement District and Private Management ...................................................................... 159 Project Costs and Public Policy ........................................................................................................................... 163

Historic Resource Incorporation ........................................................................................................................ 145

Environment, Resiliency, and Sustainability ................................................................................................. 124

Appendix ....................................................................................................................................................................................... I

Economic Impact....................................................................................................................................................... 173 Public Benefit Summary ......................................................................................................................................... 179

Works Cited................................................................................................................................................................................. a

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

The future prosperity of the Washington, DC growth by providing adequate housing,

ABSTRACT

metro region depends on the ability to support employment, transportation, and recreation in a sustainable manner. Vision Hains Point 2040 is intended to engender conversation about how the District will grow, how public land is best used, what the Districts urban future entails, and how the entire metropolitan region will look in 2040.

Since its creation by the U.S. Army Corps of

Engineers in the 1880s, Hains Point has been a truly unique and valuable environment. Vision Hains Point 2040 shows one way that the land assets in the District can be better utilized by and for the residents of the District. This plan would induce billions of dollars in private investment, year in new direct tax revenue, and expand generate several hundreds of million dollars each tourism, housing, business, retail, and recreation new world class museums, architecturally iconic venues, and an unmatched civic realm. opportunities. Vision Hains Point 2040 will create

utilized to help the District grow in a sustainable manner and maintain its competitive position in the region. Transforming this resource, also known as Hains Point, into a vibrant neighborhood for District residents - both new employment opportunities, new tourist system. city. These benefits include increased

an untapped asset, East Potomac Park, can be

Vision Hains Point 2040 represents a plan for how

Vision Hains Point 2040 strives to respect the relationship to the Monumental Core, while creating a dynamic, transit rich, mixed-use visitors alike. This vision will create a neighborhood that is the bellwether for

historic context of East Potomac Park, and its neighborhood that is beloved by residents and sustainable development in the District; it will Point 2040 is a case study for the future.

and old creates many important benefits for the destinations, expanded retail offerings, enhanced transportation options, and a robust urban parks

include a self-sustaining energy grid. Vision Hains

provide resilient and rugged infrastructure, and

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

$6 billion dollars in private investment

VISION HAINS POINT 2040 BY THE NUMBERS

$2.7 billion dollars in new public infrastructure

$428 million dollars in annual direct tax revenue

$3.6 billion dollars of cumulative net new real estate tax revenue by 2070 $11.6 billion dollars of new taxable real estate value

$3.2 million dollars in annual Business Improvement District assessments 22.4 million square feet of high-density mixed-use development 1 new sustainable energy grid 30,000 new permanent jobs

Housing opportunities for 26,000 District residents in 16,250 new residential units 5,600 full-time-equivalent construction jobs 2,500 new hotel rooms

1,500 new affordable housing units

1.5 million square feet of retail and restaurants 1 new Jefferson-Hains Point Metro station 2.5 miles of new streetcar infrastructure 18 new Capital Bikeshare Stations 2 new Smithsonian-quality museums

1 new elementary school and 1 new community center 260+ acre world-class urban park system 1 new outdoor performing arts and cultural center 5 new commemorative memorial locations

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Figure 1: Hains Point and East Potomac Park Site Context, Source: Google Maps ....................................... 2 Figure 2: Creation of Hains Point and the Washington Channel, Source: Robarge, 2011 ........................ 3 Figure 3: Aerial View of Hains Point - 1922, Source: Library of Congress, 1922 .......................................... 5 Figure 4: Aerial view of Girl Scout Teahouse at Hains Point, Source: Library of Congress, 1987.......... 7 Figure 5: Girl Scout Teahouse, Source: Library of Congress, 1949 ..................................................................... 7 Figure 6: The Awakening sculpture in its original Hains Point location, ......................................................... 8 Figure 7: Lady Bird Johnson Fountain at Hains Point, Source: The LBJ Library, 2013............................... 8 Figure 8: View of Administrative and Service Buildings and parking at East Potomac Park, Source: Bing Maps ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Figure 9: Francis Case Memorial Bridge across the Washington Channel, Source: Bing Maps ............ 10 Figure 10: 14th Street Bridge Complex: (Left to Right) Long Bridge, Charles R. Fenwick Bridge, Rochambeau Memorial Bridge, Arland D. Williams, Jr. Memorial Bridge, George Mason Memorial Bridge, Source: Kozel, 2004............................................................................................................................................... 10 Figure 11: L'Enfant Map of Washington (1791) with approximate outline of East Potomac Park ..... 11 Figure 12: Key to the Mall System (McMillan Plan) with alignment of Long Bridge and Maryland Ave. Source: U.S. Senate, 1902 ....................................................................................................................................... 12 Figure 13: Birds Eye View of the General Plan from the McMillan Plan [Highlight added] Source: U.S. Senate, 1902 .................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Figure 14: General Plan for the Mall System from the McMillan Plan [Highlight added] Source: U.S. Senate, 1902 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 14 Figure 15: 1916 Plan for East Potomac Park Source: War Department, 1916 .......................................... 15 Figure 16: Extending the Legacy's new 14th Street Bridge, Source: National Capital Planning Commission, 1996 ................................................................................................................................................................. 17 Figure 17: Extending the Legacy's Future Transit Network Plan, Source: National Capital Planning Commission, 1996 ................................................................................................................................................................. 18 Figure 18: 2M Plan's Commemorative Zone Policy Maps [highlight added], Source: National Capital Planning Commission, 2001.............................................................................................................................................. 19 Figure 19: 2M Plan Framework Diagram [highlight added], Source: National Capital Planning Commission, 2001 ................................................................................................................................................................. 19 Figure 20: 2M Plan Prime and Candidate Sites On East Potomac Park ........................................................... 20 Figure 21: 2M Plan Prime Sites ........................................................................................................................................ 20 Figure 22: 2M Plan Candidate Sites................................................................................................................................ 20 Figure 23: Monumental Core Framework Plan Aerial Rendering ...................................................................... 21 Figure 24: Monumental Core Framework Plan Proposed Improvements ...................................................... 22 Figure 25: Rendering of Potomac Harbor and East Potomac Park Redevelopment, Source: National Capital Planning Commission, 2009 .............................................................................................................................. 23 Figure 26: Rendering of Waterfront Esplanade and Reconstructed Wetlands, Source: National Capital Planning Commission, 2009 .............................................................................................................................. 23 Figure 27: Existing Use Map. Source: Google Maps ................................................................................................. 25 Figure 28: Shipstead-Luce Act boundaries (partial), Source: Google Earth.................................................. 26 Figure 29:Washington Channel and Potomac River Navigational Chart, Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: Office of Costal Survey, 2010 ............................................................................... 27 Figure 30: Baltimore Washington Helicopter Route Chart near Hains Point, Source: Federal Aviation Administration, 2012 ........................................................................................................................................................... 28 VISION HAINS POINT 2040

TABLE OF FIGURES

Figure 31: District of Columbia Comprehensive Plan Generalized Policy Map areas (clockwise from Upper Left) East Potomac Park, U.S. Armed Force Retirement Home, St. Elizabeths, Walter Reed, Source: DC Office of Planning, 2012............................................................................................................................... 34 Figure 32: Current Unzoned Land of Future Development Sites: (clockwise from upper left) East Potomac Park, St. Elizabeths, Armed Forces Retirement Home, Poplar Point, Source: DC Office of Zoning, 2013 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 34 Figure 33: Land and Jurisdiction Transfer Map from The Federal and District of Columbia Government Real Property Act of 2006, Source: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2008 .......... 36 Figure 34: District of Columbia Population Growth Projections prepared for Vision Hains Point 2040, Source: Steenhoek, District 2040 - Building Towards a Sustainable DC, 2012............................... 40 Figure 35: District of Columbia Household Growth Projections prepared for Vision Hains Point 2040, Source: Steenhoek, 2012........................................................................................................................................ 41 Figure 36: DC Growth Projections by Age Group, Source: Steenhoek, 2012 ................................................ 42 Figure 37: Proportion of DC Population by Age Group, Source: Steenhoek, 2012 ..................................... 43 Figure 38: District of Columbia Development Pipeline, Source: Steenhoek, 2012 .................................... 44 Figure 39: Major Long Term Development Pipeline, Source: Steenhoek, 2012 .......................................... 45 Figure 40: Projected Housing Supply and Demand, Source: Steenhoek, 2012 ............................................ 46 Figure 41: District of Columbia Employment Projections to 2040, Source: Steenhoek, 2012 .............. 47 Figure 42: 2040 Supply & Demand Projections, Source: Steenhoek, 2012 ................................................... 49 Figure 43: Reclaimed Land (shaded) in Washington DC, Source: Porse, 2010............................................ 55 Figure 44: Reclaimed Land of Battery Park City, Source: Robledo, 2006 ...................................................... 57 Figure 45: Battery Park City Today, Source: Yost, 2011 ....................................................................................... 58 Figure 46: Boundary of "The Reserve" (red) and "Area I" (yellow) ................................................................. 59 Figure 47: Proposed Development Program Summary......................................................................................... 60 Figure 48: Chicago's Grant Park, Source: Google Maps ......................................................................................... 61 Figure 49: New York's Central Park, Source: google Maps .................................................................................. 61 Figure 50: Leinberger's WalkUP Research ................................................................................................................. 62 Figure 51: Hains Point Street Grid & Parcel Plan ..................................................................................................... 64 Figure 52: 1/2 Mile "Walkshed" ...................................................................................................................................... 65 Figure 53: Hains Point Intersection Density .............................................................................................................. 66 Figure 54: Street Grid Comparison to Downtown Savannah, GA, Source: Google Maps.......................... 67 Figure 55: Street Grid Comparison to LoDo, Denver, CO, Source: Google Maps.......................................... 67 Figure 56: Street Grid Comparison to Downtown DC, Source: Google Maps................................................ 68 Figure 57: Street Grid Comparison to Pearl District, Portland, OR, Source: Google Maps ...................... 68 Figure 58: View Corridors from the City...................................................................................................................... 69 Figure 59: Street Grid Infrastructure Elements. 14th Street Bridge (red), Buckeye Canal (yellow), P Street Bridge (orange) ......................................................................................................................................................... 70 Figure 60: Tiffany Stone Bridge, Beloit, WI, Source: Flickr User OldOnliner ................................................ 71 Figure 61: Thomas Viaduct Bridge, Elkridge, MD, Source: Wikimedia ........................................................... 71 Figure 62: Traditional Canal Bridge in amsterdam, NL, Source: Flickr User - reutc ................................. 72 Figure 63: Modern Canal in Birmingham, England, Source: Flickr User - Canal_Dusk ............................. 72 Figure 64: Buckeye Canal Connection Points ............................................................................................................ 72 Figure 65: Bridge at Fishermans Wharf, Taipai, Taiwan. Credit:Flickr User-DrJason .............................. 73 Figure 66: Gateshead Millennium Bridge, Newcastle, UK, Credit: Flickr User- Leah Makin Photography ............................................................................................................................................................................ 73 Figure 67: Hains Point Land Use. Residential (RED), Office (Blue), Hotel (green), Retail (orange), Civic/Cultural (Pink) ............................................................................................................................................................ 74 ii VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Figure 68: Hains Point Activity Density, combining Residential Population Density with Employment and Transient Population ....................................................................................................................... 75 Figure 69: Residential Unit Size and Use Matrix ...................................................................................................... 77 Figure 70: Residential Division by Product Type ..................................................................................................... 78 Figure 71: Residential Population Distribution ........................................................................................................ 79 Figure 72: Distribution of Employees on Hains Point. Includes Office, Retail, and Hotel Workers ... 83 Figure 73: Hains Point hotel mix and summary ....................................................................................................... 84 Figure 74: Intensity of Hotel Population on Hains Point ...................................................................................... 85 Figure 75: Primary Retail Market Areas ...................................................................................................................... 88 Figure 77: Key Memorial Locations ............................................................................................................................... 90 Figure 77: Public Memorial Locations .......................................................................................................................... 90 Figure 78: Key Public Art Locations .............................................................................................................................. 90 Figure 79: The Newseum by Night, Credit: Sam Kittner Photography............................................................ 91 Figure 80: The Jay Pritzker Pavilion, Chicago, Illinois. Image: Diego Delso ................................................. 92 Figure 81: Roof Structure of Munich Olympic Stadium. Photo Credit: Nils Gore,...................................... 93 Figure 82: Hains Point Primary Park Areas................................................................................................................ 94 Figure 83: Jefferson Festival Ground from Monumental Core Framework Plan ........................................ 94 Figure 84: Proposed Playground Locations ............................................................................................................... 95 Figure 85 :Millenium Park, Chicago, Credit: City of Chicago................................................................................ 96 Figure 86: Citygarden, St. Louis, Credit: Nelson Byrd Woltz ............................................................................... 96 Figure 87: Yards Park, DC, Photo Credit: www.jdland.com ................................................................................. 96 Figure 88: Grant Park, Chicago, IL. A mix of Active Recreation, Formal Landscape, Public Art, and Infrastructure, Source: Google Maps ............................................................................................................................. 98 Figure 89: Forsyth Park in Savannah, GA. A mix of active recreation, open space, entertainment, and dense landscape, Source: Bing Maps ............................................................................................................................. 98 Figure 90: Distribution of F.A.R. on Hains Point away from Monumental Core ....................................... 102 Figure 91: Cross Section Along Jefferson Memorial Alignment. Gradual Increases in Building Height allow 40 bulding closer to the Jefferson Memorial to hide much taller buildings located further away. ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 103 Figure 92: Maximum Building Height Distribution .............................................................................................. 104 Figure 93: Floor Area Distribution .............................................................................................................................. 106 Figure 94: Basic Street Types and Locations .......................................................................................................... 110 Figure 95: Axial relationship of the Jefferson Memorial and the Hains Point Park System ................ 122 Figure 96: Banneker Overlook Alignment with Buckeye Canal ...................................................................... 123 Figure 97: LID zones in Northeast DC, Credit: Parker Rodriguez................................................................... 126 Figure 98: Cornell's Lake Source District Cooling System Diagram, Source: Earley, 2010.................. 128 Figure 99: Offshore Windfarm near Copenhagen, Denmark. Source: Skelton, 2012 ............................ 129 Figure 100: Elevations of Lands Close to Sea Level, Source: Titus, 2010 .................................................... 130 Figure 101: FEMA Flood Insurance Map for Lands Along the Washington Channel, Source: FEMA130 Figure 102: #4 Bioengineered Shoreline Areas Proposed in NCPC's Monumental Core Framework Plan ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 131 Figure 103: Liklihood of Shore Protection in the District of Columbia, Source: Titus, 2010 .............. 131 Figure 104: Hains Point Metrorail Map ..................................................................................................................... 134 Figure 105: Hains Point Transportion Option Summary ................................................................................... 135 Figure 106: Hains Point Street Grid Diagram ......................................................................................................... 136 Figure 107: Major Bicycle Trail Facilities Near Hains Point, DDOT 2005 ................................................... 137 Figure 108: Walking Distance from New Jefferson-Hains Point Station ..................................................... 138 VISION HAINS POINT 2040

iii

Figure 109: Metrorail Peak Capacity Projections to 2040, Source: WMATA, 2013 ................................ 138 Figure 110: New Orange and Silver Line Connections, Source: WMATA, 2013 ....................................... 139 Figure 111: New Yellow Line Tunnel to separate Yellow and Green Line for increased capacity, Source: WMATA, 2013...................................................................................................................................................... 139 Figure 112: Potential Hains Point Streetcar Alignment ..................................................................................... 140 Figure 113: Planned Arlington Streetcar Routes on Columbia Pike and Crystal City, Source: Arlington County Government, 2013 ......................................................................................................................... 140 Figure 114: Future Segment of DC Streetcar System Plan near Hains Point, Source DDOT 2010.... 140 Figure 115: Existing Water Taxi Routes from American River Taxi, Source: American River Taxi, 2013 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Figure 116: Water Taxi Routes from Potomac Riverboat Company, Source Gayloard National....... 142 Figure 117: Pivotal Viewshed from Banneker Park Towards Future Buckeye Canal, 2012 .............. 142 Figure 118: Hains Point Freeway Connections, Source: Google Maps ......................................................... 143 Figure 119: View From Jefferson Memorial Towards Hains Point, Source: Bing MAPS ....................... 143 Figure 120: Washington Channel entrance to Hains Point along Ohio Drive at Long Bridge (Existing), Source: Google Maps ................................................................................................................................... 146 Figure 121: Potomac River entrance to Hains Point along Ohio Drive at Long Bridge (Existing), Source: Google Maps ......................................................................................................................................................... 146 Figure 122: Granville Island bridge entrance sign, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2008.................................. 146 Figure 123: Decaying stone seawalls along perimeter of East Potomac Park .......................................... 147 Figure 124: View South on Ohio Drive SW, Source: Google Maps .................................................................. 148 Figure 125: Cherry Blossom Location Map, SOURCE: National Park Service 2012 ................................ 149 Figure 126: Cherry Trees on Hains Point, Source: Flickr User: Sarah Oh, 2007 ...................................... 149 Figure 127: The "Survivors of the Burn", Source: Bing Maps........................................................................... 150 Figure 128: Parcel 20 and the Survivors of the Burn Park................................................................................ 151 Figure 129: U.S. Engineers' Storehouse, Source: Bing Maps............................................................................. 152 Figure 130: Existing East Potomac Park Golf Facilities, Source: Bing Maps .............................................. 153 Figure 131: East Potomac Park Field House, Source: Google Maps............................................................... 155 Figure 132: East Potomac Park Field House and Swimming Pool, Source: Google Maps..................... 155 Figure 133: East Potomac Park Miniature Golf course, Source: Google Maps .......................................... 156 Figure 134: View From Hains Point (Top: View South, Bottom: View East) ............................................. 157 Figure 135: Business Improvement District Comparison ................................................................................. 160 Figure 136: Bryant Park, Source: Flickr User Ed Yourdon ................................................................................ 161 Figure 137: Allocation of Public Costs ....................................................................................................................... 164 Figure 138: Private Development Costs.................................................................................................................... 165 Figure 139: Basic Debt Coverage Ratio Calculation for Public Infrastructure Bond Issuance ........... 167 Figure 140: The pace of Development in Shangai from 1990 (top) to 2010 (Bottom),, 2012 ........... 168 Figure 141: Annual TIF Debt Service Projections 2040-2070 ......................................................................... 169 Figure 142: Cumulative Debt Service and Real Estate Tax 2040-2070 ....................................................... 169 Figure 143: Hains Point Construction Job creation projection........................................................................ 174 Figure 144: Hains Point Economic Impact Summary .......................................................................................... 175 Figure 145: Cumulative Net 30 year Real Estate Tax Revenue ....................................................................... 175 Figure 146: Hains Point Real Estate Value Creation ............................................................................................ 176 All Figures, unless otherwise noted, are by Matthew Steenhoek and Lori Steenhoek VISION HAINS POINT 2040

iv

PLANNING CONTEXT

PLANNING CONTEXT

SITE CONTEXT

East Potomac Park, commonly known today as Hains Point, is part of the Potomac Park system in Southwest Potomac River, Tidal Basin, Washington Channel, and the Anacostia River. The 14th Street Bridge complex

Washington, DC. This island is centrally located within the DC metropolitan region and is surrounded by the connects Virginia to Hains Point, and Metrorail and heavy rail pass through the island but do not stop. The

approximately 400 acre island was constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers starting in the 1880s. It is Today, Hains Point is an unzoned parcel of prime waterfront real estate. Since Hains Point is under federal control, it is not operating at its highest and best use for the growing economic and social needs of the model sustainable development that provides new prospects for the District of Columbia. currently controlled by the National Park Service and is home to several of its offices and a large golf course.

national capital region. Vision Hains Point 2040 believes that this island represents a unique opportunity for a

FIGURE 1: HAINS POINT AND EAST POTOMAC PARK SITE CONTEXT, SOURCE: GOOGLE MAPS

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

SITE HISTORY

The creation of Hains Point and the Potomac Park system over the past 180 years has been the visionary

work of many. Building the park has solved engineering problems, abated public health concerns, enhanced transportation opportunities, and provided amenities to the people of Washington. Vision Hains Point 2040 Columbia. looks to the parks history and purpose to help provide a new vision for the evolving needs of the District of

Originally a mix of open water, unnavigable

CREATION OF THE POTOMAC PARKS

shoals, and swamp land in the Potomac River, the creation of East Potomac Park was a major land reclamation effort that took place in the mid to area was done in order to create a solid earth in 1834. 1 late 1800s. The initial reclamation work in this causeway for the construction of the Long Bridge

engineered creation of West and East Potomac Parks, the Tidal Basin, and the Washington Channel. The first was the public health hazard

associated with the silty mud flats known as the of the White House, had developed into a

Potomac Flats. These flats, which were just south collection point for sewage dumped into the

Washington Canal, now Constitution Avenue. Since, the flats did not fully drain out to the and identified as a public health hazard. Potomac, they were a breeding ground for disease

Two natural and environmental hazards came to light in the 1880s which led to the formal

FIGURE 2: CREATION OF HAINS POINT AND THE WASHINGTON CHANNEL , SOURCE: ROBARGE, 2011

SITE HISTORY

The second hazard was a major flood in February of 1881, caused by snowmelt, which brought the Potomac over its banks and across the National

proposed to only reclaim an area less than a

such as the one by Alfred Landon Rives. Rives

Mall to the National Botanical Gardens at the base impacts and provoked Congress to pass an 1882 act authorizing the reclamation of the Potomac appropriation of $400,000. 3

quarter the size of Aberts effort. 6 Between 1882

of the Capitol. 2 This flood had significant economic

and 1911, the dredging effort in accordance with

Aberts plan took silt from the area now known as the Washington Channel, and created almost 725 acres of new land on the former site of the Potomac Flats. 7 The operation was overseen by

Flats and the excavation of the Tidal Basin with an

Major Peter C. Hains, who replaced Abert in 1882. Use of this new land was highly contested. Many people requested that this prime site be sold for private use. Others, such as Major Hains

This reclamation effort would last for decades and Corps of Engineers (Army Corps). Around the same time as the 1882 Congressional action,

would involve significant efforts from the US Army

Sylvanus T. Abert, of the Army Corps, proposed to dredge parts of the Potomac. Aberts plan aimed to help open the river to commerce by providing clear navigable channels up to the wharves and

replacement Major E. L. B. Davis, advocated for the development of the area as a public park. 8

Ultimately, the latter view prevailed and these

docks around 6th Street SW and to help with flood the flooding, Congress directed the Army Corps to dredge the river in accordance with Aberts plan. 5 Aberts reclamation efforts were of a grand scale

control by creating the Tidal Basin. 4 In response to

West Potomac Park. In March of 1897, Congress passed Senate Bill No. 3307 which stated that: the entire area formerly known as the Potomac Flats and now being reclaimed, together with the tidal reservoirs, be, and the same are hereby, made and declared a public park, under the name of the Potomac Park, and to be forever held and used as a park for the recreation and pleasure of the people. 9

newly-formed lands became known as East and

and far exceeded previous reclamation proposals,

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

A decade later, in 1917, the southernmost tip of Major Hains. 10

East Potomac Park was named Hains Point after

FIGURE 3: AERIAL VIEW OF HAINS POINT - 1922, SOURCE: LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 1922

SITE HISTORY

From 1912 to 1916, the Army Corps built the parks first major improvement. This improvement, a macadam roadway around the from the railroad embankment along the

SITE DEVELOPMENT HISTORY

A golf course and other recreational facilities were added to East Potomac Park over time. The first the course included an additional nine-hole nine holes were completed in 1917, and by 1934 course, a practice putting course, and driving

parks perimeter, was a one-way loop leading

Washington Channel side of the park, to Hains Point at the tip and back out to West Potomac Park. 11 Officially named Ohio Drive SW, this road was once known as the Speedway, an apparent homage to a dirt horse racing track that was on turn of the 20th century. Ohio Drive also was known as the Breezeway, for the pleasant environment that it would provide to came in off the Potomac River. 12 the grounds of the Washington Monument at the

range. Today these golf courses are the dominant feature of the park, comprising approximately spawned other park features such as the East two-thirds of the land area. The golf operation Potomac Park Field House, which was constructed

in 1917 to accommodate locker and changing

rooms for the course, and an 18-hole miniature

golf course, which opened in 1931. A few years

later, in 1936, the East Potomac Park Swimming as a show pool for the city (although it was intended for white swimmers only). 14

Washingtonians in the summer as cool breezes

Pool was built by the Public Works Administration

Other early improvements include the planting of Japan to the District. *13 3,000 Japanese Cherry Trees in 1912, a gift from

While recreational uses were, and continue to be, the primary function of the land in East Potomac Park, a number of other uses have been

accommodated throughout the years. In 1917 and 1921, the Boy Scouts and employees of the Office were allowed to plant gardens within the park. These gardens can be seen in Figure 3. This of Public Buildings and Public Parks, respectively,

* The vast majority of these trees were planted around the Tidal Basin. Most of the trees that are seen today around the perimeter of Hains Point were planted in the late 1960s (National Park Service, 2001). More on the cherry trees can be found in the Historic section of this report

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

practice was later determined to be inappropriate

for public park land and discontinued. 15 Other past pursuits on Hains Point included horse stables and bridle paths, and a bicycle center. 16

In the early 1920s, the Girl Scouts constructed a Teahouse which provided park visitors with a restaurant, snack bar, and restroom facility. The Teahouse, located near Hains Point, served as a The Teahouse subsequently was used as the concession stand and visitors center until 1967. Ecological Services Laboratory but was eventually demolished in 1987 due to code violations. 17

FIGURE 4: AERIAL VIEW OF GIRL SCOUT TEAHOUSE AT HAINS POINT, SOURCE: LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 1987

Earlier, during World War I, more than 100

temporary barracks buildings were constructed

FIGURE 5: GIRL SCOUT TEAHOUSE, SOURCE: LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 1949

60 acres and eventually contained 20 cabins and a 56-unit trailer court. The continued expansion of

on East Potomac Park by the War Department to

house enlisted War Department clerks and Army troops assigned duty in the District. At this time, ferry service was established and operated for three years, providing linkage between the 7th

this temporary use was eventually determined to be inappropriate for public parkland and the tourist camp was demolished in 1963. 19

Street docks and East Potomac Park. 18

First Lady Lady Bird Johnson completed two of the Society for a More Beautiful National

During the Johnson Administration (1964-1968),

Later, the barracks were either demolished or

significant projects on East Potomac Park as part Capital, her capital beautification project. The first was completed between 1966 and 1968 when

converted into facilities for a motor tourist camp within the park. This camp ground grew to over

SITE HISTORY

FIGURE 6: THE AWAKENING SCULPTURE IN ITS ORIGINAL HAINS POINT LOCATION, SOURCE: FLICKR USER MR. T IN DC

near the tip of Hains Point for the International Sculpture Conference in 1980. 21 As shown in

friends of the President and Mrs. Johnson funded the planting of 1,800 flowering cherry and other trees along the perimeter of East Potomac Park.

FIGURE 7: LADY BIRD JOHNSON FOUNTAIN AT HAINS POINT, SOURCE: THE LBJ LIBRARY, 2013

emerging from the open windswept landscape.

Figure 6, this sculpture depicts a 100-foot tall man

While always intended to be temporary, the ability for the sculpture to remain in its original Hains Point configuration had been in jeopardy for many years due to the approval of the National Peace Peace Garden did not recieve funding and eventually lost authorization in 2003, the Garden by Congress in 1987. While the National

The second was the creation of an art installation in 1967 at Hains Point, which consisted of a jet of water that rose approximately 150 feet in the air was funded through a $160,000 gift to her beautification committee. 20 as seen in Figure 7. The fountain, since removed,

continued potential for displacement, paired with a donation, caused the sculpture to be placed on Though widely beloved by Washingtonians and tourists alike, it eventually was purchased for

the National Park Services inability to accept it as the market by the Sculptural Foundation. 22

One other major piece of art has had a temporary Jr. created a massive cast-aluminum sculpture

home on Hains Point. Sculptor J. Seward Johnson, known as The Awakening which was installed

almost $750,000 by local developer Milt Peterson and moved in 2008 to its current home at the

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

FIGURE 8: VIEW OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND SERVICE BUILDINGS AND PARKING AT EAST POTOMAC PARK, SOURCE: BING MAPS

National Harbor development in Prince Georges County, Maryland. 23

Yard (circa 1980). 24 As shown in Figure 8, these

uses are surrounded by large surface parking lots constructed over time on East Potomac Park Potomac Park Bathhouse (1978), the East an administrative building for the tennis

or storage yards. Other structures that have been include a Driving Range Building (1995), the East Potomac Tennis Facility tennis bubble (1974), and operation (1995) as well as other small bathroom

Over time, a number of historically contributing

and noncontributing administrative and service remain today. These include the U.S. Engineers Storehouse (1913), the National Park Service National Capital Region Headquarters Building

buildings were constructed on Hains Point which

(1962), the U.S Park Police Headquarters Building the National Capital Parks-Central Maintenance

and picnic shelters throughout the park. 25

(1963), the Tourmobile Headquarters (1979), and

SITE HISTORY

Street Bridge Complex includes two railroad

bridges, the WMATA Yellow Line Bridge (named the Charles R. Fenwick Bridge) (1983), and the CSX Bridge (named the Long Bridge) (1904). 26

The Case Bridge connects Southwest DC to East Potomac Park while the 14th Street Bridge complex connects East Potomac Park to Virginia. These bridges have changed the face of East
FIGURE 10: 14TH STREET BRIDGE COMPLEX: (LEFT TO RIGHT) LONG BRIDGE, CHARLES R. FENWICK BRIDGE, ROCHAMBEAU MEMORIAL BRIDGE, ARLAND D. WILLIAMS, JR. MEMORIAL BRIDGE, GEORGE MASON MEMORIAL BRIDGE, SOURCE: KOZEL, 2004

Potomac Park and have created a distinct barrier between the park and the Monumental Core. 27 National Park Service, 1973 Robarge, 2011 3 National Park Service, 1973 4 US Army Corps of Engineers, 1998 5 US Army Corps of Engineers, 2002 6 National Park Service, Undated 7 National Park Service, 1973, National Park Service, 2001 8 National Park Service, Undated 9 National Park Service, 1973, National Park Service, Undated 10 US Army Corps of Engineers, 2002 11 National Park Service, 1973 12 National Park Service, 2001 13 Ibid 14 Ibid 15 Ibid 16 National Park Service, 1973 17 National Park Service, 2001, p. 79 18 National Park Service, 1973 19 National Park Service, 2001, p. 78 20 Ibid 21 Ibid 22 Fisher, 2007 , Abruzzese, 2007, Washington Business Journal, 2001 23 Fisher, 2007 24 National Park Service, 2001 25 Ibid 26 Kozel, 2004 27 National Park Service, 1973
1 2

FIGURE 9: FRANCIS CASE MEMORIAL BRIDGE ACROSS THE WASHINGTON CHANNEL, SOURCE: BING MAPS

The structures with the largest impact on East

Potomac Park, how it is experienced, and its users are the 14th Street Bridge complex and the Case three vehicular bridges: the George Mason Bridge. The 14th Street Bridge complex includes Memorial Bridge (1962); the Arland D. Williams, Memorial Bridge (1972). Additionally, the 14th

Jr. Memorial Bridge (1950); and the Rochambeau

10

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

HISTORIC PLANNING CONTEXT

The District of Columbia is a city that has been largely defined by two primary historic plans: the L'Enfant

Plan and the McMillan Plan. These plans, both more than a century old, have provided a framework for how the Monumental Core is integrated within the fabric of the District. While neither of these plans speak great volumes about East Potomac Park, an early 20th century plan, The Development of East Potomac Park, does focus solely on the park. Vision Hains Point 2040 aims to respect the vision of these formative plans, while 2040.

offering an alternative path forward to address the changing needs and future pressures of a growing city in

Constructed by the Army Corps almost a century

LENFANT PLAN

ultimately drafted the map after LEnfant was were it to have been naturally occurring. As

after Pierre LEnfant designed the seminal plan for the city of Washington in 1791, the Potomac Parks system was not a feature considered in LEnfants plan. Because the street grid from the original LEnfant plan did not extend over either the Potomac or Anacostia Rivers, it is difficult to

relieved of his duties) would have platted this land shown below in Figure 11, the reclaimed landmass

known today as the East Potomac Park is located entirely within what was once the naturally occurring Potomac River. Similarly, both the reclaimed swamp lands.

predict how LEnfant (or Andrew Ellicott who

Lincoln and Jefferson Memorials are located on

FIGURE 11: L'ENFANT MAP OF WASHINGTON (1791) WITH APPROXIMATE OUTLINE OF EAST POTOMAC PARK

HISTORIC PLANNING CONTEXT

11

In 1902, the Senate Park Commission issued a

MCMILLAN PLAN

McMillan Plans strongest legacy is seen in the

report, The Improvement of the Park System of the District of Columbia, more commonly known as the McMillan Plan. Authored by some of the Frederic Law Olmsted, Charles McKim, and some context for how the commissioners nations leading designers (Daniel Burnham, Augustus St. Gaudens), the McMillan Plan provides envisioned East Potomac Park relative to the

form of the Monumental Core, that great cross axis from the Capitol building to the Lincoln Memorial and the White House to the Jefferson Memorial.

Mall System in the McMillian Plan, was bracketed to the south by Long Bridge and the elevated railroad tracks that cross the Potomac and now

As illustrated in Figure 12, this area, known as the

occupy much of the Maryland Avenue right of way.

larger parks system throughout the District. The

12

FIGURE 12: KEY TO THE MALL SYSTEM (MCMILLAN PLAN) WITH ALIGNMENT OF LONG BRIDGE AND MARYLAND AVE. SOURCE: U.S. SENATE, 1902

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

While the McMillan Plan does address the East

Potomac Park area, it plays a fairly minor role in

East Potomac Park remains today separated

the vision of the plan. This is evidenced in Figure

visually, psychologically, and physically from the the railroad and highway infrastructure. The vision identified for the Potomac Parks in the beautiful place of recreation, an informal McMillan Plan is of a park system that is a Jefferson Memorial and the Monumental Core by

East Potomac Park and the District, outside of the Monumental Core, was depicted on the drawings for the McMillan Plan vacant, obscured, and without detail.

13 and Figure 14 which show the manner in which

landscape that must be open and extremely System. 1

simple in contrast to the formal and elaborate Mall

FIGURE 13: BIRDS EYE VIEW OF THE GENERAL PLAN FROM THE MCMILLAN PLAN [HIGHLIGHT ADDED] SOURCE: U.S. SENATE, 1902

HISTORIC PLANNING CONTEXT

13

FIGURE 14: GENERAL PLAN FOR THE MALL SYSTEM FROM THE MCMILLAN PLAN [HIGHLIGHT ADDED] SOURCE: U.S. SENATE, 1902

14

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

In 1916, just over a decade after the McMillan Plan was released, a plan entitled Development of East on behalf of the Chief of Engineers, United States Potomac Park was issued by the War Department Army (later the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers). It

DEVELOPMENT OF EAST POTOMAC PARK

on the rare opportunity to transform the large, a location for modern recreation. 3

vacant flat area envisioned in the McMillan Plan to

presented a comprehensive plan for East Potomac shown in Figure 15, was created by city planner William W. Harts, Chief of the Army Corps of of, Frederick Law Olmstead Jr. and the Park as a public recreation ground. This plan,

The plan acknowledges that although [it]

embodies facilities for every anticipated modern recreation it does not present an extraordinarily ambitious scheme. 4 These facilities are intriguing East Potomac Park. Items identified in

James G. Langdon, under the direction of Colonel Engineers, in concert with, and with the approval Commission of Fine Arts. 2 It calls for capitalizing

and illustrate a more active vision of recreation on

Development of East Potmac Park include an outdoor stadium (with a general capacity of between 6,000 and 14,000 that could be increased

FIGURE 15: 1916 PLAN FOR EAST POTOMAC PARK SOURCE: WAR DEPARTMENT, 1916

HISTORIC PLANNING CONTEXT

15

lagoon, artistic memorial sites, and a 60 acre parade ground that could be used for

to 40,000 for special occasions), an ice skating

Lastly, the Development of East Potomac Park

foresaw strong population growth in the District. It predicted that the Districts population would the Capital City of the Nation exceeding the soon surpass 500,000, and that time would show 1,000,000 mark. 7 A vision of East Potomac Park as an active recreation center, designed to meet city instead of acting as a mere happy foil to counterbalance the Mall System (as it was and anticipate the modern needs of a growing

fact all larger civic attractions and games so popular in recent years. 5

community festivals, holiday celebrations, in

Potomac River; a boat launch and rental facility

connecting the Washington Channel to the

active water uses including: a cross-park canal

The Development of East Potomac Park envisioned

described in the McMillan Plan), is perhaps the East Potomac Park. 8


1 2

for small watercraft; and a private ferry service to streetcar lines at the 7th Street Wharf. In addition service, and a streetcar storage and switching

strongest aspect of the War Departments plan for

connect directly across the Washington Channel to to parking facilities for 300 automobiles, streetcar

facility was planned on East Potomac Park so that in times of large gathering, 40,000 people can be handled without undue crowding. 6

U.S. Senate, 1902 National Park Service, 2001 3 War Department, 1916, p.9 4 Ibid, p.12 5 Ibid, p.13 6 Ibid, p.16 7 Ibid, p.18 8 U.S. Senate, 1902

16

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

CONTEMPORARY PLANS AND VISIONS

While the Districts past development may have been guided primarily by the LEnfant and McMillan plans, its future is being envisioned by the National Capitol Planning Commission (NCPC), the federal governments and built on each other to look at the future of the Monumental Core, the use of Washingtons miles of planning agency for the DC region. NCPC has completed three primary guiding studies which have evolved

waterfront, the expansion and placement of museums and commemoration, and the integration of the federal presence with the fabric of the city. Vision Hains Point 2040 looks to these contemporary plans for guidance further many of the goals identified in the plans. NCPC described its 1996 plan as: on how the redevelopment of Hains Point can integrate with the Districts commemorative future in order to

EXTENDING THE LEGACY

this expansion to stimulate economic

the third act in a continuing planning drama that began over 200 years ago, when President George Washington commissioned Pierre LEnfant to lay out the new capital. Like the LEnfant and McMillan plans, it looks ahead 50 to 100 years. And like them, it offers a framework for future development. 1

development, to integrate the citys rivers into the transportation options. Extending the Legacy is planning efforts, and is considered in major monumental network, and to increase

serving as the modern foundation of NCPCs later decisions concerning the development of the Districts monumental and commemorative framework.

Extending the Legacy proposes to expand the

Monumental Core around the US Capitol building

along North, South and East Capitol Streets, to use

FIGURE 16: EXTENDING THE LEGACY'S NEW 14TH STREET BRIDGE, SOURCE: NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION, 1996

CONTEMPORARY PLANS AND VISIONS

17

FIGURE 17: EXTENDING THE LEGACY 'S FUTURE TRANSIT NETWORK PLAN, SOURCE: NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION, 1996

Noting that the McMillan Plan for the Mall has been completed with the construction of the what would later be called a substantially National Museum of the American Indian, creating completed work of civic art 2 the plan cites the

Avenue rail lines into a tunnel beneath the Potomac. Other transportation visions

incorporated into Extending the Legacy that

address East Potomac Park include the creation of a canal to the Tidal Basin, the development of a Metro station, the inclusion of two water taxi

need to accommodate a dozen museums and up to 60 memorials and monuments over the next 50 as an ideal site for smaller memorials given its visibility from air, land, and water. years. East Potomac Park is identified by the plan

Hains Point, a new 14th Street Bridge, and the The plan proposed in Vision Hains Point 2040

stops, an extended circulator * route that reaches

removal of the Southeast/Southwest Freeway. supports many of these transportation goals and provides opportunities for museum, memorial, and monument sites to meet the ever growing demand for commemoration.

