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# APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS

UNIT IV
COMPRESSORS, REFRIGERATION AND AIR
CONDITIONING
AIR COMPRESSORS
INTRODUCTION
• Air compressor is a machine which is used to increase the pressure of air.
• By drawing a volume of air from the surrounding atmosphere then compressing
and discharging it to a storage tank under high pressure are the functions of a
compressor.
• Compressed air is a precious commodity in which a considerable amount of
energy can be stored and later it can be released when required.
CLASSIFICATION OF COMPRESSORS
Based on the following considerations compressors are classified as given below:
1. Based on number of stages
a. Single stage
b. Multi stage
2. Based on moving parts
a. Reciprocating compressor
b. Rotary compressor
3. Based on the number of cylinders
a. Single cylinder
b. Multi cylinder
4. Based on the method of cooling
a. Air cooled
b. Water cooled
5. Based on pressure developed
a. Low pressure (blowers)
b. Medium pressure (single stage)
c. High pressure (multi stage)
6. Based on action
a. Single acting
b. Double acting
RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR
• It consists of a piston which is enclosed within a cylinder and has suction and
delivery valves.
• This type of compressor may be single stage or multi stage and may be single
acting or double acting.
• The piston receives power from main shaft through a crank shaft and connecting
rod. A fly wheel is fitted on the main shaft to ensure turning moment to be
supplied throughout the cycle of operations.
• The delivery pressure of air in a single stage compressor is from 10 to 200 bar.
The speed of a reciprocating compressor piston limited to about 400m/mm.
SINGLE STAGE RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR
• A diagramatic sketch of a single stage reciprocating compressor is shown in fig.
1.
• The suction and delivery valves are simply check valves or they may be
mechanically operated.
• In the former type the opening and closing of valves are based n pressure
difference, but in the later type it is controlled by cams.

## Fig. 1. Reciprocating air compressor

1. There is no pressure drop through suction and delivery valves,
2. Pressure is both suction and delivery line remain constant
3. The compressor has no clearance volume
4. Entire compression is carried out in a single cylinder
• During the suction stroke of the piston, the inlet valve opens and air is sucked
in the cylinder at pressure p1 N/m2 up to the end of suction stroke.
• Let line AS represent the suction line in the p- V diagram. The work is done
by the air and is represented by the rectangle under AB.
• During the return stroke of the piston the valves are closed and the air in the
cylinder is com pressed along the line BC on the p - V diagram till the
compression pressure reaches the final delivery pressure p2 N/m2
Fig. 2 Ideal reciprocating compressor indicating diagram

## Air is Compressed Polytropically According to the Law (pVn = Constant)

Let p1 = Pressure of air in N/m2 before compression
V1 = Volume of air in m before compression
T1 = Temperature in degree Kelvin before compression
Work required per cycle = Area ABCD of p - V diagram
and p2, V2, and T2 are the final conditions of air after compression.
W = Work required per cycle

## But for a polytrophic process,

Substituting the value of (V2/V1) the above equation,
Work required per cycle is given by

Equation gives the work required per cycle or per revolution of a single acting
compressor.

## Where W = work required in joules per cycle,

N= rpm of the compressor.
But p1V1 = mRT1
we have work required per cycle,

## For one kg of air work required is given by

Indicated power of the compressor = W × (Mass of air delivered per second) J/s or W
Where cycle will be

## Air is Compressed isothermally (pV= Constant)

Work required per cycle = Area ABCD
For one kg of air work required is given by

## CLEARANCE VOLUME AND VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY

• In actual compressor, a certain clearance space is provided between the extreme
travel of the piston and the cylinder cover to prevent the piston from striking the
end and cover of the cylinder.
• The volume, thus left unswept by the piston is known as clearance volume.
Therefore at the end of every delivery stroke the amount of air filling the
clearance volume remains in the cylinder.
• The clearance volume is generally expressed as the percentage of piston
displacement. Figure 3 shows the indicator diagram for a single stage air
compressor with clearance.
• As already stated, at the end of the delivery stroke the amount of air filling the
clearance volume will not be discharged but remains in the cylinder.
• At the beginning of the forward stroke, air is not sucked in but the air in the
clearance space expands till the pressure becomes p and volume V and then
suction begins.
• The volume of air drawn in at the end of suction stroke is V. But the volume of air
sucked in without clearance is equal to the displacement volume V.
• Thus the effect of clearance in the compressor is to reduce the amount of fresh air
that can be sucked in the cylinder during the suction stroke,