Extending the Legacy also calls for the creation of a footbridge over the Washington Channel, and the placement of the Maryland Avenue and Virginia

18

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Extending the Legacy does not specify what technology this supplementary transit system would be and this plan was issued before DDOT began to operate the Circulator bus system. The goal of the circulator is to connect passengers with areas underserved by Metrorail

The 2001 Memorials and Museums Master Plan,

MEMORIALS & MUSEUMS MASTER PLAN

also known as the 2M Plan and developed at the

direction of Congress in consultation with the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts and the National Capital location and development of future Memorial Commission, proposes to guide the

commemorative and cultural facilities in and

around the District. 3 The 2M Plan builds off of

Extending the Legacy and identifies 100 potential sites (shown in Figure 22) for future memorials based on the framework of a Commemorative Zone Policy, which was later adopted into the and museums. The plan also prioritizes the sites

FIGURE 19: 2M PLAN FRAMEWORK DIAGRAM [HIGHLIGHT ADDED], SOURCE: NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION, 2001

The 2M Plan focuses its recommendations on the areas outside of the Reserve and Area I, Capitol Street axes, major avenues, and specifically along the North, South, and East waterfronts. This conceptual framework is illustrated in Figure 19 which shows the Commemorative Focus Areas. Waterfront Crescent, Monumental Corridors, and

I designated areas, and it is an Area II location, similar to most other sections of the District.

neither more restrictive The Reserve nor Area

shown in Figure 18, East Potomac Park is within

revised Commemorative Works Act in 2003. As

FIGURE 18: 2M PLAN'S COMMEMORATIVE ZONE POLICY MAPS [HIGHLIGHT ADDED], SOURCE: NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION, 2001

CONTEMPORARY PLANS AND VISIONS

19

FIGURE 20: 2M PLAN PRIME AND CANDIDATE SITES ON EAST POTOMAC PARK

Of the 100 candidate sites selected in the 2M Plan as locations for future commemoration, 20 were identified as Prime Sites as shown in Figure 21.

FIGURE 22: 2M PLAN CANDIDATE SITES

Prime sites are those that have the highest order of significance for symbolic prominence, visual linkages, and aesthetic quality. 4 As shown in

Candidate Sites, 1 of which (Site 13) is a Prime

Figure 20, East Potomac Park is home to 4 of the

Site. Of these 20 Prime Sites, 9 were considered to be immediately available for commemorative use require that some of the proposals identified in Extending the Legacy be implemented. while the other 11, including Site 13, would

FIGURE 21: 2M PLAN PRIME SITES

transportation access; and the limited potential to encourage economic development. Site design considerations include alignment with the 16th

Street axis, respecting the zone of influence bridge alignment. Vision Hains Point 2040 commemorative candidate sites.

The challenges associated with Site 13 include: the requirement for the completion of the new envisioned by the plan; the current lack of consolidated 14th Street Bridge and rail line tunnel

around the Jefferson Memorial, and the future incorporates these design considerations and key

20

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

In 2009, NCPC issued the Monumental Core

MONUMENTAL CORE FRAMEWORK PLAN

The cornerstone initiatives of the plan include: enhancing the waterfront experience; extending the commemorative landscape; and linking the National Mall with downtown Washington. To enhance the waterfront experience, the connecting the Mall with the waterfront;

Framework Plan: Connecting New Destinations with the National Mall. As the name implies, this report is focused on extending the civic qualities and bringing the vibrancy of the city into the of the National Mall into the fabric of the District

federally dominated areas. This report encourages the location of museums and memorials off the National Mall. It also includes planning for federal vibrant visit, live, work environment, and

Monumental Core Framework Plan advocates to: Establish Potomac Park as an easily accessible destination that offers expanded opportunities for recreation, leisure, commemoration, and celebration in a setting of scenic beauty showcasing environmental stewardship. The primary strategies for this precinct include: developing Potomac Harbor along the Washington Channel; establishing multiple connections for park visitors arriving by boat, Metro, car, bicycle, or foot; increasing recreational opportunities; and creating multipurpose festival grounds near the Jefferson Memorial. 5

office space needs, making the Monumental Core a providing for economic growth in the District.

FIGURE 23: MONUMENTAL CORE FRAMEWORK PLAN AERIAL RENDERING

CONTEMPORARY PLANS AND VISIONS

21

FIGURE 24: MONUMENTAL CORE FRAMEWORK PLAN PROPOSED IMPROVEMENTS

Improvements related to East Potomac Park Plan include: the tunneling of the Metro and

envisioned in the Monumental Core Framework creation of a new Metro station; the reorientation

The vision proposed for East Potomac Park

includes the creation of gathering spaces to relieve pressure from the National Mall, locations for festivals and concerts as well as sporting events, of these infrastructure improvements are

bus access; two water taxi stations; the creation of two new pedestrian bridges and one new shared vehicular access bridge across the Washington Channel; and the development of buildings on

and tunneling of the 14th Street Bridge; Circulator

recreational activities, picnics and leisure. Many incorporated into Vision Hains Point 2040 and helped to guide the site and master planning necessary to help provide justification and improvements. process. Vision will offer the economic engine potential funding opportunities for many of these

filled land flanking a new cross park canal. Other improvements include: the reconstruction of the seawalls; an expansion of the pedestrian esplanade; the inclusion of docks and vegetative

edge along the Washington Channel; and a new commemorative site at the tip of Hains Point.

22

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

FIGURE 25: RENDERING OF POTOMAC HARBOR AND EAST POTOMAC PARK REDEVELOPMENT, SOURCE: NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION, 2009

FIGURE 26: RENDERING OF WATERFRONT ESPLANADE AND RECONSTRUCTED WETLANDS, SOURCE: NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION, 2009

National Capital Planning Commission, 1996, p.5 United States Congress, 2003 3 National Capital Planning Commission, 2001, p.1 4 Ibid 5 National Capital Planning Commission, 2009, p.4
1 2

CONTEMPORARY PLANS AND VISIONS

23

ZONING, LAND USE, AND LAND OWNERSHIP

Vision Hains Point 2040 proposes a massive neighborhood creation redevelopment project on approximately dispositions, rezonings, permits, and other entitlements from an extensive list of federal and state agencies. 175 of Hains Points almost 400 acres. It would require countless approvals, reviews, land transfers and

While there are a myriad of eventual paths that this process could take, Vision looks to briefly discuss existing uses on the site, identify some of the key federal and local stakeholders, understand the site in the context of the Comprehensive Plan and existing zoning, and examine how other comparable land transfers have occurred between the District and the Federal Government.

Today, East Potomac Park is part of the National

EXISTING LAND CONTROL & USES

and tennis facilities including an enclosed tennis bubble.

Mall and Memorial Parks System and is controlled by the National Park Service. The National Park Service has numerous structures and offices on Storehouse (1913); the National Park Service East Potomac Park including: the U.S. Engineers National Capital Region Headquarters Building

There are a number of more informal recreation SW, the approximately 3-mile road along the perimeter of the island, is very popular with runners, cyclists, and roller-skaters. For

resources available in the park as well. Ohio Drive

(1962); the U.S. Park Police Headquarters Building (1963); the Tourmobile Headquarters (1979); and finally the National Capital Parks-Central Maintenance Yard (circa 1980). In total, the

picnickers, there are benches distributed between Ohio Drive and the walkway along the bulkhead, permanent grilling facilities are available. The as well as down at the very tip of the island, but no walkway, which follows the bulkhead, is in very for local fishermen. * Other informal recreation

collection of buildings, bridges, roads, parking lots, and maintenance yards occupy a quarter of the park. 1 Other formal recreation uses on site

include: a 36-hole golf course with driving range Olympic sized outdoor swimming pool facilities; that encompasses over 200 acres of the park;

poor shape but never the less is a popular location areas, tucked between the Case Bridge and Long

24

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

* Posted regulations note that fish from these waters contain PCBs and other chemical contaminates, have restrictions on what fish are edible and in what quantity, encourage catchand-release, and include a ban on swimming

Bridge structures, are used for pick-up soccer

games and softball, similarly, the open area at the southern tip of the island is often used for soccer or football. In sum, these free and accessible

recreation areas equate to less than one-eighth of the total area of the park. Vision believes that the be expanded and improved upon. free public recreation areas on Hains Point should

FIGURE 27: EXISTING USE MAP. SOURCE: GOOGLE MAPS

ZONING, LAND USE, AND LAND OWNERSHIP

25

FEDERAL REVIEWS & CONTROLS


Hains Point is located within the Shipstead-Luce Act area of the District. Passed in 1930, the Shipstead-Luce Act (Public Law 71-231 and Public

U.S. COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS

integrity of the Districts many important federal

public spaces are not impaired by the aesthetics of that: adjacent private development. The plan specifies such development should proceed along the lines of good order, good taste, and with due regard to the public interests involved, and a reasonable degree of control should be exercised over the architecture of private or semipublic buildings adjacent to public buildings and grounds of major importance commission shall report promptly to said commissioners its recommendations, including such changes, if any, as in its judgment are necessary to prevent reasonably avoidable impairment of the public values belonging to such public building or park 3

Law 76-248) gives the Commission of Fine Arts and semipublic buildings in a designated area.

(CFA) the authority to review designs of private Shown in Figure 28, this area is the portion of the grounds; the White House grounds; part of the National Zoo; Rockcreek and Potomac District bordering or fronting on: the U.S. Capitol

Pennsylvania Avenue; Rock Creek Park including Parkways; the Mall Parks System; Fort McNair;

Since Hains Point is entirely within the ShipsteadLuce Act area, any redevelopment would fall under the review of CFA. This guidance and

Luce Act was put into place to help ensure that the

and the Southwest Waterfront. 2 The Shipstead-

review will help to ensure that the architecture

and urban design of the redeveloped Hains Point experience of the Monumental Core. Intense

will be sympathetic to federal concerns about the collaboration with the Commission would be

required from the onset of the master planning In anticipation of this process, Vision creates a

process through to the design of the final building. framework for future development that respects for commemoration, and builds on key elements of past planning efforts.

the Monumental Core, provides new opportunities


FIGURE 28: SHIPSTEAD-LUCE ACT BOUNDARIES (PARTIAL), SOURCE: GOOGLE EARTH

26

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

FIGURE 29:WASHINGTON CHANNEL AND POTOMAC RIVER NAVIGATIONAL CHART, SOURCE: NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION: OFFICE OF COSTAL SURVEY, 2010

Hains Point is flanked to the east by the

U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS

of Vision Hains Point 2040 does not include

Washington Channel and to the west by the

significant intrusions into these federal waters, it is anticipated that the reconstruction of the bulkhead along Hains Point, any dredging fill that

Potomac River, with both water bodies federally The Army Corps is the permitting body for all

controlled under the auspices of the Army Corps.

is completed to provide for new memorials, the cross-island channel will require review and permitting approval by the Army Corps.

structures within federal navigational waters.

placement of wind turbines, and the creation of a

29. * While redevelopment work proposed as part


* The navigational channel within the Washington Channel has been changed subsequent to this map in July of 2012 through Public Law 112-143 The Promotion of the Southwest Waterfront in the District of Columbia and for other Purposes to allow for the construction of public piers and marinas as

These navigational waters are identified in Figure

ZONING, LAND USE, AND LAND OWNERSHIP

part of the redevelopment of the Southwest Waterfront but the boundary closest to Hains Point remains unchanged.

27

It is anticipated that many additional federal among others: the Federal Emergency

OTHER FEDERAL REVIEW

reviews will be necessary by agencies including, Management Agency (FEMA) to evaluate impacts (FHWA), Department of Transportation (DOT), and Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) to interstate network; the Federal Aviation

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate impacts on the Middle Potomac-

helicopter routes as shown in Figure 30; the

Anacostia-Occoquan Watershed; 4 and the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to evaluate impacts on any endangered species located in the area. Given the Hains Point 2040, its high profile nature, and its federal reviews and permits necessary would rightfully be broad, thorough, and extensive.

on floodplains; Federal Highways Administration

enormity of the redevelopment proposed in Vision location relative to many key federal holdings, the

evaluate any changes to the bridge, railroad, and Administration (FAA) to evaluate any impacts to flight paths at Reagan National Airport and

28

FIGURE 30: BALTIMORE WASHINGTON HELICOPTER ROUTE CHART NEAR HAINS POINT, SOURCE: FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, 2012

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Planning and development in the District of

COMPREHENSIVE PLAN OF THE NATIONAL CAPITAL

redevelopment within the guiding intentions

enumerated in the Federal Comp Plan. These them include:

Columbia is guided by the Comprehensive Plan for the National Capital (The Comp Plan). The Comp the Federal and District Elements. Plan is composed of two coordinated components

items and the way in which Vision accommodates PARK STEWARDSHIP

Comp Plan Goal: The 6,776 acres owned by NPS represents the majority of parks and open space in the District of Columbia, and is 17 percent of the Districts total land area. Visions Response: Vision works to increase the open spaces within the District. Hains Points approximately 400 acres represents less than 6 of parks nationwide. Increasing the amount of District of Columbias control over the parks and percent of the NPS holdings in the District, and is an infinitesimal portion of NPSs 84 million acres park space controlled by the District will enhance meet the changing needs and goals of the city. AREA II COMMEMORATIVE SITES Comp Plan Goal: The Memorials and Museums Master Plan identified 100 potential sites throughout the District of Columbia for locating new commemorative works. As an extension of the Mall, but within Area II, Hains Point at the tip of East Potomac Park was identified as a location for a future memorial of lasting historical significance, provided that existing recreational resources are not compromised. Visions Response: Vision provides for an enhanced and more accessible location for a

Most recently updated in 2004, the Federal National Capital (Federal Comp Plan) are

FEDERAL ELEMENTS

Elements of the Comprehensive Plan for the prepared by NCPC to create a general framework

for federal land use, operations, and activity in the Comp Plan includes: Transportation; Federal Workplace; Parks and Open Space; Federal

National Capital Region. 5 The scope of the Federal

the ability of the parks to be used more flexibly to

Environment; Foreign Missions and International Organizations; Visitors; and Preservation and Urban Design Policy section that is aimed at and sustainable. 6 Historic Features. Further, NCPC has drafted an making federal holdings more livable, functional,

Several sections of the Federal Comp Plan have Point 2040 looks to fit the proposed

portions that relate to Hains Point. Vision Hains

commemorative work at the southern tip of Hains Point and will increase the amount of the park that is free and available for public recreation.

ZONING, LAND USE, AND LAND OWNERSHIP

29

FLEXIBLE RECREATION SPACE Comp Plan Goal: Maintain East and West Potomac Park as an extension of the Mall, as a valuable recreation open space, and as a space that can be used for gatherings, and celebrations. Visions Response: Today only one-eighth of the land area in East Potomac Park is potentially available for outdoor cultural events. The majority of this area is contained within the

WATERFRONT ACCESS Comp Plan Goal: Development along the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers, including new roads and freeways, and concentrated governmental or institutional land uses that create barriers, should be designed to allow the public maximum visual and physical access to the waterfront. Visions Response: The street grid planned in Vision allows for view corridors to continue down from the fabric of the city. The visual barriers of has been provided from the Jefferson Memorial southeast towards the convergence of the the waterfront has been enhanced through the options near the waterfront and the esplanade. reconstruction of the crumbling and decrepit seawall to a new educational pedestrian the elevated 14th Street Bridge complex have been

physical configuration, would not be conducive to major public gatherings. The remainder of the island is dedicated to office buildings, maintenance yards, parking lots, infrastructure, or specialized sporting facilities. Vision will create a new urban park system that is flexible, open, and to reduce the burden on the Mall. can truly be used as an alternative gathering place PUBLIC WATERFRONTS Comp Plan Goal: Waterfronts in the District of Columbia should be publicly owned and accessible, except at planned waterfront locations in Georgetown, portions of the Southwest Waterfront along the Washington Channel, and Buzzard Point, where controlled private development could be permitted. Visions Response: Vision plans to keep continuous waterfront access publicly owned (by the District of Columbia) and in fact increase the freely accessible park area on Hains Point, since will be an appropriate balance to the Wharf Channel. today the vast majority of the island is covered by

islands thin linear park strip, which, due to its

eliminated or minimized, and a new visual linkage Potomac and Anacostia Rivers. Physical access to proposed creation of new public transportation

URBAN WATERFRONT AREAS Comp Plan Goal: In areas characterized as urban waterfronts, such as the Georgetown Waterfront, the Southwest Waterfront, and areas near the Southeast Federal Center/Washington Navy Yard, there may be defined areas where building heights can be expected to be higher. Visions Response: Vision would create a new development along the Southwest Waterfront located across the Washington Channel. urban waterfront to complement the Wharf

a golf course. The redevelopment of Hains Point development on the east side of the Washington

30

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY Comp Plan Goal: In urban waterfront areas that are determined appropriate for development: avoid construction in environmentally sensitive areas; restore, stabilize, and/or improve and landscape degraded areas of shorelines; limit development along or near shoreline and integrate it with the generally low and continuous line of river embankments. Visions Response: Since the entirety of East avoid in the redevelopment. Development stabilized in the process. Potomac Park was created from a dredging effort,

BRIDGE PLACEMENT Comp Plan Goal: Design and locate bridges so that they minimally affect local riverine habitat, waterways, shorelines, and valleys. Visions Response: The bridges proposed in configurations and should not require adverse impacts on the riverine habitat. WATER-ORIENTED RECREATION Comp Plan Goal: Encourage swimming, boating, and fishing facilities, as well as water-oriented tourist activities on the Anacostia and Potomac Rivers. Visions Response: The redevelopment of Hains Point will provide opportunities which greatly and scales of recreation. increase the access to the water for all varieties SHORELINE CONTINUITY Comp Plan Goal: Ensure that the shorelines and waterfronts of the Anacostia and Potomac Rivers remain mostly owned and that privately owned parks provide shoreline continuity through parks and promenades. Visions Response: The parks system planned in District of Columbia) but would be supplemented by private management. This method of park and use is maintained while enhancing without straining public budgets. management helps to ensure that public access programming and increasing the level of service Vision would remain under public ownership (the Vision are aligned with existing shoreline

there are no naturally occurring sensitive areas to

planned in Vision is continuously held back from

the shoreline which is planned to be restored and PHYSICAL BARRIERS

Comp Plan Goal: Avoid physical barriers to the waterfront, and long, unbroken stretches of building or walls along waterfronts. Visions Response: The continuous building set the view corridors from the District planned in Vision aim to minimize barriers and avoid monotony. DEVELOPMENT HEIGHT or near the shoreline based on the buildings proximity to the shoreline. Visions Response: The building heights planned in Vision have been organized in such a way that the buildings step down as they approach the Core. shoreline and as they approach the Monumental Comp Plan Goal: Determine building height along back and relatively short block sizes aligned with

ZONING, LAND USE, AND LAND OWNERSHIP

31

TOURIST FACILITIES AND FOOD SERVICE Comp Plan Goal: there are areas that lack adequate food service facilities. Vendors selling food and other tourist-related items can help to fill the gap and do provide an important visitor service, but they can also impede pedestrian and vehicular traffic and may adversely impact the visual and physical qualities of the [M]onumental [C]ore. Visions Response: The area near the Jefferson Memorial and West Potomac Park is currently underserved with facilities to accommodate visitor demand. The redevelopment planned in Vision will provide for sufficient retail and impact on the Monumental Core. restaurant options to meet this demand but is organized in a way that minimizes the visual

Despite the fact that Vision Hains Point 2040 is

outside of the current framework of the Federal

Comp Plan, the plan works to accommodate many Plan and incorporate them into redevelopment plans for this new neighborhood.

of the underlying principals espoused in the Comp

32

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

The District Element of the Comprehensive Plan of the National Capital (District Comp Plan) was last completed in 2006, with amendments in 2009 and 2011. The District Comp Plan focuses on land use produced through the District Comp Plan: the issues that impact the city. Two primary maps are Comprehensive Plan Future Land Use map, and

DISTRICT ELEMENTS

District, the Comprehensive Plan Generalized

Policy Map aims to categorize the ways in which

select areas of the city may change in the coming 20 years. One function of the Generalized Policy Map is to identify where significant changes in

land use are anticipated. The pink (District) and show locations, such as Walter Reed, St.

pink with blue striped (Federal) areas in Figure 31 Elizabeths, and the U.S. Armed Forces Retirement Home, where changes are predicted. These federally controlled areas are to be transferred to the District to manage redevelopment. Transfers for many of these key parcels are already Federal and District Governments.

the Comprehensive Plan Generalized Policy map.

Within the Comprehensive Plan Future Land Use map, parcels are identified as Residential, Commercial, Public and Institutional, or a MixedUse combination thereof. These groups are then designated by density (low, moderate, medium, high) or by type for the Public and Institutional group (Federal, Local, Institutional, Parks).

complete or under active negotiation between the

In order for Vision to be realized by 2040, one goal Map would identify Hains Point and East Potomac Park as an area of consideration for future land use changes. is to target that, by 2020, the Generalized Policy

While the Future Land Use map identifies the

more immediate changes and uses around the

ZONING, LAND USE, AND LAND OWNERSHIP

33

FIGURE 31: DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA COMPREHENSIVE PLAN GENERALIZED POLICY MAP AREAS (CLOCKWISE FROM UPPER LEFT) EAST POTOMAC PARK, U.S. ARMED FORCE RETIREMENT HOME, ST. ELIZABETHS, WALTER REED, SOURCE: DC OFFICE OF PLANNING, 2012

FIGURE 32: CURRENT UNZONED LAND OF FUTURE DEVELOPMENT SITES: (CLOCKWISE FROM UPPER LEFT) EAST POTOMAC PARK, ST. ELIZABETHS, ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME, POPLAR POINT, SOURCE : DC OFFICE OF ZONING, 2013

34

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Today, East Potomac Park is designated as an

EXISTING DISTRICT ZONING

process, and the related zoning map amendment, will allow for the appropriate zoning regulations to be applied to the site and approved by the District, and permit greater flexibility in site planning and design. 9

Unzoned area by the Districts Office of Zoning. redevelopment projects currently planned are designated as unzoned on city maps. These As illustrated in Figure 32, several of the largest

Forces Retirement Home (4.3 million square feet of planned development), and Poplar Point (5.7 million square feet of planned development). 7

square feet of planned development), U.S. Armed

projects include St. Elizabeths East (3.9 million

The PUD process will involve an intensive public flexibility being granted in the final zoning order

review and negotiations period to ensure that the for the PUD is commensurate with the quality and quantity of community amenities being proffered. When CFA review is required by way of the often runs concurrent with or immediately

Several of these major redevelopment sites,

including the U.S. Armed Forces Retirement Home and Poplar Point, are currently owned by the Federal Government, as shown in Figure 31. As

Shipstead-Luce Act or otherwise, the PUD process following the concept design review by CFA. Two the federal interests: Architect of the Capitol

these projects are eventually transferred to the District from the Federal Government, and subsequently from the District to the chosen Planned Unit Development (PUD) or similar

of the five Zoning Commission members represent Designee and National Park Service Designee. Additionally, all PUDs are referred to NCPC to federal interests. Between the required CFA advise if the project has an adverse impact on review process, NCPCs review in the PUD process,

development partner, each will need to complete a rezoning process through the Districts Zoning

Commission. The Zoning Commission is a quasijudicial, independent body formed in 1920 that prepares, adopts, and amends the zoning

and the persuasive influence that the federal

representatives have on the Zoning Commission, zoning of many major District redevelopments.

regulations and map in a means not inconsistent with the Comprehensive Plan. 8 This PUD

the federal interests are strongly supported in the

ZONING, LAND USE, AND LAND OWNERSHIP

35

FIGURE 33: LAND AND JURISDICTION TRANSFER MAP FROM THE FEDERAL AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT REAL PROPERTY ACT OF 2006, SOURCE: U.S. GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE, 2008

federal lands to the District of Columbia for

As demonstrated above, the proposed transfer of

LAND TRANSFER

District has a structural tax imbalance that is

largely driven by the amount of real estate that is untaxed within the District. 10 As a result, local political support for these land transfers is likely from the Districts growth, and increase the Districts tax base.

mixed-use redevelopment is not uncommon and is actively happening in the District. In todays climate where the federal government is working reduce ongoing operating costs, lest they to lower its deficit, sell excess property, * and

to sustain in order to help accommodate pressure

automatically be cut by way of sequestration,

these land dispositions are likely to continue. The


* The White House has actually set up an interactive website that catalogs the more than 15,000 excess Federal properties that have been identified in an effort to sell off properties that are no longer needed in response to President Obamas June 2010 Memorandum Disposing of Unneeded Federal Real Estate

36

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

The Federal Government controls roughly 42% of the property in the District and there are a large number of other tax exempt organizations (embassies, consulates, IMF, World Bank, non-profits, universities, churches, and hospitals). Further, the ban on non-resident income tax collection continues to exacerbate the imbalance.

The last major coordinated land transfer between 2006 through the Federal and District of Columbia Real Property Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-396). As shown in Figure 33, the transfers included a number of relatively minor land and jurisdiction transfers, as well as the transfer of Poplar Point the Interior/National Park Service and General Services Administration, respectively. The conveyance of the Poplar Point parcel is and Hill East (Reservation 13) from Department of the District and Federal Government occurred in

District. Also, like the Poplar Point land transfer, contingencies would have to be in place to accommodate the existing National Park Service and Park Police facilities. As will be discussed administrative functions are proposed to be later in the Land Use section, the office and

relocated on-site while the more unnecessary yards, are not included in the redevelopment

utilitarian uses, such as maintenance and storage plans proposed by Vision. Further, Vision expects

contingent on the replacement of National Park Service and U.S. Park Police facilities that currently exist on site and requires that 70 acres

that a set amount of land will be maintained for

park purposes as a condition of the land transfer despite the fact that Vision would open up more

between the Park Service and the District. Finally,

be maintained for park purposes in perpetuity. 11

land for free public recreation than currently

exists today, the Congressional action to convey Hains Point to the District for redevelopment would have to amend the 1897 legislation that

Government Accountability Office on the delays in property conveyance, complex land and jurisdictional transfers, particularly those

As indicated by the 2008 report of the

requires the island to be forever held and used a

park for the recreation and pleasure of people. 12

involving active National Park Service land and facilities are complicated and time consuming. Vision anticipates that in order to realize the redevelopment potential identified for Hains

The process of land transfer and the approval to complete the proposed redevelopment of Hains controversy. But, as with most things in administrative way. Point would not be easy, or quick, or without

Point, a path similar to that taken for the Poplar to transfer the land in East Potomac Park to the

Point and Hill East land transfer would be utilized

Washington, if there is political will, there is an

ZONING, LAND USE, AND LAND OWNERSHIP

37

National Capital Planning Commission, 2009 U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, 2006 3 United States Congress, 1930 4 Steenhoek, Watershed Description - The Washington Channel, 2011 5 National Capital Planning Commission, 2013 6 Ibid 7 Steenhoek, District 2040 - Building Towards a Sustainable DC, 2012 8 DC Office of Zoning, 2013 9 District of Columbia Office of Zoning, 2013 10 DC Appleseed; Our Nation's Capital, 2008 11 109th Congress, 2006 12 US Army Corps of Engineers, 2002
1 2

38

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

2040 MARKET & DEVELOPMENT PROJECTIONS

Columbia itself. The District has seen tremendous growth in recent years and has bold ambitions to sustain this trajectory. Employment opportunities in the District have increased by an average of 1,000 jobs per 2010 and 2011. 1 Further, tourism numbers continue to increase in the District with 17.9 million tourists month in recent months, and DC population grew by 2.7percent, faster than any state in the nation, between visiting the city in 2011, breaking a record high that was set pre-September 11th. 2 Guiding this growth are

The Washington, DC region is growing. Nowhere is this more apparent, perhaps, than in the District of

two recent plans issued by the District the Sustainable DC Plan and the Five-Year Economic Development Strategy for the District of Columbia.

Through the Sustainable DC Plan, Mayor Vincent Gray has set a goal of adding 250,000 net new residents to Strategy, the Mayor has identified an ambitious plan to create 100,000 new jobs and $1 billion dollars in new maintain its recent trajectory, and realize the Sustainable DC population targets and the economic growth tax revenue over the next five years. 4 In order for the District of Columbia to achieve its growth capacity, the District of Columbia over the next twenty years 3 and, though his Five-Year Economic Development

made. This analysis builds off of research completed during the Fall of 2012 in the report District 2040:

targets from the Five-Year Economic Development Strategy, significant changes and investments need to be

growth and demand, in comparison with the supply pipeline, to determine where these projections do not

Building Towards a Sustainable DC. District 2040 looks at the Districts projected population, tourism, and job

align. 5 Gaps between the Districts growth potential and the projected supply represent missed opportunities for the city in the future. Vision Hains Point 2040 proposes an approach that will help the District realize its full potential in the year 2040 and close the unmet supply-demand gaps.
1 2

Office of the Mayor, The Five-Year Economic Development Strategy for the District of Columbia, 2012, p.10 Destination DC, Washington DC's 2011 Visitor Statistics, 2011 3 Office of the Mayor, Sustainable DC Plan, 2013, p.46 4 Office of the Mayor, The Five-Year Economic Development Strategy for the District of Columbia, 2012, p.10 5 Steenhoek, District 2040 - Building Towards a Sustainable DC, 2012

2040 MARKET AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTIONS

39

As discussed, significant growth is anticipated in in coming decades. District of Columbia Mayor Vincent C. Gray has established an ambitious

POPULATION & HOUSEHOLD PROJECTIONS

increased tourism, and cultural development. 2 Research and projections completed for Vision Hains Point 2040 indicate that by 2040, with continued population growth at this level, the District will be home to more than 1,000,000 residents, comprising almost 520,000 households. 3

the District of Columbia and metropolitan region

target of adding 250,000 new residents over the patterns show a city on that trajectory. 1 The

next twenty years and the Districts recent growth District is also anticipating significant job growth,

FIGURE 34: DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA POPULATION GROWTH PROJECTIONS PREPARED FOR VISION HAINS POINT 2040, SOURCE: STEENHOEK, DISTRICT 2040 - BUILDING TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE DC, 2012

40

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

FIGURE 35: DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA HOUSEHOLD GROWTH PROJECTIONS PREPARED FOR VISION HAINS POINT 2040, SOURCE: STEENHOEK, 2012

projected to occur over time. These charts

Figure 34 and Figure 35 show how this growth is

and Fuller match the projections used in Vision Hains Point 2040 very closely with regards to population growth but differ for household

incorporate projections based on Metropolitan (MWCOG 8.1), recent Census growth rates (Census based), and recent projections

Washington Council of Governments projections

growth due to projections about household size a shrinking average household size * due to the couples longer.

and composition. The research for Vision reflects tendency for people to stay single or as childless

completed by Drs. Lisa A. Sturtevant and Stephen Public Policy (GMU Based), as well as the

S. Fuller for the George Mason University School of projections prepared for Vision based on the Mayors population growth targets from the Sustainable DC Plan (Sustainable DC based). The projections based on the work by Drs. Sturtevant

2040 MARKET AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTIONS

Vision Hains Point 2040 projections for household growth looked at recent local trends toward shrinking household sizes. Analysis of US Census data from 2000 and 2010 as well as American Community Survey data from 2005 shows that, on average, household size in the District of Columbia decreased by 1.1% every five years. Using this data, household size is projected to drop from 2.11 in 2010 to 1.97 in 2040.
*

41

FIGURE 36: DC GROWTH PROJECTIONS BY AGE GROUP, SOURCE: STEENHOEK, 2012

population will be far different from what is

By 2040, the composition of the Districts

AGE GROUP PROJECTIONS

completed for Vision Hains Point 2040 reflect the following trends:

new analysis of age demographic projections for household size, increasing number of people who stay single or stay single longer, changes to retirement age, increases in life span, and couples the District which are a function of decreasing

known today. Figure 36 and Figure 37 show a

a youth age group that maintains numbers, but which represents a population

approximately static real population declining percentage of the overall

who have children later in life. The projections

42

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

FIGURE 37: PROPORTION OF DC POPULATION BY AGE GROUP, SOURCE: STEENHOEK, 2012

a retirement age group that triples in real population numbers and increases from 10.0 percent to 17.7 percent of the total population

These critical changes to the composition of the Districts population have profound impacts on the demands of the built environment and on

a potential workforce age group that increases roughly 70 percent in real static percentage of the overall population numbers but maintains an population of approximately 72 percent

changing needs of this population.

services that will have to be offered to meet the

2040 MARKET AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTIONS

43

While the sight of tower cranes piercing the

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTIONS

development pipeline primarily is composed of development. 4 These four real estate product

Districts skyline might suggest otherwise, the

multi-family, commercial office, hotel, and retail types account for more than 135 million square 38 further illustrates how this development

current development pipeline is not sufficient to create adequate supply for this level of growth. Vision Hains Point 2040, using data from the The development pipeline projections created for Washington DC Economic Partnership (WDCEP) Development Search database, identifies more than 150 million square feet of future development. As illustrated by Figure 38, the

feet of the 150 million square foot pipeline. Figure pipeline is projected to deliver over time with all known projects projected to be constructed by 2040.

FIGURE 38: DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DEVELOPMENT PIPELINE, SOURCE: STEENHOEK, 2012

44

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

third of this development will come from just 19 major projects. These projects, illustrated in Figure 39, range from 1.1 to 5.7 million square

Analysis of the WDCEP pipeline shows that one

MAJOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

These 19 projects represent all of the major sites

currently under consideration for development in District. The vast majority of which involve some level of public-private partnership through the

feet and represent more than 52 million square than 27,000 residential units, over 2,600 hotel employment opportunities for almost 80,000 office workers.

District or Federal Government. Major large scale projects play an important role in meeting future demand and public-private partnerships, which

feet of new development. They will produce more

rooms, almost 3.5 million square feet of retail, and

enable the development of land controlled by the government, are the key to implementation. Vision uses this public-private framework to

propose the redevelopment of Hains Point in 2040 - a development larger than the five biggest major projects in the pipeline combined.

FIGURE 39: MAJOR LONG TERM DEVELOPMENT PIPELINE, SOURCE: STEENHOEK, 2012

2040 MARKET AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTIONS

45

FIGURE 40: PROJECTED HOUSING SUPPLY AND DEMAND, SOURCE: STEENHOEK, 2012

Supply projections, for both new residential

RESIDENTIAL DEMAND

While Vision Hains Point 2040 assumes that all are fully completed by 2040, the projected

of enough units to house approximately 373,000 increase of 25 percent from 2010 levels and households in the District by 2040. 5 This is an

construction or renovation, identify the creation

projects known today in the development pipeline residential supply-demand imbalance is so great

that the entire residential pipeline would need to demand. This can be seen in Figure 40, which the total known residential supply pipeline around 2023. *

represents more than 40 percent of the pipeline Economic Partnership. 6 Still, this level of

deliver within the next decade to match projected indicates that growth projections would surpass

square-footage identified by the Washington DC development falls short of projected housing units.

demand by approximately 145,000 residential

46

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

* Due to the fact that the WDCEP projections only track projects valued at $5M and more, Figure 40 includes additional small development projections to account for minor projects, subdivision of larger homes, expansion of accessory dwelling units, etc. These projections add between 269 -329 additional units of supply each year and are based on DC building permit data from the Census between 2000 and 2010.

Projected Employment Distribution Trade, Transportation, and Utilities Information Financial Activities Professional and Business Services Educational and Health Services Leisure and Hospitality Other Services (Except Government) Total Federal Government Employment State govt., excl. education & hospitals Service Subtotal Construction Manufacturing Total SE & UFW, Goods Producing Subtotal All Jobs Total

2010 34,637 23,379 32,883 189,389 129,280 63,937 77,686 214,256 21,564 787,010 2,533 288 13,240 16,061 803,071

2015 36,415 24,579 34,570 199,107 135,914 67,218 81,672 225,250 22,671 827,395 2,663 302 13,920 16,886 844,280

2020 38,283 25,840 36,344 209,324 142,888 70,667 85,863 236,809 23,834 869,852 2,800 318 14,634 17,752 887,604

2025 40,248 27,166 38,209 220,066 150,220 74,293 90,269 248,960 25,057 914,488 2,944 334 15,385 18,663 933,151

2040 Increase from 2010 % Share 2035 2030 4.31% 42,313 44,485 46,767 12,130 28,560 30,025 31,566 8,187 2.91% 42,231 44,398 11,515 4.09% 40,170 66,323 23.58% 231,358 243,230 255,712 45,273 16.10% 157,929 166,033 174,553 22,390 7.96% 78,105 82,113 86,327 94,901 99,771 104,891 27,205 9.67% 75,031 26.68% 261,736 275,167 289,287 27,695 29,116 7,552 2.69% 26,343 961,415 1,010,750 1,062,616 275,607 98.00% 0.32% 3,095 3,254 3,421 887 351 369 388 101 0.04% 16,174 17,004 17,877 4,637 1.65% 2.00% 19,621 20,628 21,686 5,625 281,231 100.00% 981,036 1,031,377 1,084,302

Source : Researcher's projections using DC DOES Employment Projections

FIGURE 41: DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS TO 2040, SOURCE: STEENHOEK, 2012

By 2040, projections completed for Vision Hains Point 2040 show that the District is poised to create more than 280,000 new jobs. As shown in

OFFICE DEMAND

Growth in the hospitality sector is one of the key tenets of Mayor Grays Five Year Economic importance to the Districts tax base. 10 Development Strategy and is of paramount Projections completed for Vision show that by 2040, the District will need to add more than 24,000 net new hotel rooms to maintain current million square feet of new hotel demand. 11

HOTEL DEMAND

in the Professional and Business Services, Federal Government, and Education and Health Services industries. 7 These jobs will drive demand for more than 63 million square feet of office development by 2040. 8 Current pipeline

be in Service-Providing positions and primarily

Figure 41, more than 98 percent of these jobs will

visitor-to-room ratios. This equates to roughly 12 Development projections show that less than

projections identify 57.8 million square feet of

new office development activity, leaving a gap of

9,000 hotel rooms are currently identified for room supply will be necessary to accommodate adjacent jurisdictions. construction. 12 A significant increase in hotel

consolidation and centralization of major federal this demand.

approximately 5.8 million square feet. 9 The future

office users in the urban core may further expand

increased levels of tourism and reduce leakage to

2040 MARKET AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTIONS

47

Currently, the District on the whole is considered District loses $1 billion dollars annually to retail leakage outside of the city. 13 To bring the retail

RETAIL DEMAND

to be underserved by retail. Estimates are that the

supply through 2025 or 2030; but, between 2040 sites is projected to exist. 17 Given recent trends in projected to require approximately 800,000 also be located outside of the traditional new museum sizing, * these museums are and 2050, demand for two new major museum

identified which will likely provide adequate

opportunities for the District on par with local or national levels, more than 16 million square feet of retail development would be required. 14 The

square feet for development. The museums must Monumental Core in accordance with the CWA. The greater Washington region includes many significantly sized outdoor musical and performance venues such as Merriweather Post Pavilion, Jiffy Lube Live, and Wolf Traps Filene for a mid-sized, centrally-located, MetroCenter. However, there remains a gap in supply accessible outdoor venue within the District

projected retail pipeline of 9.2 million square feet of 7.4 million square feet by 2040.

of retail development identifies an unmet demand

ENTERTAINMENT DEMAND

Demand for monumental commemoration and

MEMORIAL DEMAND

cultural facilities in and around the Monumental average of one memorial per year has been

Core continues to grow. For the past century, an dedicated in the District. 15 Given the constraints the Monumental Core by the Commemorative

imposed on the creation of new memorials within Works Act (CWA), new areas should be targeted to meet the demand and expand commemorative and cultural tourism opportunities in District neighborhoods.

proper. A well-located outdoor venue for between 10,000 and 15,000 attendees would provide the District with a valuable urban amenity that it currently lacks. 18 Other cultural offerings for

District residents to increase cultural tourism

shows that several major museum sites have been

DC each decade. 16 Research completed for Vision

Trends indicate one new major museum opens in

MUSEUM AND CULTURAL DEMAND

could include a marquee aquarium , observation

48

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

*The capitals newest museums, the National Museum of the American Indian and the African American History Museum, are approximately 450,000 and 350,000 square feet, respectively Merriweather has a capacity of 20,000, Wolf Trap has a capacity of 7,000, and Jiffy Lube Live has a capacity of 25,000. The small National Aquarium in the basement of the Commerce Building is not a significant national attraction

Summary Supply and Demand Projections Year: 2040 Projected Supply Projected Demand Residential Units 373,000 518,000 Office Squarefeet 57,844,000 63,666,000 Hotel Units 9,000 25,000 Retail Squarefeet 9,254,000 16,694,000 Museum/Entertainment Squarefeet 2,714,000 3,714,000
Source : Researcher's Projections
FIGURE 42: 2040 SUPPLY & DEMAND PROJECTIONS, SOURCE: STEENHOEK, 2012

Delta (146,000) (5,822,000) (16,000) (7,441,000) (1,000,000)

tower, performing arts center, or other similar attraction.