## Fig. 3 Single stage air compressor with clearance

Let Vc = clearance volume
Vs = swept volume
P2= pressure of air in the clearance space in N/m2
P1= pressure of air in the clearance space at the end of expansion in N/m2
n = index of expansion.
The volume of clearance air at the end of re-expansion is given by

## Actual volume of air taken in, Va = V1 V=4

• The ratio (p2/p1) is called the pressure ratio and the ratio (Vc/Vs) is called the
clearance ratio.
• Thus the volumetric efficiency depends upon the pressure ratio and clearance
ratio. If there is no clearance, then the volumetric efficiency becomes unity.

## WORK DONE OF A COMPRESSOR HAVING CLEARANCE

Let the index n of expansion curve 3-4 and compression curve 1-2 be same. Work
required per cycle = area 1-2-3-4 = (area 1-2-6-5) - (area 3-4-5-6)
Thus it is seen that the work required to compress and deliver same volume of air Va with
clearance and without clearance is same.
Indicated power of the compressor

## POWER AND EFFICIENCY OF A COMPRESSOR

Isothermal work required per cycle, of a single stage compressor without clearance,

But p1v1 = m R T1 then isothermal work required per kg of air is given by,

## Adiabatic work required per cycle,

MULTI-STAGE COMPRESSOR
• The isothermal compression requires minimum work, but in actual practice it is
not possible to compress isothermally, particularly, if the delivery pressure is
high.
• So, the compression is carried out in stages. This is called multistage
compression.
• In a two stage compressor, the air is first compressed in the first cylinder from
pressure p to some intermediate pressure p The air coming out of this cylinder is
cooled to initial temperature in an intercooler and then led to the second cylinder
in which it is com pressed from pressure p to p
Advantages of Multistage Compression
(a) Saving in work is obtained
(b) There is little chance of lubrication trouble as the maximum temperature is reduced.
(c) It improves the volumetric efficiency.
(d) Leakage loss is reduced considerably.
(e) It provides more uniform torque and thus smaller sized flywheel is required.
(f) Cheaper material may be used for construction as the operating temperatures are
lower.
(g) Lighter cylinders.
Disadvantages of Multistage Compression
(a) Unit is more complicated.
(b) Initial investment is more.
TWO-STAGE AIR COMPRESSOR WITH INTERCOOLER
The following assumptions are made for a two stage air compressor with intercooler.
(a) Effect of clearance is neglected.
(b) For both the cylinders the compression follows the law pV = constant.
(c) There is no pressure drop in the intercooler.
(d) Suction and delivery of air takes place at constant pressure.
Imperfect Intercooling

## Fig. 4 Air compressor with intercooler

Figure 4 shows the indicator diagram of a two stage air compressor with imperfect
Intercooling. Let
P1 = pressure of aIr entering the low pressure (L.P) cylinder in N/m2
V1 = volume of the low pressure (L.P) cylinder in cubic metre.
P2= pressure of air leaving the L.P cylinder or entering the high pressure (H.P.)
cylinder in N/m2
V2 = volume of H.P. cylinder in cubic meter.
Work done in L.P. cylinder = area 1 - 2' - 5 - 6
Work done in H.P. cylinder = area 5 - 2 - 3 - 4
Due to imperfect inter cooling the saving in work is shown by the shaded area 2- 2 - - 3.
Work required per cycle in L.P cylinder

## Total work required per cycle,

ROTARY COMPRESSORS
• Rotary compressors are used for supplying large volume of air up to 3000 m at a
very low pressure which rises up to 10 bar.
• The compression of air follows the law pV = constant. The index of compression
may be as high as 1.7 if no cooling devices are used.
• It runs at a very high speed up to 40000 rpm. By using intercoolers between the
stages the value of index n can be reduced which approximates adiabatic
compression.
• Rotary compressors are classified as: (a) positive displacement compressor, and
(b) non-positive displacement compressors.
Positive Displacement Compressors
Positive displacement compressors are further sub-divided into roots blower and vane
blower.
Roots Blower
The back flow of high pressure air from the receiver creates a rise in pressure in the roots
blower. The p-V diagram of roots blower is given in Fig. 6
The ratio of adiabatic work done to the

## Fig. 6 Roots blower p-V diagram

Theoretical work done in compressing the air

## Where rp is the pressure ratio

It is seen from the efficiency of the root compressor decreases with increase in pressure
ratio. It is used to supply air from 0.15 m to 1500 m. The pressure ratio is in the order of
1 to 3.6 for single stage machines. The maximum rpm is 12500.
Non-Positive Displacement Compressors
These compressors are also known as dynamic compressors and are sub-divided into
(a) Centrifugal compressors, and (b) axial flow compressor.
Centrifugal Compressor
• It consists of a rotor in which a number of curved vanes are mounted. The rotor
rotates in a casing.
• As the rotor rotates, it sucks air through its eye, increases its pressure due to
centrifugal force and forces the air to flow into the diffuser where its velocity is
reduced by providing more cross-sectional area.
• Part of the kinetic energy of the air is converted into pressure energy and pressure
of the air is further increased.
• Finally the air at a high pressure is delivered to the receiver.
Let p1 = initial pressure of air, V1 = initial volume of air, T1 = initial temperature of air, p2
V2, T2 = Corresponding values for the final condition, m = mass of air compressed per
minute.
For isothermal compression the work done is given by,

## For adiabatic compression work done is given by,

REFRIGERATION & AIR-CONDITIONING
INTRODUCTION
• A major application area of thermodynamics is refrigeration which is the science
of producing and maintaining temperatures below that of the surrounding
atmosphere, i.e. the transfer of heat from lower temperature region to higher
temperature region.
• The devices that produce refrigeration are called refrigerator or heat pump and the
cycles on which they operate are called as refrigeration cycle.
• The melting of ice or snow was one of the earliest methods of refrigeration. When
ice is placed in a given space which is warmer than ice s melting point 0 C, then
space is cooled by the heat flow from the space to the ice.
• The ice changes its state from solid to liquid. This is a non-cyclic process in
which the cooling substance is consumed and discarded. In order to overcome this
use of cyclic process is introduced.
• The most frequently used refrigeration cycle is the vapour compression
refrigeration cycle in which the refrigerant is used again and again by carrying out
vaporization and condensation alternately.
REFRIGERATORS AND HEAT PUMPS
• From common experience it is observed that the heat flows from high temperature
region to low temperature region.
• This heat transfer process occurs in nature without requiring any device.
• The reverse process; the heat flow from low temperature region to high
temperature region requires special devices called as refrigerator, i.e., reversed
heat engine which receives heat Q2 from a low temperature T2 region, discharges
heat Q1 to a high temperature T1 region by the net inflow of work W as shown in
Fig.5.
• Refrigerators are cyclic devices and the working fluids used in the refrigeration
cycles are called as refrigerants.
• Heat pump which follows the refrigeration is used to maintain a heated space at a
high temperature by transferring heat from the cold environment. A heat pump is
shown schematically in Fig. 6.
Fig. 5 Refrigeration or reversed heat engine Fig. 6 Heat pump

## • The performance of refrigeration and heat pumps is expressed in terms of the

coefficient of performance (COP) which is defined as the ratio of desired output
effect to the work required to produce effect.