Washingtons parks cover 19.4 percent of the

LOCAL PARKS DEMAND

Strides are being made through collaborative

efforts such as the CapitalSpace initiative to create the District of Columbia are utilized, regardless of Yards and Canal Park, and planned for Poplar a more balanced vision of how the open spaces in

Districts land area. This equates to 12.9 acres per amount of park land in a major high-density 1,000 residents. 19 This is the highest per capita

ownership. Also, efforts recently completed at the Point, show how federal lands can be transferred to the District for the creation of vibrant, unique, and innovative urban neighborhood parks. 22

American city. 20 Despite this wealth of park land these parks is by the National Park Service. 21 Due to this structure, the majority of park space in the District is designed for and restricted to uses that which may not always align with local visions for how public spaces should be utilized. While some of the park areas clearly identify with the federal interests and should remain under the control the NPS, opportunities should be evaluated to provide control of neighborhood neighborhood functions and local needs. in the District, the control of almost 90 percent of

These parks offer a path forward for future urban District of Columbia. They provide the District with greater flexibility regarding the use of available park resources and reduce National Park Service.

support the missions of the National Park Service,

park design, construction, and maintenance in the

administrative and operational burdens on the

parks to the District so that they can better serve

2040 MARKET AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTIONS

49

As demonstrated in the sections above and further projections completed for Vision show that detailed in Figure 42, the supply and demand

DEMAND SUMMARY

significant measures need to be taken to ensure that the future built environment and building stock of the District of Columbia sufficiently growth projections. Today, the Districts capitalizes on the demand identified in these traditional downtown areas are reportedly more than 95 percent built-out, with the height limit constraining significant future growth. This pressure has led to the expansion of the

traditional downtown into new neighborhoods such as NoMa, the Capital Riverfront, and Southwest Waterfront; however, these

neighborhoods, too, are projected to be built-out redevelopment of Hains Point promoted in Vision is a direct response to these significant needs. While the proposed program cannot meet all of potential of Hains Point in a manner that is in the coming 15 to 20 years. 23 The proposed

Office of Mayor, 2012 Destination DC, 2011, National Capital Planning Commission, 2001, Office of the Mayor, 2012 District of Columbia Department of Employment Services, 2011 3 Steenhoek, District 2040 - Building Towards a Sustainable DC, 2012 4 Washington DC Economic Partnership, 2012 Steenhoek, 2012 5 Steenhoek, 2012 6 Washington DC Economic Partnership, 2012 7 Steenhoek, 2012, District of Columbia Department of Employment Services, 2011 8 Steenhoek, 2012 9 Washington DC Economic Partnership, 2012, Steenhoek, 2012 10 Office of Mayor, 2012, DC Appleseed; Our Nation's Capital, 2008 11 Steenhoek, 2012 12 Washington DC Economic Partnership, 2012 13 Office of Mayor, 2012, Social Compact, Inc., 2008 14 Steenhoek, 2012 15 National Capital Planning Commission, 2001 16 National Capital Planning Commission, 2012, p.20 17 Steenhoek, 2012 18 Ibid 19 The Trust for Public Land, 2010 20 (Harnik, 2010) 21 National Capital Planning Commission, 2010 22 Steenhoek, 2012 23 Congress for the New Urbanism - DC, 2013
1 2

the projected demand, it strives to maximize the sensitive to the surrounding federal interests and neighborhood for the District.

the environment, while creating a new world-class

50

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

MASTER PLAN

MASTER PLAN

51

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Vision Hains Point 2040 lays out a master plan to create a new, vibrant, resilient, and well composed mixedare building in the District, and does so in a way that is sensitive to the federal and environmental context. Saint Elizabeths East, and Maryland Avenue Southwest. The key sources used to help develop this This vision plan was inspired by recent planning documents for the SW Eco District, Hill East Waterfront,

use neighborhood for the District of Columbia. The plan responds to the economic and market pressures that

framework include the influential work of urbanists such as Julie Campoli, Andreas Duany, Alexander Garvin, Allan Jacobs, Christopher Leinberger, Mike Lydon, Jeff Speck, and Brent Toderian. The literature of these sources show there are certain core fundamentals that make good urban places. After decades of largely

unchecked and environmentally destructive suburban sprawl type development patterns dominating the Lessons from these key urbanist sources embraced by Vision Hains Point 2040 include: built environment, these underlying fundamentals of good urbanism are particularly important to revisit. 1 Developing compact neighborhoods that have a horizontally and vertically integrated mix of uses Creating communities that are equitable and sustainable Focusing development around robust transportation infrastructure Balancing the worker to resident population mix to create an active 18+ hour environment

Designing a fine-grained network of comfortable, safe, and flexible streets Planning for neighborhoods with sensitive context specific urban forms

Utilizing unique value-capture strategies to leverage private development for public amenity

Integrating the street grid within the fabric and context of the existing neighborhood

Building resilient infrastructure and environmentally responsible structures

Organizing communities around public spaces, cultural elements, parks, and civic buildings

Promoting a hierarchy that supports sustainable and healthy active transportation modes

52

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

The program proposed is not simply density for densitys sake and height for heights sake. Instead, Vision strives to create what Toderian, former Chief Planner for Vancouver, has recently popularized as Density Done Well. 2 In order to truly be done well, this density must be created in a smart growth planning

framework that the The Smart Growth Manual describes as practical, walkable, and convivial. 3 Through this mixture of residential housing, employment, tourism, retail, cultural, and recreational opportunities. The deliberate approach, Vision creates a dense and walkable neighborhood that is able to support a balanced

transportation infrastructure and physical space planning reinforces the dominance of walking, bikes, and

are designed to support these goals and contribute to the positively reinforcing cycle that begets a vibrant,

public transit in the transportation hierarchy. When density is done well, urban form and the public realm sustainable, resilient, liveable, healthy, and complete neighborhood. 4 Further, Visions plan draws heavily on the work of Alexander Garvin, his idea of New-Towns-in-Town, and his study of Battery Park City in New

York. Hains Point is an amazing opportunity for the District that is viable from both a market and regulatory the next great neighborhood in the heart of an already great city that contributes to an even greater Washington, DC region.

perspective. The redevelopment plan generates significant tax revenue and wealth for the District and creates

MASTER PLAN

53

Hayden, 2003 Toderian, Re-defining the D-Word: 'Density Done Well' in Vancouver, 2013 3 Duany, Speck, & Lyndon, 2010, p. 5.10 4 Toderian, 2013
1 2

54

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

Vision Hains Point 2040 identifies a program for a new neighborhood that accommodates 22.4 million square feet of development. This development is scaled to help respond to the market gaps identified earlier in the programming of this land use mixture aspires to achieve a neighborhood balance that exemplifies Density Done Well. 2040 Market & Development Projections section and includes a balanced mix of building types and uses. The

Proposed to be constructed on found land

A NEW NEIGHBORHOOD

reclaimed from the bottom of the Potomac, the redevelopment of Hains Point is neither a true greenfield redevelopment nor urban infill in the of underutilized and highly valuable centrally located land, but it is not impacting a virgin

and Jefferson Memorials in West Potomac Park,

reclamation includes the area around the Lincoln the lands and runways surrounding Washington Reagan National Airport, and Poplar Point -- the the development pipeline for the District. largest single untapped opportunity currently in

tradition sense. Vision proposes the redeployment

landscape. Significant adjacent areas, along both the Anacostia and Potomac Rivers, have been reclaimed and redeveloped over time. As shown in Figure 43, the Districts long history of land

While the creation of new land through land reclamation may seem to be a risky or cost prohibitive proposition, the use of reclaimed land for development sites has a long history and has been a common practice around the US and the world. Much of lower Manhattan, including Battery Park City, and Bostons Back Bay neighborhoods were created through land reclamation of Tokyo Bay, which began in the reclamation. 1 On a much larger scale, the

early-seventeenth century, has reclaimed more


FIGURE 43: RECLAIMED LAND (SHADED) IN WASHINGTON DC, SOURCE: PORSE, 2010

than 45,000 acres of land in central Tokyo since 1960. 2 These new neighborhoods provide

DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

55

capacity to the urban core of the city, and allow for increases in population and employment without jurisdictions. expanding further into the surrounding suburban

minds is intended to help create a certain amount of tension and disagreement, which helps eliminate the risk of sameness in the new

neighborhood. This is of particular importance for the design of ground floor retail storefronts and public spaces the elements of the built

distinct challenge. While a quest for authenticity time, a new neighborhood should strive to build robust and flexible infrastructure and building only truly may be realized with the passing of

over a relatively short amount of time presents a

The wholesale creation of a new neighborhood

environment that offer the most direct interaction at the pedestrian scale. While innovation should the expense of the public realm. The be supported and incubated, it should not come at implementation of Vision should include form principles.

stock that can adapt and be rethought over time Learn. 3 This should be achieved by referencing

based codes that encourage and enforce these

creating what Stewart Brand calls Buildings That

time honored building standards, using materials gracefully, 4 and creating public open spaces that

that allow structures to be reshaped or expanded are based on successful elements and proportions

places like Battery Park City in New York, with its 92 acres of redevelopment, including space for more than 60,000 residents and workers, on reclaimed land along the edge of Manhattan.

Towns-in-Town. 6 Garvin bases this concept on

Vision creates what Alexander Garvin calls New-

of well-tested and historically evolved typologies. 5

Further texture and character should be ensured by providing opportunities for many different discrete fine-grained components of a new developers and designers to work together on the neighborhood, within the framework of a master

Much like Battery Park City, the redevelopment of Hains Point should be considered as part of a comprehensive economic development strategy to capture local demand that might otherwise not be able to be met within the District, to take advantage of underutilized infrastructure, and to

56

plan. Bringing together many different creative

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

increase the vibrancy of surrounding existing neighborhoods. 7

Cooper and Eckstut also sought to make the most of the existing transportation and utility infrastructure in order to limit unnecessary costs, and balanced the development around this created new neighborhoods composed of infrastructure. The plan for Battery Park City moderate-sized blocks, with moderate-sized multiple parties over time as the market allowed. This structure is used in Vision to allow for a to encourage the variety of architects and influences discussed earlier. natural, market driven development timeline, and building parcels, that could be developed by

The approach used by Battery Park Citys master provides an example of how the new Hains Point

planners, Alexander Cooper and Stanton Eckstut, neighborhood should be considered. Cooper and Park by emulating the fine-grained urbanism

Eckstut brought the best of New York to Battery found around the city, rather than using the

uses this approach as a guiding principle to create a neighborhood that embraces the great urban character found throughout of the District.

previously proposed massive superblocks. Vision

FIGURE 44: RECLAIMED LAND OF BATTERY PARK CITY, SOURCE: ROBLEDO, 2006

DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

57

FIGURE 45: BATTERY PARK CITY TODAY, SOURCE: YOST, 2011

The street grid of Battery Park City picks up the pattern established in lower Manhattan and provided for continued pedestrian viewsheds

Manhattan into the design for Battery Park City allowed that: the patina of time will set in, and Battery Park City will lose its image as a new community and become another of New Yorks many unique, established neighborhoods. 8

through to the water. Finally, Cooper and Eckstut city to the waters edge. These organizing master plan for Hains Point.

created a park and esplanade plan that invited the characteristics have been adopted in Visions

Vision strives for just that on Hains Point the fabric of the District and as generations pass collection of authentic local neighborhoods.

creation of a neighborhood that blends into the becomes an intrinsic part of the DCs treasured

As Garvin points out, the approach of integrating the existing form, fabric, and function of lower

58

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

22.4 million gross square feet (GSF) of mixed-use development. The development area is focused primarily on the northern half of the island with

Vision Hains Point 2040 provides a framework for

DENSITY & LAND USE APPROACH

tip of Hains Point. The land use composition of the primary development area includes: 48 percent for Development Sites

as its boundary. As shown in Figure 46, the formal northern boundary for Visions master plan has also been aligned with the boundary of the highly Works Act. This places all elements of the

the 14th Street bridge and the CSX railroad tracks

10 percent for the Waterfront Esplanade 14 percent for Central Civic Park

28 percent for Sidewalks and Roads

When including Hains Points large Urban

restrictive Area I from the Commemorative

Recreation Park, almost 80 percent of the island proportion which is made possible by Hains Points robust urban park system.

remains as public open space - an unusually high

same designation as the rest of the District of Columbia.

proposed redevelopment within Area II the

The primary development area is divided into 40

separate parcels that range between two-thirds of parcels are then subdivided into between one and

an acre and three and three-quarters acres. These three separate development parcels, each of which supports a mixed-use building. Individual
FIGURE 46: BOUNDARY OF "THE RESERVE" (RED) AND "AREA I" (YELLOW)

buildings range in Floor Area Ratio (FAR) between 2.0 and 10.0, with a site wide average FAR of 6.2. When looked at in the aggregate, the gross FAR (including the parks, open space, and street

This primary development area occupies

approximately 43 percent of the land area, leaving more than 220 acres of available contiguous park space extending from the development site to the

components) is only 1.3 for the entire site, and 3.0 for the primary development area. The parcels have building heights between 40 feet and 160

DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

feet, with an average height of 90 feet. The total

59

Summary of Proposed Program for Redevelopment of Hains Point Residential Office Hotel Retail Museum/Entertainment Other Total

% of Total Development 55.5% 23.9% 8.3% 7.0% 4.5% 0.9% 100.0%

GSF 12,468,480 5,372,060 1,864,958 1,571,372 1,000,688 201,219 22,478,775

Residential Units / Hotel Rooms 16,250 Units 2,552 Rooms

Total Population 26,111 Residents 23,256 Employees 2,297 Employees 3,374 Guests 4,243 Employees 370 GSF/Employee 168 Employees 59,449

% of Unmet Demand Avg GSF 767 GSF/Unit 11.1% 231 GSF/Employee 92.3% 731 GSF/Room 16.0% 21.1% 100.1%

18,802

FIGURE 47: PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUMMARY

ranges between approximately 75,000 and

amount of development on an individual parcel

of the total GSF; and Other uses, such as schools of the GSF. Both of these uses, while relatively small, provide important cultural and civic use mix creates a total activity density of

1,350,000 GSF, with an average of 575,000 GSF. More information on parcel configuration is provided in Appendix A.

or infrastructure account for fewer than 1 percent

functions in the neighborhood. In total, this land approximately 60,000 people, with 44 percent of the activity density being generated by the residential components of the program.

As shown in Figure 47, 55.5 percent of the

use on the site. This provides 16,250 housing units. Office uses account for just under 24

residential development, this is the largest single

redevelopments total GSF is designated for

percent of the GSF, which provides more than

While the program identified in Vision will go a

23,000 employment opportunities. Hotel use is

long way towards providing for the future unmet 2040, there remains a sizeable amount of unmet residential, retail, and hotel demand. It is

the GSF, providing more than 2,500 hotel rooms and employment opportunities for 2,300

the next largest single category with 8.3 percent of

demand that has been identified for the District in

hospitality workers. Retail composes 7 percent of the GSF and provides employment opportunities for 4,200 workers. Cultural, museum, and entertainment uses compose less than 5 percent

unreasonable to think that a single project can, or even should, resolve this imbalance. However, this unmet demand indicates that increased

density, above what has been proposed in Visions

60

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

development program, particularly for residential

uses, could be considered to address growing needs. Visions massing, program, and form mediates between the projected demand, the nature of the adjacent Monumental Core, the

roughly a quarter of the size of New Yorks Central waterfront Grant Park. 9 Like these iconic urban Park and two-thirds the size of Chicagos

physical constraints of Hains Point, the sensitive desire to create quality public spaces, and the development intensity. These special Vision Hains Point 2040.

parks, much of the vibrancy and success of Hains Points new park system will be derived from its adjacency to, and accessibility from, the citys dense urban fabric and transportation infrastructure. Without this connectivity and

need to balance population mix and distribute considerations have crafted the scale and scope of

activity intensity, the true value and excitement of the new urban park system would not likely be realized. Without the investments in transportation infrastructure and private

Vision creates a neighborhood that is defined by space on the southern half of Hains Point is its world class-park system. The primary park

not be viable. These are mutually reinforcing elements.

development, Visions world-class park plan would

FIGURE 49: NEW YORK'S CENTRAL PARK, SOURCE: GOOGLE MAPS

DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

FIGURE 48: CHICAGO'S GRANT PARK, SOURCE: GOOGLE MAPS

61

The redevelopment program for Hains Point

THE REGIONS NEXT WALKUP?

term recently coined by Christopher B. Leinberger to identify and define walkable urban places. 10 Leinbergers research identifies 43 regionally

would create the DC regions 44th WalkUP, a

significant WalkUPs currently in the DC metro

region. These WalkUPs have a gross FAR between 0.13 and 4.26 and average around 400 acres in employment density at 50.5 jobs/acre, as size. Further, WalkUPs are found to have a higher compared to a density of 0.9 jobs/acre in nonFIGURE 50: LEINBERGER'S WALKUP RESEARCH

WalkUP areas. As defined, most WalkUPs include a minimum of 1.4 million square feet of office space and/or a minimum of 340,000 square feet of retail space. Leinberger also finds that 77 percent of WalkUPs are served, or will be served, by rail located and served by premium transit, and its fit well within the defined parameters of a walkable urban place or WalkUP.

wholly outside of the Beltway. Hains Point, again, meets this criteria.

As discussed earlier, Vision Hains Point 2040 is a infill. This unique circumstance makes it a

transit. Hains Points 400 acres of land, both wellmore than 22 million square feet of development

proposal that is neither truly greenfield nor urban challenge to identify directly within Leinbergers

Downtown Adjacent; Urban Commercial;

current WalkUP categories, namely: Downtown;

Redevelopment; and Greenfield. In many ways, the Downtown Adjacent and Greenfield type neighborhoods. Leinberger identifies the emerging neighborhoods of NoMA and the

Suburban Town Center; Strip Commercial

Further, just under half of the GSF in these WalkUPs is located within the District of Columbia. Only 8 of the 43 WalkUPs are located

Hains Point shares important characteristics with

Capitol Riverfront of examples of Downtown

62

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Adjacent WalkUPs. They are characterized by possessing a unique character and being having a lower density than downtown, but

In sum, Hains Point has the location and density master planned characteristic of a Greenfield WalkUP.

composed of a strong mix of uses including

qualities of a Downtown Adjacent WalkUP but the

significant office, residential, and retail space.

These Downtown Adjacent WalkUPs, like the new Hains Point neighborhood, are among the most complex kinds of walkable urban development possible. These neighborhoods can be often anchored by universities and have a gross FAR Point gross FAR. 11

defined range for a Downtown Adjacent WalkUP as well. An employment density of over 75 jobs per acres, primarily from the sites 5.3 million feet of retail space, further qualifies the

Hains Points gross FAR of 3.0 is within the

between 3.0 and 4.0, which is on par with Hains

square feet of office space and 1.5 million square redeveloped Hains Point as a regionally significant WalkUP. This is desirable because Leinbergers research shows that areas with WalkUP

Planned communities such as Crystal City,

Kentlands, Reston Town Center, and National Harbor are identified as Greenfield WalkUPs. These include a higher residential component in residential uses. Leinberger notes these virgin land, generally on the edge of the

characteristics are significantly more resilient and economically competitive than their drivable suburban counterparts.

the overall mix but still have significant office and Greenfield neighborhoods tend to spring up from metropolitan area and that everything required

for urbanism, such as streets, sewers, traffic lights, and parks, as well as all of the buildings, has to be built from scratch. 12

Smith, 2012 Rao, 2007 3 Brand, 1995 4 Duany, Speck, & Lyndon, 2010 p. 13.6 5 Ibid 6 Garvin, 2002, pp. 347-372 7 Ibid, p. 361 8 Ibid, p. 364 9 Central Park Conservency, 2010; Gilfoyle, 2006 10 Leinberger C. B., 2012 11 Leinberger C. B., 2008, p. 119 12 Ibid, p. 123
1 2

DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

63

BLOCK STRUCTURE

for the scale, walkability, and character of the new Hains Point neighborhood. These blocks form an

The street grid identified in Vision Hains Point 2040 lays the literal and figurative fundamental building blocks extension of the existing street grid across the Washington Channel in Southwest. However, since many of

the blocks in Southwest were formed into superblocks during urban renewal, and no longer reflect the scale and a high intersection density. The street grid, while rotated 45 degrees off of the true cardinal alignment street grid aligns with view corridors from the District, creates 40 distinct parcels and provides a trio of

or granularity of the original LEnfant grid, additional streets have been incorporated to maintain short blocks that most District streets follow, continues the Districts alphanumeric naming convention. This rotated

urban parks that increase walkability. Many of the urbanist fundamentals embraced by Vision related to

block structure are from Campolis book Made For Walking and Duany et als book The Smart Growth Manual.

64

FIGURE 51: HAINS POINT STREET GRID & PARCEL PLAN

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

The primary redevelopment area of Hains Point has been sized for the pedestrian and meets designed to be experienced on foot. 1 Campolis definition of a neighborhood that is Accordingly, the half mile pedestrian walkshed

NEIGHBORHOOD SIZE

brought further into the neighborhood to decrease the average distance to transit. However, the the relative distance to them, alone does not create a walkable neighborhood. simple existence of multiple modes of transit, and

permits easy accessibility to all portions of the site by requiring trips of only 5 minutes from edge to center and 10 minutes from edge to edge in accordance with the ideal neighborhood size Point, this scale creates a neighborhood of

Neighborhood walkability also relies on what noted transportation researchers Reid Ewing (University of Utah) and Robert Cervero (UC-

identified in The Smart Growth Manual. 2 On Hains approximately 175 acres. The scale of the Hains Point neighborhood accommodates its density within the core of the neighborhood and and constraints.

Berkley) call the five Ds of walkability: density; diversity; design; destination accessibility; and be considered when creating or increasing walkability in a neighborhood. The scale, structure, and mix of the new Hains Point Ds. (parking) demand management. 3 These must also

accommodates its unique geographical position

neighborhood meet the requirements of all five

Due to the existing physical alignment of the

Metrorail Yellow Line and the sensitivity to the

Metro station is located along the outer edge of the neighborhood instead of in its geographic the impacts of the Metro stations peripheral

Monumental Core, the new Jefferson-Hains Point

center, as would be preferred. To help mitigate location, other transportation options including

streetcar, Circulator bus, and water taxi have been

BLOCK STRUCTURE

FIGURE 52: 1/2 MILE "WALKSHED"

65

Of all the built environment measures considered been shown to be the largest factor related to increases in walkability. 4 These increases in

BLOCK SIZE AND SCALE

The blocks created according to these principles, and in coordination with the existing street grid, have an average block size of just over two acres.

by Ewing and Cervero, density of intersections has

This is comparable to such highly walkable places

walkability correspond to increased transit and active transportation use, which in turn help to reduce automobile dependency and vehicle miles health by increasing active transportation and eliminateing pollution, among a host of other

as Portland, San Diego, and Denver, which all have average blocks under two and a half acres and are shown in Figure 55 through Figure 57. 6 On Hains Point, these tighter blocks have perimeters that target range identified in The Smart Growth Manual for the street grids of new average around 1,275 feet, which falls within the

traveled. Further, the reductions help to promote

benefits. These significant benefits, along with the creation of good urban form, are the reason that of a fine grained street network. Vision Hains Point 2040 has proposed the creation

frame of reference to compare the street grid of Hains Point to downtown DC.

neighborhoods. 7 Figure 56 provides a useful

As noted in The Smart Growth Manual, a high level of walkability also provides reasonable transportation choices to those who cannot rely

on private automobiles as their primary mode of transportation, such as children, the poor, or the elderly. 5 Creating increased choice and safety for

these groups helps to promote more diverse and equitable neighborhoods.

66

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

FIGURE 53: HAINS POINT INTERSECTION DENSITY

FIGURE 54: STREET GRID COMPARISON TO DOWNTOWN SAVANNAH, GA, SOURCE: GOOGLE MAPS

FIGURE 55: STREET GRID COMPARISON TO LODO, DENVER, CO, SOURCE: GOOGLE MAPS

BLOCK STRUCTURE

67

FIGURE 56: STREET GRID COMPARISON TO DOWNTOWN DC, SOURCE: GOOGLE MAPS

FIGURE 57: STREET GRID COMPARISON TO PEARL DISTRICT, PORTLAND, OR, SOURCE: GOOGLE MAPS

68

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

As previously mentioned, the street network of in which the streets of Southwest meet the waterfront. The view corridors across the

STREET GRID DESIGN

Hains Point is partially derived from the manner

negative effects associated with them such as: a degraded pedestrian environment; reduced visibility for retail; limited options within the

way streets within the network helps avoid the

Washington Channel at 7th Street and 9th Street

street network; and higher vehicular speeds. 8

have been extended and form the basic structure of the Hains Point street grid as shown in Figure 58. These alignments are continued to create view corridors from the Arena Stage and

Other elements have been incorporated into the act as natural traffic calmers. These features

design and configuration of the street grid to help include the use of terminated vistas, and woonerfaspects have identified in The Smart Growth

corridors serves to inform the placement of a

of the 7th Street, 10th Street, and M Street view

Banneker Overlook/10th Street. The convergence

type shared, curbless street designs. Both of these Manual as natural traffic calming elements. 9

Finally, the street grid is organized around the southeast view from the Jefferson Memorial.

future memorial site as shown later in Figure 77.

Beyond this, the street grid has been designed to Particular street sections are detailed further in

encourage a diffused traffic flow and slow speeds. the Public Realm section, but in general 100 foot

speed, two-way vehicular traffic. Some locations along the canal or major park elements are structured as one way pairs that operate within a separated boulevard framework. The Smart Growth Manual notes that the elimination of oneFIGURE 58: VIEW CORRIDORS FROM THE CITY

rights of way have been designed to include low-

BLOCK STRUCTURE

69

A few notable infrastructure components have

INFRASTRUCTURE

the creation of a new bridge at the southern edge to P Street SW.

been incorporated into Visions street network.

of the primary redevelopment site which connects

These items have been informed and inspired by Museums & Memorials Master Plan; and the

NCPCs visionary plans: Extending the Legacy; the Monumental Core Framework Plan. This includes: Street Bridge complex; the creation of a canal the consolidation and reconstruction of the 14th

across the northern portion of Hains Point; and

FIGURE 59: STREET GRID INFRASTRUCTURE ELEMENTS. 14 TH STREET BRIDGE (RED), BUCKEYE CANAL (YELLOW), P STREET BRIDGE (ORANGE)

70

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

As discussed in Site Development History, the five create a formidable barrier between the bridges that form the 14th Street Bridge complex

14 TH STREET BRIDGE

This elevated heavy rail structure will serve as the boundary line between the Monumental Core and proposed to be reconstructed to provide a more the redeveloped Hains Point neighborhood and is

Monumental Core and Hains Point. All of the

a combination of consolidating the three vehicular bridges, providing below-grade connections to I395, and removing, rerouting, or tunneling the

NCPC vision plans discussed address this through

be achieved by using a rich material pallet of stone new monumental structure should reflect the supports the railroad tracks entering Union archways, similar to Figure 60 and Figure 61. This

grand and inviting gateway experience. This can

CSX and Metrorail alignments. As will be detailed further in the Public Realm and Transportation sections, Vision proposes that the vehicular transitions to a boulevard condition upon

character of the historic Burnham Wall, which Station, but provide for a more porous condition to allow the street grid of Hains Point to link the Monumental Core with the new neighborhood.

bridges be combined into a single bridge which reaching Hains Point and provides a below-grade

improvements would eliminate the need for the elevated Case Bridge. Further, the Yellow Line Metrorail alignment is proposed to be tunneled as it crosses the Potomac, similar to how it crosses rail line should be left in its general historic the Washington Channel today. Finally, the heavy alignment as it crosses Hains Point and connects the LEnfant Plaza multimodal center.
FIGURE 60: TIFFANY STONE BRIDGE, BELOIT, WI, SOURCE: FLICKR USER OLDONLINER

tunneled connection to the I-395 system; these

to the Maryland Avenue right-of-way approaching

FIGURE 61: THOMAS VIADUCT BRIDGE, ELKRIDGE, MD, SOURCE: WIKIMEDIA

BLOCK STRUCTURE

71

The idea of a canal across the northern portion of

BUCKEYE CANAL

location of a water-taxi stop and ferry across the transportation options provide increased connections to the Districts other lively

the island was originally contemplated in the 1916 Development of East Potomac Park plan. Almost a century later this plan was set forth again in NCPCs Monumental Core Framework Plan. Vision embraces this idea and has planned for a canal to follow the alignment of Buckeye Drive SW, which corresponds with the rotated extension of the LEnfant Promenade/10th Street SW from the

Washington Channel. These unique water-based

waterfront neighborhoods such as Georgetown, the Wharf, the Yards, and future Poplar Point.

Banneker Overlook. Buckeye Canal is treated as a along its sides. Seven streets intersect with the pedestrian bridges are provided at four of the canal as shown in Figure 64. Vehicular and separated boulevard with one-way paired streets
FIGURE 62: TRADITIONAL CANAL BRIDGE IN AMSTERDAM, NL, SOURCE: FLICKR USER - REUTC

intersections, pedestrian bridges are provided at Park, and the roads end at the canal for the final

the two of the intersections along the Central Civic

pass underneath the canal bridges.

allow for water-taxi and most motorized boats to

intersection. Clearances have been provided to

FIGURE 63: MODERN CANAL IN BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND, SOURCE: FLICKR USER - CANAL_DUSK

The connection points allow for vehicular traffic to cross and circulate only at select locations while providing increased choices for pedestrians and cyclists. The slope of the bridges will provide further traffic calming. The canal will be the

72

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

FIGURE 64: BUCKEYE CANAL CONNECTION POINTS

The Monumental Core Framework Plan identifies

P STREET BRIDGE

neighborhood for, pedestrians, cyclists, and vehicles. The P Street Bridge should have a striking modern design. This bold design will act as a beacon for Its location, roughly centered between the US Capitol and the Jefferson Memorial, will complement Districts iconic horizon. boats approaching the District from the Potomac.

three bridge connections that can be made across the Washington Channel to link Hains Point with a single bridge in alignment with P Street SW at the northern edge of Fort McNair. Due to the Southwest. Vision adapts this approach to provide

lower profile nature of the bridges identified for Buckeye Canal, all taller ships and sailboats will need to pass underneath this bridge to exit the be designed to allow most normal boat traffic,

Washington Channel. The P Street Bridge should including the local cruise and entertainment boats, to pass directly underneath the bridge but include a moveable segment that permits the passage of occasional taller ships.
FIGURE 66: GATESHEAD MILLENNIUM BRIDGE, NEWCASTLE, UK, CREDIT: FLICKR USER- LEAH MAKIN PHOTOGRAPHY

The Hains Point street grid allows for both P onto the bridge and across the Washington

Street and Q Street on Hains Point to feed directly Channel. These streets are designed to carry more capacity from the 14th Street Bridge through the through traffic on the primarily local serving streets. The P Street Bridge provides an important connection between the existing neighborhood and will help to limit the extent of
FIGURE 65: BRIDGE AT FISHERMANS WHARF, TAIPAI, TAIWAN. CREDIT:FLICKR USER-DRJASON

Southwest neighborhood and the new Hains Point

BLOCK STRUCTURE

Campoli, 2012, p. 7 Duany, Speck, & Lyndon, 2010, p. 1.5 3 Ewing & Cervero, 2010 4 Ibid 5 Duany, Speck, & Lyndon, 2010, p. 7.1 6 Campoli, 2012, p. 25 7 Duany, Speck, & Lyndon, 2010, p. 7.4 8 Ibid, p. 8.6 9 Ibid
1 2

73

LAND USE

The distribution of land use for the proposed redevelopment of Hains Point is designed to achieve three allows all typical daily needs to be met within walking distance; 2) to integrate these uses in such a way as to provide complementary mixes of uses that help define a unique character for different parts of the neighborhood; 3) to achieve a job-housing balance that maintains a steady population in the neighborhood. primary objectives: 1) to create of a dynamic mix of uses that will enable an 18+ hour environment and

These objectives develop a strong site-wide activity density that is supported by the diverse and balanced mix the work of Drs. Sturtevant and Fuller and Alexander Garvin. of uses. This chapter draws heavily from the principles enumerated in The Smart Growth Manual, as well as

74

FIGURE 67: HAINS POINT LAND USE. RESIDENTIAL (RED), OFFICE (BLUE), HOTEL (GREEN), RETAIL (ORANGE), CIVIC/CULTURAL (PINK)

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

FIGURE 68: HAINS POINT ACTIVITY DENSITY, COMBINING RESIDENTIAL POPULATION DENSITY WITH EMPLOYMENT AND TRANSIENT POPULATION

LAND USE

75

Residential housing is the primary land use in the redeveloped Hains Point. The housing choices meet the Districts changing needs in 2040. A detailed residential housing matrix has been the projected housing demand include: the aging of the population; offered in the new development are tailored to

RESIDENTIAL HOUSING

integrated into the base of larger residential

Aside from select townhouse-style units

buildings, Vision includes primarily single-level be more accessible to the increasing aging

flats in lieu of multi-story units, since these will

provided in the Appendix. Major trends affecting

population with limited physical mobility. 2

the shrinking size of households; as childless couples longer;

the rise of the single-person household; changing preferences related to the

By 2040, projections show that almost 18 percent of the Districts population will be of retirement Districts future seniors may drive demand for age. 3 This demographic trend may mean that the more full-service apartment and condominium residential options as well as increased demand for buildings that have amenities targeted toward restrictions similar to those seen in 55 and

the tendency for people to stay single or liability of home ownership;

increasing gaps in housing affordability; the inability for the projected District 1 development pipeline to keep pace with current and target rates of growth in the

retirement age population. These may include age

Accordingly, Vision has created a unit type and

for Hains Point includes the creation of 36

changing residential landscape. The master plan

product mix that helps to meet the needs of the

better communities in the surrounding suburbs. Consequently, Vision anticipates that a limited restrictions with appropriate amenities and transit accessibility. number of residential buildings will include age-

residential buildings distributed among 32 of the sites 40 parcels. These buildings accommodate development. 16,250 residential units within 12.4 million GSF of

Creating units that are accessible for those with

disabilities and limited mobility is more equitable

76

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

and enhances the ability for residents to choose to

include being located in transit-rich and

age-in-place. Important age-in-place amenities

for quality studio and one-bedroom housing stock in the District. As this trend is likely to continue, the needs of this demographic makeup. the residential mix identified in Figure 69 reflects Accordingly, Vision provides a unit mix that is

pedestrian friendly environments, and having near-by neighborhood service oriented retail opportunities.

TOTAL Studio 1BR 2BR 3BR TOTAL

% of Total Avg NSF # Units Unit Mix Occupancy 7,331 7,331 45.1% 455 7,471 4,981 30.7% 664 6,186 1,020 2,474 15.2% 5,124 1,232 1,464 9.0% 26,111 675 16,250 100.0%

strongly skewed towards studio and one bedroom units. Further, these units are sized to be fairly available within a given building. efficient to increase the number of units that are

FIGURE 69: RESIDENTIAL UNIT SIZE AND USE MATRIX

Although the unit mix is skewed towards smaller units for one and two person households, Vision recognizes the importance of creating an age-

The changing household structure and constraints Hains Point. Census data for the District from the District are households without children under 18, and that more than half of these

on supply also impact the housing mix selected for 2010 indicates that 82 percent of all households in

integrated community that allows people to move through all stages of their life, including raising unit mix identified for Vision includes almost children, in the neighborhood. Accordingly, the 4,000 units roughly one-quarter of the total

households are single people living alone. * The

increasing number of people who live as one or

two person households will reduce the need for

accommodate families. Providing housing stock that can accommodate families is an important element to keep the citys tax base strong,

residential units provided - which are sized to

large residential units and will increase the need


* Of the total 266,707 households reported for the District in 2010, 37,517 are Husband-Wife households without own children under 18 years old (14%), 6,780 are Male householders without children under 18 (2.5%), 22,497 are Female householders without children under 18 (8.4%), and 153,992 are NonFamily Households (57.7%). Of these, 117,431 are identified as Householder Living Alone. Leinberger notes that this will move towards 86%/14% in the coming future

encourage improvement in the school system, and increase vitality and variety on the citys streets.

LAND USE

77

Research completed by Drs. Lisa A. Sturtevant and Stephen S. Fuller in Housing the Regions shows that by 2030 rental and for-sale Workforce: Policy Challenges for Local Jurisdictions,

In accordance with the principles espoused in The identified is a key ingredient in a healthy and to providing a mix of unit types for varying housing diversity is achieved in the inclusionary zoning. Smart Growth Manual, residential diversity

multifamily demand in the DC region will be 65

vibrant smart growth neighborhood. 5 In addition household sizes and age groups, socioeconomic redevelopment of Hains Point through the use of

percent and 35 percent, respectively. Their report further indicates that only eight percent of future total housing demand in the District will be for be for a multi-family product. 4 Vision does not single-family homes while the vast majority will provide for the single-family demand, instead options more appropriate for a major

focusing on the dense multi-family residential redevelopment of this type. As shown in Figure 70, the rental to for-sale mix identified by Sturtevant and Fuller has been used by Vision to

The Districts Inclusionary Zoning program

requires that eight percent of the residential floor making 50 percent or 80 percent of the Area these same requirements into the projected housing mix and distribution. Through this would be created. These units would be area be set aside for low-income households

inform the distribution of for-sale and rental units.


Split by Product Type Condo Market Condo Affordable Apartments Market Affordable TOTAL % of Unit Mix 26.4% 2.7%

Median Income (AMI). 6 Vision has included

% GFA Total GFA 31.3% 2.7% 60.7% 5.3% 3,906,161 339,666 7,564,841 657,812 12,468,480

# Units 4,295 435

program, almost 1,500 affordable residential units distributed throughout the various residential buildings and will help to address housing affordability issues in the District while also

10,466 64.4% 1,055 6.5% 16,250 100.0%

FIGURE 70: RESIDENTIAL DIVISION BY PRODUCT TYPE

creating a more socio-economic diverse and

of the Hains Point and the efficient unit layouts and increase the affordability of all unit types.

integrated neighborhood. The transit-rich nature

will further help to decrease the true housing cost

78

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

FIGURE 71: RESIDENTIAL POPULATION DISTRIBUTION

LAND USE

79

The modern workspace is undergoing significant changes. Among the relevant trends are: increases in communication technologies; the new work policies which are focused on the

OFFICE

employ more people, in less office space.

will likely enable companies to do more, and

proliferation of the millennials in the workforce; *

Vision has used the GSA benchmarks to determine estimated 231GSF of future office demand per balance 12 and meeting the projected office projected building occupancy, with a resulting

quality and outcome of ones work rather than the number hours spent at ones desk; 7 workspace hoteling; and the creation of co-working or

employee. The goal of achieving a job-housing

incubator facilities. 8 These trends are not limited to the private sector. The GSA has launched a how the federal workplace can support a effort, the GSA has embraced increased series of studies over the past decade to look at contemporary work environment. 9 Through this

employment demand for the District created a

programmatic need for approximately 5.4 million GSF of office development. This would provide office employment opportunities for more than Hains Points 26,000 residents.

23,000 workers, which provides a counterpoint to

teleworking opportunities, workstation hoteling, useable square footage required per employee. This increase in space utilization efficiency

and has set benchmarks for reducing the average

Office uses have been distributed around the site and can be found on just under half of the available parcels. In accordance with the

reinforces the need for office density to be located proximate to transit; without it the parking demands would be impossible to support. 10 While it is not yet clear if all of these current trends will become standard practice, 11 the implications on

principles identified in The Smart Growth Manual, the highest density of office uses are located within a quarter mile of premium rail transit,

future real estate needs are significant in that it

placing most workplaces well within a 10-minute walk from key transit nodes. 13 Office uses are largely focused adjacent to the Central Civic Park, ensure a vibrant and tightly distributed

* Millennials (also known as Generation Y) will compose more than 75% of the American workforce by 2025. (Matchar, 2012) These policies include results only work environment and unlimited paid vacation

and are integrated with other primary uses to help

80

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

support service, meals, and transit, in accordance with the recommendations of The Smart Growth Manual. 14

workspace environment with easy access to

Office uses distributed along the northern edge of anticipated to be reserved for federal occupancy the site between 12th and 14th Streets SW are

(Parcels 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, & 40). These buildings are between 40 feet and 50 feet high and include to what is anticipated to be completed in the approximately 630,000 GSF of office space. Similar redevelopment of Poplar Point, in which existing will be replaced on-site in the redevelopment,

It is anticipated that both federal and private

office users (including federal contractors) will

utilize the Hains Point office space. Considering contractors in lieu of direct government

the increased prevalence of utilizing government employees, 15 three-quarters of the office space is

National Park Service and U.S. Park Police facilities

Vision would create new National Park Service National Capital Region Headquarters and U.S Park Police Headquarters on these parcels. *

projected to be occupied by the private sector.

Hains Point would be an ideal candidate for a federal agency headquarters relocation and consolidation. Similar relocations and

Additionally, parcels could be added to provide a home for the consolidated Department of the Interior headquarters or other federal agency,

consolidations, such as the recent creation of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives headquarters in the NoMA

such as the U.S. Department of Health and Human give these federal uses a strong presence and provide opportunities for a visitor center or support services for this portion of the

Services. Adjacency to the Jefferson Memorial will

neighborhood, the Department of Transportation

in the Capitol Riverfront neighborhood, or the yetto-be selected home of the new Federal Bureau of Investigation, are used to help catalyze new neighborhoods and establish an office base.

Monumental Core. These functions should be coordinated with the reuse of the historic Engineers Storehouse building on Parcel 33.
* Existing storage, maintenance, and service yards would be relocated to another, more appropriate, off-site location

LAND USE

81

Vision creates office parcels with high visibility,

and strong transit accessibility, which offer iconic views within a dynamic and pedestrian friendly urban environment. Parcels are sized to accommodate a variety of user types including

as the increasing prevalence of universities with satellite campuses in the District, an integrated and shared urban higher education, research, or Hains Point. 16

the increases in college attainment rates, as well

the District have expansion plans underway and

Given that most of the major universities within

opportunities. Alternative office uses that would contribute to the dynamic environment include research, technology, and higher education uses.

several strong corporate or federal headquarters

technology campus could be a compelling use on

82

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

FIGURE 72: DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYEES ON HAINS POINT. INCLUDES OFFICE, RETAIL, AND HOTEL WORKERS

LAND USE

83

hotels within the neighborhood. As shown in 2,500 hotel rooms distributed between three

Vision Hains Point 2040 plans for the inclusion of 8

HOTEL

as the other nearby office concentrations and the Pentagon.

Figure 73, these hotels would provide more than product types: Luxury, Full Service, and Select number of distinct price points and hotel

All tourists, whether arriving by car, train, or

Service. This market segmentation will allow for a experiences. This mix provides opportunities for

airplane, will enjoy the convenient access that

Hains Point offers - with proximity to LEnfant

Plaza VRE station, National Airport being only four Metro stops away, and direct vehicular access

business travelers, luxury vacationers, and tourist street life, and partake in its amenities.

families to all stay on Hains Point, contribute to its

route, and bicycle network will make getting visitors.

Finally, Hains Points new Metro station, streetcar

guests to arrive to the site by water taxi as well.

from I-395. Hains Points unique location allows

Luxury travelers will be attracted to Hains Points unmatched views, retail and restaurant offerings, and entertainment options. Families will be

around the District quick, easy, and affordable for

drawn to the neighborhoods proximity to popular tourist destinations, and new museum or cultural offerings. Lastly, business travelers will

Hotel locations within the site have been selected to complement the unique cultural, transportation, and entertainment offerings integrated within mixed-use parcels and are sited provided on Hains Point. The hotels are

appreciate the convenient access to the 5.4 million square feet of office development on-site as well

Projected Hotel Mix

Full Select Luxury Service Service Total/Avg % of Mix 35% 40% 25% 100% GSF 652,735 745,983 466,239 1,864,958 Rooms 893 1,021 638 2,552

to provide some level of immediate tourist trade to retailers in all parts of the neighborhood.

Further, the inclusion of these eight hotels helps to visitors from around the country and the world. introduce the new Hains Point neighborhood to

FIGURE 73: HAINS POINT HOTEL MIX AND SUMMARY

84

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

FIGURE 74: INTENSITY OF HOTEL POPULATION ON HAINS POINT

LAND USE

85

Retail, a key component in vibrant mixed use

RETAIL

neighborhoods, is distributed throughout the of the proposed redevelopment will offer

entire redevelopment site. The retail component approximately 1.6 million square feet of retail and restaurant uses on Hains Point, creating job opportunities for up to 4,200 workers. Retail

driven by employees, guests, and residents in the immediate Hains Point neighborhood area. However, the easy access and wealth of

The majority of demand is anticipated to be

transportation options at Hains Point will allow retailers and restaurateurs to capitalize on the neighborhoods future status as a regional

components ranging from under 1,500 square feet up to over 135,000 square feet are located on every parcel. Uses within each parcel will be broken down both by the individual building storefront. While some components are

on site and in the adjacent Monumental Core will also be a source of patrons.

destination. Tourists visiting the cultural offerings

within the parcel, and further by the individual distributed throughout each parcel, the density of retail is focused in key market areas instead of being spread uniformly throughout.

The anticipated mix of retail to restaurant space is 40 to 60 percent, respectively. This acknowledges the relative attraction of Hains Point as a future dining and entertainment destination, the increasing trends to eat outside of the home or office, 18 and the fact that the smaller kitchens in multifamily residential units may not

Vision anticipates that strong retail storefront

that each retailer is able to express its individual identity through their storefront design. These

retail spaces are developed at a human scale, and

guidelines would be established to ensure that

be conducive to preparing large or frequent meals.

guidelines will require that retail establishments

Neighborhood retail guidelines will be adopted to help ensure that a wide variety of dining options are provided to accommodate the needs of

open directly to the street and provide significant transparency in the faade, a principle suggested in The Smart Growth Manual. 17

visitors, residents, and workers. The balanced mix of residents and employees, paired with the

86

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

strong hotel and cultural presence will provide a people and schedules will help to ensure that

steady customer base for restaurants. This mix of

The street designs used throughout Hains Point, be successful retail places. The streets include ample pedestrian sidewalks, consistent tree canopy, and good lighting. Street designs are

discussed further in Public Realm, are designed to

restaurants and retail options do not uniformly shut down after traditional business hours -- a common criticism of neighborhoods that lack a office uses. 19 Some restaurant uses should be

healthy balance of residential, hotel, cultural, and

complete, encourage slower vehicular speeds,

distributed and integrated with other retail

and dedicated bicycle facilities these approaches have been used by Smart Growth advocates around the country to help retail thrive. 20

support two-way traffic, include on-street parking,

offerings, but the highest concentration will be urban park system where the greatest

located along the islands perimeter or facing the opportunity for valuable views exists. Similarly, of the adjacent uses with respect to operating hours and noise.

the restaurant mix should reflect the sensitivities

Retail offerings should include neighborhood

serving staples such as a centrally located grocery store, hardware store, dry cleaner, drug store, bicycle shop, and pet store, as well as other

general merchandise, soft goods, and convenience offerings. Designing retail offerings around the that most common needs can be met without daily needs of residents and workers will ensure having to leave the primary redevelopment area. Businesses such as cafes and corner stores that serve as third places * should be integrated nodes for the Hains Point community. 21 throughout the neighborhood to provide social

Neighborhood and destination retail offerings typical of a community or neighborhood type retail center should be interspersed with the restaurant uses throughout the proposed

redevelopment. They should be located on streets or office entries, but which do not necessarily have foot traffic and will allow for continued

with a high level of other active uses, such as hotel offer the premium views. These locations will street level convenience retail on most blocks.

LAND USE

This is a term coined by urban sociologist Ray Oldenburg to describe important informal social gathering places with home and work being the first and second places, respectively.

87

FIGURE 75: PRIMARY RETAIL MARKET AREAS

88

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Community, educational, and civic buildings play an important role in supporting neighborhood function. Three parcels near the north end of the site (Parcels 30, 32, and 37) are programmed to include more than 200,000 square feet of dedicated civic space.

COMMUNITY, EDUCATIONAL, AND CIVIC

an approximately 50,000 square foot community Parcel 30. This location, fronting on the Central

The second largest civic use identified in Vision is

center and neighborhood meeting hall located on Civic Green and across the 12th Street Boulevard

from the new Jefferson-Hains Point Metro station,

provides an important civic function on one of the

neighborhoods most prominent sites. Though the community center is integrated with a commercial office use, the civic function of the building will be form, while the private buildings will form a encouraged to take on a more emphatic and iconic consistent urban fabric. The use of architectural moves to give prominence to important civic Growth Manual. 23 functions is a technique suggested in The Smart

The majority of this space, located in an area with elementary school within Parcel 32. This school, safe, convenient and highly walkable route from the majority of residential units on Hains Point. This parcel is easily accessible to the wealth of high residential density, will be occupied by an

sized at just over 140,000 square feet, provides a

parks and recreation areas identified on the north building. Creating walkable routes to school

end of the site, and is integrated with a residential encourages educational quality, increases the Hains Points strong bicycle network, as well as its other rail and bus mass transit options will increase the transportation choices available, health of students, and reduces congestion. 22

5,000 square foot daycare and child services

The final component in this category is a roughly

facility that is located on Parcel 37. Its location, a and in close proximity to many office and retail a parents commute. 24

block from the Jefferson-Hains Point Metro station functions, will afford convenience and efficiency to

encourage active transportation and reduce the need for parents or students to drive to school.

LAND USE

89

The redevelopment of Hains Point will play an

MEMORIALS

important role in providing prominent, accessible, and highly visible locations for new memorials in on the locations generally identified by NCPC. the District. These features have been sited based Integrating these locations within the mixed-use framework will help to drive foot traffic into the that otherwise might be seen by memorial neighborhood and bring prominence to locations sponsors as too remote. Forming the street grid to provide sympathetic view corridors, as shown in

Vision recognizes the importance of integrating a healthy public art program into the parks and principles, art will be integrated into the public spaces. In accordance with smart growth streetscape to create pleasant surroundings and contribute to the pedestrian environment. 25 Additionally, there are select nodes or corridors visibility, integration, and contribution to the the Awakening, will be incorporated into the

PUBLIC ART

identified for major art installations due to their parks system. Major art features, on the scale of design of the public spaces, similar to Millennium Park in Chicago, Citygarden in St. Louis, or the Yards and Canal Parks in the District.

Figure 77, reinforces the distinction of these sites.

FIGURE 77: PUBLIC MEMORIAL LOCATIONS KEY MEMORIAL LOCATIONS

90

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

FIGURE 78: KEY PUBLIC ART LOCATIONS

One unique characteristic of the Hains Point

MUSEUM AND CULTURAL

neighborhood is the concentration of museum, cultural, and entertainment offerings. Cultural nodes bookend the neighborhood with the

the north, and two museums and an outdoor

Jefferson Memorial and new festival grounds * to entertainment venue to the south. These cultural transit and are linked by the linear Central Civic Park. This park stretches the length of the between the Jefferson Memorial, the new neighborhood and provides a direct axial vista Metrorail station, and the cultural venues.

hotel rooms; and over 30,000 square feet of retail. These museum uses would follow the successful example of the Newseum (which includes

FIGURE 79: THE NEWSEUM BY NIGHT, CREDIT: SAM KITTNER PHOTOGRAPHY

nodes are strongly supported by multiple forms of

museum, residential, fine dining, and office space in the same building complex), and the planned Randall School redevelopment in Southwest uses with an art museum). 26

(which is slated to include hotel and residential

The two museums provide a collective 800,000

square feet of exhibit space and are incorporated into a dense mixed-use environment on Parcel 1 the projected demand for future Smithsonianquality museums and the location allows for proximity to the Monumental Core without and Parcel 2. This size is targeted to help address

Given the civic nature of these mixed-use museum their relative distance from the Monumental Core, these parcels are identified to reach a height of 160 feet. These buildings will be encouraged to have highly iconic, distinctive, and aspirational architectural moves, both in the museum and

buildings, their prominent location on the site, and

other uses within Parcel 1 and Parcel 2 include: approximately 500 residential units; more than 750,000 square feet of office space; almost 550
*

placing pressure on the Reserve or Area I. The

private components of the parcel. Providing an and gesturing while maintaining the critical density.

increased height permits more design flexibility

As is proposed in NCPCs Monumental Core Framework Plan

LAND USE

91

southern end of the Hains Point neighborhood is As discussed earlier in the Market and

In addition to the two major museums, the

ENTERTAINMENT

capacity of between 10,000 and 15,000 patrons would be a valuable urban amenity. It would provide residents of the District with a musical

anchored by a cultural and entertainment center. Development Projections section, the DC market accessible outdoor music venue. Vision identifies this site as a cultural amenity that will help to define the surrounding neighborhood as an system. lacks a mid-sized, centrally-located, Metro-

for Performing Arts in Philadelphia, the Hatch New York, Pier Six Pavilion in Baltimore, or, perhaps the best example, the Frank Gehry designed Jay Pritzker Pavilion in Chicago.

competing first tier cities, such as the Mann Center Shell in Boston, Central Park Summer Stage in

destination similar to what is found in many other

integrated piece of the surrounding urban park

Like the Pritzker Pavilion, shown in Figure 80, or

With the continued growth and prominence of art, culture, and music in the DC region, a new venue that fulfills the market gaps and provides for a

marquee architect for the venue will help to create another cultural icon for the District.

Bing Thoms nearby Arena Stage, the selection of a

FIGURE 80: THE JAY PRITZKER PAVILION, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. IMAGE: DIEGO DELSO

92

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

The venue has been integrated carefully into the

fabric of the neighborhood because, as Jane Jacobs are restaurants, bars, florist shops, studios, music shops, all sorts of interesting places. 27

the LoDo neighborhood of Denver) since it

says: the natural neighbors of (performance) halls

eliminates the need for seas of surface parking or the high cost of additional dedicated structural parking. 30

coins Palaces for the people 28 will only help to are designed, not as islands, but integrated into encouraged to patronize the local shops and the community. As such, attendees can be

Additionally, the development of what Alex Garvin generate surrounding economic vitality when they

Outdoor music venues in a dense urban into and out of the venue. This issue is

environment create acoustic complications both particularly heightened in the proposed location on Hains Point due to its axial relationship with helicopter and airplane flight paths. Open roof designs, such as the ones used in the Munich Olympic Stadium shown in Figure 81, could be striking architectural forms. If the open roof the Jefferson Memorial and its position relative to

restaurants on the way to and from the event. *

The location of a palace in Hains Point allows for its strong connections to the public and active easy highway and bridge access to the facility, and

used both to moderate acoustics and to provide design were determined infeasible, Vision would

transit networks increases its accessibility. 29 The significant portion of office development in the area, the parking garage demands of which are

retain this key location for other iconic cultural or entertainment uses, such as a marquee aquarium, performing arts venue, or science center -- all of which support the experience economy.

likely negligible during peak performance and entertainment times, also allows for shared

parking spaces to be used flexibly to serve both

office tenants and event patrons in the same day.

This flexibility has been proven to work in dense, mixed-use neighborhoods (such as Coors Field in

* See the regeneration of the Chinatown neighborhood around the Verizon Center in DC versus the web of on ramps and fairly spartan development that surrounds the Kennedy Center

LAND USE

FIGURE 81: ROOF STRUCTURE OF MUNICH OLYMPIC STADIUM. PHOTO CREDIT: NILS GORE,

93

Occupying approximately two-thirds of the island, the Hains Point park system is a defining element into three primary components: the Waterfront for the neighborhood. This park system is divided Esplanade; the Central Civic Park; and the Urban

PARKS AND RECREATION

Recreation Park. Each of these components will function. Other small parks are incorporated

have a unique yet complementary character and throughout the street grid as well. Additionally, to the south of the Jefferson Memorial in West Potomac Park, an idea envisioned by the Figure 83.

Vision anticipates the creation of a festival ground

Monumental Core Framework Plan and shown in

FIGURE 83: JEFFERSON FESTIVAL GROUND FROM MONUMENTAL CORE FRAMEWORK PLAN

FIGURE 82: HAINS POINT PRIMARY PARK AREAS

94

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Visions approach for the waterfront esplanade

WATERFRONT ESPLANADE

also draws inspiration from the ideas developed in the Monumental Core Framework Plan. This plan calls for the crumbling bulkhead to be reconstructed and raised, with a widened

pedestrian path or boardwalk around the islands be provided between the pedestrian walkway and Ohio Drive, educational opportunities should be incorporated along the parks edge, and the iconic into the esplanade design. perimeter. A broad dedicated bicycle path would
FIGURE 84: PROPOSED PLAYGROUND LOCATIONS

and restaurant uses such as dining terraces and esplanade and the fabric of the neighborhood.

cherry trees should be protected and incorporated

pavilions to provide better synergy between the Recreational uses aimed at families and children such as playgrounds and tot lots should be incorporated into the open spaces of the

This path will include elevated portions that park, providing environmental benefits and demonstration sites. Near the primary

support a naturalistic wetland edge along the

esplanade. These small parks (approximately 0.25 acres), shown in Figure 84, are placed in highly visible locations where cross streets terminate

development sites, the linear park system will create a terraced landscape that helps to differentiate between the pedestrian, cyclist, and the development sites further outside of the

and within close walking distance of most of the residential buildings in accordance with the The Smart Growth Manual. 31 Amenities offered in the

vehicular routes. Additionally, it will help to raise floodplain and provide multiple vantage points from which to experience the waterfront. This area should also take on a more urbane character offering features that support the adjacent retail

parks should support varying ages of children so that recreational opportunities always remain a short walk away. These locations will alternate

with important memorial and public art sites that

and are linked by the network of dedicated bicycle paths and sidewalks to help ensure safe access.

are also located at the terminus of view corridors,

LAND USE

95

INSPIRATIONS FOR THE CENTRAL CIVIC PARK

FIGURE 86: CITYGARDEN, ST. LOUIS, CREDIT: NELSON BYRD WOLTZ

FIGURE 85 :MILLENIUM PARK, CHICAGO, CREDIT: CITY OF CHICAGO

FIGURE 87: YARDS PARK, DC, PHOTO CREDIT: WWW.JDLAND.COM

96

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Bisecting and forming the cultural spine of the

CENTRAL CIVIC PARK

by introducing retail and restaurant opportunities, and providing locations for entertainment and performance.

project, the Central Civic Park is an almost 23 acre space which provides a connection between the the Metrorail station and Jefferson Memorial to cultural and entertainment uses to the south with the north. This linear park system will act as the social center of the new Hains Point neighborhood, providing a unique urban park

The Central Civic Park is divided in four primary 10th Streets SW. These four distinct grounds provide opportunities to create parks with portions, divided by the crossings of 7th, 9th, and

amenity for residents, workers, and guests. The Mall by offering another venue to host major outdoor event and festivals.

Central Civic Park is a complement to the National

separate and definitive character. This variety

will help increase the diversity of experience and recreation offered within each park. Portions of can be juxtaposed with clean, open geometric primarily hardscaped and programed piazza space lawns similar to those found on the National Mall, grounds, ripe with trees, shrubs, curving

Similar to Canal Park in the District, Millennium Figure 87 through Figure 89, the Central Civic

Park in Chicago, or Citygarden in St. Louis, seen in Park should blend urban amenities and

which can then be contrasted with ambling public pathways reminiscent of Downings nineteenth-

trees, plantings and open green space with the The design of the Central Civic Park should be fitting of a world-class amenity in the nations capital, drawing inspiration from around the

recreation, hardscape plazas, iconic public art,

century mall. *32 While the individual components may offer a rich and varied experience, the entire tree plantings and treatment of the surrounding public space, as will be further detailed in the Public Realm section. park system should be linked through continuous

neighborhoods surrounding mixed-use fabric.

world and reflecting the best of modern design

and environmental practices. The urban character of the site should be incorporated into the design

LAND USE

* Andrew Jackson Downing was the original landscape designer largely responsible for the development of the Mall in the 19th Century. His mall was characterized by dense plantings, circuitous pathways, and lush gardens

97

INSPIRATIONS FOR THE URBAN RECREATION PARK

FIGURE 88: GRANT PARK, CHICAGO, IL. A MIX OF ACTIVE RECREATION, FORMAL LANDSCAPE, PUBLIC ART, AND INFRASTRUCTURE, SOURCE: GOOGLE MAPS

FIGURE 89: FORSYTH PARK IN SAVANNAH, GA. A MIX OF ACTIVE RECREATION, OPEN SPACE, ENTERTAINMENT, AND DENSE LANDSCAPE, SOURCE: BING MAPS

98

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Reflecting the legacy and vision of Hains Point as an urban amenity, focused on sports and active recreation, the park system on the southern half of the island is dedicated to a variety of sports and other recreation activities. This park is more than 200 acres in size and has the capacity to support a wide mix of uses. Particular facilities provided and recreation needs. Increases in the should reflect the Districts contemporary trends immediately adjacent population and connectivity to the District will help to ensure that the facilities provided in the park are easily accessible and the park to the neighborhood and the larger safe and accessible for all users. 33 receive great use. Bicycle routes, which connect

URBAN RECREATIONAL PARK

patrons.

service amenities and restroom facilities for park

Golf amenities, if provided on the site after

redevelopment, should be designed to be space golf course design with overlapping fairways,

efficient. Using an innovative mid-distance urban

be a good way to balance the inclusion of a golf Point.

occupying approximately 40 acres or less, 34 could

course with the high demand of land use at Hains

Anacostia Riverwalk Trail make the park system is

The long standing tradition of Hains Point as a

location for summer picnics and barbeques will be considered and incorporated into the new park design. 35 Presently, there are no permanent

Vision anticipates that tennis facilities (with the incorporated into the new design of the park potential inclusion of a stadium) will be

barbeque facilities on Hains Point; those wishing to cookout must bring their own equipment. However, ample picnic tables are dispersed along amenities to be greatly enhanced by including a picnic pavilion near the south end of the island and multiple outdoor cooking and grilling stations. a strong urban amenity that can be used by all This will enhance the user experience and develop the perimeter of the site. Vision plans for these

system. Also, given the popularity of the site for endurance sport training today, Olympic sized included in the park. These structures will be swimming and triathalon training facilities will be located centrally within the park to provide food

LAND USE

residents of the region. As suggested in The New

99

Urbanist Manual, local food culture should be gardens within the park to promote health, incorporated through planting community

sustainability, and local resilient ecosystems. 36 Steenhoek, 2012; Silver, 2012 Moeller, 2012 3 Steenhoek, 2012 4 Sturtevant & Fuller, 2011 5 Duany, Speck, & Lydon, 2010, p. 5.4 6 District of Columbia Department of Housing and Community Development, 2013 7 Matchar, 2012 8 Palma, 2012 9 General Services Administration - Public Building Service, 2009 10 Congress for the New Urbanism - DC, 2013 11 Lee, 2013 12 Duany, Speck, & Lydon, 2010 13 Ibid, p. 6.6 14 Ibid, p. 5.5
1 2

Light, 2006 O'Connell, 2012; DC MUD, 2011; Cahn, 2010, O'Connell, 2011; Congress for the New Urbanism DC, 2013 17 Duany, Speck, & Lydon, 2010 18 Clabaugh, 2012 19 Duany, Speck, & Lydon, 2010, p. 5.2 20 Ibid, p. 10.7; New York City Department of Transportation, 2012 21 Duany, Speck, & Lydon, 2010, p. 5.4 22 Ibid, p. 5.7 23 Ibid, 2010 24 Ibid, 2010, p. 5.8 25 Smart Growth Network, 2003 26 The Newseum Residences, 2010; Plumb, 2010 27 Garvin, 2002, p. 93 28 Ibid, p. 96 29 Ibid, p. 109 30 Ibid, p. 101 31 Duany, Speck, & Lyndon, 2010, p. 6.3 32 Savage, 2009 33 Duany, Speck, & Lyndon, 2010 34 Harrison, 2009; Pointfive Golf Company, 2013 35 Anderson, 1982 36 Duany, Speck, & Lydon, 2010, p. 6.7
15 16

100

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

DENSITY AND BUILT FORM

The land use intensity and block structure in the built environment is primarily governed by the allowed floor lot coverage maximums, will help to further sculpt the massing of buildings, but the fundamentals of how density and height distribution that is context sensitive and intends to create a vibrant and balanced Points density and built form. area ratio (FAR) and maximum buildable heights. Other constraining factors, such as required setbacks and much can be built is determined by the density and height. Vision Hains Point 2040 has identified a building

neighborhood. Lessons from The Smart Growth Manual have been incorporated into the design of Hains

Density has been distributed around the new Hains Point neighborhood to respond to the and recreation anchors, the siting of adjacent Monumental Core, location of cultural transportation nodes and networks, and the

DENSITY DISTRIBUTION

towards the center of the site along the Central of development directly adjacent to the Monumental Core pulls the bulk of the

Civic Park. While the desire to limit the intensity

development away from the Jefferson Hains Point Metro station, it also allows for a stronger neighborhood center to be defined around the

desire to provide a balanced activity intensity.

park and cultural assets of the neigborhood, and walking distance in conformance with smart

The parcels identified in Vision have an FAR range of 2.0 to 10.0. As shown in Figure 90, the site is most dense away from the Monumental Core and

still keeps the transportation options within easy

growth principals. 1

LAND USE

101

FIGURE 90: DISTRIBUTION OF F.A.R. ON HAINS POINT AWAY FROM MONUMENTAL CORE

102

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

FIGURE 91: CROSS SECTION ALONG JEFFERSON MEMORIAL ALIGNMENT. GRADUAL INCREASES IN BUILDING HEIGHT ALLOW 40 BULDING CLOSER TO THE JEFFERSON MEMORIAL TO HIDE MUCH TALLER BUILDINGS LOCATED FURTHER AWAY.

maximum building height map identified by Vision provides a concentration of higher buildings away from the Monumental Core and towards the center of the site.

Corresponding with the density distribution, the

BUILDING HEIGHT

Building heights on Hains Point range between 40 and 160 feet with an average height of 90 feet. with the lessons of The Smart Growth Manual, This minimum building height of 40 is in keeping

which suggests that buildings in urban areas be been identified to exceed the typical District

three stories or more. 3 The two parcels that have maximum of 130 feet have been selected because

Escalating the building heights in this manner will reduce the visual impact of the buildings on the Jefferson Memorial and will increase viewshed opportunities from the interior of the

they have an iconic position at the edge of the new Monumental Core, front on broad park spaces, and function as mixed-use cultural facilities. Further, the relative low elevation of Hains Point will make neighborhood, are more than a half mile from the

neighborhood. Further, placing taller buildings

along the central park space is a context sensitive placement of height that works to create a sense of enclosure and highlight important corners while maintaining sunlight to the park. 2

nearby buildings in the Portals and LEnfant Plaza complexes, which are on significantly higher ground.

the absolute height of the buildings lower than the

DENSITY AND BUILT FORM

103

FIGURE 92: MAXIMUM BUILDING HEIGHT DISTRIBUTION

104

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

keeping with typically bright and airy streets of

foot rights-of-way ensure that most blocks are in

Building heights along Hains Points broad 100

slender towers on a robust base. The scale of this base should be designed and coordinated with street tree canopy and street width to create a comfortable sense of enclosure, forming an

the District. Aside from the two parcels with 160 the buildings on Hains Point are in keeping with

maximum building height, the proposed heights of the 1910 Heights of Buildings Act, which allows for

outdoor living room along the neighborhood streets. 5 Guidelines regarding building form should also focus on creating human scale,

buildings on business streets to be 20 feet taller than the width of the widest adjacent street, to a maximum of 130 feet. 4

transparency, legibility, coherence, connectivity, eyes on the street, which increases perceptions of safety and comfort for pedestrians. 6 and texture while providing opportunities for

Vision anticipates that a form-based code element would be incorporated into the planning process for the new Hains Point neighborhood. Formbased codes regulate physical form, the

When combined, the result of block size, floor area ratio, and building height can be seen in the gross floor area (GFA) distribution shown in Figure 93. These various factors act on the parcels in

GROSS FLOOR AREA

relationships of buildings between one another, and the scale of streets and blocks rather than conventional zoning tools such as FAR, lot occupancy, and height, to help ensure that the ultimate built-form created contributes to the the Monumental Core. This would include strength and character of the neighborhood and requirements for buildings to create a consistent tower setbacks to reduce the evident mass of the urban street-wall at the base while encouraging

different ways to create a diverse density mosaic. The GFA distribution map reinforces the plans the neighborhood and illustrates how density concentration of density along the central spine of scales down approaching the Monumental Core. and occupancy creates the Activity Density map shown in Figure 68 on page 75.

Further layering this GFA map with building use

building from a pedestrian perspective. Increased

height should be provided to help encourage more

DENSITY AND BUILT FORM

105

FIGURE 93: FLOOR AREA DISTRIBUTION

Duany, Speck, & Lydon, 2010, p. 6.2 Ibid 3 Ibid 4 United States Congress, 1910 5 Duany, Speck, & Lydon, 2010 6 Ibid, p. 10.6; Ewing & Bartholomew, 2013
1 2

106

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

PUBLIC REALM

The most consistent character-defining element of the Hains Point public realm will be its streetscape. Vision environment that is safe, inviting, aesthetically pleasing, sustainable, and which creates value. The

Hains Point 2040 recognizes the important role that a sensitively designed streetscape can have in creating an characteristic elements of a good streetscape that produce these benefits are detailed below. Because

in the street network, and physical configuration, the prototypical street sections for Hains Point are also provided.

different streets on Hains Point have different needs, according to their adjoining uses, connectivity and role

The Boulevard Book (2002) by Allan Jacobs,

BEST PRACTICES

Trees Diversity Places Density Slope Contrast

Beginnings & Endings Details Accessibility Length Parking Time

Elizabeth Macdonald, and Yodan Rofe, and its Allan Jacobs, a provide a visual and analytic

predecessor, the classic Great Streets (1993) by framework by which to understand the universal great. In Great Streets Jacobs defines these characteristics as the following: Places for People to Walk with Some Leisure Qualities That Engage the Eyes Complementarity Quality of Construction and Design Transparency Maintenance characteristics which make some streets truly

Vision incorporates these requirements and contributing factors into the design and consideration of Hains Points streetscape. The

Physical Comfort Definition

allocation of the typical 100 foot street section is cyclist, and finally, the vehicular traffic.

designed to first prioritize the pedestrian, then the

Many of the streets identified in Vision are

To achieve these required characteristics, Jacobs the creation of great streets:

designed as minor boulevards with either a

identifies a number of qualities that contribute to

central planted median or service lanes. These boulevard street sections have been selected because of their ability to create special places

DENSITY AND BUILT FORM

107

within the streetscape. Further, they are

appropriate in the areas of Hains Point with

street parking, continuous tree cover, ample sidewalks, appropriate street furniture and lighting as well as supportive building frontages. 4

significant pedestrian volume, mixed commercial uses, high residential use, public transit, and significant public institutions. 1 The boulevard conditions on Hains Point vary from 100 feet wide, which Jacobs et al identify as the minimum dimension for a standard boulevard, 2 to 280 feet wide across the Central Civic Park.

drive and parking lane widths on a road diet, below the usual American traffic engineer

Typical streets on Hains Point are designed with

free-flow and transit streets this equates to travel lanes between 9 feet to 10 feet wide and between 8 feet to 9 feet on local serving or service streets accordance with the street design guidelines

standards identified in Walkable City (2012). 5 For

The Boulevard Book notes that the proportion of the right of way dedicated to the pedestrian realm (including sidewalks, access roads, and

with parking lanes between 7 feet to 8 feet wide in identified in The Smart Growth Manual. 6 These

the of the total right of way, with the remainder has incorporated this standard measure in the allocation of the roadway to maintain an appropriate balance.

medians) should between half and two-thirds of

being used for vehicular through traffic. 3 Vision

widths provide more than adequate space for street, but they fall well below some typical

vehicles to move cautiously and safely through the standards that would, according to Jacobs et al, prefer travel lanes of up to 13 feet and parking lanes at 12 feet. 7 Bulb-outs and tight corner radii

Echoing many principles from Great Streets, The Boulevard Book, and The Smart Growth Manual, Hains Points streets are designed to be complete streets. The Smart Growth Manual

will be provided at intersections. These measures are intended to reduce pedestrian crossing distance and slow vehicle speeds.

defines complete streets as including narrow

(slower-speed) travel lanes, bicycle facilities, on-

Strong and evenly spaced rows of trees have been provided to create a consistent canopy and a

108

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

realm from vehicular traffic. These lines of trees are planted between all pedestrian facilities and vehicular facilities, including the center island. minimum a planting strip, has been provided between the pedestrian sidewalk and the dedicated bicycle facility to provide better conflicts. Where possible, an additional row of trees, or at

protective barrier for the pedestrian and cyclist

area from the current 35 percent to 40 percent by streetscapes, Vision helps the District maintain or increase the citys enhanced canopy. Best practices, such as those published by local tree 2035. 10 Through these tree-intensive

advocacy group Casey Trees, 11 will be utilized to ensure that newly planted trees have sufficient to be a vibrant part of the Hains Point public uncompacted soil volume to enable them to grow realm. Existing trees which are located in areas

definition between the space and help reduce

slated for development will be carefully relocated to planned park areas elsewhere on Hains Point. This robust tree planting and preservation program will have a multitude of benefits to the Hains Point neighborhood. Trees have been proven to have a positive effect on pedestrian

These guidelines create streets lined by two to six Duany et al and Jacobs et al, these trees are 35 feet, with consideration given to their rows of trees. In keeping with the suggestions of

planted at regular intervals of between 15 feet and projected mature crown width, to provide a for shop windows, signage, and awnings. 8

comfort, provide enhanced safety for pedestrians and cyclists, increase property values, improve and clean stormwater. 12 retail viability, reduce the urban heat island effect,

consistent canopy that fills in above the site line

blanketed the city. 9 While 20th century

world-wide for its luxuriant tree canopy which development priorities eliminated much of the urban forest, the District has set 21st century

Washington in the 19th century was renowned

reduced vehicular width; extensive tree plantings; good lighting; street furniture; small block sizes; and attractive urban fabric - are the defining characteristics of the Hains Point public realm.

These elements of complete street design -

standards to increase its tree canopy coverage

PUBLIC REALM

109

The street network provided by Vision Hains Point 2040 includes over 10 miles of surface streets. These roads vary from a boulevard extension of a major bridge to a primarily residential street to a curbless street environment. All told, the streets dense commercial corridor to a park-lined

TYPICAL STREET TYPES

of Hains Point can be divided into approximately nine distinct street types with typical sections. serve different functions but their design and consideration remain based on Jacobs great street characteristics. These streets have different characteristics and

FIGURE 94: BASIC STREET TYPES AND LOCATIONS

110

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Street Type: high-volume through-traffic boulevard Total Width: 200 Primary Adjacent Uses: office and residential Pedestrian Facilities: 40 total sidewalk width Bicycle Facilities: 10 dedicated cycle-track Transit Facilities: N/A Pedestrian Realm: 70%

BRIDGE BOULEVARD - A

Vehicular Facilities: Local: two 9 drive lanes Through: six 10 drive lanes Parking: four 8 parking lanes Tree Characteristics: # Rows: 6 Spacing: 30 Tree/Planting Width: 40 Notes: Bridge Boulevard A is the extension of the consolidated 14th Street Bridge. After landing on Hains Point, through traffic is diverted into a tunnel to connect to the I-395 highway system.

PUBLIC REALM

111

Total Width: 200

Street Type: high-volume local-serving boulevard

BRIDGE BOULEVARD - B

Pedestrian Realm: 70%

Primary Adjacent Uses: office, residential, hotel

Pedestrian Facilities: 40 total sidewalk width Bicycle Facilities: 10 dedicated cycle-track Transit Facilities: dedicated 10 streetcar lane

Vehicular Facilities: Local: three 9 drive lanes Through: N/A Parking: three 8 parking lanes Tree Characteristics: # Rows: 6 Spacing: 30 Tree/Planting Width: 57 Notes: Bridge Boulevard B is the local serving continuation 14th Street Bridge. A broad 90 central median is provided that can serve as an additional minor park space.

112

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Street Type: resident serving complete street Total Width: 100 Primary Adjacent Uses: residential Pedestrian Realm: 66% Pedestrian Facilities: 24 total sidewalk width

HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL

Transit Facilities: N/A

Bicycle Facilities: two 10 dedicated cycle-tracks

Vehicular Facilities: Local: two 9 drive lanes Through: N/A Parking: two 8 parking lanes Tree Characteristics: # Rows: 4 Spacing: 15 Tree/Planting Width: 22 Notes: High Density Residential is designed to provide low-speed vehicular access, ample street parking, bicycle facilities on both sides of the street, and consistent tree canopy coverage. These items create a comfortable outdoor living room space for residents.

PUBLIC REALM

113

Total Width: 100

Street Type: through serving mixed-use

MIXED COMMERCIAL LOCAL A

Primary Adjacent Uses: residential, office, hotel Pedestrian Realm: 80% Pedestrian Facilities: 20 total sidewalk width Bicycle Facilities: 10 dedicated cycle-track Transit Facilities: one shared bus lane

Vehicular Facilities: Local: two 9 drive lanes Through: two 10 drive lanes Parking: two 7 parking lanes Tree Characteristics: # Rows: 2 Spacing: 25 Tree/Planting Width: 18 Notes: Mixed Commercial Local A is designed to provide a boulevard condition for cross neighborhood local traffic. The service lanes provide access to local establishments while providing a continuous cross neighborhood route for through traffic.

114

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Total Width: 100

Street Type: local serving mixed-use

MIXED COMMERCIAL LOCAL B

Primary Adjacent Uses: residential, office, hotel Pedestrian Zone Ratio: 66% Pedestrian Facilities: 30 total sidewalk width Bicycle Facilities: 10 dedicated cycle-track Transit Facilities: N/A

Vehicular Facilities: Local: two 9 drive lanes Through: N/A Parking: two 8 parking lanes Tree Characteristics: # Rows: 3 Spacing: 20 Tree/Planting Width: 26 Notes: Mixed Commercial Local B does not continue across the Civic Central Park and serves primarily local uses. Use of broad sidewalks and a central median create a pleasing and safe pedestrian environment that can support caf space.

PUBLIC REALM

115

Street Type: transit serving mixed-use Total Width: 100

MIXED COMMERCIAL TRANSIT

Primary Adjacent Uses: residential, office, hotel Pedestrian Zone Ratio: 56% Pedestrian Facilities: 24 total sidewalk width Bicycle Facilities: 10 dedicated cycle-track Transit Facilities: one 10 dedicated transit lane

Vehicular Facilities: Local: two 9 drive lanes Through: N/A Parking: two 8 parking lanes Tree Characteristics: # Rows: 2 Spacing: 25 Tree/Planting Width: 22 Notes: Mixed Commercial Transit provides dedicated streetcar route through Hains Point as described in the Transportation section. The median allows for turning traffic to not restrict the travel lanes and increases capacity for through traffic. Wide sidewalks support caf space.