## • The amount of heat extracted in a given time is known as refrigerating effect.

• The cooling capacity of a refrigeration system is defined as the rate of heat
removed from the refrigerated space is often expressed in terms of tons of
refrigeration.
• A tones of refrigeration is defined as the quantity of heat to be removed in order
to form one ton of ice in 24 hour and is equivalent to 210 kJ/min.
REVERSED CARNOT CYCLE
The reversed Carnot cycle is used for producing refrigeration. It is shown in Fig.7,
Process : 1-2
The air is expanded isentropically from I to 2 which causes temperature to fall from T1, to
T2.
Process 2-3
The air is expanded isothermally to point 3, at temperature T3 during which causes heat to
absorb from the cold body.
Fig. 7 Reversed Carnot cycle
Process 3-4
The air is compressed isentropically to point 4, by the help of external power which
causes the temperature to rise to T1. During this process no heat is absorbed from or
rejected by the air.
Process 4-1
The air is compressed isothermally from 4 to 1. During which the heat is rejected by the
air to the hot body.
VAPOUR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
• The modern refrigerating plants work on vapour compression system.
• The refrigerant used in this system alternately undergoes a change of phase from
vapour to liquid during the cycle.
• The basic operations involved in a vapour compression refrigeration plant are
illustrated in the flow diagram, Fig. 8, and the property diagram, Fig.9.

## Fig. 8 Flow diagram for vapour compression refrigeration system

The assumptions made to draw the T-s diagrams are
1. Condition of the vapour leaving the evaporation and entering the compressor is dry
saturated.
2.Compression of vapour in the compressor is entropic.
3. There is no pressure loss in the system.
4. There is no undercooling of the refrigerant in the condenser.
5, required to drive the system is equal to the difference between the heat rejected in the
condensor and heat absorbed in the evaporator.
Compression
• A reversible adiabatic process 1-2 or 1- either starting with state 1 (saturated
vapour) called as dry compression or starting with state 1 (wet vapour) called as
wet compression.
• Because of the liquid refrigerant being trapped in the cylinder during wet
compression (1 - ), dry compression (1-2) is always preferred.
• The liquid in the cylinder may damage the valves and wash away the lubricant oil
from the walls of the cylinder, thus accelerating wear.
Fig. 9 p-V and T-s diagram
Cooling and Condensing
A reversible constant pressure process 2-3 first desuperheated and then condensed,
ending with saturated liquid. Heat Q is rejected out.
Expansion
An adiabatic throttling process 3-4 for which enthalpy remains constant which is an
adiabatic but not an isentropic.

## Since it is irreversible it is shown in dotted line in the property diagrams.

Evaporation
• A constant pressure reversible process 4-1 completes the cycle. The refrigerant is
throttled by the expansion valve to a pressure.
• The saturation temperature at this pressure being below the temperature of the
surroundings which gets cooled.
• The evaporator thus produces the cooling effect by absorbing heat Q2 from the
surroundings by evaporation.
PERFORMANCE OF VAPOUR COMPRESSION SYSTEM
• In a vapour compression refrigeration plant, when steady state has been reached,
for 1 kg of refrigerant flow through the cycle, the steady flow energy equations
may be written for each component in the cycle as follows
• Neglecting kinetic energy and potential energy changes Compressor
The mass fraction of vapour in liquid-vapour mixture or the quantity of the refrigerant at
the inlet to the evaporator in x

Equation gives the amount of heat removed from the surroundings per unit mass flow of
refrigerant.
The coefficient of performance of the cycle

From the p-h chart of the refrigerant the values of enthalpy at all the points of the cycte
can be obtained.
If is the mass flow of refrigerant in kg/s then the rate of heat removal from the
surroundings

• One tones of refrigeration is defined as the rate of heat removal from the
surroundings equivalent to the heat required for melting 1 tones of ice in one day.
• If the latent heat of fusion of ice is taken as 336 kJ/kg, then 1 tones is equivalent
to heat removal at the rate of (1000 x 336) I 24 kJ/h or 14,000 kJ/h.
The rate of heat removal in the condenser
Q = (h2 h3) kJ/s
• If water cooling is used in the condenser the mass flow rate of cooling water m in
kgls, the rise in temperature of water is (t c2 tc1) and Cc in specific heat of cooling
water

• For the condition of heat transfer is between the refrigerant and water and there is
no interaction with the surroundings.
Rate of work input to compressor

## VAPOUR ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

• The absorption system differs from the compression system in a way that it raises
heat energy instead of mechanical energy to perform refrigeration cycle.
• In the basic absorption system, the compressor air absorber - generator assembly
involving less mechanical work. Figure 10 shows a simple vapour absorption
refrigeration system, in which ammonia is the refrigerant and water is the
absorbent. This is known as aqua-ammonia absorption system.
• The ammonia vapour at low pressure leaving the evaporator passes to the
absorber where it is dissolved in the weak ammonia solution contained in the
absorber. The absorber is cooled by the cooling water circulation.

## Fig. 10 Vapour absorption refrigeration system

• From the absorber strong ammonia solution is pumped to the generator and is
circulated through the system.
• The pump increases the pressure of the solution to a minimum value of 10 bar, in
order to attain fluid flow through the condenser.
• The strong ammonia solution is heated in the generator by a heating source and
vapour is driven out of the solution. Then the vapour passes to the condenser and
it is condensed from the condenser.
• The high pressure liquid ammonia passes through the expansion value, there it is
converted into low pressure wet vapour (about 3 bar). Then this cold and wet
ammonia vapour passes through the evaporation when it extracts the latent heat
from the brine or substance to be cooled.
COP OF AN ABSORPTION SYSTEM
• In a refrigeration plant let us assume, QG is the heat supplied to the generator from
a source at T1, temperature, provides refrigeration by extracting QE from the
region at a temperature of TR.
• This is done in the evaporator and rejects heat QA from absorber and from
compressor to the (sink) atmosphere at T2 temperature as shown in Fig. 11

## Fig. 11 Energy fluxes in vapour absorption system

Linde-Hampson System
• Linde - Hampson cycle is used successfully for the liquefaction of gases which is
shown schematically and on T-s diagram in Fig.11
• Make up gas is mixed with the vapour from previous cycle, the mixture at 2 is
compressed a multistage compressor to state 3.
• By this isothermal compression process gas pressure is increased. By providing
Intercooling between each stage of the compression the isothermal process is
performed.
• The high pressure gas is cooled in after cooler (heat exchanger) to state 4 and it is
further cooled in the counter flow regenerator to state 5.
• Then it is passed through the throttle valve, there it is converted into saturated
liquid - vapour mixture in state 6.