116

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Street Type: perimeter road Total Width: ~150, varies

WATERFRONT ESPLANADE

Primary Adjacent Uses: residential, office, hotel Pedestrian Zone Ratio: 77% Pedestrian Facilities: 40 total sidewalk width Bicycle Facilities: 20 dedicated cycle-track Transit Facilities: two 10 shared bus lane

Vehicular Facilities: Local: two 10 drive lanes Through: N/A Parking: two 8 parking lanes Tree Characteristics: # Rows: 2 (existing Cherry Trees) Spacing: as planted Tree/Planting Width: 54 Notes: Dedicated pedestrian and bicycle routes have been provided with two-way vehicular traffic along the perimeter Waterfront Esplanade. Existing Cherry Trees and the new bulkhead have been incorporated in the design. Wide sidewalks support significant waterfront caf space.

PUBLIC REALM

117

Street Type: curbless shared space Total Width: 280 (includes park) Pedestrian Zone Ratio: 100%

CIVIC PARK SHARED SPACE

Primary Adjacent Uses: residential, office, hotel Pedestrian Facilities: 30 total sidewalk width Transit Facilities: N/A

Bicycle Facilities: two 10 dedicated cycle-tracks

Vehicular Facilities: Local: two 8 drive lanes Through: N/A Parking: two 7 parking lanes Tree Characteristics: # Rows: 9 Spacing: 25 Tree/Planting Width: 20 Notes: Civic Park Shared Space is a low-speed curbless environment. Southbound local traffic is on the eastern edge of the park and northbound local traffic is along the west edge. The pedestrian zone is designed to blend seamlessly with the areas where limited vehicular traffic is allowed.

118

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Street Type: local access streets

CANAL BOULEVARD

Total Width: 180 (includes canal) Pedestrian Zone Ratio: 70%

Primary Adjacent Uses: residential, office, hotel

Pedestrian Facilities: 30 total sidewalk width Transit Facilities: N/A

Bicycle Facilities: two 10 dedicated cycle-tracks

Vehicular Facilities: Local: two 8 drive lanes Through: N/A Parking: two 7 parking lanes Tree Characteristics: # Rows: 4 Spacing: 15 Tree/Planting Width: 20 Notes: Flanking both sides of Buckeye Canal, these one-way pairs form a local boulevard condition that connects across the Hains Point canal bridges. Pedestrian sidewalks have been provided along the buildings and directly along the canal.

PUBLIC REALM

119

Jacobs, Macdonald, & Rofe, The Boulevard Book, 2002 2 Ibid, p. 212 3 Ibid, 2002, p. 212 4 Duany, Speck, & Lydon, 2010, p. 8.1 5 Speck, 2012, p. 93 6 Duany, Speck, & Lydon, 2010, pp. 8.9, 8.10 7 Jacobs, Macdonald, & Rofe, 2002, p. 114 8 Duany, Speck, & Lydon, 2010, p. 13.9; Jacobs, Macdonald, & Rofe, 2002, p. 221 9 Savage, 2009, pp. 91-94 10 Casey Trees, 2013 11 Casey Trees, 2008 12 Speck, 2012, pp. 223-233
1

120

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

MONUMENTAL CORE

2040 has taken measures to treat these components in a sensitive and contextual manner.

Hains Point are the Jefferson Memorial & West Potomac Park and the Banneker Overlook. Vision Hains Point

The two primary components of the Monumental Core or federal interests in the area of the redeveloped

Vision creates a strong connection and

JEFFERSON MEMORIAL & WEST POTOMAC PARK

relationship between the new Hains Point

The redevelopment of Hains Point also provides for the new Jefferson-Hains Point Metro station. The development of a dense mixed-use neighborhood in the vicinity of an infill Metro station is good urban design practice and will not exist if the station was constructed today. provide sustainable ridership levels that would additional purpose (and funding opportunities)

ways. First, Vision has embraced the consolidation previously proposed by NCPC. This consolidation creates the opportunity to construct a more dignified and monumental bridge, in keeping with Key Bridge, instead of the existing tangled web of utilitarian bridge structures. the Arlington Memorial Bridge and Francis Scott of the 14th Street Bridge complex as has been

neighborhood and West Potomac Park in several

The design of the new Hains Point park system responds to the design, configuration, and function of West Potomac Park and the Jefferson Memorial. Most prominently, Hains Points Central Civic Park has been designed to have an shown in Figure 95. This opens up viewsheds to and from the Jefferson Memorial, creating a stronger linkage between the Monumental Core and the new neighborhood. The Waterfront Esplanade acts as an extension of West Potomac axial alignment with the Jefferson Memorial as

Further, both the reconstruction of the 14th Street Bridge and the proposed routing of the reconstructed elevated train tracks create a clear

portions of West Potomac Park and the Area II grounds of Hains Point. This clear separation point is good for establishing zones and pays

demarcation between the Reserve and Area I

respect to the more formal Monument Core Area.

PUBLIC REALM

121

FIGURE 95: AXIAL RELATIONSHIP OF THE JEFFERSON MEMORIAL AND THE HAINS POINT PARK SYSTEM

Parks riverside shared-use path. This path

connects north to Georgetown and Rock Creek

The height, use, and density distribution of the Hains Point neighborhood has been carefully

Park, and ultimately provides a connection to the County Maryland. Finally, the reconfiguration of Point parcel boundaries provide for the new formal festival ground and commemorative opportunity south of the Jefferson Memorial

Capital Crescent Trail which leads to Montgomery the 14th Street Bridge and the layout of the Hains

configured to be sensitive to the experience of the Monumental Core. The majority of the buildings closest to the Jefferson Memorial have been designated as office buildings and ideally for the relocation of the National Park Service and U.S. Park Police headquarters, which would allow for

discussed in the Parks and Recreation section.

federal uses to front on West Potomac Park. The standard daily hours of operations of these

agencies will help to limit the visual impact of the Hains Point neighborhood on the nighttime viewshed to and from the Jefferson Memorial.

122

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Additionally, these buildings are relatively low

rise, reaching to only between 40 and 50 feet in Jefferson Memorial these heights gradually

height. As buildings move further away from the increase. This progressive increase of building buildings; the tallest and densest buildings are located over a half mile from the Monumental

Another area of federal interest is the Benjamin Banneker Park (commonly known as the Banneker Overlook) on axis with 10th Street SW

BENJAMIN BANNEKER PARK

heights will also help to limit the visual impact of

at the terminus of the LEnfant Promenade. Vision has incorporated the canal along the current Buckeye Drive SW alignment as has been suggested by NCPC in the Monumental Core

Core. The gradual height increase away from the

Jefferson Memorial is demonstrated in Figure 91.

provides a rotated viewshed from the Banneker Overlook through Hains Point towards Virginia.

Framework Plan. As shown in Figure 96, this canal

Additional view corridors from the Southwest

Waterfront neighborhood through the new Hains Point neighborhood have also been provided to align with the existing street grid. These view corridors also have informed the placement of future memorial sites contemplated in NCPCs Memorials and Museums Master Plan.

FIGURE 96: BANNEKER OVERLOOK ALIGNMENT WITH BUCKEYE CANAL

MONUMENTAL CORE

123

ENVIRONMENT, RESILIENCY, AND SUSTAINABILITY

District. While the future environmental challenges, goals, technologies, and strategies cannot yet be known, stormwater, and have a self-sustaining energy grid. Hains Points unique location offers both challenges and

Vision Hains Point 2040 will create a neighborhood that is the bellwether for sustainable development in the

it is clear that the redevelopment will have to be resilient, provide rugged infrastructure, aggressively manage

opportunities for addressing a changing climate and future energy price increases. The high density, walkable, transit accessible makes it naturally efficient. The wealth of

NATURALLY EFFICIENT

residential units for 16,250 households. The

character of the new Hains Point neighborhood transportation options available, and Hains Points highly centralized location, can make car-free or car-light living a reality for residents, employees,

footprint of these residential buildings covers a

small fraction of the total Hains Point land mass parks, open space, and infrastructure. If these same households were to live in automobile

with the majority of the area being used for public

and visitors to Hains Point. With vehicular carbon reducing automobile dependence must be a major component of all strategies to reduce pollution and lower carbon footprints.

dioxide emissions causing a third of all emissions, 1

lot * it would take 20 Hains Points just to provide enough land for the private lots. This would be before roads, infrastructure, parks, schools, or any other mixed-use development components were incorporated. Ultimately, a suburban model of

dependent suburban jurisdictions on a half-acre

Not only is the carbon footprint of the average

of land for new development to support the same population. In contrast, Hains Point provides which helps to potentially reduce continued
*

growth would require tens of thousands of acres

of the average automobile dependent suburban household (approximately 93 million British thermal units per year less 2)

transit-accessible urbanite family lower than that

increased housing opportunities in the urban core

footprint is significantly smaller. For example, the new Hains Point neighborhood provides

the actual physical

suburban and exurban sprawl.

124

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

The average lot size for units built in Montgomery County between 1996-2005 was 0.47 acres. Only Prince Georges County was lower at 0.38 acres. All other surrounding Maryland counties were higher with Calvert County having the largest average lots at 1.27 acres. Source: Kopits, McConnell, & Miles, 2009

Beyond reducing the carbon footprint from the physical footprint through multifamily

increased transportation options and economizing apartments, the relatively compact average unit offer further efficiencies. Reducing the volume which must be heated and cooled as well as

reduce the amount of natural resources to

expended manage interior temperature. Before any special sustainable features are added, neighborhoods, like Hains Point, with dense,

sizes in the Hains Point multifamily buildings will

compact, walkable, and well-located residential dependent suburban home with all the gizmo green environmental bells and whistles. 3

units will already be greener than an automobile

sharing walls, ceilings, and floors with other units

for insulation and using high quality materials will

ENVIROMENT, RESILIENCY, AND SUSTAINABILITY

125

Hains Points prominent location, flanked by the

STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

solutions, such as rain gardens and green roofs, which help to manage stormwater in a more natural way. This helps promote plant life and

Potomac River and the Washington Channel just River, makes it an ideal location to showcase

to the north of the convergence with the Anacostia progressive stormwater management techniques designed to improve the health of the watershed. stormwater as a valuable resource instead of a liability. The infrastructure of Hains Point should recognize

which collect stormwater and promote natural

low-impact-development (LID) zones, planters

groundwater recharge. As shown in Figure 97,

filtration and infiltration, should be designed into the planting and tree zones along all roadways.

The waters surrounding Hains Point are

considered by the Environmental Protection Suffering from pollution, this designation

Agency (EPA) to be impaired urban waterbodies. prohibits the consumption of its fish or its use for Improvements to the health of the surrounding waterbodies are badly needed. 4 swimming or other water contact sports.

FIGURE 97: LID ZONES IN NORTHEAST DC, CREDIT: PARKER RODRIGUEZ

Further, heavier engineered solutions that allow for stormwater collection, filtration, and reuse include irrigation, grey water systems, cooling should be utilized. These reuse opportunities can tower make-up water, or other uses not requiring the water that lands on Hains Point helps to

where potable water.. Collecting and reusing all of insulate the end users from spikes in utility cost that stormwater, which collects oils, dirt, trash and pollutants from the surface of the streets,

Vision anticipates that governing environmental guidelines for the redeveloped neighborhood would include leading-edge stormwater management requirements and technologies.

and is a resource efficient solution. Also, it ensures

126

These solutions should include low-impact

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

does not further pollute the Potomac watershed.

Hains Points compact form, unique location, and new infrastructure creates additional energy program. opportunities to embrace a holistic sustainable

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY NETWORK

produce electricity, heating, and cooling from a buildings on Hains Point helps to make this

given amount of fuel. 5 The dense configuration of

possible by allowing for efficient distribution between buildings. 6 The cogeneration plant should be centrally located within the plan for

Vision anticipates that the redeveloped Hains term coordinated effort. Accordingly, its

maximum efficiency and can be scaled according to the projected growth and development of the new neighborhood. Creating a networked energy system that is not fully reliant on the centralized energy grid will help to alleviate the strain on PEPCOs already highly taxed electric network. 7

Point neighborhood will be built as a major longsustainable energy infrastructure will be

incorporated into early planning stages and integrated throughout the neighborhood.

creating electricity and utilizing the heat produced to provide heating and cooling and distributing this energy to numerous buildings, will be a major it reuses heat which would otherwise be wasted and sent into the atmosphere, cogeneration has been shown to be the most efficient way to

District energy or cogeneration, the practice of

The networked distributed energy system can also be utilized to distribute electricity, heating, and cooling from sources other than cogeneration. Hains Points access to the surrounding

infrastructure component of Hains Point. Because

waterbodies makes it an ideal candidate for the supply chilled water that acts as a heat sink for building cooling systems. Access to a similar

use of a district-wide system that uses the river to

ENVIROMENT, RESILIENCY, AND SUSTAINABILITY

natural resource has allowed Cornell University to

127

reduce cooling costs by 87 percent compared to a economic savings, the Cornell lake source district cooling system avoids than 56 million pounds of electrical use equivalent to 19 million pounds of coal annually. 9 Given the scale and efficiency of carbon dioxide pollution each year, and eliminates conventional system. 8 Beyond the significant

rise buildings in the citys downtown financial district. 10

utilizing the water of Lake Ontario cools 51 high-

Another natural heating solution that should be considered for Hains Point is the use of a large scale geothermal system. This geothermal well

the new Hains Point neighborhood, it is

reasonable to expect that the environmental and financial savings could be met or exceeded.

field could be located under portions of the Urban Recreation Park with minimal disturbance to the the earths heat to provide heating and cooling through the use of a heat pump system to the Hains Point neighborhood. function of the park. These wells would allow for

FIGURE 98: CORNELL'S LAKE SOURCE DISTRICT COOLING SYSTEM DIAGRAM, SOURCE: EARLEY, 2010

The creation of Hains Point as a brand new largehelp to make the creation of a sufficient sustainable energy grid feasible.

scale neighborhood, built from the ground up, will

Other examples of significant lake source district cooling include the system used in downtown Toronto. In that project a district cooling system

128

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Beyond cogeneration and district heating/cooling systems, Hains Points high visibility and sustainable focus provides opportunities for

FIGURE 99: OFFSHORE WINDFARM NEAR COPENHAGEN, DENMARK. SOURCE: SKELTON, 2012

wind farm will be coordinated with the

significant solar and wind power installations.

and viewsheds are not negatively impacted. The use of wind energy at Hains Point would act as a testament to the citys commitment to the environment, and could act as an inspiration for green energy.

appropriate agencies to ensure that flight paths

The neighborhoods broad roofscape and southern exposure will facilitate solar installations. Wind capturing the power of the wind coming up the Potomac River. Much like the sight of offshore Airports flight paths would make these power will be created near the tip of Hains Point,

all visitors showing the nations commitment to

wind farms as one flies into Copenhagen, National

While the exact technologies available or

installations an iconic sight for travelers coming to and from the District. The exact location of the

preferred in the future cannot be predicted, Vision vanguard of sustainable energy practices.

Hains Point 2040 will create a neighborhood at the

ENVIROMENT, RESILIENCY, AND SUSTAINABILITY

129

Hains Points unique location and relatively low rise particularly acute. A recent approval by the Washington Channel from Hains Point,

SEA LEVEL RISE

existing elevation make the concerns of sea level FEMA for the Wharf development, located across

The reconstruction and elevation of the existing

landscape between the bulkhead and the building parcel boundaries, as described earlier, is designed to provide a safeguard against rising

seawalls and the creation of an elevated terraced

required the main buildings to be placed two feet Figure 101, the 100-year flood elevation is at an elevation of 11 feet, requiring that the building Since FEMA is the official federal permitting agency related to constructing and insuring ground floors be set at an elevation of 13 feet. 12

above the 100 year flood elevation. 11 As shown in

flood elevations. If necessary, the railing along the Waterfront Esplanade could be designed as an additional extension of the floodwall. While this is not preferable because it would restrict views out across the Potomac River and Washington three additional feet of flood level rise. Channel it would add protection for more than

buildings in or near floodplains, Vision would base its floodwall and ground floor design elevation upon FEMAs future direction.

130

FIGURE 101: FEMA FLOOD INSURANCE MAP FOR LANDS ALONG THE WASHINGTON CHANNEL, SOURCE: FEMA

FIGURE 100: ELEVATIONS OF LANDS CLOSE TO SEA LEVEL, SOURCE: TITUS, 2010

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

A 2010 report to the U.S. Environmental

Protection Agency, titled The Likelihood of Shore Protection in the District of Columbia, addresses

While the highly developed area of Hains Point towards the north of the island should be protected using an approach of raising the

many of the major planned and recent

to be protected but how. As shown in Figure 100,

the question of, not if the valuable lands will need

elevation of the land and increasing the armored may be appropriate for some of the park spaces an idea that was proposed by NCPC in the

bulkhead protection, a more naturalistic approach closer to the southern tip of Hains Point. This is Monumental Core Framework Plan. As shown in Figure 102, NCPC proposed to stabilize the crumbling bulkhead along the southern edge of Hains Point with infill earth removed in the construction of the canal, and to construct this

development sites in the District, including the Wharf, the Yards, and Poplar Point as well as already densely developed areas such as the Federal Triangle, are highlighted for their relatively low existing elevation. Through

significant consultation with federal and local stakeholders, the report concludes that Hains Point and the other developed areas along the Districts waterways have a high likelihood of highlighted in brown in Figure 103. shore protection in the future. These areas are

area as a wetland with native vegetation to help improve water quality, create new habitat, and mitigate flooding. 13 In these park areas that are

more tolerant to flood risks, this natural approach should be considered.

FIGURE 103: LIKLIHOOD OF SHORE PROTECTION IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, SOURCE: TITUS, 2010

ENVIROMENT, RESILIENCY, AND SUSTAINABILITY

FIGURE 102: #4 BIOENGINEERED SHORELINE AREAS PROPOSED IN NCPC'S MONUMENTAL CORE FRAMEWORK PLAN

131

Buildings on Hains Point will be constructed to the highest contemporary sustainability standards. LEED standards, if they remain the industry buildings as well as for infrastructure and new neighborhood has great potential to

GREEN BUILDING AND RESILIENCY

adaptable, and dynamic. Vision will be developed in the same manner, using technology, sensors, user input, and data to create a continued and infrastructure to adapt accordingly.

standard, will be executed at the highest levels for

feedback loop which allows the smart buildings

neighborhood design. The wholesale creation of a

showcase new technologies and create marketleading solutions to environmental issues.

Resiliency will be incorporated into the

fundamental structure of the building on Hains

distributed energy system to provide increased self-reliance on the energy front, urban

Point. Beyond creating a micro-power grid and

The advances of sustainable building technologies in the coming decades are sure to be significant. recently completed a visioning study evaluating ARUP, a major global engineering and design firm, what building technologies will be leading the way in the year 2050. This study focused innovations resources; reactive facades; community in five key sectors: flexible structures; sustainable integration; and smart systems. 14 Like many

agriculture will be incorporated into building and open space design. Hains Points linkage to a reliability on private vehicles and increases multitude of transportation options decreases opportunity for active transportation. Enhanced car sharing, particularly electric cars powered from Hains Points sustainable energy grid, will be given priority by providing an extensive network of charging stations. Increasing vehicle sharing opportunities allows for the use of automobile

aspects of Vision Hains Point 2040, ARUP found responsible, or desired response to growing populations and that demographic lifestyle

that continued urban sprawl is not an effective,

transportation when required without the heavy burden of car ownership. To quote DC Planning more balance in our transportation system. A Director, Harriet Tregoning: Im just looking for resilient city is a city that gives people choices,

changes will serve as the drivers of growth and demand for dense urban environments. This environment, ARUP found, will be connected,

132

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

and increasingly people want those choices. 15

Campoli, 2012, p. 133 Ibid 3 Ibid, p. 134; Speck, 2012, p. 56 4 Steenhoek, 2011 5 Earley, 2010 6 Campoli, 2012, p. 134 7 Stephen & Flaherty, 2011 8 Campoli, 2012, p. 135 9 Earley, 2010 10 C40 Cities, 2011 11 Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2012 12 Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2010 13 NCPC, 2009, p. 54 14 ARUP, 2013 15 DeBonis, 2012
1 2

ENVIROMENT, RESILIENCY, AND SUSTAINABILITY

133

TRANSPORTATION
As has been discussed, realizing Vision Hains Point 2040 will take significant investment in transportation

infrastructure of all kinds. These investments will include: significant pedestrian improvements; premium bicycle infrastructure; the creation of a new infill Metrorail station; integration with the local and regional connections to regional heavy rail service; freeway and bridge enhancements; and below-grade parking streetcar system; inclusion of express Circulator bus routes; water-based shuttle and ferry service; potential

construction. These multi-modal investments will ensure that the redevelopment of Hains Point contributes to the regional transportation network and allows for sustainable transportation options to be the premium choice for residents, workers, and visitors. The transportation infrastructure does not create a balanced approach, instead it creates one that accommodates the sustainable transportation hierarchy described by trucks/service; taxi/car share; high occupancy vehicles; and lastly private vehicles. These high-priority means of transportation are resource-efficient and provide public benefits.

Julie Campoli in Made for Walking. This gives definite preference, in order, to: walking; cycling; public transit;

134

FIGURE 104: HAINS POINT METRORAIL MAP

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

FIGURE 105: HAINS POINT TRANSPORTION OPTION SUMMARY

TRANSPORTATION

135

The urban street network provided in the

PEDESTRIAN

network of pedestrian friendly sidewalks will be that works to ensure the legibility of the street grid for visitors and regular patrons alike.

redevelopment of Hains Point will support walking as a viable and valuable means of transportation. Sidewalks will be sufficiently

aided by a strong signage and wayfinding program

broad, well landscaped, accessible, and shaded by illustrated in the Public Realm section. Streets trees, as demonstrated by the typical street types

Dedicated pedestrian-only walking paths will be

will be designed for low vehicular speed and have pedestrians. 1 As shown in Figure 106, block sizes have been reduced below typical DC blocks and provide for a variety of routes and options. The designed to enhance pedestrian permeability and on-street parking to provide a further buffer for

provided around the perimeter of Hains Point and numerous shared use paths will connect through use environment created on Hains Point means the park system. The dense and balanced mixed-

that residents, visitors, and workers are able to

meet their regular daily needs for socialization, recreation within easy walking distance.

shopping, dining, entertainment, education, and

Pedestrian routes to and from Hains Point will connections to the Southwest Waterfront require enhancement to facilitate easier

neighborhood, to the shared use path over the 14th Street Bridge, to the National Mall, and to other should include the creation of wider sidewalks, traffic calming near highway infrastructure,
FIGURE 106: HAINS POINT STREET GRID DIAGRAM

monuments and memorials. These improvements

enhanced lighting, signalized surface intersections, and signage.

136

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Hains Point sits at the confluence of a number of regionally significant bicycle trails and routes, which provide safe and convenient bicycle

BICYCLE

commuting between the District and Virginia, hour each day. 2

which sees more than 1,275 trips during peak

connections to the entire Washington region. This network, as illustrated below in Figure 107 with an excerpt from DDOTs Bicycle Master Plan,

Enhanced connections should be provided

shows the connections of the Anacostia Riverwalk Cycle Track, and the Mount Vernon Trail which surrounding jurisdictions. Trail, the Capital Crescent Trail, the 15th Street

between these important trail systems and

redevelopment area. Currently, Hains Point is a very popular destination for recreational and competitive cyclists, but access on surface streets include bicycle facilities on dedicated protected cycle tracks. Secure, plentiful, and convenient

provides linkages to all parts of the District and

needs improvement. In Vision all new streets will

bicycle parking and storage will be incorporated into the streetscape and buildings. A dedicated bicycle transit center, similar to the Bikestation at Union Station, should be placed in coordination of Capital Bikeshare stations should be with other transit options and a dense patterning
FIGURE 107: MAJOR BICYCLE TRAIL FACILITIES NEAR HAINS POINT, DDOT 2005

accommodated in the street grid. 3 As bicycling

continues to gain in popularity and stature as a sustainable means of transport, fostering these strong connections will be of paramount

Currently, there are limited bicycle linkage points Bridge is the second most popular for bicyclists over the Potomac. The trail along the 14th Street

importance to the regions urban transport future.

TRANSPORTATION

137

The Washington Metropolitan Area Transit

METRORAIL

heart of the DC metropolitan regions public

Authoritys (WMATA) Metrorail system is the

a million people each day, Metrorail is anticipated Hains Point is well positioned to include a metro

transit system. Already carrying three-quarters of

to increase daily ridership by 40 percent by 2040. 4 stop along the current Yellow Line alignment; this shown in Figure 108, the creation of a new

is a vision that has been articulated by NCPC. 5 As Jefferson-Hains Point Metrorail station would

station. This intensity of development would

development from Vision within a half-mile of the

place most of the 23 million square feet of

justify and help fund the new station which would allow for greater access to the Jefferson Memorial

FIGURE 108: WALKING DISTANCE FROM NEW JEFFERSON-HAINS POINT STATION

Additionally, as illustrated by Figure 109, the

and West Potomac Park.

connection to the Metros Yellow Line would help the use of the Metro systems least strained line. 6

to distribute regional metro demand by increasing

FIGURE 109: METRORAIL PEAK CAPACITY PROJECTIONS TO 2040, SOURCE: WMATA, 2013

138

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Funding opportunities that capture the resulting for this $130+ million dollar investment. 7 While

increased tax revenue and value should be utilized this direct investment has not been identified in WMATAs strategic vision plan, several other planned improvements to Metrorail, streetcar future attractiveness of Hains Point as a well-

systems, and regional rail will contribute to the connected, multi-modal transit rich neighborhood.
FIGURE 110: NEW ORANGE AND SILVER LINE CONNECTIONS, SOURCE: WMATA, 2013

separation of the Yellow and Green Lines, and the creation of new connections at the Pentagon that would allow the Orange and Silver Lines to cross using the current Yellow Line bridge alignment.

creation of a new tunnel that would allow the

shown in Figure 110 and Figure 111, include the

These improvements envisioned by WMATA,

FIGURE 111: NEW YELLOW LINE TUNNEL TO SEPARATE YELLOW AND GREEN LINE FOR INCREASED CAPACITY, SOURCE: WMATA, 2013

TRANSPORTATION

139

Vision Hains Point 2040 also anticipates

STREETCAR

shown in Figure 112 to create alignments that enhance value and increase connectivity to Point. cultural and recreational opportunities on Hains

connection to future streetcar networks, which provide a premium surface transit experience shown to create extensive benefit to property

Columbia and Arlington County are developing vision plans for future streetcar networks. As eight-line 37-mile streetcar network that is shown in Figure 114, the District has identified an targeted to be complete by 2020. 9 Meanwhile, as

values and development. 8 Both the District of

shown in Figure 113, Arlington is planning two of Columbia Pike and a more than two-mile Crystal City line. 10

its own additional lines, a five-mile segment along

FIGURE 112: POTENTIAL HAINS POINT STREETCAR ALIGNMENT

While both systems anticipate segments that

terminate or pass within reasonable proximity to the 14th Street Bridge complex, neither plans to cross jurisdictional lines. This streetcar connection between Arlington and the District

FIGURE 113: PLANNED ARLINGTON STREETCAR ROUTES ON COLUMBIA PIKE AND CRYSTAL CITY, SOURCE: ARLINGTON COUNTY GOVERNMENT, 2013

provides an impetus to link the two systems and better improve regional transportation connectivity. It provides an opportunity to extend
FIGURE 114: FUTURE SEGMENT OF DC STREETCAR SYSTEM PLAN NEAR HAINS POINT, SOURCE DDOT 2010

that existed as early as the late 1800s. 11 Vision

across the 14th Street Bridge is a historic linkage

140

streetcar transit into the redevelopment area, as

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

The District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Virginia are linked by a sole railroad bridge the Long Bridge. Long Bridge crosses along the

HEAVY RAIL

being evaluated. Resulting service improvements and expansion will bring increased heavy rail future. service through Hains Point in the not too distant

northwestern edge of Hains Point and is a 2,500 and operated in this configuration since 1904. 12

foot long double-track structure which has existed

CSX Transportation is the owner of the bridge, National Railroad Passenger Corporation

Given the connectivity to LEnfant Plaza and the currently anticipate the inclusion of a regional on Hains Point. However, the physical

which also currently carries railroad traffic for (AMTRAK) and Virginia Railway Express (VRE). 13

nature of these heavy rail services, Vision does not passenger, high-speed, or commuter rail directly

Multiple planning efforts are currently underway to address the future use and operation of this vital transportation resource. These efforts

infrastructure and alignments could facilitate direct connections to these services on Hains Point in the future. Regardless, the planned

Plan, the District Department of Transportation and Federal Railroad Administrations Long Momentum.

include the Office of Plannings Maryland Avenue

increase in level of service to the LEnfant Plaza multi-modal center will greatly increase the transportation options available at Hains Point, placing several local, regional, and national rail options just a Metrorail or streetcar trip away.

Bridge Study, and WMATAs strategic vision plan

These planning efforts venture to improve

passenger rail as well as freight and commuter rail over the Potomac in coming decades. Further, Area Regional Commuter (MARC) trains to expansion of passenger rail service from Maryland LEnfant Plaza and points south in Virginia are

connections for future high-speed and intercity

As discussed in the Infrastructure section earlier, this new infrastructure will be in the form of an elevated monumental bridge that defines the gateway to the community.

Hains Point neighborhood boundary and creates a

TRANSPORTATION

141

Hains Points unique waterfront location between the confluence of the Anacostia River provides distinct opportunities for viable water-based of a canal between the Potomac River and Buckeye Drive SW. This canal has been

WATER-TAXI

the Washington Channel and the Potomac River at

transit service. Vision anticipates the construction Washington Channel along what is currently envisioned by NCPC in the Monumental Core Framework Plan and was in fact originally proposed in the 1916 Development of East

FIGURE 115: EXISTING WATER TAXI ROUTES FROM AMERICAN RIVER TAXI, SOURCE: AMERICAN RIVER TAXI, 2013

Potomac Park. Its alignment with the pivotal

117, provides visual connectivity to the Southwest neighborhood and National Mall area.

viewshed from Banneker Park, as shown in Figure

nautical miles.

Trip distances will be reduced by up to three

FIGURE 116: WATER TAXI ROUTES FROM POTOMAC RIVERBOAT COMPANY, SOURCE GAYLOARD NATIONAL

Vision anticipates that direct water-based

transportation will be available to Reagan

National Airport. This link will provide a unique and truly memorable arrival to Hains Point that
FIGURE 117: PIVOTAL VIEWSHED FROM BANNEKER PARK TOWARDS FUTURE BUCKEYE CANAL, SOURCE: NCPC 2012

will be unmatched in proximity and experience. Existing water-taxi operators are in process of 115 and Figure 116 demonstrate existing and Anacostia Rivers. making this airport connection a reality. 14 Figure planned water taxi routes on the Potomac and

based routes between Georgetown, Hains Point,

The canal will allow for more efficient water-

the Wharf, Nationals Stadium, and points south.

142

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Currently, Hains Point is served directly from both U.S. Route One (Rt. 1) and Interstate 395 (I-395). As shown in Figure 118, these highways cross over the 14th Street Bridge complex and provide

FREEWAYS & BRIDGES

strong connections though the District by way of the Southwest and Southeast Freeways and through Arlington by way of the George Washington Memorial Parkway.

bridges, and exit ramps.

obfuscated by a tangled web of elevated highways,

FIGURE 119: VIEW FROM JEFFERSON MEMORIAL TOWARDS HAINS POINT, SOURCE: BING MAPS

a stronger visual and physical connection between Hains Point and the West Potomac Park System,
FIGURE 118: HAINS POINT FREEWAY CONNECTIONS, SOURCE: GOOGLE MAPS

These impediments should be removed to create

Jefferson Memorial, and Tidal

Basin. Vision embraces the consolidation and reconstruction of the bridges as has been envisioned by NCPC in Extending the Legacy and the Monumental Core Framework Plan. These entrance to the District from Virginia. changes would enhance the overall monumental

While these highway connections offer good

regional vehicular routes and access, they detract from the experience of Hains Point and create visual barriers between the site and the Monumental Core, in particular the Jefferson

Memorial. Vision has planned a great linear park station to a cultural anchor. This park has a

which links the future Jefferson-Hains Point Metro

To accommodate motorists, ample underground bridge connection. This will allow motorists the

pivoted axial relationship with the Jefferson

garage entrance points will be provided near the

Memorial that is now, as shown in Figure 119,

TRANSPORTATION

143

opportunity to quickly park below-grade and circulate on Hains Points surface streets as pedestrians or cyclists.
1 2

Speck, 2012 District Department of Transportation, 2012 3 Daddio, 2012 4 WMATA, 2013 5 National Capital Planning Commission, 2009 6 WMATA, 2013 7 Steenhoek, Breaking New Ground, 2012 8 District of Columbia Office of Planning, 2012 9 District of Columbia Department of Transportation, 2010 10 Arlington County Government, 2013 11 District Department of Transportation & Federal Railroad Administration, 2012 12 District Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, 2012 13 Michael Baker Corporation, 2012 14 Gaylord National

144

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

HISTORIC RESOURCE INCORPORATION

Vision Hains Point 2040 recognizes the historic significance of East Potomac Park in its redevelopment plans. The plan creates a new context for the historic resources to be appreciated within the fabric of a new be repurposed, repaired, relocated, and protected for years to come. neighborhood. In order to do this, Vision proposes a number of ways that the existing historic resources can

In November of 1973, the East and West Potomac Park Historic District was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. More than two decades later a revised nomination was commissioned by the National Capital Region Office of the National Park Service to update documentation standards and to include many of the memorials that were constructed after the 1973 designation.

While the West Potomac Park holds an immutable place in our national commemorative memory and is one of our nations most important

East Potomac Park do not carry such weight.

designed landscapes, 2 the lands and structures in

its Historic District nomination within East

Historically Contributing Resources identified in

West Potomac Park is home to such national

Potomac Park are: the Long Bridge; the Stone

treasures as the Lincoln Memorial, the Reflecting Pool, Arlington Memorial Bridge, Constitution Gardens, Vietnam Veteran Memorial, the Tidal Jefferson Memorial, the District of Columbia Memorial, and many other contributing structures, objects, and vistas. 1
*

SW; the Japanese Cherry Trees that surround the

Seawalls around the parks perimeter; Ohio Drive

park between Ohio Drive and the seawall; the U.S. Course; the East Potomac Park Field House; the Potomac Park Swimming Pool; and the views from the periphery of the park back into the District and towards Virginia. 3

Basin, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, World War I Memorial, * the Korean War Veterans

Engineers Storehouse; the East Potomac Park Golf East Potomac Park Miniature Golf Course; the East

The DC WWI Memorial may take more a local significance

TRANSPORTATION

145

As discussed in the Transportation section, the

LONG BRIDGE

historic Long Bridge is undergoing further study

by the Federal Railway Administration and others to evaluate how it, the sole heavy rail connection connections for future high-speed and intercity between the District and Virginia, could improve

rail as well as freight and commuter rail over the Potomac.

FIGURE 120: WASHINGTON CHANNEL ENTRANCE TO HAINS POINT ALONG OHIO DRIVE AT LONG BRIDGE (EXISTING), SOURCE: GOOGLE MAPS

While Vision does not anticipate that a station will be added at Hains Point, the reconstructed monumental bridge structure, discussed in

northern border of the neighborhood and could and placemaking. The new bridge structures

Infrastructure and Transportation, will create the

play an important role in neighborhood branding present unique opportunities to create artistic

FIGURE 121: POTOMAC RIVER ENTRANCE TO HAINS POINT ALONG OHIO DRIVE AT LONG BRIDGE (EXISTING), SOURCE: GOOGLE MAPS

gateways and iconic neighborhood signage similar to the gateway signage at Granville Island shown in Figure 122. The reconstruction of the rail infrastructure along this historic alignment will accommodated and will increase the level of

allow for the modern demands of rail travel to be service offered for trains crossing the Potomac.
FIGURE 122: GRANVILLE ISLAND BRIDGE ENTRANCE SIGN, VANCOUVER, BC, CANADA, SOURCE: RAWLINSON, 2008

146

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Constructed in the 1880s and 1890s, the stone

HAINS POINT SEAWALL

the new seawalls built to create the Buckeye Canal Banneker Overlook site. More naturalistic

seawalls that form the perimeter of East Potomac Park were a major component of the Army Corps land reclamation project and are recognized as Figure 123, these historic walls, and the pipe

that bisects Hains Point to create a visual tie to the bulkhead supports and reconstructed wetlands the bulkhead.

historically Contributing Structures. As shown in railing and pedestrian walkway that accompany

should be considered for the southern portions of

them, are in great need of repair or replacement.

As suggested in the Monumental Core Framework Plan and discussed in the Density and Built Form section, a new broad elevated pedestrian reconstructed bulkhead, and the existing topography of Hains Point should be esplanade and railing should be built atop the

Vision includes the full reconstruction and

extension of the seawall around the entirety of

Hains Point. The existing seawall elevations are very close to the level of high tide (elevation +2 frequent flooding. When reconstructed, these safety guidelines as designed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. feet) and the perimeter of Hains Point is prone to seawalls should be raised in accordance with flood

accommodated to promote the health and growth of the historic ornamental cherry trees.

The anticipated raised and reconstructed seawalls will be built with a local stone veneer to be compatible with the historic seawalls originally installed by the Army Corps, but they should be engineered to meet modern standards and
FIGURE 123: DECAYING STONE SEAWALLS ALONG PERIMETER OF EAST POTOMAC PARK

requirements. This vernacular should be used for

HISTORIC RESOURCE INCORPORATION

147

Vision will maintain the general alignment of Ohio Drive SW along the perimeter of Hains Point. This is recognized as a historically Contributing Structure. Since its construction as a single lane and 1916 to its current condition as a two-lane,

OHIO DRIVE SW

In order to enhance connectivity through the redeveloped neighborhood and urban park system, the traffic circulation of Ohio Drive SW traffic. Continuous pedestrian sidewalks will be traffic calming techniques will be employed to will be changed to two single lanes of two-way

bituminous-bound macadam road between 1912 tree-lined asphalt road, Ohio Drive has provided

added to the edge of Ohio Drive and best-practice help ensure that Ohio Drive is safe for all users

motorists and cyclists with a three-mile clockwise on Hains Point. 4 This route provides stunning views down the Potomac River. one-way loop to access the recreational facilities

and does not live up to its former speedway

moniker. 5 This adjustment will create a more its new context.

vistas to the District and Virginia as well as long

functional and accessible roadway appropriate for

FIGURE 124: VIEW SOUTH ON OHIO DRIVE SW, SOURCE: GOOGLE MAPS

148

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Perhaps the most striking historic feature of East planted on both sides of Ohio Drive SW. These of President and Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson in

JAPANESE CHERRY TREES

Potomac Park is the 1,800 Japanese Cherry Trees trees were planted between 1966-1968 by friends conjunction with their nationwide Beautification attraction of Hains Point and are recognized as a historically Contributing Site on the Historic District nomination form. Program. They contribute to the beauty and

from Tokyo, Washingtons sister city. Upon

FIGURE 125: CHERRY BLOSSOM LOCATION MAP, SOURCE: NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 2012

inspection by the United States Department of with harmful disease and insects; and it was

Agriculture, the shipment was found to be infested directed to be burned. 7 While the vast majority of

FIGURE 126: CHERRY TREES ON HAINS POINT, SOURCE: FLICKR USER: SARAH OH, 2007

reported that a dozen trees were saved for study of Plant Industry, the former managers of East

the trees were disposed of as directed, it was

While the American-grown Johnson trees are the most prevalent and the defining feature of Hains Points landscape design, it is the collection of

and planted in an experimental plot by the Bureau Potomac Park. 8 While there is no direct record, all Survivors of the Burn. 9

is its most unique feature. Two years before the prominent 1912 cherry tree gift arrived from

doomed, but legendary 6 1910 cherry trees that

evidence indicates that these trees are indeed the

Japan, an original donation of 2,000 trees arrived

HISTORIC RESOURCE INCORPORATION

149

Vision incorporates and celebrates both the 1910

and 1960s cherry tree plantings in its site design.

should allow the buildings to be constructed

As discussed above, the general alignment of Ohio trees intact. Parcels in the redeveloped

without damaging the trees critical Protected

Drive SW will keep the dramatic flanking of cherry neighborhood are designed to be set back from

cherry trees and the existing seawall as well as the existing site topography will allow for the grade to without affecting the site grading around these special trees. be modified to accommodate the extended seawall

Root Zone. 10 Further, the distance between the

the seawall by approximately 150 feet, while the 100 feet from the seawall. This ample setback

cherry trees along Ohio Drive are between 50 and

FIGURE 127: THE "SURVIVORS OF THE BURN", SOURCE: BING MAPS

150

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

FIGURE 128: PARCEL 20 AND THE SURVIVORS OF THE BURN PARK

The Survivors are located in what Vision

identifies as Parcel 20. This parcel is designed to be home to a mixed-use office and retail building height and a building area of approximately complex that reaches the maximum of 130 feet in 800,000 square feet. The proposed building

urban park setting for the trees, comparable to larger Central Civic Park. This site is the only frames the Central Civic Park and is an work or public art.

Paley Park in Manhattan, directly adjacent to the

significant break in the urban street wall which opportunity for a well-integrated commemorative

would be set back and sculpted to provide an

HISTORIC RESOURCE INCORPORATION

151

Located between the Case Bridge and the

U.S. ENGINEERS STOREHOUSE

Vision preserves the U.S. Engineers Storehouse in designated as Parcel 33, the temporary buildings and surface parking lots will be removed and replaced with a welcoming park space. There will be opportunities for a visitors center or other interpretative facility. Vision anticipates that many of the existing National Park Service facilities would be consolidated on parcels its present site and configuration. At this site,

extension of CSXs Long Bridge, the U.S. Engineers Storehouse is one of two Contributing Buildings building at the former Engineers wharf. The was designed in 1912 by a prominent local on East Potomac Park and the only extant historic Mediterranean Renaissance Revival style building architecture firm * and constructed by the Army

Corps for $10,000. Throughout its more than 100 year history, the Storehouse has served as office Girl and Boy Scouts of America, a bicycle-rental and storage space for the Corps, an outpost for the

adjacent to the Storehouse. This adjacency and prime location at the entrance to Hains Point house space for the National Park Service operations on the National Mall and West Potomac Park. could allow the Storehouse to function as front of

facility, a museum display studio, Tourmobile Parks-Central office.

offices, and headquarters for the National Capital

FIGURE 129: U.S. ENGINEERS' STOREHOUSE, SOURCE: BING MAPS


* The U.S. Engineers Storehouse was designed by Wood, Donn and Deming as one of their final commissions. This firm also designed the Carnegie Institution of Washington Geophysical Laboratory at 2801 Upton Street NW, now home to the venerable Levine School of Music.

152

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

The presence of a golf course on East Potomac

EAST POTOMAC PARK GOLF COURSE

These existing uses make the vast majority of East Potomac Park a park in name only.

Park is one of the few features identified in the

1916 Development of East Potomac Park report that was actually realized. Originally opened in 1920 and in operation ever since, the course has over 3 courses, 2 putting greens, and a driving

Despite its designation as a historically

grown from its original 9 holes to include 36 holes

that a large scale golf operation would remain as a component of the redeveloped park land. Given the enormous land needs associated with golf, its exclusive pay-to-play nature, the environmental continued decline in golfs popularity, 12 a major impact of massive irrigation and pesticide, and the golf course on this centrally located land is not the world-class urban parks system on Hains Point, land sale and tax revenue raised by the redevelopment could be used to refurbish and

contributing feature, Vision does not anticipate

range with practice stalls for 100 golfers. 11 The golf course has been identified as a Contributing Site element in the Historic District nomination.

Over time, the golf course has expanded to a point where the golf facilities encompass two-thirds of the parks land area well over 200 acres.

highest and best use. In addition to building a new

Combined with the approximately 45 acres of storage areas, maintenance lots, and surface

park land that is occupied with office buildings, parking, precious little space in East Potomac Park is actually free and available for true public use.

enhance other existing golf courses in the District, such as Langston or Rock Creek golf courses, if demand persists.

FIGURE 130: EXISTING EAST POTOMAC PARK GOLF FACILITIES, SOURCE: BING MAPS

HISTORIC RESOURCE INCORPORATION

153

In addition to the golf course, two Field House buildings were constructed in 1917. These

EAST POTOMAC PARK FIELD HOUSE

The Field House wings were remodeled in the

mid-1930s when a swimming pool was added.

buildings are the first structures from the 1916

Forty years later the DC Recreation Department

Development of East Potomac Park plan to be built. Designed by Horace Whittier Peaslee, an architect for the Office of Public Buildings and Grounds, best known for his design of Meridian Hill Park in Northwest DC, the Field House was never fully completed. While the two L-shaped wings were constructed and are recognized as Contributing Buildings, the center section, a large assembly constructed. 13

built a bathhouse to support the swimming pool kitchen space. The western wing of the Field

on the land originally slated for the assembly and House has served as a sub-station for the U.S. Park

Police since 1979 while the eastern wing houses a golf professional shop, offices, and food service. past renovations. 15 The historic interiors have been removed in these

space with kitchen and pantry facilities, was not

Vision recognizes the architectural importance and quality of the Field House and proposes to relocate the historic resources to another area of the site where they can be better integrated into the fabric of the redevelopment. These noble structures should be repurposed as iconic components of the on-site transportation

The wings of the Field House were constructed material using a technique patented by a local constructed as mens and womens changing

with an innovative exposed aggregate concrete artisan known as the Earley Process. Originally facilities for the golf course, these wings later rooms, golf professional shop, locker rooms, laundry facilities, and office space. 14

amenities. Potential opportunities include use as entrance, as a streetcar stop, or in a more the new Jefferson Hains Point Metro station

served other uses such as dining facilities, locker

recreational use within the park system. Further, relocating these historic structures will enhance corridor alignment of 7th Street SW to continue the urban form and structure by allowing the view

154

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

across Hains Point uninterrupted.

FIGURE 132: EAST POTOMAC PARK FIELD HOUSE AND SWIMMING POOL, SOURCE: GOOGLE MAPS

FIGURE 131: EAST POTOMAC PARK FIELD HOUSE, SOURCE: GOOGLE MAPS

HISTORIC RESOURCE INCORPORATION

155

EAST POTOMAC PARK MINIATURE GOLF


The miniature golf course on East Potomac Park craze was sweeping the nation. 16 This 18-hole was constructed in 1931, when a miniature golf

Another recreational amenity that was originally identified on the 1916 Development of East Potomac Park plan is the East Potomac Park

EAST POTOMAC PARK SWIMMING POOL

of the parks most popular features due to its low

course was operated seasonally and was once one

Swimming Pool. It is recognized as a Contributing Structure. This pool was one of 6 authorized by the Public Works Administration. The pool was has a capacity of 2,500. Congress in 1929 and was constructed in 1936 by originally intended for white swimmers 17 and

participation fee. This course is thought to be the golf course.

nations longest continuously operating miniature

As with the Field House, Vision recognizes the

historic importance of the miniature golf course it to the neighborhoods new Central Civic Park which forms the recreational spine of the integrate this unique urban recreation redeveloped Hains Point. Such relocation will opportunity into the redeveloped parks system.

and proposes to preserve the course by relocating

Vision appreciates the important amenity that the swimming pool represents and proposes that a facility be constructed elsewhere on site in new, top-of-the-line outdoor swimming pool

coordination with a larger gym and triathlon scenic vistas, and low traffic have made it a and cycling races as well as triathlons. The

training center. Hains Points unique topography, feature on many of the Districts classic running incorporation of a new pool in coordination with a training facility for these popular recreational hold an important position in Hains Points recreational and athletic offerings. activities will allow the new pool to continue to

FIGURE 133: EAST POTOMAC PARK MINIATURE GOLF COURSE, SOURCE: GOOGLE MAPS

156

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

The views offered from the perimeter of East Potomac Park back toward the District of Virginia, are mentioned for their historic resource. These views provide a unique Columbia, down the Potomac River, and across to importance but not explicitly named as a historic perspective on many regional landmarks such as McNair, the National Defense University, the

PERIMETER VIEWS

The experience of these views along East Potomac Parks more than three mile perimeter is facilitated by the continuous walkway that was constructed between 1919 and 1931 atop the stone seawalls. As discussed earlier, Vision

proposes to reconstruct the seawall and provide a widened and enhanced continuous pedestrian walkway will include the opportunities for esplanade around the perimeter of the park. This designated scenic viewing areas that incorporate historical information to enhance the pedestrian experience and improve the stunning views.

Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, Fort

historic Maine Avenue Fish Market in Southwest

DC, and the former St. Elizabeths Hospital in the

Congress Heights neighborhood of Southeast DC.

FIGURE 134: VIEW FROM HAINS POINT (TOP: VIEW SOUTH, BOTTOM: VIEW EAST)

HISTORIC RESOURCE INCORPORATION

157

National Park Service, 2001 DC Office of Planning, 2009 3 National Park Service, 2001 4 National Park Service, 2001 5 Ibid 6 Ruane, 2009 7 National Park Service, 2012 8 Ruane, 2009
1 2

National Park Service, 2012 Johnson, 2013 11 National Park Service, 2001 12 Lindeke, 2012; The Correa Report, 2009; Birdsong, 2012; Fitzpatrick, 2011; Vitello, 2008 13 National Park Service, 2001 14 Ibid 15 Ibid 16 Ibid, p. 77 17 Ibid, p. 52
9 10

158

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT AND PRIVATE MANAGEMENT

As discussed earlier in the Zoning, Land Use, and Land Ownership section, the web of approvals, review, and transfer from the National Park Service to the District of Columbia and subsequently sold or long term ground business improvement district (BID), and the parks in the urban core should be under private management. These measures will reduce the fiscal strain on both the Federal and District Government, ensure that a high quality, commercially acceptable level of service is provided in the public spaces, increase the capacity and programming of District-serving parks, and enhance the sense of ownership and pride that residents and leased to private developers. Once Hains Point is redeveloped it should be under the management of a governance covering Hains Point is dense. For Vision to be realized, the land of East Potomac Park must

businesses on Hains Point have for the public infrastructure. Further, BIDs provide increased neighborhood branding, organize public events and activities, help to maintain a clean and safe environment, and are a resource for both new business development and existing business retainment. The creation of a BID for Hains Point is an

HAINS POINT BID

essential element in establishing, branding, and eight BIDs operating in the District of Columbia

assessment rates indicate that the Hains Point BID would be able to generate roughly $3.25 million dollars annually in assessments from property and building owners. While this is not be sufficient to completely eliminate the need for many city services, the BID would greatly supplement the management efforts of the District while maintaining a clean, safe environment and promoting business development. As shown in

As detailed in Appendix 0, other prevailing BID

servicing the new neighborhood. Today there are with more in the planning phase. BIDs play an

important role, particularly in new or emerging

neighborhoods, in creating an environment that is clean, safe, accessible, and inviting. As described by the DC BID Council, BIDs are: a defined commercial area where property owners approve a property assessment for services above and beyond what the city provides. Supplemental BID services can include cleaning, hospitality, marketing, planning, safety, event organizing and programming. BIDs are nonprofit organizations managed by a board of directors. 1

Figure 135, the Hains Point BID would be smaller a density (Gross FAR) that is approximate to the Downtown or NoMA BID.

than some of the citys other major BIDs but it has

HISTORIC RESOURCE INCORPORATION

159

Hains Point NoMA Acres Residential Units Office GSF Hotel Rooms Retail GSF Parkland Total GSF Gross FAR 173 16,250 5,372,060 2,552 1,571,372 40 22,478,775 3.0 240 10,001 22,156,000 1,512 1,274,950 0 34,458,350 3.3

Capitol Riverfront Downtown 500 10,000 17,000,000 1,500 100,000 10 36,726,928 1.7 640 6,863 80,000,000 9,600 3,444,882 20 97,600,000 3.5

Sources: Researcher's analysis of 2012 NoMA Development Map, Capitol Riverfront BID Urban Design Framework, Downtown BID: Stage of Downtown 2011, Personal Email Communication
FIGURE 135: BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT COMPARISON

One of the Hains Point BIDs primary roles would Point park system. After transfer from the

PRIVATE PARKS MANAGEMENT

The large Urban Recreational Park at the southern half of the island may be better suited to a more Columbia Department of Parks and Recreation. traditional management program by the District of This traditional park management arrangement type organization. Since the recreational

be the management and maintenance of the Hains National Park Service, these park lands would be Columbia. In order to alleviate some of the

under the ownership and control of the District of financial burden of park management from the should be privately managed by the BID or a

could be further supplemented with a Friends of opportunities planned for the Urban Recreational Park include traditional sports (such as tennis, swimming, baseball, soccer, and the like), they should be integrated into the Districts

District, portions of the Hains Point park system similar entity. Within the larger Hains Point park system, the Central Civic Park and Waterfront Esplanade would be the best candidates for integrated into the urban fabric, intensely private management. These parks are highly programmed, and provide unique opportunities for collaboration with adjoining buildings.

Department of Parks and Recreation system to with the Districts other sports and recreation

ensure management and maintenance consistency fields. The private management company could should not be the primary operator.

provide services to supplement this operation but

160

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Some of the best urban parks in the country and in the District already operate under similar private management agreements. In the Capitol Riverfront area of Southeast DC, two new urban parks have recently opened to the public: Yards Park and Canal Park. Both involved federal land and National Park Service to the District of

transfer from the General Services Administration Columbia and are now managed by the local

FIGURE 136: BRYANT PARK, SOURCE: FLICKR USER ED YOURDON

and Canal Park are exciting new urban amenities that will help to continue and sustain development and growth in the greater Capitol Riverfront area. They offer examples of how collaboration between local government, federal government, and private enterprise can work to create great flexible and dynamic public spaces. These parks have breathed new life into the seasonal activities such as ice skating and Capitol Riverfront neighborhood by offering swimming, providing a venue for outdoor

Business Improvement District. 2 The Yards Park

Perhaps the best example of how private

management of a public asset has increased its

quality and popularity is Bryant Park in New York City. Starting in 1992, under the management of the Bryant Park Corporation, a private, not-forprofit management company and business

improvement district, Bryant Park has seen one of the worlds most dramatic urban public space underutilized space into a heavily used transformations. 3 This changed a derelict

concerts, movies, and festivals, and bringing

community asset, and was entirely privately

modern iconic landscape design and public art to the neighborhood, Further, the integration of Park, which offer high quality food and drink service create a higher level of amenity and experience within the park. dining options, such as the Park Tavern at Canal

funded. It now operates with a staff of nearly 80 more than six times higher than previous city and significant impact on the surrounding

people and a budget that, in its very first year, was

management. 4 Bryant Park has had a documented neighborhood. 5 It is a renowned success case that

BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT AND PRIVATE MANAGEMENT

shows how private assets and investments can be

161

leveraged to increase the quality of publicly

owned spaces while increasing the public tax base, enhancing property values, and reducing the parks financial burden on the public sector. As the direct benefits available to the public parks from adjoining private interests need not be the spaces - the private interests can also be

amenities are shown to provide a positive adjacent real estate. 6

economic spinoff that increases the value of

discussed further in the Economic Impact section, DC BID Council, 2011 Canal Park Development Association, Inc, 2012 3 Bryant Park Corporation, 2012 4 Bryant Park Management Corporation, 2010 5 Ernst & Young, 2003 6 Harnik, 2010
1 2

limited to the management and maintenance of leveraged to construct or renovate the public park spaces in the first place because these urban

162

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

PROJECT COSTS AND PUBLIC POLICY

The implementation of Vision Hains Point 2040 will be a colossal undertaking which will require significant the increased land value and tax revenue generated through the redevelopment should be harnessed to

public and private capital outlays and innovative financing methods. Patient public financing that capitalizes finance infrastructure and public improvements. Beyond fiscal policy, special review and approval processes forward in an expeditious and financeable manner. This analysis builds off of research completed during the Point. *

should be established to provide a legible and consistent framework so that private redevelopment can move Fall of 2012 in the report Breaking New Ground: Measuring the Economic Impact of the Redevelopment of Hains

* Breaking New Ground is an academic study that has not been review, endorsed, or otherwise approved by any local or federal agency. The cost estimate data used is based roughly on existing pricing and trends in the Washington, DC regional market as well as other national benchmarks, and the economic impact analysis has not been reviewed or directly assisted by a tax profession, nor has it been reviewed by any agency with tax in and bonding authority. The tax and economic impact metrics and approach used were referenced from several recent major redevelopment projects in the District, but include additional projections and assumptions.

BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT AND PRIVATE MANAGEMENT

163

Vision projects that the total redevelopment cost Of this, $2.7 billion would be public costs which include infrastructure and transportation improvements, parks, cultural, and energy

PROJECT COSTS

infrastructure accounts for over $265 million, while energy and infrastructure investments exceed $540 million. Lastly, investments in

of Hains Point would be in excess of $8.7 billion. *

cultural and educational facilities require $900 these public improvements are fully funded through the value created through private development.

million. Public financing methods can be used so

infrastructure. More detail on these costs can be seen in Figure 137 and in Appendix D. Of these parks and open spaces. Transportation costs, more than $450 million will be provided for

* In 2012 dollars, does not include the full cost of the metrorail and bridge construction already contemplated in NCPCs Monumental Core Framework Plan

FIGURE 137: ALLOCATION OF PUBLIC COSTS

164

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Museums have been excluded from TIF calculations

FIGURE 138: PRIVATE DEVELOPMENT COSTS

The private costs associated with the

redevelopment of the Hains Point total more than six billion dollars, exceeding the public investments by more than two to one. Residential development, which accounts for almost 44 percent of total private development square

allow both public and private investment to be

block and lot-by-lot master plan approach will

private development costs. The scalable block-by-

completed when supported by market demand. In the project to be a financial triumph instead of a fiscal disaster. 1

Battery Park City, this approach was what allowed

footage, * represents just over half of the total

* Including below-grade parking and excluding cultural, educational, or entertainment uses

PROJECT COSTS AND PUBLIC POLICY

165

Garvins classic book The American City (2002) offers several important insights from a public policy standpoint about principals which allow a

PUBLIC POLICY

Vision Hains Point 2040 anticipates that a similar to specifically support the development of Hains through Tax-Increment-Financing (TIF) and

agency with bonding capacity would be organized Point. The District has used its bonding authority

successful and lasting. The two primary

major new-town-in-town redevelopment to be

ingredients that Garvin identifies as critical to the success of a project are an appropriate public financing package and a properly structured review and regulation framework.

to fund significant public infrastructure

Payment-In-Lieu-of-Taxes (PILOT) extensively

investments through the Office of the Deputy

Garvin draws important conclusions from the

PUBLIC FINANCING

Mayor for Planning and Economic Development (DMPED). These financing measures would be appropriate to fund the public infrastructure elements of the redeveloped Hains Point.

success of Battery Park City, where, a New York Battery Park City Authority, issued tax-exempt bonds to pay for public infrastructure. 2 These

State public benefit corporation, the Hugh L. Carey

bonds were set up with pre-paid interest to cover

Though it was dissolved in 2007, 4 the Districts Anacostia Waterfront Corporation (AWC) was modeled after the Battery Park City Authority to complete a 20-year redevelopment of 9 miles of land along the Anacostia River anticipated to induce $8 billion of private and public

the period between issuance and when the project had attracted sufficient occupancy and tax basis to stable long-term financing package was a critical cover the payments in full. 3 The provision of this

component in allowing the development to be design success, its use of creative financing

realized. In addition to being a timeless urban ensured that Battery Park City was sustainable not only from a design perspective but from an economic one as well.

intensity of the redevelopment of Hains Point, a dedicated redevelopment authority should be considered. This authority must be coordinated with greater economic development strategies within the District, but should be provided with a

investment. 5 Given the scale, complexity and

166

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

certain amount of autonomy to allow for efficient prove to be a politically viable organization at the time, a future redevelopment agency for Hains well as the success of the Battery Park City Authority. Point can learn from the challenges of the AWC, as operation and flexibility. While the AWC did not

Ultimately, a wide-variety of creative

opportunities and mechanisms will have to be

employed for the funding of Hains Points public infrastructure. Vision does not hazard to guess exactly what financing tools would be utilized to public finance environment will be like for the

fund an undertaking of this magnitude or what the

District in 2040, but instead offers a basic metric for considering Tax-Increment Financing (TIF). The use of TIF for the redevelopment of Hains

This agency must have a sufficient horizon and implementation period to ensure it is able to survive over a very long period of time. Though development cycle, this schedule is admittedly much longer. Garvin notes that the ability to

Vision has completed projections with a 10-year

the tax increase available to the District and the scale of the public improvements necessary for the redevelopment to be viable.

Point is appropriate because of the magnitude of

aggressive and actual implementation could take weather periods of economic downturn is the

Further, Garvin notes that public financing outlay private development associated with each phase

single most important ingredient in success. 6

must be conceived of in a fashion that ensures the of public development creates sufficient cash flow to cover bond payments. Vision has incorporated these lessons into the public financing and development projections.

Bond Amount Annual Interest Rate Life of Loan Number of Payments per Year Total Number of Payments Payment per Period Sum of Payments Interest Cost Annual Debt Service Annual Real Estate Tax Revenue (Yr1) Debt Coverage Ratio

$1,732,626,000 4.25% 30 2 60 $51,364,005 $3,081,840,318 $1,349,214,318 $102,728,011 $169,297,616 165%

FIGURE 139: BASIC DEBT COVERAGE RATIO CALCULATION FOR PUBLIC INFRASTRUCTURE BOND ISSUANCE

Currently, the Hains Point site generates

effectively zero real estate tax revenue for the Real Estate Tax Revenue projected for the

District of Columbia. Annual full-built unescalated

PROJECT COSTS AND PUBLIC POLICY

167

redevelopment of Hains Point is $169 million

dollars. The annual debt service associated for $1.7 billion is only $102.7 million. This

bonds for public infrastructure in the amount of preliminary metric indicates that using Year One service coverage ratio of 165 percent. *

This phased ten-year development timeline offers a more nuanced view of how new real estate tax revenue would be accrued relative to TIF bond

Real Estate Tax values alone would provide a debt

Figure 142, the front-loaded TIF scenario would

expenditures. As demonstrated in Figure 141 and

result in a few brief years where new tax revenue generated by the redevelopment is not sufficient to cover debt service payments. However, once service requirements are easily covered.

Vision anticipates a ten-year build out of the

master plan. While this is ambitious, the growing undersupply of new development in the District, the 2040 Market & Development Projections particularly in residential product, as discussed in section (p. 39), demonstrates that demand will be sufficient. As is potently illustrated by the comparison of Shanghai in 1990 to 2010, shown in Figure 140, development can proceed at a rate far demand, and capital align. Battery Park City for reach completion. Visions ten-year horizon baseline for financing projections. faster than projected by Vision when political will, reference, has taken more than three decades to provides a starting point for discussion and a

the development phase begins, to deliver the debt

* Calculation includes Real Estate Tax only, total annual direct tax generation is $428 million dollars, see the Economic Impact section for further detail. $1.7 billion is the value of all of the Public Infrastructure with the exception of the Museums that are assumed to be funded through private funding and/or direct governmental appropriations. Issuance Costs or other associated costs have not been included in this basic calculation

FIGURE 140: THE PACE OF DEVELOPMENT IN SHANGAI FROM 1990 (TOP) TO 2010 (BOTTOM), SOURCE: STOKLE, 2012

168

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

As with Battery Park City, initial bond issuance

should be structured to cover interest payments, to in order to provide necessary coverage. The

improvement value to cover the projected $118 million necessary for capitalized interest. Additional detail is provided in Appendix P and

or other more mature TIF districts may be tapped total escalated cost of bondable public

Appendix Q. Through the 30 year life of the bonds is projected with annual real estate tax payments of $400 million by 2070.

improvements is $1.9 billion. These bonds would have to be increased by just 6% of the total

a net cumulative $3.6 billion in new real estate tax

FIGURE 141: ANNUAL TIF DEBT SERVICE PROJECTIONS 2040-2070

FIGURE 142: CUMULATIVE DEBT SERVICE AND REAL ESTATE TAX 2040-2070

PROJECT COSTS AND PUBLIC POLICY

169

Clearly, a myriad of factors such as the health of

the bond markets, the Districts credit rating, debt cap restrictions, and many others would need to be considered, but this illustrates the potential the creation of robust public infrastructure

particular, arts and cultural components of Hains Point could potentially benefit from the sponsorship of Washingtons most pivotal

private donations and sponsorships. 9 In

capacity that private development has to support investments. Other opportunities, such as the use investment for public infrastructure investment without impacting the debt cap, 7 or private

philanthropists such as the Meads, Robert Kogod, of dollars to local cultural institutions and icons such as the Arena Stage, Shakespeare Theater Company, National Achieves, Washington

and David Rubenstein, who have donated millions

of a hybrid infrastructure bank to leverage private

sponsorship, could further limit the need to issue bonds for this infrastructure.

Monument, and John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, among many others. The corporate sponsorship of elements of the

infrastructure, public parks, spaces, cultural, and entertainment components of the Hains Point opportunity for the District. redevelopment is another potentially lucrative

Two examples from Chicago of how these types of opportunities can be capitalized on include the Chicago Infrastructure Trust, and private sponsorship in Millennium Park, The Chicago public infrastructure though the creation of

Infrastructure Trust uses private funds to finance results-based public-private partnerships and

efficient capital structures. The inaugural project targeted by the Trust will use the initial $2.5 million dollar investment by the city to attract

$225 million in private investment and create $20 million in annual energy savings for the city while creating 2,000 jobs. 8 Further, developers of Millennium Park raised over $220 million in

170

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

As discussed previously in the Zoning, Land Use, and Land Ownership section, after the transfer from the federal government to local governments, redevelopment plans would be

REVIEW AND REGULATION

has a level of internal consistency while protecting standards should be published into law and be professionals. against the monotony of sameness. 11 These

highly accessible to lay people as well as design

subject to review through the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts and the Districts Zoning Commission. To expedite these reviews, reduce the administrative burden of the Commission, and planning framework should be created. This strongly presented policies established after

The goal of this framework would not be to

increase design quality and consistency, a unique would include clearly articulated standards and consultation with federal, local, and community interests. 10

circumvent the review of the Commission of Fine Arts and Zoning Commission. Rather, it is to

establish a clear and deliberate path towards developers can follow. This will provide

project fruition with reliable benchmarks that predictability in the process and ensure a return

on investment by reducing entitlement risk and uncertainty. These guidelines, agreed to by all appropriate legislative bodies with adequate consuming, expensive, and project killing

This framework for Hains Point should include

environmental standards, design guidelines, and other policy components essential to the design. The rules established in this frame work would It may contain a form-based-code component.

public input, will also minimize the risk of time litigation by parochial interests by bringing

relevant parties to the table early on to reach

beyond the basic parameters of traditional zoning and considerations of Hains Point. This will

consensus. Further, projects developed to these standards will be more consistent and of higher quality prior to the final zoning approval process. Simply creating this entitlement framework will first step. be a lengthy process; Vision Hains Point 2040 is the

and will be tailored towards to unique constraints ensure that the architects and developers of

individual buildings design with sympathetic

forms and materials as part of a composition that

PROJECT COSTS AND PUBLIC POLICY

171

Garvin, 2002, p. 363 Hugh L. Carey Battery Park City Authority, 2013 3 Garvin, 2002 4 O'Connell, 2007 5 Hocking & McArdle, 2003, Wilgoren, 2003 6 Garvin, 2002, P370
1 2

Federal City Council, 2013 Federal City Council, 2013, p. 8 9 Uhlir, 2006 10 Ibid, p.371 11 Duany, Speck, & Lydon, 2010, p. 14.2
7 8

172

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

ECONOMIC IMPACT

The redevelopment of Hains Point will have a lasting, sustaining, and positive economic impact for the District of Columbia. It will create jobs and increase tax revenue. These jobs will help to maintain the Districts competitive position in the regional market place and will create opportunities for District

residents. The tax revenue will build and maintain the Districts fiscal health while Hains Points dense,

research completed during the Fall of 2012 in the report Breaking New Ground: Measuring the Economic Impact of the Redevelopment of Hains Point. *

compact form will allow for efficient delivery of city services and infrastructure. This analysis builds off of

* Breaking New Ground is an academic study that has not been review, endorsed, or otherwise approved by any local or federal agency. The cost estimate data used is based roughly on existing pricing and trends in the Washington, DC regional market as well as other national benchmarks, and the economic impact analysis has not been reviewed or directly assisted by a tax profession, nor has it been reviewed by any agency with tax in and bonding authority. The tax and economic impact metrics and approach used were referenced from several recent major redevelopment projects in the District, but include additional projections and assumptions.

PROJECT COSTS AND PUBLIC POLICY

173

Vision Hains Points redevelopment will provide many important employment opportunities. In total, more than 35,000 full-time-equivalent jobs are projected through the redevelopment. This includes approximately 23,250 office jobs, 2,300 hotel jobs, 4,240 retail jobs, 170 parking related The calculation of these construction jobs are regarding other job projections is included in Appendix G through Appendix N. jobs, and the creation of 5,665 construction jobs. detailed in Figure 143 and additional information

JOB CREATION

estate professionals has not been included in this calculation. Nor have employment opportunities related to the cultural, entertainment, transportation, parks, or infrastructure

components of the program been covered. The

income generated for District residents by these into the calculations except to the extent those

employment opportunities has not been entered residents of Hains Point also work on Hains Point.

The diversity of jobs created through the

redevelopment of Hains Point will be broad and

Employment for the thousands of architects, engineers, landscape architects, planners, designers, lawyers, developers, and other real

reach a wide variety of industries, skill sets, and

salary ranges. Local job creation is an important neighborhood.

part of creating a trued integrated and sustainable

Construction Job Calculation Value of Construction (Hard Cost) Direct Labor Average Annual Income (1) Total Person Years Build Out Time Period Construction FTE Jobs

7,294,184,800 40% 51,500 56,654 10 Years 5,665

Source: DOES Industry and Occupational Projections 2008-2018 (1) Average income of Construction and Extraction Occupations 2008 Annual Income escalated a 3% to 2012 dollars
FIGURE 143: HAINS POINT CONSTRUCTION JOB CREATION PROJECTION

174

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Visions redevelopment of Hains Point represents an opportunity to create significant direct tax commuter tax makes expanding employment revenue for the District. The Districts lack of a opportunities in highly transit accessible areas,

TAX REVENUE

Real Estate Tax Retail Space Tax (Non Real Estate)

Total $169,297,616 $67,052,072

Private Sector Office Direct Tax $14,669,124 Hotel Related Tax Revenue $34,480,963 Employee Related Sales Tax Revenue $6,496,331 DC Resident Income Tax $93,646,255 DC Resident Retail Expenditures $14,591,668 Other DC Resident Related Fees $8,296,421 Condo Transfer/Resale Fees $4,674,974 Parking $14,873,784 $428,079,208

while simultaneously providing housing options paramount importance for building a stronger and more resilient tax base for the city. for those that hold jobs in the District, a tactic of

identify $428 million of annual direct taxes to the through Appendix N provide more detailed District of Columbia. Figure 144 and Appendix E

Unescalated annual tax revenue projections

TOTAL DIRECT ANNUAL DC TAX REVENUE

FIGURE 144: HAINS POINT ECONOMIC IMPACT SUMMARY

information on this projection. Real Estate Tax, which comprises less than 40 percent of the projected annual tax revenue, will generate 3.6 billion net new tax dollars, accounting for the value of public infrastructure bonds and debt Figure 145.

service, over a 30 year period as illustrated in

FIGURE 145: CUMULATIVE NET 30 YEAR REAL ESTATE TAX REVENUE

aggressive multipliers or identifying indirect or

induced impacts. Further, the potential revenue long term ground leases has not been taken into account. Given the intensity of development called for in Vision and the unique nature of the

This estimate was created without accounting for additional tax revenue created from cultural or entertainment venues and without applying

stream to the District associated with land sales or

ECONOMIC IMPACT

175

site, capitalizing on the direct land value as a

potential revenue stream could be very significant for the District. Due to these factors, the true economic impact of the proposed redevelopment

provided for within the boundaries of the District proper.

of Hains Point identified here, while significant, is reasonably conservative.

The redevelopment of Hains Point will create

more than $11.6 billion of private, taxable, real estate value. This value is enhanced by Hains amenities, walkable urban setting, and the Points extraordinary location, transportation

For the District, the economic impact of Vision

Hains Point 2040 can be seen largely to represent Hains Point is a response to the significant

net new tax revenue. The development program of undersupply of development within the District

significant public parks and improvement program. The holistic planning approach employed in Vision will increase the

based on the Districts population growth targets. This redevelopment provides the opportunity to help the District maximize its potential and will

neighborhoods Return on Perception (ROP). Jerke, Douglas R Porter, and Terry J. Lasser, in

The ROP term has been coined by authors Dennis their book published by the Urban Land Institute the additional value from applying good design practice to urban development over and above

draw residents and jobs back into the central city from the suburbs. It will create opportunities for new residents and employees, not simply a substitution of opportunities that are already
Real Estate Tax Retail Office Hotel Condominium (Market) Condominium (Affordable) Apartments (Market) Apartments (Affordable) Parking Total Real Estate Value Created Taxable Value $1,297,200,629 $3,714,882,488 $806,592,447 $1,955,353,221 $59,610,165 $2,568,925,867 $61,768,474 $1,140,461,063 $11,604,794,353

entitled Urban Design and the Bottom Line. ROP is

both the qualitative and quantitative derivative business. 1

financial return on investment. This recognizes

benefits and shows that good urban design is good

FIGURE 146: HAINS POINT REAL ESTATE VALUE CREATION

Jerke et al note the important link between

property values and parks or open spaces, finding that property values adjacent to these assets can

176

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

the properties around Millennium Park saw a the park. It is projected that real estate value construction. 3

increase by as much as 20 percent. 2 In Chicago,

steep increase in value with the construction of increased by $1.4 billion as a result of the parks

height structure identified for Hains Point is heights of parcels rise away from the

Massing and Urban Design: The massing and

designed to increase the number of buildings with valuable premium views. 6 Because the the site, away from the Potomac River and will have floors with monumental, water, viewsheds. 7 canal, or park views. Many parcels will be Monumental Core and towards the center of Washington Channel, the majority of parcels able to capitalize on a number of these special Sustainable Design and Resilient Ecosystem: of sustainable energy infrastructure will create buildings with lower operation and

The Hains Point public investments or design and planning regulations are designed to enhance the value of the buildings in the neighborhood and increase their taxable base. Contributing attributes include:

The green building requirements and creation maintenance costs. Minimizing these costs allows for maximum value to be generated through an increase in net operating income. 8 worker-to-resident population, Hains Point Mixed-Use Balance: By targeting a balanced

Transportation amenities: Hains Points transit oriented design with access to a wealth of premium transportation options, creates higher values, and should retain these values in rough economic conditions. 4 Further, the and workers will increase the amount of disposable income available to spend. reduction in transportation costs for residents

will have a constant critical mass to support retailer and allow maximum value recognition.

retail offerings. Continued patronage of retail

views upon Hains Points high quality public estate. 5 These amenities are distributed throughout the neighborhood to allow this Private management of these spaces will

Park and Open Space amenities: Access to and

establishments will increase the success of the

spaces will increase the value of adjacent real benefit to impact as many parcels as possible. quality. increase their value by ensuring consistent

Walkable Treelined Streetscape: The careful

design for each streetscape on Hains Point is been shown to increase property value and retail viability. 9

calculated to create a pleasant walkable urban

environment. Walkability and tree cover have

ECONOMIC IMPACT

177

Incorporation of Cultural Assets in the entertainment assets seamlessly integrated visitors to Hains Point and provide amenities for residents and workers. Visitors will increase retail and hotel viability. 10 Additionally, the integration of these assets prestige of the associated private use. into the neighborhood fabric will introduce neighborhood: Creating cultural and

within mixed-use buildings may increase the

Jerke, Porter, & Lassar, 2008, p. 16 Ibid, p. 20 3 Uhlir, 2006 4 Jerke, Porter, & Lassar, 2008, p. 166; National Association of Realtors, 2013 5 Jerke, Porter, & Lassar, 2008, pp. 133-137; Harnik, 2010 6 Garvin, 2002, p. 368 7 Jerke, Porter, & Lassar, 2008, pp. 215-217 8 Campoli, 2012 9 Speck, 2012, p. 224 10 Jerke, Porter, & Lassar, 2008, p.91
1 2

178

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

PUBLIC BENEFIT SUMMARY

In summary, the redevelopment of Hains Point provides a vast array of public benefits. The broad and

Hains Point but the entire District and metropolitan region. The prosperity of the DC metro region in 2040 will depend on its ability to support growth in a sustainable, equitable, healthy, and efficient manner. This will involve significant public and private investments in transportation, infrastructure, housing, business ensure that the region reaches its full potential. Vision Hains Point 2040 is a case study for the future. Tax and Investment Generation: $6 billion dollars in private investment development, tourism, and parks. Vision Hains Point 2040 represents one step that should be realized to

diverse public benefits outlined in previous sections will improve the quality of life not only for occupants of

$428 million dollars in annual direct tax revenue

$3.6 billion cumulative dollars of net new real estate tax revenue by 2070

$2.7 billion dollars in new public infrastructure

$11.6 billion dollars of new taxable real estate value

Development Capacity and Neighborhood Building: 22.4 million square feet of high-density mixed-use development Advanced stormwater treatment and reuse system Historic resource preservation program 1,500 new affordable housing units 2,500 new hotel rooms

$3.2 million dollars in annual Business Improvement District assessments

Sustainable energy grid with distributed energy and wind/solar power

Housing for 26,000 District residents in more than 16,000 new units

5.3 million square feet of office development

1.5 million square feet of retail and restaurants

Highly walkable 175 acre mixed-use neighborhood

New below-grade parking infrastructure for 17,000 vehicles and secured parking for bicycles

PUBLIC BENEFIT SUMMARY

179

Job Creation: 30,000 new permanent jobs

Transportation Infrastructure: 1 new Jefferson-Hains Point Metro station 2.5 miles of new streetcar infrastructure 18 new Capital Bikeshare Stations 10 miles of protected bicycle facilities Water taxi and ferry service

5,600 full-time-equivalent construction jobs

Tree-lined pedestrian priority street system New heavy and high speed rail infrastructure Reconstructed bulkhead and new canal New iconic bridge infrastructure

Civic and Cultural Enhancements: 2 new Smithsonian quality museums

1 new elementary school and 1 new community center 260+ acre world-class urban park system

Dedicated pedestrian esplanade

1 new outdoor performing arts and cultural center 5 new commemorative memorial locations 4 waterfront neighborhood playgrounds 10 major public art opportunities

180

VISION HAINS POINT 2040

Appendix A: Parcel Configuration Matrix ...................................................................................................................... II Appendix B: Residential Housing Program MAtrix ................................................................................................. III Appendix C: Total Population Intensity Matrix.......................................................................................................... IV Appendix D: Total Project Cost Estimate Summary .................................................................................................. V Appendix E: Economic Impact Summary ..................................................................................................................... VI Appendix F: Annual Direct DC Tax Revenue By USe .............................................................................................. VII Appendix G: Retail - Annual direct DC Tax Revenue............................................................................................. VIII Appendix H: Office - Annual Direct DC Tax Revenue .............................................................................................. IX Appendix I: Hotel - Annual Direct DC Tax Revenue .................................................................................................. X Appendix J: Condominium (Market Rate) - Annual Direct DC Tax Revenue ................................................. XI Appendix K: Condominium (Affordable) - Annual Direct DC Tax Revenue ................................................. XII Appendix L: Apartment (Market Rate) - Annual Direct DC Tax Revenue .................................................... XIII Appendix M: Apartments (Affordable) - Annual Direct DC Tax Revenue .................................................... XIV Appendix N: Parking - Annual Direct DC Tax Revenue ......................................................................................... XV Appendix O: Business Impovement District Fee Generation ............................................................................ XVI Appendix P: 30 Year Debt Service and Tax Revenue Calculation .................................................................. XVII Appendix Q: Investment and Tax Revenue Timeline......................................................................................... XVIII