## Fig. 11 Linde-Hampson system

• The desired liquid (state 7) is collected in the tank and the vapour (state 8) is
passed through the regenerator to increase the temperature to state 9. Then the
gas from state 9 is mixed with fresh makeup gas and the cycle is repeated.
AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
The science of air conditioning deals with supplying and maintaining desirable internal,
atmospheric conditions irrespective of external conditions.
The four important factors involved in a complete air conditioning installation are
(i) Temperature control (ii) Humidity control
(iii) Air filtering, cleaning and purification (iv) Air movement and circulation.
• The simultaneous control of these four factors within required limits when
directed towards human comfort and health or when industrially directed towards
conditions per matting the best product yield during manufacturing and storage
can rightly be called air conditioning.
• The importance of controlling the above four factors in relation to human comfort
is briefly discussed in the following sections
CLASSIFICATION OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
The air conditioning systems may be classified in several ways as discussed below
Classification as to Major Function
Air conditioning systems are of two basic types as far as their functions are concerned:
Comfort Air Conditioning Systems
• The purpose of such a system is to create atmospheric conditions conductive to
human health, comfort and efficiency.
• For example air-conditioning systems used in homes, offices, shops, restaurants,
theatres, hospitals and schools, etc.
Industrial Air Conditioning Systems
• The purpose of these air conditioning systems is to control atmospheric conditions
primarily for the proper conduct of research and manufacturing processes.
• Examples are, air conditioning systems used in textile mills, paper mills, machine
part manufacturing plants, tool rooms, printing and photo processing plants, etc.
Classification as to Season of the Year
Winter Air Conditioning System
• Such systems when properly designed and installed, maintain indoor atmospheric
conditions for winter comfort.
• The major problems of winter air conditioning are to heat the air and to bring
moisture content up to an acceptable level.
• Heating is accomplished by electric heaters or furnaces and boilers fired by gas,
oil or coal. Humidifier may be of the simple pan type or spray type.
Summer Air Conditioning Systems
• These systems control all the four atmospheric conditions for summer comfort.
• The major problems are to cool the air and to remove excess moisture from it.
Cooling is accomplished by mechanical refrigeration.
• Removal of moisture (dehumidification) is accomplished as condensation of
water vapour in the air occurs on cold coil surfaces.
Year Round Air Conditioning Systems
These systems are composed of heating and cooling equipment with automatic controls
and associated components to produce the four atmospheric conditions for human
comfort at all times of the year.
Classification as to Equipment Arrangement
Unitary Systems
• These systems make use of air conditioners which are completely factory
assembled.
• A single air conditioner may serve if the building is a small one or, the area may
be divided into several zones, each being served by a conditioner of small to
medium capacity.
• This type of system has the advantage of moderate initial cost and also that of
flexibility of operation.
Central Station Systems
When several rooms in the same building are intended for use which requires air
having approximately the same temperature and RH, they can usually be air conditioned
more economically from a central system than from a number of self-contained units.
Combination systems
• This type of system combines the features of central station and unitary systems.
• Heat energy is supplied in pipes to several unit air conditioners in the form of
steam or hot water.
• Chilled water from the central refrigerating equipment is also piped to the air
conditioner.
PSYCHROMETRY
INTRODUCTION
• It is the branch of science which mainly deals with the study of mixture of dry air
and water vapour.
• It is the foundation on which most of the calculations of air conditioning loads,
heat transmission through structures, cooling towers, etc are based.
• The earth s atmosphere, the air we breathe, is a mixture of several gases including
nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, water vapour and traces of other gases.
• But generally speaking, in refrigeration applications the atmosphere is considered
to be a mixture of dry air and water vapour.
PROPERTIES OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR
Moist Air
It is a mixture of dry air and water vapour. The quantity of water vapour present in air
depends upon the temperature of the air.
Water Vapour
• Water vapour present in air is known as moisture. The determination of quantity
of moisture present in air is a very important factor in all air conditioning systems.
• Moist air is said to be saturated when it contains maximum amount of water
vapour that it can hold. Such air will be invisible, If we add more water to this air,
drops of water will remain in suspension and will make the air foggy or misty.
• If the temperature of mixture of air and water vapour is more than the saturation
temperature of the water vapour, the. vapour will be in a superheated state.
Specific Humidity or Humidity Ratio
It is the mass of water vapour per unit mass of dry air. In a vapour air mixture is denoted
by w.
Then specific humidity,
Where ma mass of dry air, mf = mass of water vapour associated with the above mass of
dry air in a sample of moist air of mass (ma + mf)
Absolute Humidity or Vapour Density
It is the mass of water vapour in kg per m of air vapour mixture is denoted by .
Degree of Saturation
• It is the ratio of prevailing humidity ratio of moist air to the humidity ratio of
saturated air at the same temperature and pressure.
• If w = kg of moisture contained per kg of any air under given conditions, w = kg
of moisture required to saturate one kg of air at the same dry bulb temperature.
Relative Humidity
It is defined as the ratio of actual mass of water vapour in a given volume of air to the
mass of water vapour contained in the same volume at the same temperature when the air
is saturated.
Dry Bulb Temperature
It is the temperature recorded by a thermometer whose reading is not affected by the
humidity ratio or by thermal radiation. It is denoted by td
PSYCHROMETRIC CHARTS
• A psychometric chart is a graphical representation of various thermodynamic
properties of moist air.
• Such a chart helps us to readily measure the properties of air and eliminates many
time consuming and tedious calculations which would otherwise be necessary.
• Different air-conditioning manufactures have slightly different forms of this chart
which may differ in the location of the information.
• But basically they are alike because they all graphically represent the properties of
air. Such as temperature, humidity ratio, relative humidity, enthalpy etc.
• One of such charts copy righted by the Carrier Corporation having dry bulb
temperature as the abscissa and humidity ratio or moisture content of air-in kg per
kg dry air as the ordinate is shown in Fig. 12.
(1) Dry Bulb Temperature (td) Lines are straight and vertical lines drawn parallel to the
ordinate.
(2) Humidity Ratio (w) Lines are the straight and horizontal lines drawn parallel to the
abcissa.
(3) Vapour Pressure (pu) Lines. These are the straight, horizontal and parallel lines with
non-uniform spacing between them. On the given psychometric chart, instead of marking
these lines a scale showing vapour pressure in mm of Hg has been given on its extreme
left.
(4) Dew Point Temperature (tdP) Lines are straight horizontal and parallel lines. The cale
of dew point temperature is shown on the saturation line.
(5) Wet Bulb Temperature (t Lines are straight but inclined lines which extend diagonally
as shown on the chart. The scale of wet bulb temperature is again shown on the saturation
line.
(6) Enthalpy (h) Lines are the same as the wet bulb temperature lines. The scale of
enthalpy is shown on a diagonal line above the saturation line.
(7) Relative Humidity ( Lines are curved lines. The saturation line shows 100% relative
humidity.
(8) Specific Volume Lines are the straight - inclined lines.
The lines on the psychometric chart are drawn by assuming standard barometric pressure
Of 760 mm of Hg. If pressures other than the standard pressure are given necessary
correction shall have to be applied.