APPENDIX

APPENDIX

Parcel P-01 P-02 P-03 P-04 P-05 P-06 P-07 P-08 P-09 P-10 P-11 P-12 P-13 P-14 P-15 P-16 P-17 P-18 P-19 P-20 P-21 P-22 P-23 P-24 P-25 P-26 P-27 P-28 P-29 P-30 P-31 P-32 P-33 P-34 P-35 P-36 P-37 P-38 P-39 P-40

Building Area Sites / Length Width Area (sqft) (acres) FAR Parcel GSF Height Parcel 2 275 123,750 2.8 10 1,237,500 160 450 2 450 300 135,000 3.1 10 1,350,000 160 130 3 450 260 117,000 2.7 8 936,000 972,000 110 2 450 270 121,500 2.8 8 3.4 6 891,000 90 2 450 330 148,500 38,500 0.9 6 231,000 90 1 440 175 68,750 1.6 8 550,000 130 1 275 250 8 600,000 130 2 250 300 75,000 1.7 65,000 1.5 8 520,000 110 1 250 260 1 250 270 67,500 1.5 6 405,000 90 60 1 250 210 52,500 1.2 4 210,000 404,250 90 1 385 175 67,375 1.5 6 847,000 130 2 385 275 105,875 2.4 8 2.7 8 924,000 130 3 385 300 115,500 100,100 2.3 8 800,800 110 2 385 260 385 6 623,700 90 1 270 103,950 2.4 4 192,000 60 1 640 150 48,000 1.1 3 175 57,750 1.3 6 346,500 90 330 130 2 330 275 90,750 2.1 8 726,000 1 330 300 99,000 2.3 8 792,000 130 2.0 8 686,400 110 1 330 260 85,800 89,100 2.0 6 534,600 90 2 330 270 84,000 50 2 480 175 1.9 3 252,000 3 480 275 132,000 3.0 8 1,056,000 110 480 300 144,000 3.3 8 1,152,000 110 3 110 1 480 260 124,800 2.9 8 998,400 777,600 90 1 480 270 129,600 3.0 6 2 550 175 96,250 2.2 3 288,750 50 550 275 151,250 3.5 4 605,000 60 3 165,000 3.8 4 660,000 60 2 550 300 550 260 143,000 3.3 4 572,000 60 1 3.4 3 445,500 50 1 550 270 148,500 2 40 1 0 0 0 0.0 0 255 145 36,975 0.8 2 73,950 40 1 215 240 51,600 1.2 3 154,800 50 1 1.3 3 165,675 50 1 235 235 55,225 3 190,350 50 2 270 235 63,450 1.5 250 265 66,250 1.5 2 132,500 40 1 340 130 44,200 1.0 2 88,400 40 1 205 280 28,700 0.7 3 86,100 50 1

APPENDIX A: PARCEL CONFIGURATION MATRIX

II

APPENDIX

APPENDIX B: RESIDENTIAL HOUSING PROGRAM MATRIX


Inclusionary Zoning Percentage: Residential Split Condo - Market Condo - Affordable Apartments - Market Apartments - Affordable TOTAL Condo - Market Studio 1BR 2BR 3BR Subtotal Condo - Affordable Studio 1BR 2BR 3BR Subtotal Apartments - Market Studio 1BR 2BR 3BR Subtotal Apartments - Affordable Studio 1BR 2BR 3BR Subtotal TOTAL Studio 1BR 2BR 3BR TOTAL 8% % of Avg Total % GFA Total GFA Avg. GFA Total NSF Avg NSF # Units Unit Mix Occupancy Occupancy 31.3% 3,906,161 909 3,437,421 800 4,295 26.4% 1.80 7,711 2.7% 339,666 782 298,906 688 435 2.7% 1.67 727 60.7% 7,564,841 723 6,657,060 636 10,466 64.4% 1.55 16,175 5.3% 657,812 624 578,875 549 1,055 6.5% 1.42 1,499 12,468,480 767 10,972,262 675 16,250 100.0% 1.61 26,111 % of Avg Total % GFA Total GFA Avg. GFA Total NSF Avg NSF # Units Unit Mix Occupancy Occupancy 20.0% 781,232 568 687,484 500 1,375 32.0% 1.00 1,375 30.0% 1,171,848 795 1,031,226 700 1,473 34.3% 1.50 2,210 30.0% 1,171,848 1,250 1,031,226 1,100 937 21.8% 2.50 2,344 20.0% 781,232 1,534 687,484 1,350 509 11.9% 3.50 1,782 100.0% 3,906,161 909 3,437,421 800 4,295 100.0% 1.80 7,711 % of Avg Total % GFA Total GFA Avg. GFA Total NSF Avg NSF # Units Unit Mix Occupancy Occupancy 30.0% 101,900 511 89,672 450 199 45.9% 1.00 199 25.0% 84,917 767 74,727 675 111 25.5% 1.50 166 25.0% 84,917 1,136 74,727 1,000 75 17.2% 2.50 187 20.0% 67,933 1,364 59,781 1,200 50 11.5% 3.50 174 100.0% 339,666 782 298,906 688 435 100.0% 1.67 727 % of Avg Total % GFA Total GFA Avg. GFA Total NSF Avg NSF # Units Unit Mix Occupancy Occupancy 35.0% 2,647,694 511 2,329,971 450 5,178 49.5% 1.00 5,178 30.0% 2,269,452 739 1,997,118 650 3,072 29.4% 1.50 4,609 20.0% 1,512,968 1,108 1,331,412 975 1,366 13.0% 2.50 3,414 15.0% 1,134,726 1,335 998,559 1,175 850 8.1% 3.50 2,974 100.0% 7,564,841 723 6,657,060 636 10,466 100.0% 1.55 16,175 % of Avg Total % GFA Total GFA Avg. GFA Total NSF Avg NSF # Units Unit Mix Occupancy Occupancy 40.0% 263,125 455 231,550 400 579 54.9% 1.00 579 35.0% 230,234 710 202,606 625 324 30.7% 1.50 486 15.0% 98,672 1,023 86,831 900 96 9.1% 2.50 241 10.0% 65,781 1,193 57,887 1,050 55 5.2% 3.50 193 100.0% 657,812 624 578,875 549 1,055 100.0% 1.42 1,499 % of Avg Total % GFA Total GFA Avg. GFA Total NSF Avg NSF # Units Unit Mix Occupancy Occupancy 30.4% 3,793,951 518 3,338,677 455 7,331 45.1% 1.00 7,331 30.1% 3,756,451 754 3,305,677 664 4,981 30.7% 1.50 7,471 23.0% 2,868,405 1,159 2,524,196 1,020 2,474 15.2% 2.50 6,186 16.4% 2,049,673 1,400 1,803,712 1,232 1,464 9.0% 3.50 5,124 100.0% 12,468,480 767 10,972,262 675 16,250 100.0% 1.61 26,111

APPENDIX

III

APPENDIX C: TOTAL POPULATION INTENSITY MATRIX


Total Hotel Retail Residential Office 12,375 0 402,188 396,000 391,500 364,500 0 20,250 296,400 280,800 280,800 78,000 97,200 437,400 437,400 0 44,550 0 846,450 0 23,100 0 0 207,900 0 137,500 0 412,500 90,000 255,000 0 255,000 0 26,000 494,000 0 0 0 8,100 396,900 21,000 189,000 0 0 40,425 0 363,825 0 0 105,875 381,150 359,975 77,000 292,600 277,200 277,200 0 20,020 0 780,780 12,474 0 0 611,226 19,200 0 0 172,800 23,100 219,450 0 103,950 72,600 0 326,700 326,700 79,200 0 0 712,800 0 13,728 672,672 0 53,460 240,570 0 240,570 18,900 113,400 119,700 0 0 70,400 668,800 316,800 0 76,800 364,800 710,400 0 19,968 0 978,432 0 0 38,880 738,720 0 129,938 21,656 137,156 60,500 181,500 181,500 181,500 0 82,500 297,000 280,500 28,600 400,400 0 0 35,640 356,400 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,479 72,471 0 0 0 7,740 0 147,060 0 0 8,284 157,391 85,658 90,416 0 9,518 0 6,625 0 125,875 0 4,420 0 83,980 4,305 0 81,795 0 12,468,480 5,372,060 1,864,958 1,571,372 Residential Units Per Parcel 0 510 386 570 1,103 271 538 332 644 517 246 474 497 381 1,018 797 225 286 426 0 877 314 148 872 475 1,275 963 179 237 387 522 464 0 0 0 205 112 0 0 0 16,250

Office Employee Hotel Residents Retail per Employee Employee Employment per Parcel Parcel per Parcel per Parcel per Parcel 0 820 621 916 1,773 435 864 534 1,035 831 396 762 798 613 1,635 1,280 362 460 684 0 1,409 504 237 1,401 764 2,049 1,547 287 380 622 839 746 0 0 0 330 179 0 0 0 26,111 2,262 1,633 1,772 2,156 120 62 371 557 70 22 57 109 1,844 1,749 54 34 52 190 1,610 3,300 37 441 569 1,562 3,283 54 105 219 1,173 1,437 77 96 0 318 658 22 417 563 375 366 29,795 1,741 1,578 1,216 1,894 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,558 1,200 0 0 0 0 1,414 3,086 0 0 518 1,371 3,075 0 0 0 786 1,214 0 0 0 314 637 0 391 545 364 354 23,256 488 0 346 0 0 0 0 314 0 0 0 0 0 341 0 0 0 128 0 0 0 296 0 0 0 0 0 160 224 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,297 33 55 211 262 120 62 371 243 70 22 57 109 286 208 54 34 52 62 196 214 37 144 51 190 207 54 105 58 163 223 77 96 0 4 21 22 26 18 12 12 4,243

Hotel Guest per Parcel 717 0 508 0 0 0 0 461 0 0 0 0 0 502 0 0 0 188 0 0 0 435 0 0 0 0 0 235 328 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,374

Total Intensity Per Parcel 2,979 2,452 2,901 3,072 1,893 498 1,235 1,553 1,105 853 453 871 2,642 2,864 1,689 1,314 414 838 2,294 3,300 1,446 1,380 807 2,962 4,047 2,103 1,652 741 1,881 2,059 916 843 0 318 658 352 596

% of Total Pop. Intensity 5.02% 4.14% 4.89% 5.18% 3.19% 0.84% 2.08% 2.62% 1.86% 1.44% 0.76% 1.47% 4.46% 4.83% 2.85% 2.22% 0.70% 1.41% 3.87% 5.57% 2.44% 2.33% 1.36% 5.00% 6.83% 3.55% 2.79% 1.25% 3.17% 3.47% 1.54% 1.42% 0.00% 0.54% 1.11% 0.59% 1.01%

Parcel P-01 P-02 P-03 P-04 P-05 P-06 P-07 P-08 P-09 P-10 P-11 P-12 P-13 P-14 P-15 P-16 P-17 P-18 P-19 P-20 P-21 P-22 P-23 P-24 P-25 P-26 P-27 P-28 P-29 P-30 P-31 P-32 P-33 P-34 P-35 P-36 P-37 P-38 P-39 P-40

563 0.95% 375 0.63% 0.62% 366 59,281 100.00%

IV

APPENDIX

Public Infrastructure Costs Bulkhead Reconstruction/Repair/Canal Urban Recreation Park Bandshell/Entertainment/Cultural Museums (2) School/Library/Other Central Civic Park Waterfront Esplanade Streets/Sidewalks Streetcar WMATA Station Bridge and Highway Infrastructure Utilities/Site Work Sustainable Energy Infrastructure Subtotal Soft Costs Contingency Total Public Private Costs 65.95% Residential (Apartments) 34.05% Residential (Condo) Office Hotel Retail Garage Museum/Entertainment Other Subtotal Soft Cost Contingency Total Private Total TOTAL

APPENDIX D: TOTAL PROJECT COST ESTIMATE SUMMARY


Unit lf sf sf sf sf sf sf mi Quantity Unit Price Amount 10,200 11,799,618 200,000 800,688 93,219 989,464 771,762 2,115,535 2.5 1 1 3,876,761 27 $4,000 $25 $285 $1,000 $525 $45 $30 $45 $15,000,000 $130,400,000 $100,000,000 $60 $10,000,000 20% 5% $40,800,000 $294,990,450 $57,000,000 $800,687,500 $48,939,844 $44,525,880 $23,152,860 $95,199,075 $37,500,000 $130,400,000 $100,000,000 $232,605,660 $270,000,000

Total $40,800,000 $295,000,000 $57,000,000 $800,700,000 $48,900,000 $44,500,000 $23,200,000 $95,200,000 $37,500,000 $130,400,000 $100,000,000 $232,600,000 $270,000,000 $2,175,800,000 $435,160,000 $130,548,000 $2,741,508,000

sf MW

sf sf sf sf sf sf

8,222,653 4,245,827 5,372,060 1,864,958 1,571,372 7,282,000 above above

$185 $215 $170 $290 $130 $95

$1,521,190,840 $1,521,200,000 $912,852,765 $912,900,000 $913,250,158 $913,300,000 $540,837,675 $540,800,000 $204,278,295 $204,300,000 $691,790,000 $691,800,000

20% 5%

$4,784,300,000 $956,860,000 $287,058,000 $6,028,218,000 $8,769,726,000

APPENDIX

Real Estate Tax Retail Office Hotel Condominium (Market) Condominium (Affordable) Apartments (Market) Apartments (Affordable) Parking Total

APPENDIX E: ECONOMIC IMPACT SUMMARY


Taxable Value Tax Value /SF $1,294,471,843 $3,695,977,108 $806,592,447 $1,959,444,276 $59,734,883 $2,574,300,658 $61,897,708 $1,139,731,263 $11,592,150,186 $824 $688 $432 $570 $200 $387 $107 $157

Annual Real Estate Tax Total $23,947,729 $68,375,576 $14,921,960 $17,243,110 $525,667 $22,653,846 $544,700 $21,085,028 $169,297,616 $169,297,616 Related Tax $17,507,153 $49,544,919 $67,052,072 Related Tax $14,669,124 Related Tax $15,976,650 $5,683,324 $2,422,891 $10,398,098 $34,480,963 Related Tax $176,496 $5,804,615 $483,764 $31,455 $6,496,331

Retail Space Tax (Non Real Estate) General Retail Restaurant Total Private Sector Office Direct Tax

Taxable Sales $303,588,974 $563,808,094 $867,397,068 Gross DC Taxes $14,669,124 Taxable Sales $159,766,500 $66,862,632 $31,671,773 $258,300,904 Taxable Sales $2,206,206 $72,557,690 $5,375,154 $393,188 $80,532,238 Total Potential $554,284,199 $25,741,844 $554,284,199 $64,827,492 $1,199,137,734

$67,052,072

$14,669,124

Hotel Related Tax Revenue Room Tax Other Guest Expenses Non-guest Food and Beverage Other Total Employee Related Sales Tax Revenue Retail Office Hotel Parking Total DC Resident Income Tax Condominium (Market) Condominium (Affordable) Apartments (Market) Apartments (Affordable) Total DC Resident Retail Expenditures Condominium (Market) Condominium (Affordable) Apartments (Market) Apartments (Affordable) Total Other DC Resident Related Fees Condominium (Market) Condominium (Affordable) Apartments (Market) Apartments (Affordable) Total Condo Transfer/Resale Fees Condominium (Market) Condominium (Affordable) Total

$34,480,963

$6,496,331

Income Tax $31,067,977 $1,222,212 $2 $59,546,911 $1,809,155 $93,646,255

$93,646,255

Total Potential Capture Rate Sales Tax $177,370,944 35.00% $4,655,987 $6,757,234 40.00% $202,717 $348,553,011 35.00% $9,149,517 $19,448,248 40.00% $583,447 $552,129,437 $14,591,668 Other Related Fees $2,660,564 $115,838 $5,228,295 $291,724 $8,296,421 Annual Turn over Transfer Tax 7.00% $4,500,788 7.00% $174,186 $4,674,974

$14,591,668

$8,296,421

$4,674,974

Parking Sales Tax TOTAL DIRECT ANNUAL DC TAX REVENUE

$14,873,784 $428,079,208

$14,873,784 $428,079,208

VI

APPENDIX

Total Direct Annual DC Tax Revenue by Use Condominium (Affordable) Apartments (Affordable) Parking Hotel Condominium (Market) Retail Apartments (Market) Office Total

APPENDIX F: ANNUAL DIRECT DC TAX REVENUE BY USE

$7.50 $5.58 $4.94 $26.75 $17.49 $58.02 $14.51 $16.54 $19.04

$2,240,621 $3,229,026 $35,990,267 $49,886,687 $60,128,425 $91,176,297 $96,578,569 $88,849,316 $428,079,208

APPENDIX

VII

Project Description General Retail Restaurant/Entertainment Total Retail

APPENDIX G: RETAIL - ANNUAL DIRECT DC TAX REVENUE


628,549 gsf 942,823 gsf 1,571,372 gsf

Direct Project Full Time Employment (a) 667 sf per retail job (d) 943 retail jobs 286 sf per Restaurant/Entertainment (d) 3,300 restaurant/entertainment jobs 4,243 total jobs 370 avg retail/restaurant sf per job

Value Projection Rent per SF Vacancy Less: vacancy Effective Rent per SF Expense Ratio Less: expenses NOI per SF Cap Rate (c) Market Value per SF

Gen Retail Restaurant $45 $60 5.00% 5.00% ($2.25) ($3.00) $42.75 $57.00 8.00% 8.00% ($3.42) ($4.56) $39.33 $52.44 6.25% 5.50% $629.28 $953.45 6.25% Retail Building one sf $629.28 $953.45 $823.78 $15.24 total sf $395,533,063 $898,938,780 $1,294,471,843 $23,947,729 $23,947,729 total sf $483.00 $27.77 $20.83 $50.00 $1.70 $0.51 $303,588,974 $17,456,366 $13,092,274 $3,028,300 $31,427,430 $1,068,533 $318,046 $17,507,153 total sf $598.00 $53.82 $43.06 $5.97 $90.25 $3.07 $0.46 $563,808,094 $50,742,728 $40,594,183 $5,623,986 $85,089,767 $2,893,052 $433,699 $49,544,919

7.25% Real Estate Tax General Retail Real Estate Value Restaurant Real Estate Value Total Taxable Real Estate Value (assessment) Real Estate Tax Revenue Total Rest Estate Tax Revenue

100.00% of value 1.85% commercial tax rate

General Retail Direct Tax Revenues On-site Taxable Retail Sales (Adjusted 8% for vacancy) DC Average Applicable Sales Tax Sales Tax Net of On-Site Residents of Office Tenants DC Corporate Tax Business Personal Property Business Personal Property Tax Other Operating Taxes and Fees (b) (Adjusted for 8% vacancy) DC General Retail Related Tax Capture Restaurtant/Entertainment Direct Tax Revenues On-site Taxalble Retail Sales (adjusted for 8% vacancy) DC Average ApplicableSales Tax 21) Sales Tax Net of On-Site Residents or Office Tenants DC Corporate Tax Business Personal Property (adjust for 5% vacancy) Business Personal Property Tax Other Operating Taxes and Fees (b) DC Restaurent Related Tax Capture

one sf $525 per sf 5.75% 75.00% not on-site consumers 9.975% on 10% Profit on Gross $50 FF&E per sf $3.40 per $100 assessed value $0.55 per sf

one sf $650 per sf 9.00% 80.00% not on-site consumers 9.975% on 10% Profit on Gross $95 FF&E per sf $3.40 per $100 assessed value $0.50 per sf

Employee Related Sales Tax Revenue FTE Employee Retail Expenditures Subject to Sales Tax Employee Related Sales Tax Total Direct Annual Tax Revenue Total Direct Annual Tax Revenue

one sf $45 per FTE per week 8.00% Mostly Meals

total sf $2,206,206 $176,496

$58.02

$91,176,297

Notes (a) Full time equivalent (40 hrs/wk) employees (b) Misc. fees, operations purchases, utility, and telecom fees, and other business license and related fees and charges (c) See CBRE Cap Rate Survey - August 2011, http://www.cbre.us/o/minneapolis/AssetLibrary/PCGMN_CapRateSurvey_Aug2011[2].pdf (d) See Demographic Multipliers in Delaware, June 2009. Mix, Troy and Jiang, Xuan. Retail employment 1.0-2.0 per 1,000 SF, Eating and Drinking 3.0-4.0 employees per 1,000 SF http://dspace.udel.edu:8080/dspace/bitstream/handle/19716/4279/DelMultipliers.pdf?sequence=1

VIII

APPENDIX

Project Description General Office Retail (see retail she) Total Office Value Projection Rent per SF Vacancy Less: vacancy Effective Rent per SF Expense Ratio Less: expenses NOI per SF Cap Rate (c) Market Value per SF

APPENDIX H: OFFICE - ANNUAL DIRECT DC TAX REVENUE


5,372,060 gsf 0 gsf 5,372,060 gsf Direct Project Full Time Employment (a) 231 sf per office job 23,256 office jobs 23,256 total jobs

Office $40 5.00% ($2.00) $38.00 14.00% ($5.32) $32.68 4.75% $688.00 Office Building

Real Estate Tax General Office Real Estate Value Retail Real Estate Value Total Taxable Real Estate Value (assessment) Real Estate Tax Revenue Total Rest Estate Tax Revenue Private Sector Office Direct Tax (75% private occupancy) Taxable Gross Revenues s (Adjusted 5% for vacancy) DC Corporate Tax Business Personal Property Business Personal Property Tax Other Operating Taxes and Fees (b) (Adjusted for 5% vacancy) DC General Office Related Tax Capture Employee Related Sales Tax Revenue FTE Employee Retail Expenditures Subject to Sales Tax Employee Related Sales Tax Total Direct Annual Tax Revenue Total Direct Annual Tax Revenue

one sf $688.00 $420.00 $688.00 $12.73

100.00% of value 1.85% commercial tax rate

total sf $3,695,977,108 $0 $3,695,977,108 $68,375,576 $68,375,576

one sf $120,000 per employee 9.975% on 5% Profit on Gross $2,250 per employee $3.40 per $100 assessed value $0.60 per sf

$370.13

total sf $1,988,359,778 $9,916,944 $9.25 $49,708,994.44 $0.31 $1,690,106 $0.57 $3,062,074 $14,669,124 total sf $72,557,690 $5,804,615

one sf $60 per FTE per week 8.00% Mostly Meals

$16.54

$88,849,316

Notes (a) Full time equivalent (40 hrs/wk) employees (b) Misc. fees, operations purchases, utility, and telecom fees, and other business license and related fees and charges (c) See CBRE Cap Rate Survey - August 2011, http://www.cbre.us/o/minneapolis/AssetLibrary/PCGMN_CapRateSurvey_Aug2011[2].pdf

APPENDIX

IX

Project Description Hotel Rooms

APPENDIX I: HOTEL - ANNUAL DIRECT DC TAX REVENUE


2,552 rooms 1,864,958 gsf 731 gsf per room Direct Project Full Time Employment (a) 0.9 jobs per room (d) 2,297 hotel jobs 2,297 total jobs

Projected Hotel Mix Luxury % of Mix GSF Rooms ADR Gross Annual Income Occupancy Effective Gross Income Per Room Expense Ratio Less:expenses NOI per Room Cap Rate (c) Total Value Per Room Total Value Full Service Select Service Total/Avg 35% 40% 25% 100% 652,735 745,983 466,239 1,864,958 893 1,021 638 2,552 290 195 190 227 105,850 71,175 69,350 246,375 73.00% 75.00% 80.00% 75.55% 77,271 53,381 55,480 $62,267 58.00% 58.00% 58.00% (44,817) (30,961) (32,178) 32,454 22,420 23,302 $26,152 8.00% 8.50% 8.50% 405,670 263,766 274,136 316,025 362,387,826 $ 269,284,667 $ 174,919,954 $ 806,592,447

42977.42

Hotel Building Real Estate Tax General Hotel Real Estate Value Retail Real Estate Value Total Taxable Real Estate Value (assessment) Real Estate Tax Revenue Total Rest Estate Tax Revenue Direct Use Related Tax Revenues Room Nights Room Revenue (Net of Parking) Transient Accomodations Tax Other Hotel Expenditure (inc. restaurant) Other Hotel Guest Sales Tax Business Personal Property Business Persronal Property Tax Other Operating Taxes and fees (b) Total Direct Use Related Taxes DC Direct Use Tax Capture Other Direct Tax Revenue Non-Hotel Related Food & Beverage Sales DC Average Applicable Sales Tax Sales Tax Net of Hotel Guests DC Corporate Tax Total Other direct Tax Revenue Other Direct DC Tax Capture Employee Retaleted Sales Tax Revenue FTE Employee Retail Expenditures Subject to Sales Tax Employee Related Sales Tax Total Direct Annual Tax Revenue Total Direct Annual Tax Revenue one room total rooms $316,025.13 $806,592,447 $0.00 $0 $1,103,869.52 $806,592,447 $20,421.59 $14,921,960 $14,921,960 one room 75.55% Occupancy $227 ADR 10.00% per employee $95.00 per occupied room night 8.50% Tax Rate $40,415 FF&E per Room $3.40 per $100 assessed value $6.13 per room night 100.00% net DC sales 276 $62,597 $6,260 $26,197 $2,227 $40,415 $1,374 $1,690 $2.00 $11,551 total rooms 703,817 $159,766,500 $15,976,649.95 $66,862,632 $5,683,324 $103,151,396.67 $3,507,147 $4,314,399 $29,481,520 $29,481,520

100.00% of value 1.85% commercial tax rate

$45 per day per room day 9.00% 85.00% not on-site consumers 9.975% on 10% profit on gross 100.00% net DC sales

one room total rooms $12,409 $31,671,773.03 $1,117 $2,850,460 $949 $2,422,891 $1,009 $2,576,552 $1,959 $4,999,442 $1,959 $4,999,442

$45 per FTE per week 9.00% mostly meals

$2,106 $190

$5,375,154 $483,764

$19,545.74

$49,886,687

Notes (a) Full time equivalent (40 hrs/wk) employees (b) Misc. fees, operations purchases, utility, and telecom fees, and other business license and related fees and charges (c) See CBRE Cap Rate Survey - August 2011, http://www.cbre.us/o/minneapolis/AssetLibrary/PCGMN_CapRateSurvey_Aug2011[2].pdf (d) See Institute of Transportation Engineers - Trip Generation, 7th Edition, p541 ( http://www.anaheim.net/departmentfolders/planning/LakeHotel/AppendixQ.pdf)

APPENDIX

Project Description Condominiums Market Component Market Units Average Size Total Saleable SF

APPENDIX J: CONDOMINIUM (MARKET RATE) - ANNUAL DIRECT DC TAX REVENUE


4,729 units 91% 4,295 units 800 NSF 3,437,421 NSF Project Related DC Residents 1.80 person/household 4,295 occupied units 7,711 total residents 100.00% net residents 7,711 DC Residents

Market Condo Building Real Estate Tax Condominium Real Estate Value DC Homestead Exemption Taxable Residential Real Estate Value Residential Real Estate Tax Total Real Estate Tax Revenue Residential Direct Tax Revenues Average Unit Values Required Gross HH Income Taxable Income Initial DC Income Tax Additional DC Income Tax TOTAL Potential DC Income Tax Income Taxes Adjuste for Average Occupancy Potential DC Residents Income Tax Revenue Adjusted for Resident Status New Resident Retail Expenditures Subject to Sales Tax District of Columbia Resident Sales Capture DC Average Applicable Sales Tax (a) Other Resident Related Use Taxes and Fees Personal Property Tax Total Residential Direct Tax Revenues Recurring Property Resale Transfer Taxes Annual Re-sales Relates Taxes (2.9% combined fees) Total Direct Annual Tax Revenue Total Direct Annual Tax Revenue one sf $60,000 per unit 0.88% residential tax rate $645.00 ($74.97) $570.03 $5.02 total sf $2,217,136,795 ($257,692,519) $1,959,444,276 $17,243,110 $17,243,110

$645.00 per sf 25.00% multiple of unit value 80.00% of gross $30,000.00 of initial taxable income 8.70% DC tax rate over initial 96.00% Occupancy 90.00% of residents pay taxes 40.00% of taxable income 35.00% of expenditures 7.50% blend of categories 0.60% of taxable income

One Unit Total Units $516,228 2,217,136,795 $129,057 $554,284,199 $103,246 $443,427,359 $2,000 $8,589,751 $6,372 $27,368,556 $8,372 $35,958,306 $8,037 $34,519,974 $7,234 $31,067,977 $7,234 $31,067,977 $41,298 $177,370,944 $14,454 $62,079,830 $1,084 $4,655,987 $619 $2,660,564 not considered $38,384,528

7.00% turnover

One Unit Total Units $1,048 $4,500,788

$14,000

$60,128,425

Notes (a) blend of sales tax and services and restaurant sales tax (b) Misc. fees, operations purchases, utility, and telecom fees, and other business license and related fees and charges

APPENDIX

XI

Project Description Condominiums Affordable Component Affordable Units Average Size Total Saleable SF

APPENDIX K: CONDOMINIUM (AFFORDABLE) - ANNUAL DIRECT DC TAX REVENUE


4,729 units 9.2% 435 units 688 NSF 298,906 NSF Project Related DC Residents 1.67 person/household 435 occupied units 727 total residents 100.00% net residents 727 DC Residents

Affordable Condo Building Real Estate Tax Condominium Real Estate Value DC Homestead Exemption Taxable Residential Real Estate Value Residential Real Estate Tax Total Real Estate Tax Revenue Residential Direct Tax Revenues Average Unit Values Required Gross HH Income Taxable Income Initial DC Income Tax Additional DC Income Tax TOTAL Potential DC Income Tax Income Taxes Adjuste for Average Occupancy Potential DC Residents Income Tax Revenue Adjusted for Resident Status New Resident Retail Expenditures Subject to Sales Tax District of Columbia Resident Sales Capture DC Average Applicable Sales Tax (a) Other Resident Related Use Taxes and Fees Personal Property Tax Total Residential Direct Tax Revenues Recurring Property Resale Transfer Taxes Annual Re-sales Relates Taxes (2.9% combined fees) Total Direct Annual Tax Revenue Total Direct Annual Tax Revenue one sf $60,000 per unit 0.88% residential tax rate $287.07 ($87.22) $199.84 $1.76 total sf $85,806,147 ($26,071,264) $59,734,883 $525,667 $525,667

$287.07 per sf 30.00% multiple of unit value 75.00% of gross $30,000.00 of initial taxable income 8.70% DC tax rate over initial 96.00% Occupancy 90.00% of residents pay taxes 35.00% of taxable income 40.00% of expenditures 7.50% blend of categories 0.60% of taxable income

One Unit Total Units $197,473 85,806,147 $59,242 $25,741,844 $44,431 $19,306,383 $2,000 $869,042 $1,256 $545,555 $3,256 $1,414,597 $3,125 $1,358,014 $2,813 $1,222,212 $2,813 $1,222,212 $15,551 $6,757,234 $6,220 $2,702,894 $467 $202,717 $267 $115,838 not considered $1,540,768 Total Units $401 $174,186

One Unit 7.00% turnover

$5,157

$2,240,621

Notes (a) blend of sales tax and services and restaurant sales tax (b) Misc. fees, operations purchases, utility, and telecom fees, and other business license and related fees and charges

XII

APPENDIX

Project Description Total Apartments Market Component Market Units Average Size Total Saleable SF

APPENDIX L: APARTMENT (MARKET RATE) - ANNUAL DIRECT DC TAX REVENUE


11,520 units 91% 10,466 units 636 NSF 6,657,060 NSF Project Related DC Residents 1.55 person/household 10,466 occupied units 16,175 total residents 100.00% net residents 16,175 DC Residents

Value Projection Average GSF per Unit Average NSF per Unit Rent per NSF Monthly Rent per Unit Annual Rent per Unit Vacancy Rate Less: vacancy Effective Rent per Unit Less: expenses per unit NOI per Unit Cap Rate (c) Market Value per Unit Market Value per NSF

723 636 $4.04 $2,570 $30,838 4.70% ($1,449) 29,388 ($11,413) $17,975 4.75% $378,427 $ 594.93 Market Apartment

Real Estate Tax Apartment Real Estate Value Real Estate Assesment Residential Real Estate Tax Total Real Estate Tax Revenue Residential Direct Tax Revenues Monthly Rent Required Gross HH Income Taxable Income Initial DC Income Tax Additional DC Income Tax TOTAL Potential DC Income Tax Income Taxes Adjuste for Average Occupancy Potential DC Residents Income Tax Revenue Adjusted for Resident Status New Resident Retail Expenditures Subject to Sales Tax District of Columbia Resident Sales Capture DC Average Applicable Sales Tax (a) Other Resident Related Use Taxes and Fees Personal Property Tax Total Residential Direct Tax Revenues Total Direct Annual Tax Revenue Total Direct Annual Tax Revenue

3170 114120

65.00% 0.88% residential tax rate

one sf total sf $ 594.93 $3,960,462,551 $386.70 $2,574,300,658 $3.40 $22,653,846 $22,653,846 One Unit Total Units $2,570 26,894,522 $92,513 $968,202,809 $83,262 $871,382,528 $2,000 $20,931,182 $4,634 $48,495,088 $6,634 $69,426,270 $6,322 $66,163,235 $5,690 $59,546,911 $5,690 $59,546,911 $33,305 $348,553,011 $11,657 $121,993,554 $874 $9,149,517 $500 $5,228,295 not considered $73,924,723

$4.04 per sf 300.00% multiple of unit value 90.00% of gross $30,000.00 of initial taxable income 8.70% DC tax rate over initial 95.30% Occupancy 90.00% of residents pay taxes 40.00% of taxable income 35.00% of expenditures 7.50% blend of categories 0.60% of taxable income

$9,228

$96,578,569

Notes (a) blend of sales tax and services and restaurant sales tax (b) Misc. fees, operations purchases, utility, and telecom fees, and other business license and related fees and charges (c) See CBRE Cap Rate Survey - August 2011, http://www.cbre.us/o/minneapolis/AssetLibrary/PCGMN_CapRateSurvey_Aug2011[2].pdf

APPENDIX

XIII

Project Description Total Apartments Affordable Component Affordable Units Average Size Total Saleable SF

APPENDIX M: APARTMENTS (AFFORDABLE) - ANNUAL DIRECT DC TAX REVENUE


11,520 units 9% 1,055 units 549 NSF 578,875 NSF Project Related DC Residents 1.42 person/household 1,055 occupied units 1,499 total residents 100.00% net residents 1,499 DC Residents

Value Projection Average GSF per Unit Average NSF per Unit Rent per NSF Monthly Rent per Unit Annual Rent per Unit Vacancy Rate Less: vacancy Effective Rent per Unit Less: expenses per unit NOI per Unit Cap Rate Market Value per Unit Market Value per NSF

624 549 $2.80 $1,537 $18,442 4.70% ($867) 17,575 ($11,413) $6,162 5.25% $117,380 $ 213.86 Affordable Apartment Building 8 50.00% 0.88% residential tax rate

Real Estate Tax Apartment Real Estate Value Real Estate Assesment Residential Real Estate Tax Total Real Estate Tax Revenue Residential Direct Tax Revenues Monthly Rent Required Gross HH Income Taxable Income Initial DC Income Tax Additional DC Income Tax TOTAL Potential DC Income Tax Income Taxes Adjuste for Average Occupancy Potential DC Residents Income Tax Revenue Adjusted for Resident Status New Resident Retail Expenditures Subject to Sales Tax District of Columbia Resident Sales Capture DC Average Applicable Sales Tax (a) Other Resident Related Use Taxes and Fees Personal Property Tax Total Residential Direct Tax Revenues Total Direct Annual Tax Revenue Total Direct Annual Tax Revenue

3170 114120

one sf total sf $ 213.86 $123,795,415 $106.93 $61,897,708 $0.94 $544,700 $544,700 One Unit Total Units $1,537 1,620,849 $61,468 $64,827,492 $46,101 $48,620,619 $2,000 $2,109,309 $0 $0 $2,000 $2,109,309 $1,906 $2,010,172 $1,715 $1,809,155 $1,715 $1,809,155 $18,440 $19,448,248 $7,376 $7,779,299 $553 $583,447 $277 $291,724 not considered $2,684,326

$2.80 per sf 333.30% multiple of unit value 75.00% of gross $30,000.00 of initial taxable income 8.70% DC tax rate over initial 95.30% Occupancy 90.00% of residents pay taxes 40.00% of taxable income 40.00% of expenditures 7.50% blend of categories 0.60% of taxable income

$3,062

$3,229,026

Notes (a) blend of sales tax and services and restaurant sales tax (b) Misc. fees, operations purchases, utility, and telecom fees, and other business license and related fees and charges

XIV

APPENDIX

Project Description Total Parking Spaces Condo Purchase Apartment Rent Commercial/Public/Hotel Parking

APPENDIX N: PARKING - ANNUAL DIRECT DC TAX REVENUE


17,134 spaces 2,813 spaces 4,239 spaces 10,082 spaces Residential Parking Ratios Unit Type Unit Count Condominiums (Market Condominiums (Affordable) Apartments (Market) Apartments (Affordable) 4,295 435 10,466 1,055

Parking Ratio Parking Space Demand 65% 2,792 5% 22 40% 4,186 5% 53 Total 7,052

Direct Full time Employment 60 parking spaces/job 168 parking jobs Value Projection Gross Parking Revenue Opperating Expenses Less: Operating Expenses Annual Operating Income Cap Rate Market Value Market Value Per Space 123,948,199 53.00% ($65,692,546) $58,255,654 6.00% 970,927,563 $67,799 Parking Parking Real Estate Tax Condominium Purchased Spaces Apartment and Commercial Value Taxable Real Estate Value Real Property Tax Total Real Estate Tax Revenue Parking Direct Tax Revenues Monthly Rent - Apartments Commercial/Daily Parkers Gross Potential Income less vacancy Gross Parking Revenue TOTAL Parking Sales Tax $60,000 condo parking space purchase price 100.00% $1.85 per 100 one sf total sf $ 60,000.00 $405,108.87 $7,494.51 $168,803,701 $970,927,563 $1,139,731,263 $21,085,028 $21,085,028

3170 114120

2 turns

$250.00 per space $16.00 average daily rate 5.00% vacancy 12.00%

One Unit Total Units $3,000 12,716,907 $11,680 $117,754,882 $9,111 $130,471,789 ($456) -$6,523,589 $8,655 $123,948,199 $3,509 $14,873,784

Employee Related Sales Tax Revenue FTE Employee Retail Expenditures Subject to Sales Tax Employee Related Sales Tax Total Direct Annual Tax Revenue Total Direct Annual Tax Revenue

$45.00 per FTE per Week 8.00% mostlymeals

$393,188 $31,455

$8,490

$35,990,267

Notes (a) blend of sales tax and services and restaurant sales tax (b) Misc. fees, operations purchases, utility, and telecom fees, and other business license and related fees and charges

APPENDIX

XV

Potential BID Assessments

APPENDIX O: BUSINESS IMPOVEMENT DISTRICT FEE GENERATION

Residential Office Hotel Retail Museum/Entertainment Other Total

55.5% 23.9% 8.3% 7.0% 4.5% 0.9% 100.0%

Assessment BID Fee generation GSF Units/Keys Formula 12,468,480 16,250 $ 120 / Unit $1,949,957 5,372,060 $0.15 / SF $805,809 1,864,958 2,552 $ 100 / Room $255,230 1,571,372 $0.15 / SF $235,706 1,000,688 $0. / SF $0 201,219 $0. / SF $0 22,478,775 $3,246,702

Source: Researcher's projection using DC BID Profiles 2012 from the DC BID Council

XVI

APPENDIX

APPENDIX P: 30 YEAR DEBT SERVICE AND TAX REVENUE CALCULATION

TIF Annual Year # Year Debt Service 1 2040 $39,402,479 2 2041 $39,402,479 3 2042 $39,402,479 4 2043 $62,966,670 5 2044 $62,966,670 6 2045 $62,966,670 7 2046 $92,528,742 8 2047 $92,528,742 9 2048 $124,057,034 10 2049 $124,057,034 11 2050 $124,057,034 12 2051 $124,057,034 13 2052 $124,057,034 14 2053 $124,057,034 15 2054 $124,057,034 16 2055 $124,057,034 17 2056 $124,057,034 18 2057 $124,057,034 19 2058 $124,057,034 20 2059 $124,057,034 21 2060 $124,057,034 22 2061 $124,057,034 23 2062 $124,057,034 24 2063 $124,057,034 25 2064 $124,057,034 26 2065 $124,057,034 27 2066 $124,057,034 28 2067 $124,057,034 29 2068 $124,057,034 30 2069 $124,057,034

Cumulative Debt Service $39,402,479 $78,804,957 $118,207,436 $181,174,106 $244,140,776 $307,107,447 $399,636,189 $492,164,931 $616,221,965 $740,278,999 $864,336,034 $988,393,068 $1,112,450,102 $1,236,507,137 $1,360,564,171 $1,484,621,206 $1,608,678,240 $1,732,735,274 $1,856,792,309 $1,980,849,343 $2,104,906,377 $2,228,963,412 $2,353,020,446 $2,477,077,480 $2,601,134,515 $2,725,191,549 $2,849,248,583 $2,973,305,618 $3,097,362,652 $3,221,419,686

Annual Real Cumulative Estate Tax Real Estate Tax Annual Coverage $0 $0 ($39,402,479) $0 $0 ($39,402,479) $0 $0 ($39,402,479) $64,748,627 $64,748,627 $1,781,956 $66,691,086 $131,439,712 $3,724,415 $68,691,818 $200,131,531 $5,725,148 $121,290,125 $321,421,655 $28,761,383 $124,928,828 $446,350,484 $32,400,086 $171,568,924 $617,919,408 $47,511,890 $176,715,992 $794,635,400 $52,658,958 $227,521,840 $1,022,157,240 $103,464,805 $234,347,495 $1,256,504,734 $110,290,461 $241,377,920 $1,497,882,654 $117,320,885 $248,619,257 $1,746,501,912 $124,562,223 $256,077,835 $2,002,579,747 $132,020,801 $263,760,170 $2,266,339,917 $139,703,136 $271,672,975 $2,538,012,892 $147,615,941 $279,823,164 $2,817,836,057 $155,766,130 $288,217,859 $3,106,053,916 $164,160,825 $296,864,395 $3,402,918,311 $172,807,361 $305,770,327 $3,708,688,638 $181,713,293 $314,943,437 $4,023,632,075 $190,886,403 $324,391,740 $4,348,023,815 $200,334,706 $334,123,492 $4,682,147,307 $210,066,458 $344,147,197 $5,026,294,504 $220,090,163 $354,471,613 $5,380,766,117 $230,414,578 $365,105,761 $5,745,871,878 $241,048,727 $376,058,934 $6,121,930,812 $252,001,900 $387,340,702 $6,509,271,514 $263,283,668 $398,960,923 $6,908,232,438 $274,903,889

Cumulative Tax Revenue ($39,402,479) ($78,804,957) ($118,207,436) ($116,425,479) ($112,701,064) ($106,975,916) ($78,214,533) ($45,814,447) $1,697,443 $54,356,400 $157,821,206 $268,111,666 $385,432,552 $509,994,775 $642,015,575 $781,718,711 $929,334,652 $1,085,100,782 $1,249,261,607 $1,422,068,968 $1,603,782,261 $1,794,668,663 $1,995,003,369 $2,205,069,827 $2,425,159,989 $2,655,574,568 $2,896,623,295 $3,148,625,195 $3,411,908,862 $3,686,812,751

APPENDIX

XVII

Investment and Tax Revenue Timeline Annual Cost Escalation Annual Value Escalation

APPENDIX Q: INVESTMENT AND TAX REVENUE TIMELINE


3.00% 3.00% 2040 2041 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2042 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 2040 Total TIF Issuance 1 $40,800,000 25% $295,000,000 25% $57,000,000 0% $48,900,000 50% $44,500,000 25% $23,200,000 25% $95,200,000 30% $37,500,000 0% $130,400,000 100% $100,000,000 50% $232,600,000 25% $270,000,000 50% $1,375,100,000 $275,020,000 $82,506,000 $1,732,626,000 $1,930,691,741 2043 TIF Issuance 2 25% $10,200,000 25% $73,750,000 0% $0 0% $0 25% $11,125,000 25% $5,800,000 25% $23,800,000 0% $0 0% $0 50% $50,000,000 25% $58,150,000 15% $40,500,000 $273,325,000 $54,665,000 $16,399,500 $344,389,500 $376,323,705 $376,323,705 4.25% 27 2 54 $11,782,096 $636,233,177 $259,909,472 $23,564,192 $39,402,479 0 0 0 $39,402,479 2041 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% $39,402,479 0 0 0 $39,402,479 2042 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% $39,402,479 $23,564,192 0 0 $62,966,670 2043 $8,381,705 $23,931,452 $5,222,686 $6,035,088 $183,983 $7,928,846 $190,645 $7,379,760 $59,254,166 $64,748,627

Public Infrastructure (TIF) Bulkhead Reconstruction/Repair/Canal Urban Recreation Park Bandshell/Entertainment/Cultural School/Library/Other Central Civic Park Waterfront Esplanade Streets/Sidewalks Streetcar WMATA Station Bridge and Highway Infrastructure Utilities/Site Work Sustainable Energy Infrastructure Subtotal 20% Soft Costs 5% Contingency Total TIF Cost Escalation Bond Issuance Calculations Bond Amount Annual Interest Rate Life of Loan Number of Payments per Year Total Number of Payments Payment per Period Sum of Payments Interest Cost Issuance Annual Debt Service Bond Issuance 1 Bond Issuance 2 Bond Issuance 3 Bond Issuance 3 Annual Debt Service Private Real Estate Tax Retail Office Hotel Condominium (Market) Condominium (Affordable) Apartments (Market) Apartments (Affordable) Parking Total Value Escalation TIF Coverage Annual TIF Coverage Cumulative TIF Coverage

$10,200,000 $73,750,000 $0 $24,450,000 $11,125,000 $5,800,000 $28,560,000 $0 $130,400,000 $50,000,000 $58,150,000 $135,000,000 $527,435,000 $105,487,000 $31,646,100 $664,568,100 $664,568,100 $664,568,100 4.25% 30 2 60 $19,701,239 $1,182,074,357 $517,506,257 $39,402,479 $39,402,479 0 0 0 $39,402,479 2040

4.25% 30 2 60

$23,947,729 $68,375,576 $14,921,960 $17,243,110 $525,667 $22,653,846 $544,700 $21,085,028 $169,297,616

0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

($39,402,479) ($39,402,479)

($39,402,479) ($78,804,957)

($39,402,479) ($118,207,436)

$1,781,956 ($116,425,479)

XVIII

APPENDIX

Sheet 2 of 3 Investment and Tax Revenue Timeline Annual Cost Escalation Annual Value Escalation 2044 Public Infrastructure (TIF) Bulkhead Reconstruction/Repair/Canal Hains Point Parks/Fields/Structures Bandshell/Entertainment/Cultural School/Library/Other Center Green Parks Perimiter Streets/Sidewalks Streetcar WMATA Station Bridge and Highway Infrastructure Utilities/Site Work Cogeneration Plant Subtotal 20% Soft Costs 5% Contingency Total TIF Cost Escalation Bond Issuance Calculations Bond Amount Annual Interest Rate Life of Loan Number of Payments per Year Total Number of Payments Payment per Period Sum of Payments Interest Cost Issuance Annual Debt Service Bond Issuance 1 Bond Issuance 2 Bond Issuance 3 Bond Issuance 3 Annual Debt Service Private Real Estate Tax Retail Office Hotel Condominium (Market) Condominium (Affordable) Apartments (Market) Apartments (Affordable) Parking Total Value Escalation TIF Coverage Annual TIF Coverage Cumulative TIF Coverage $39,402,479 $23,564,192 0 0 $62,966,670 2044 $8,381,705 $23,931,452 $5,222,686 $6,035,088 $183,983 $7,928,846 $190,645 $7,379,760 $59,254,166 $66,691,086 $39,402,479 $23,564,192 0 0 $62,966,670 2045 $8,381,705 $23,931,452 $5,222,686 $6,035,088 $183,983 $7,928,846 $190,645 $7,379,760 $59,254,166 $68,691,818 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2045 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 2046 TIF Issuance 3 25% $10,200,000 25% $73,750,000 100% $57,000,000 0% $0 25% $11,125,000 25% $5,800,000 25% $23,800,000 0% $0 0% $0 0% $0 25% $58,150,000 20% $54,000,000 $293,825,000 $58,765,000 $17,629,500 $370,219,500 $442,061,444 $442,061,444 4.25% 24 2 48 $14,781,036 $709,489,723 $267,428,278 $29,562,072 $39,402,479 $23,564,192 $29,562,072 0 $92,528,742 2046 $14,368,637 $41,025,346 $8,953,176 $10,345,866 $315,400 $13,592,307 $326,820 $12,651,017 $101,578,570 $121,290,125 $39,402,479 $23,564,192 $29,562,072 0 $92,528,742 2047 $14,368,637 $41,025,346 $8,953,176 $10,345,866 $315,400 $13,592,307 $326,820 $12,651,017 $101,578,570 $124,928,828 2047 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0

35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35%

35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35%

60% 60% 60% 60% 60% 60% 60% 60%

60% 60% 60% 60% 60% 60% 60% 60%

$3,724,415 ($112,701,064)

$5,725,148 ($106,975,916)

$28,761,383 ($78,214,533)

$32,400,086 ($45,814,447)

APPENDIX

XIX

Sheet 3 of 3 Investment and Tax Revenue Timeline Annual Cost Escalation Annual Value Escalation Public Infrastructure (TIF) Bulkhead Reconstruction/Repair/Canal Hains Point Parks/Fields/Structures Bandshell/Entertainment/Cultural School/Library/Other Center Green Parks Perimiter Streets/Sidewalks Streetcar WMATA Station Bridge and Highway Infrastructure Utilities/Site Work Cogeneration Plant Subtotal 20% Soft Costs 5% Contingency Total TIF Cost Escalation Bond Issuance Calculations Bond Amount Annual Interest Rate Life of Loan Number of Payments per Year Total Number of Payments Payment per Period Sum of Payments Interest Cost Issuance Annual Debt Service Bond Issuance 1 Bond Issuance 2 Bond Issuance 3 Bond Issuance 3 Annual Debt Service Private Real Estate Tax Retail Office Hotel Condominium (Market) Condominium (Affordable) Apartments (Market) Apartments (Affordable) Parking Total Value Escalation TIF Coverage Annual TIF Coverage Cumulative TIF Coverage 2048 TIF Issuance 4 25% $10,200,000 25% $73,750,000 0% $0 50% $24,450,000 25% $11,125,000 25% $5,800,000 20% $19,040,000 100% $37,500,000 0% $0 0% $0 25% $58,150,000 15% $40,500,000 $280,515,000 $56,103,000 $16,830,900 $353,448,900 $447,738,492 $447,738,492 4.25% 22 2 44 $15,764,146 $693,622,430 $245,883,939 $31,528,292 $39,402,479 $23,564,192 $29,562,072 $31,528,292 $124,057,034 2048 $19,158,183 $54,700,461 $11,937,568 $13,794,488 $420,534 $18,123,077 $435,760 $16,868,023 $135,438,093 $171,568,924 $39,402,479 $23,564,192 $29,562,072 $31,528,292 $124,057,034 2049 $19,158,183 $54,700,461 $11,937,568 $13,794,488 $420,534 $18,123,077 $435,760 $16,868,023 $135,438,093 $176,715,992 $39,402,479 $23,564,192 $29,562,072 $31,528,292 $124,057,034 2050 $23,947,729 $68,375,576 $14,921,960 $17,243,110 $525,667 $22,653,846 $544,700 $21,085,028 $169,297,616 $227,521,840 2049 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2050 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0

80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80%

80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80%

100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

$47,511,890 $1,697,443

$52,658,958 $54,356,400

$103,464,805 $157,821,206

XX

APPENDIX

WORKS CITED

District of Columbia Office of Planning. (2012). District of Columbia Streetcar Land Use Study. Washington: Government of the District of Columbia.

109th Congress. (2006). Public Law 109-396, the Federal and District of Columbia Government Real Property Act of 2006. Washington: US Government Printing Office.

Abruzzese, S. (2007, December 29). After 27 Years, a Popular Sculpture Moves From a National Park Into Private Hands. Retrieved February 6, 2013, from The New York Times: Art and Design: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/29/arts/design/29awak.html?_r=0 American River Taxi. (2013). Home. Retrieved Februrary 9, 2013, from American River Taxi Transit and Tours: http://www.americanrivertaxi.com/ Anderson, W. (1982, August 16). Hains Point: Playing, Making Friends and Keeping Cool At Washington's Largest Block Party. The Washington Post, p. Metro; B1.

Arlington County Government. (2013). Arlington Streetcar. Retrieved January 25, 2013, from Project Streetcar Route Map: http://sites.arlingtonva.us/streetcar/projected-streetcarroute-map/ ARUP. (2013). It's Alive: Can you imagine the urban building of the future? London: ARUP. Ayyub, B. M., Braileanu, H. G., & Qureshi, N. (2011). Prediction and Impact of Sea Level Rise on Properties and Infrastructure of Washington, DC. College Park: University of Maryland.

Birdsong, J. (2012, December 2). The Decline of Golf. Retrieved Februrary 10, 2013, from A True Golfer: http://atruegolfer.com/2012/12/the-decline-of-golf/

Brand, S. (1995). How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They're Built. London: Penguin.

Boucher, J. E. (1992, February). 15. Aerial view from the north. Jack Boucher, photographer; February 1992. - Jefferson Memorial, East Potomac Park, Washington, District of Columbia, DC. Retrieved February 3, 2013, from Prints & Photographs Online Catalog: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/dc0473.photos.028807p/ Bryant Park Corporation. (2012). 20th Anniversery. Retrieved April 13, 2013, from Bryant Park: http://www.bryantpark.org/about-us/20th.html

C40 Cities. (2011). Case Study: Toronto Canada: Lake Water Air Conditioning Reduces Energy Use by 90%. Retrieved March 21, 2013, from C40 Cities: http://www.c40cities.org/c40cities/toronto/city_case_studies/lake-water-airconditioning-reduces-energy-use-by-90 WORKS CITED a

Bryant Park Management Corporation. (2010). 2010 Annual Report. New York: Bryant Park Management Corporation.

Cahn, E. (2010, March 1). University mulls expansion of Virginia campus. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from The GW Hatchet: http://www.gwhatchet.com/2010/03/01/university-mullsexpansion-of-virginia-campus/ Canal Park Development Association, Inc. (2012). History. Retrieved November 25, 2012, from canalparkdc.org: http://www.canalparkdc.org/about/history Casey Trees. (2013). Tree Canopy Goal. Retrieved March 17, 2013, from Policy and Advocacy: http://caseytrees.org/programs/policyadvocacy/utc/ Casey Trees. (2008). Tree Space Design: Growing Out of the Box. Washington: Casey Trees. Campoli, J. (2012). Made for Walking. Cambridge: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Clabaugh, J. (2012, October 9). Washingtonians Eating Out More. Retrieved December 9, 2012, from Washington Business Journal: http://www.bizjournals.com/washington/news/2012/10/09/washingtonians-eating-outmore.html Clark Construction. (2012). Monumental/Unique Projects. Retrieved November 25, 2012, from clarkconstruction.com: http://www.clarkconstruction.com/index.php/projects/project_list/C28

Central Park Conservency. (2010). FAQ. Retrieved March 9, 2013, from Official Website of New York City's Central Park: http://www.centralparknyc.org/test/about/faq.html

Daddio, D. W. (2012). Maximizing Bicycle Sharing: An Empirical Analysis of Capital Bikeshare Usage. Chapel Hill: Univeristy of North Carolina.

Congress for the New Urbanism - DC. (2013). Live. Work. Walk. DC's Future Growth. Washington: Metropolitain Washington Council of Governments.

DC BID Council. (2011). About BIDS. Retrieved March 23, 2013, from http://www.dcbidcouncil.org: http://www.dcbidcouncil.org/about-bids/ DC MUD. (2011, March 23). American University Submits Expansion Plans. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from http://dcmud.blogspot.com: http://dcmud.blogspot.com/2011/03/americanuniversity-submits-expansion.html

DC Appleseed; Our Nation's Capital. (2008). Building the Best Capital City in the World. Washington: DC Appleseed.

DC Office of Planning. (2009). DC Inventory of Historic Sites. Retrieved Februrary 8, 2013, from http://planning.dc.gov: http://planning.dc.gov/DC/Planning/Historic+Preservation/Maps+and+Information/Land marks+and+Districts/Inventory+of+Historic+Sites/Alphabetical+Edition DC Office of Planning. (2012). District of Columbia Comprehensive Plan Generalized Policy Map. Washington: District of Columbia. b WORKS CITED

DC Office of Zoning. (2013, January 1st). Zoning Map of the District of Columbia, Containing Amendements Through January 1st, 2013. Retrieved February 23, 2013, from DCOZ.dc.gov: http://dcoz.dc.gov/info/zoningmapsummary.shtm DeBonis, M. (2012, December 1). D.C. zoning revamp stokes residents fears about changing city. Retrieved March 23, 2013, from Washington Post - D.C. Politics: http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/dc-politics/dc-zoning-revamp-stokes-residentsfears-about-changing-city/2012/12/01/9cab5986-359b-11e2-9cfae41bac906cc9_story.html District Department of Transportation & Federal Railroad Administration. (2012). Long Bridge Study: Project Information. Washington: District Department of Transportation & Federal Railroad Administration. Destination DC. (2011). Washington DC's 2011 Visitor Statistics. Washington: Destination DC.

District Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. (2012). Long Bridge History. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from Long Bridge Study: http://184.173.196.249/~csx12/bridgehistory/

District Department of Transportation. (2012). General Bicycle Count Statistics. Washington: District Department of Transportation.

District of Columbia Department of Housing and Community Development. (2013). Inclusionary Zoning-Residential Developers. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from Housing & Condo Regulation: http://dhcd.dc.gov/service/inclusionary-zoning-residential-developers District of Columbia Department of Transportation. (2010). DC's Transit Future System Plan. Washington: Government of the District of Columbia. District of Columbia Department of Transportation. (2005). District of Columbia, Bicycle Master Plan. Washington: District of Columia.

District of Columbia Department of Employment Services. (2011). District of Columbia Industry and Occupational Projections 2008-2018. Washington: District of Columbia.

District of Columbia Office of Zoning. (2013). Zoning Commission. Retrieved Februrary 26, 2013, from http://dcoz.dc.gov: http://dcoz.dc.gov/services/zoning/commish.shtm#planned Earley, C. (2010). Southwest Waterfront Green Infrastructure. Richmond: Greening Urban. Duany, A., Speck, J., & Lydon, M. (2010). The Smart Growth Manual. New York: McGraw-Hill.

District of Columbia Office of Planning. (2012). Maryland Avenue Southwest Plan. Washington: AECOM.

Ernst & Young. (2003, 2003). How Smart Parks Investment Pays Its Way. Retrieved April 13, 2013, from http://conservationtools.org/: WORKS CITED

Ehrenhalt, A. (2013). The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City. New York: Vintage Books.

Federal Aviation Administration. (2012, March 8). Baltimore Washington Helicopter Route Chart. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from Helicopter Route Raster Charts: http://aeronav.faa.gov/index.asp?xml=aeronav/applications/VFR/chartlist_heli

Ewing, R., & Cervero, R. (May 2010). Travel and the Built Environment. ournal of the American Planning Association, 265-294.

Ewing, R., & Bartholomew, K. (2013, March 7). Eight Qualities of Pedestrian- and Transit-Oriented Design. Retrieved March 29, 2013, from Urban Land: http://urbanland.uli.org/Articles/2013/Mar/EwingPededstrianOrientedDesign

http://s3.amazonaws.com/conservationtools/s3_files/1169/How_Smart_Parks_Investment _Pays_Its_Way.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=1NXAG53SXSSG82H0V902&Expires=1365875128&Si gnature=9CQArfWKWCNFjIjmT0mVhysZiks%3D

Fitzpatrick, M. (2011, March 29). Golf's Decline in America: Work/Life Balance Is the True Culprit. Retrieved Februrary 10, 2013, from Bleacher Report: Men's Golf: http://bleacherreport.com/articles/648286-decline-of-golf-in-america-worklife-balance-isthe-true-culprit Garvin, A. (2002). The American City: What Works, What Doesn't. New York: McGraw-Hill. Flickr User: Sarah Oh. (2007, April 2). IMG_0433.JPG. Retrieved Februrary 9, 2013, from www.flickr.com: http://www.flickr.com/photos/saamiam/444309663/

Fisher, M. (2007, April 24). The Hains Point Hand: Stealing Away A Public Treasure. Retrieved Februrary 6, 2013, from Raw Fisher: http://blog.washingtonpost.com/rawfisher/2007/04/the_hand_at_haines_point_steal.html

Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2012). Letter to Mayor Grey regarding Conditional Letter of Map Reviion (CLOMR) for Case 12-03-1850R. Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Engineering Management Branch. Washington: Federal Emergency Management Agency.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2010, September 27). Current FEMA Issued Flood Maps, State: District of Columbia, Flood Insurance Map: 1100010019C. Retrieved March 23, 2013, from FEMA Map Center: https://msc.fema.gov/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/CategoryDisplay?storeId=10001&catal ogId=10001&langId=1&categoryId=12001&parent_category_rn=12001&type=CAT_MAPPANEL&stateId=13015 &countyId=13375&communityId=339208&stateName=DISTRICT+OF+COLUMBIA&county Name=WA

General Services Administration - Public Building Service. (2009, June). The New Federal Workplace, A Report on the Performance of Six Workplace 20-20 Projects. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from www.gsa.gov: http://www.gsa.gov/graphics/pbs/GSA_NEWWORKPLACE.pdf d WORKS CITED

Gaylord National. (n.d.). Water Taxi Service. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from Directions and Transportation: http://www.gaylordhotels.com/gaylord-national/meetings/directionstransportation/water-taxis/index.html

Harnik, P. (2010). Urban Green: Innovative Parks and Resurgent Cities. Washington: The Trust for Public Land. Hayden, D. (2003). Building Suburbia: Green Fields and Urban Growth 1820-2000. New York: Pantheon Books.

Gilfoyle, T. (2006, August 6). First Chapter: Millenium Park. Retrieved March 9, 2013, from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/06/books/chapters/0806-1stgilf.html?_r=0

Harrison, W. (2009). URBAN GOLF COURSE w/ Overlapping Design. Retrieved March 13, 2013, from The Golf Course in Your Back Yard: http://www.urbangolfcourse.com/Home_Page.html Hocking, B., & McArdle, J. (2003, December 8). City Plans Corporation to Manage Anacostia Project. Retrieved March 24, 2013, from Roll Call: http://www.rollcall.com/issues/49_60/-38031.html

Horydczak, T. (ca 1920 - ca 1950). Washington, D.C. Hains Point and Washington Channel from top of monument. Retrieved Febuary 3, 2013, from Prings & Photographs Online Collection: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/thc1995013318/PP/ Hugh L. Carey Battery Park City Authority. (2013). Mission Statement. Retrieved March 24, 2013, from Who We Are: http://www.batteryparkcity.org/Who-We-Are/Mission-Statement.php

Jacobs, A. B., Macdonald, E., & Rofe, Y. (2002). The Boulevard Book. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Jacobs, A. B. (1993). Great Streets. Cambridge: Massachuetts Institute of Technology.

Jerke, B., Porter, D. R., & Lassar, T. J. (2008). Uran Design and the Bottom Line: Optimizing the Return on Perception. Washington: Urban Land Institute. Jerke, D., Porter, D. R., & Lassar, T. J. (2008). Urban Design and the Bottom Line - Optimizing the Return on Perception. Washington: Urban Land Institute.

Johnson, G. R. (2013). Protecting Trees from Construction Damage: A Homeowner's Guide. Retrieved February 9, 2013, from University of Minnesota - Extension: http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/housingandclothing/dk6135.html Kozel, S. M. (2004, June 20). 14th Street Bridge Complex (I-395 and US-1). Retrieved February 7, 2013, from Roads to the Future: http://www.roadstothefuture.com/14th_Street_Bridge.html Kopits, E., McConnell, V., & Miles, D. (2009). Lot Size, Zoning, and Household Preferences: Impediments to Smart Growth? Washington: Resources for the Future.

Lee, T. (2013, March 5). Best Buy ends flexible work program for its corporate employees. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from StarTribune - Business: http://www.startribune.com/business/195156871.html?refer=y WORKS CITED e

Library of Congress. (1985). 25. Photocopy of Photograph, Photographer Unknown, 1985: AERIAL VIEW OF FLOODING ON HAINS POINT - Girl Scout Teahouse, East Potomac Park, Washington, District of Columbia, DC. Retrieved Feburary 3, 2013, from Prints & Photographs Online Catalog: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/dc0598.photos.028696p/ Library of Congress. (1987). 24. Photocopy of Photograph, Photographer Unknown, 1987: AERIAL VIEW OF HAINS POINT TRAFFIC - Girl Scout Teahouse, East Potomac Park, Washington, District of Columbia, DC. Retrieved Februrary 3, 2013, from Prints & Photographs Online Catalog: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/dc0598.photos.028695p/

Library of Congress. (1949). 23. Photocopy of Photograph, Photographer Unknown, November 21, 1949: HAINS POINT TEAHOUSE - Girl Scout Teahouse, East Potomac Park, Washington, District of Columbia, DC. Retrieved February 3, 2013, from Prints & Photographs Online Catagory: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/dc0598.photos.028694p/

Library of Congress. (1935). East Potomac Golf Club (East Potomac Park), Washington, D.C., aerial view from above Haines Point looking north toward the Mall. Retrieved February 3, 2013, from Prints & Photographs Online Catalog: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005676856/

Library of Congress. (1922). 20. Photocopy of Photograph, Photographer Unknown, 1922: EAST POTOMAC PARK, AERIAL VIEW - Girl Scout Teahouse, East Potomac Park, Washington, District of Columbia, DC - HABS DC,WASH,430--20. Retrieved February 3, 2013, from Prints & Photographs Online Catalog: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/dc0598.photos.028691p/

Leinberger, C. B. (2012). DC: The WalkUP Wake-Up Call: The Nation's Capital As a National Model for Walkable Urban Places. Washington: George Washington University School of Business.

Leinberger, C. B. (2008). The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream. Island Press: Washington.

Library of Congress. (n.d.). VIEW OF FORT MCNAIR WITH WASHINGTON CHANNEL AND EAST POTOMAC PARK IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST - East Potomac Park, Washington, District of Columbia, DC - HABS DC,WASH,597--1. Retrieved February 3, 2013, from Prints & Photographs Online Catalog: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/dc0801.photos.042730p/resource/ Light, P. C. (2006, August). The New True Size of Government. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from NYUWagner, Organizational Performance Initiative, Research Brief Number 2: http://wagner.nyu.edu/performance/files/True_Size.pdf Matchar, E. (2012, August 16). How those spoiled millennials will make the workplace better for everyone. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from The Washington Post: Opinions: http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2012-08-16/opinions/35490487_1_boomerang-kidsmodern-workplace-privileged-kids Mayor, O. o. (2013). Sustainable DC Plan. Washington: District of Columbia. f WORKS CITED Lindeke, B. (2012, January 19). The End of Golf Course Urbanism? Retrieved Februrary 10, 2013, from Streets.MN: http://www.streets.mn/2012/01/19/the-end-of-golf-course-urbanism/

Merriweather Post Pavilion. (2012). Seating Chart. Retrieved November 20, 2012, from Merriweather Post Pavilion: http://www.merriweatherpostpavilion.net/merriweatherpost-pavilion-seating-chart/

Michael Baker Corporation. (2012, July 24). Baker Awarded Long Bridge Study by District of Columbia Department of Transportation. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from News: http://www.mbakercorp.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2455&Itemi d=203 Moeller, P. (2012, October 31). Preparing Your Home for an Older You. Retrieved March 29, 2013, from U.S. News - Money: http://money.usnews.com/money/blogs/the-bestlife/2012/10/31/preparing-your-home-for-an-older-you

Meyer, D. B. (1974). Bridges and the City of Washington. Washington: U.S. Commission of Fine Arts.

National Capital Planning Commission. (1996). Extending the Legacy: Planning America's Capital for the 21st Century. Washington: National Capital Planning Commission. National Capital Planning Commission. (2004). Comprehensive Plan for the National Capital, Federal Elements. Washington: National Capital Planning Commission. National Capital Planning Commission. (2001). Memorials and Museums Master Plan . Washington: National Capital Planning Commission.

National Association of Realtors. (2013, March 22). Homes Near Public Transportation Hold Value Better. Retrieved March 31, 2013, from REALTOR Mag: http://realtormag.realtor.org/dailynews/2013/03/22/homes-near-public-transportation-hold-value-better

National Capital Planning Commission. (2009). Monumental Core Framework Plan: Connecting New Destinations with the National Mall. Washington: National Capital Planning Commission. National Capital Planning Commission. (2010). About Washington's Parks and Open Space. Washington: National Capital Planning Commission. National Capital Planning Commission. (2012). Southwest Ecodistrct Master Plan: Public Review Draft. Washington: National Capital Planning Commission.

National Park Service. (2001). National Register of Historic Places Registration Form - East and West Potomac Parks Historic District. Washington: Department of the Interior. WORKS CITED g

National Park Service. (1973). National Register of Historic Places Inventory - Nomination Form for Federal Properties - East and West Potomac Parks. Washington: Department of the Interior.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: Office of Costal Survey. (2010, October). Chart: 12289 Edition: 50 Edition Date: October 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from Nautical Charts & Pubs: http://www.charts.noaa.gov/OnLineViewer/12289.shtml

National Capital Planning Commission. (2013). Comprehensive Plan. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from Planning: http://www.ncpc.gov/ncpc/Main(T2)/Planning(Tr2)/ComprehensivePlan.html

National Park Service. (2012, November 17). Maps and Brochures. Retrieved January 22, 2013, from 2012 Cherry Blossom Festival: http://www.nps.gov/cherry/cherry-blossom-maps.htm

National Park Service. (Undated). Thomas Jefferson Memorial - Physical History. Retrieved Februrary 4, 2013, from Cultural Landscapes Inventory: http://www.nps.gov/thje/parkmgmt/upload/Jefferson%20Memorial%20CLI%20Part%20 2a%20-%20History.pdf New York City Department of Transportation. (2012, October). Measuring the Street: New Metrics for 21st Century Streets. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from www.nyc.gov: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/2012-10-measuring-the-street.pdf Nissan Pavilion. (2010). Jiffy Lube Live (formerly Nissan Pavilion). Retrieved November 20, 2012, from Jiffy Lube Live (formerly Nissan Pavilion): http://www.nissanpaviliononline.com/

O'Connell, J. (2011, July 10). With development coming on all sides, Howard University takes a look inward. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from The Washington Post - Capital Business: http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/capitalbusiness/with-development-comingon-all-sides-howard-university-takes-a-look-inward/2011/07/07/gIQARNIN7H_story.html

O'Connell, J. (2007, September 24). City says consolidation of development projects to save D.C. more than $5 million annually. Retrieved March 24, 2013, from Washington Business Journal: http://www.bizjournals.com/washington/stories/2007/09/24/daily9.html?jst=b_ln_hl

Office of the Mayor. (2012). A Vision for a Sustainable DC. Washington: District of Columbia.

O'Connell, J. (2012, August 26). Georgetown University looking to Forest City Washington to chart expansion. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from The Washington Post - Capital Business: http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2012-08-26/business/35490506_1_poplar-point-newcampus-50-acre-site

Palma, M. (2012, March 22). Shifting Perspectives About the Modern Workplace. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from Co-Merge: http://www.co-merge.com/2012/03/22/shifting-perspectivesabout-the-modern-workplace/ Plumb, T. (2010, February 17). Corcoran Gallery finds development partner for Randall School. Retrieved Novemeber 25, 2012, from Washington Business Journal: http://www.bizjournals.com/washington/stories/2010/02/15/daily45.html

Office of the Mayor. (2012). The Five-Year Economic Development Strategy for the District of Columbia. Washington: Government of the District of Columbia.

Porse, E. (2010, July 8). OVERLAYS FOR THE DAY: D.C. GOVERNMENT ONLINE. Retrieved March 7, 2013, from The Systematic City: http://www.researchcp.com/blog/2010/07/08/overlaysfor-the-day-d-c-government-online/ h WORKS CITED

Pointfive Golf Company. (2013, January 9). Creating a New Era in Hybrid Mid-Distrance Golf Course Design. Retrieved March 13, 2013, from Practical Golf Innovation: http://www.pointfivegolf.com/id1.html

Rao, N. (2007). Cities in Transition: Growth, Change, and Governence in Six Metropolitan Areas. Routledge.

Robarge, D. (2011, March 28). Washington, D.C.'s 19th Century Reclamation Project. Retrieved February 3, 2013, from the Atlantic: http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2011/03/washington-dcs-19th-centuryreclamation-project/73078/

Rawlinson, D. (2008, December 4). Flickr.com. Retrieved February 8, 2013, from Granville Island Neon Sign: http://www.flickr.com/photos/thelastminute/3096607739/

Savage, K. (2009). Monument Wars: Washington, D.C., the National Mall, and the Transformation of the Memorial Landscape. Berkley: University of California Press. Silver, M. (2012, July 5). New century, new planning challenges: Graying, browning of America. Retrieved April 13, 2013, from PlanCharlotte: http://plancharlotte.org/story/apapresident-mitchell-silver-raleigh

Ruane, M. E. (2009, April 2). Century-Old Mystery Blooms In Grove of D.C. Cherry Trees. The Washington Post.

Robledo, S. (2006, September 18). Battery Park City is almost finishedand it finally feels grown-up. Retrieved March 13, 2013, from New York Magazine: http://nymag.com/realestate/realestatecolumn/21341/

Skelton, J. (2012, April 4). Wind Power in Ontario: A Battle Royale? Law Suits and Protests are the Order of the Day. Retrieved March 21, 2013, from Supply Chain Almanac: http://supplychainalmanac.com/1156/wind-power-in-ontario-a-battle-royale-law-suitsand-protests-are-the-order-of-the-day/ Smith, S. (2012, January 6). In Defense Of Land Reclamation: It Ain't All Palm Islands! Retrieved March 7, 2013, from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/stephensmith/2012/01/06/indefense-of-land-reclamation-it-aint-all-palm-islands/ Speck, J. (2012). Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Social Compact, Inc. (2008). Washington, DC Neighborhood Market DrillDown: Catalyzing Business Investment in Inner City Neighborhoods. Washington: Social Compact, Inc. Smart Growth Network. (2003). Getting to Smart Growth: 100 Policies for Implementation. Washington: International City/County Management Association.

Steenhoek, M. (2011). Watershed Description - The Washington Channel. Alexandria: Virginia Tech.

Steenhoek, M. (2012). Breaking New Ground, Measuring the Economic Impact of the Redevelopment of Hains Point. Alexandria: Virginia Tech.

Steenhoek, M. (2012). District 2040 - Building Towards a Sustainable DC. Alexandria: Virginia Tech. WORKS CITED i

Stephen, J., & Flaherty, M. P. (2011, March 8). Pepco reliability plan 'cobbled together' without detailed study, report finds. Retrieved March 21, 2013, from The Washington Post: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2011/03/07/AR2011030704907.html

Stokle, B. (2012, March 12). What would you do in 20 years? Retrieved March 24, 2013, from Urban Life Signs: http://urbanlifesigns.blogspot.com/2012/03/what-would-you-do-in-20years.html The Correa Report. (2009, June 3). Retrofitting Golf Course Communities. Retrieved Februrary 10, 2013, from The Correa Report: http://thecorreareport.blogspot.com/2009/06/retrofittinggolf-course-communities.html Sturtevant, L. A., & Fuller, S. S. (2011). Housing the Region's Future Workforce: Policy Challenges for Local Jurisdictions. Arlington, VA: George Mason University.

Toderian, B. (2013). Keynote Address. 2013 State of Downtown Economic Forum Presentations. Seattle: Downtown Seattle Association. Toderian, B. (2013, February 13). Re-defining the D-Word: 'Density Done Well' in Vancouver. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from Huffington Post British Columbia: http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/brent-toderian/density-urban-planning-vancouverseattle_b_2752160.html

Titus, J. G. (2010). The Likelihood of Shore Protection in the District of Columbia. Washington: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

The Trust for Public Land. (2010). 2010 City Park Facts. Washington: The Trust for Public Land.

The Shakespeare Theatre. (2007, April 20). SHAKESPEARE THEATRE COMPANY PRESENTS THE FREE FOR ALL PRODUCTION OF LOVES LABORS LOST. Retrieved November 20, 2012, from Newsroom: Press Release: http://www.shakespearetheatre.org/news/detail.aspx?id=46

The Newseum Residences. (2010). Newseum Residences. Retrieved November 25, 2012, from Home: http://www.newseumapts.com/

The LBJ Library (Director). (2013). Showcase for the Nation: The Beautification Program. MP472. [Motion Picture].

Uhlir, E. K. (2006). The Millennium Park Effect: Creating a Cultural Venue with Economic Impact. New York: Americans For the Arts. j WORKS CITED

U.S. Senate. (1902). The Improvement of the Parks System of the District of Columbia. Washington: Government Printing Office.

U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2008). Federal Real Property: Property Conveyances between the District of Columbia and the Federal Government Await Completion, and Development Will Take Many Years. Washington: U.S. Government Accountability Office.

U.S. Commission of Fine Arts. (2006, September 21). About the Shipstead-Luce Act. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from CFA Home: http://www.cfa.gov/shipstead/index.html

US Army Corps of Engineers. (2002, April). Historical Vignette 048 - The Corps' Connection to the Washington, D.C., Tidal Basin and its Beloved Cherry Trees. Retrieved February 4, 2013, from History: http://www.usace.army.mil/About/History/HistoricalVignettes/ParksandMonuments/048 CherryTree.aspx Vitello, P. (2008, February 21). More Americans are Giving Up Golf. Retrieved February 10, 2013, from The New York Times: N.Y. Region: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/21/nyregion/21golf.html?_r=0

US Army Corps of Engineers. (1998). The History of the US Army Corps of Engineers. Alexandria: Diane Publishing Co.

United States Congress. (2003, November 17). 40 USC CHAPTER 89 - NATIONAL CAPITAL MEMORIALS AND COMMEMORATIVE WORKS . Retrieved March 1, 2013, from http://uscode.house.gov: http://uscode.house.gov/download/pls/40C89.txt

United States Congress. (1930, May 16). Public Law 231-71st Congress S. 2400. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from Shipstead-Luce Act: http://www.cfa.gov/shipstead/pl231_71.html

United States Congress. (1910). Chap. 263.- An Act To Regulate the Heights of Buildings in the District of Columbia, Public Law No. 196. Washington: United States Congress.

Wilgoren, D. (2003, December 3). City to Unveil Ambitious Plan To Renew Anacostia Waterfront. Retrieved March 24, 2013, from The Washington Post: http://www.dcappleseed.org/article/city-to-unveil-ambitious-plan-to-renew-anacostiawaterfront Wolf Trap. (2012). About the Filene Center. Retrieved November 20, 2012, from Learn About Wolf Trap: http://www.wolftrap.org/Learn_About_Wolf_Trap/History/Filene_History.aspx Yost, C. (2011, August 29). Battery Park City: Its a Wrap. Retrieved March 9, 2013, from Architectural Record: http://archrecord.construction.com/news/2011/08/110829Battery-Park-City.asp WMATA. (2013). Momentum: The Net Generation of Metro, Strategic Plan 2013-2025. Washingto: WMATA.

Washington DC Economic Partnership. (2012). Development Tracker Database. Washington: Washington DC Economic Partnership.

Washington Business Journal. (2001, December 17). Planned garden may oust Hains Point's 'Awakening'. Retrieved February 6, 2013, from Washington Business Journal: http://www.bizjournals.com/washington/stories/2001/12/17/story7.html?page=all

War Department. (1916). Development of East Potomac Park. Washington: Government Printing Office.

WORKS CITED

VISION HAINS POINT 2040