## Fig. 12 Psychrometric chart

SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOR
• The process of cooling and dehumidification occurs so frequently in air
conditioning that the psychometric line which represents this process has been
given a special label.
• It is the change that takes place in sensible heat and latent heat.

## Fig. 13 Sensible heat factor

Now we can define sensible heat factor as Sensible heat factor or SHF

• If the cooling process involves the removal of only sensible and no latent heat, the
sensible heat factor line is horizontal and the numerical value of sensible heat
factor is 1.
• The scale on the extreme right of the psychometric chart is the sensible heat factor
scale which is drawn with reference to a point shown as a dark circle on 50% RH
line (near 25°C DBT).
ROOM SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOR (RSHF)
• It may be defined as the ratio of the room sensible heat to the room total heat.
• The room total heat means the sum of room sensible heat and the room latent
heat. The room latent heat load is due to the moisture rejected by persons working
in the room and steam load supplied by cooker, coffee, tea pots and such other
moisture evaporating devices.
• The sensible heat load may be due to the persons, lighting, electrical and
mechanical devices working in the room and solar radiation, etc.
If RSHF = room sensible heat factor
RSH = room sensible heat
RLH = room latent heat
Fig. 14 Room sensible heat factor
• The conditioned air supplied to the room must have the capacity to take up both
room sensible and latent heat load simultaneously.
• The required final condition in the room say given by point A on the
psychometric chart (Fig. 14) when joined with point B, which represents supply
air conditions, gives a line which is called room sensible heat factor line.
• The slope of this line gives the ratio of room sensible heat to room latent heat. A
little consideration will show that supply air, having its conditions given by any
point on this line will be able to offset the given room heat load.
• In other words supply air can have conditions marked by point 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., to
satisfy the requirement.
JAYAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
DHARMAPURI
DEPARTMENT : EEE
YEAR / SEM : SECOND/ THIRD
SUBJECT : ME1211 / APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS
ASSIGNMENT NO 4
Unit - 4 Compressors, Refrigeration and Air conditioning
PART A

## 1. What is a tone of refrigeration?

2. What is refrigerant?
3. How are refrigerants numbered?
4. What is specific humidity?
5. What is degree of saturation?
6. What is a psychrometer?
7. When do the DBT, WBT, and DPT become equal?
8. When is multistage compression used?
9. Why intercooler is provided in air compressors?
10. Define volumetric efficiency of a compressor?

PART B

1. A single acting air compressor compresses air from 1.5 to 8.1 bar. The clearance
volume is 2 liters. The compression and expansion follows the law pV1.3=C. if the
volumetric efficiency of a compression is 85%. Find the stroke volume and the
cylinder dimension. Assume diameter of the piston is equal to stroke.
2. Derive an expression for volumetric efficiency.
3. Explain the vapour compression cycle with the help of T-s and p-h diagrams. Can
this cycle be reversible? If not why?
4. a refrigeration plant produce 0.139 kg/s of the ice at 5 C from water at 30 C. if the
power required to drive the plant is 22 kW. Determine the capacity of the ice plant
in tones and the actual COP. The specific heat of ice is 2.1 kJ/kg.K.