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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand 1.

0 INTRODUCTION Ayutthaya province is relatively small at 2,557 sq. km. and is easily accessible due to good road, rail and river connections and its proximity to Bangkok. Straddling the Chao Phraya River, the nations principal waterway, the province is extremely important, as it was the Siamese capital for four centuries. Ayutthaya was one of the biggest cities in the world, the centre of a civilization that had diplomatic relation with Louis XIV of France. The city of Ayutthaya is 76 km in north of Bangkok and boasts numerous magnificent ruins from its days as the capital. Just to the south, in perfect condition, stands the royal palace of Bang Pa-in set in splendid gardens. The province is also noted for H.M. the Queens Bang Sai Arts and Crafts Centre. The ancient city of Ayutthaya, formally designated Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya was the Thai capital for 417 years, and is one of Thailands major tourist attractions. Many ancient ruins and art works can be seen in a city that was founded in 1350 by King U-Thong when the Thais were forced southwards by northern neighbors. During the period when Ayutthaya was capital, 33 kings and several dynasties ruled the kingdom, until the glittering city was sacked by the Burmese in 1767, ruined and abandoned. The extensive ruins and the historical records demonstrate that Ayutthaya was one of

Southeast Asias most prosperous cities. In recognition of its historical and cultural
importance, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Historical Park, the location of the ruins adjacent to todays city, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1991.

1.1 HISTORY OF AYUTTHAYA The Historic City of Ayutthaya, founded in 1350, was the second capital of the Siamese

Kingdom. It flourished from the 14th to the 18th centuries, during which time it grew to be one of the worlds largest and most cosmopolitan urban areas and a center of global diplomacy and commerce. Ayutthaya was strategically located on an island surrounded by three rivers connecting the city to the sea.

HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand This site was chosen because it was located above the tidal bore of the Gulf of Siam as it existed at that time, thus preventing attack of the city by the sea-going warships of other nations. The location also helped to protect the city from seasonal flooding . The city was attacked and razed by the Burmese army in 1767 that burned the city to the ground and forced the inhabitants to abandon the city. The city was never rebuilt in the same location and remains known today as an extensive archaeological site. At present, it is located in Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya District, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. The total area of the World Heritage property is 289 ha. Once an important center of global diplomacy and commerce, Ayutthaya is now an archaeological ruin, characterized by the remains of tall prang (reliquary towers) and Buddhist monasteries of monumental proportions, which give an idea of the citys past size and the splendor of its architecture. Well-known from contemporary sources and maps, Ayutthaya was laid out according to a systematic and rigid city planning grid, consisting of roads, canals, and moats around all the principal structures. The scheme took maximum advantage of the citys position in the midst

of three rivers and had a hydraulic system for water management which was technologically
extremely advanced and unique in the world. The city was ideally situated at the head of the Gulf of Siam, equidistant between India and China and well upstream to be protected from Arab and European powers who were expanding their influence in the region even as Ayutthaya was itself consolidating and extending its own power to fill the vacuum left by the fall of Angkor. As a result, Ayutthaya became a center of economics and trade at the regional and global levels, and an important connecting point between the East and the West. The Royal Court of Ayutthaya exchanged ambassadors far and wide, including with the French Court at Versailles and the Mughal Court in Delhi, as well as with imperial courts of Japan and China. Foreigners served in the employ of the government and also lived in the city as private individuals. Downstream from the Ayutthaya Royal Palace there were enclaves of foreign traders and missionaries, each building in their own architectural style. Foreign influences were many in the city and can still be seen in the surviving art and in the architectural ruins.

HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand The Ayutthaya school of art showcases the ingenuity and the creativity of the Ayutthaya civilization as well as its ability to assimilate a multitude of foreign influences. The large palaces and the Buddhist monasteries constructed in the capital, for example at Wat Mahathat and Wat Phra Si Sanphet, are testimony to both the economic vitality and technological prowess of their builders, as well as to the appeal of the intellectual tradition they embodied. All buildings were elegantly decorated with the highest quality of crafts and mural paintings, which consisted of an eclectic mixture of traditional styles surviving from Sukhothai, inherited from Angkor, and borrowed from the 17th and 18th century art styles of Japan, China, India, Persia and Europe, creating a rich and unique expression of a cosmopolitan culture and laying the foundation for the fusion of styles of art and architecture popular throughout the succeeding Rattanakosin Era and onwards. Indeed, when the capital of the restored kingdom was moved downstream and a new city built at Bangkok, there was a conscious attempt to recreate the urban template and architectural form of Ayutthaya. Many of the surviving architects and builders from Ayutthaya were brought in to work on building the new capital. This pattern of urban replication is in keeping with the urban planning concept in which cities of the world consciously try to emulate the perfection of the mythical city of Ayodhaya. In Thai, the official name for the new capital at Bangkok retains Ayutthaya as part of its formal title.

HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand 1.2 THE OLD AND NEW MAPS OF AYUTTHAYA

1.2.1 The old maps of Ayutthaya Here found a number of old maps depicting Ayutthaya in the 19th and 20th century and cited following the timeline of their publication. Description: Map of Ayutthaya City Island drafted in the reign of King Rama III in 1850. It is unknown drafter.

Source: http://www.ayutthaya.ws/Ayutthaya-Map.html

Description: This map is in 1926 drafted by Phraya Boran

Rachathain Some monasteries are named different that the ones in the map above.

Source: http://www.ayutthaya.ws/Ayutthaya-Map.html

HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand

Description: This map is drafted for tourist in Ayutthaya in 1957.

Source: http://www.ayutthaya.ws/Ayutthaya-Map.html

1.2.2. The new map of Ayutthaya

Source: Explorer Thailand, T. Locke ,1998

Description: This is the new map of Ayutthaya that located the temples there.

HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand 2.0 PALACE AND BUILDING IN AYUTTHAYA

There were three palaces in Ayutthaya which is the Grand Palace, Chankasem Palace or the Front Palace, and Wang Lang or the Rear Palace.

i) Grand Palace Currently called The Ancient Palace, this residential dwelling for every king was located close to the city wall. Important buildings inside the Grand Palace compound are:

Wihan Somdet Hall The hall was decorated with gold leaf and surrounded by cloisters. It was used for various royal ceremonies including coronations.

Sanphet Prasat Hall This building, in the same design as Wihan Somdet Hall, was used by the king to welcome foreign envoys and visitors

Figure 2.1: Sanphet Prasat Hall

Suriyat Amarin Hall A four-gabled building of sandstone and brick, it is close to the riverside city wall. It was used for observing the royal barge

processions.
Figure 2.2: Suriyat Amarin Hall

HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand Chakkrawat Phaichayon Hall

This three-gabled hall is on the inner eastern city wall in front of the Grand Palace. It
was used to view processions and military exercises. Trimuk Hall Located behind the Sanphet Prasat Hall, this hall is believed to have been the royal consorts living quarters with a regal leisure garden.

Figure 2.3: Trimuk Hall Banyong Rattanat Hall This four-gabled hall is located on an island in a pond at the back of the Grand Palace. Wat Phra Si Sanphet

Originally used as a royal chapel. This large temple


compound contains a line of three tall chedis. This line of chedis has become widely identifiable with the Ayutthaya style.

Figure 2.4: Wat Phra Si Sanphet Wat Ratchaburana This temple is located near Pa Than Bridge opposite Wat Mahathat. King Borom Rachathirat II commanded two Chedis built where Chao Ai and Chao Yi engaged in elephant-back combat during which both were killed. Later, he added a wihan so as to create a temple. Figure 2.5: Wat Ratchaburana

HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand Wat Phraram

This monastery is situated next to a


pond, outside the Grand Palace compound to the east, with a pond in front. King Ramesuan had it built where King U-Thongs royal

cremation ceremony took place. It now also functions as Phra Ram Public Park. Figure 2.6: Wat Phraram Wat Mahathat Located in front of the Grand Palace to the east near Pa Than Bridge, this temple was

constructed in King Borom Rachathirat Is reign.

Figure 2.7: Wat Mahathat Wihan Phramongkhon Bophit Phra Mongkhon Bophit, a large bronze cast Buddha image, was originally enshrined outside the Grand Palace to the east, but later transferred to the west and covered. In the 1767 sacking of Ayutthaya, the building and the image were badly damaged by fire; the renovated ensemble is not as finely crafted as the original. The open area east of the Wihan was formerly Sanam Luang, where the royal cremation ceremonies took place.

Suan Somdet Situated on U-Thong Road to the southwest of the city, this is a large public park with a display of various plants referred to in Thai literature

Figure 2.8: Suan Somdet 8

HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand ii) Chankasem or Front Palace

This palace beside the Pasak River was built by King Maha Thammaracha, the 17th Ayutthaya monarch, as a residence for his son. Like other ruins, it was destroyed in 1767 by the Burmese and abandoned. In the mid-19th century, King Rama IV ordered it rebuilt as a residence for his occasional visits to Ayutthaya. Some of the more interesting sites are: City Wall and Gate These were newly constructed by King Rama IV. The original foundations have since been discovered, revealing that the

original area was much larger.

Figure 2.9: City Wall and Gate Phlapphla Chaturamuk This wooden four-gabled pavilion is near the east gate of the palace and was a residence of King Rama IV during his visits to Ayutthaya.

Phisai Sanyalak Hall

This is a four-storey tower located close to the


western side of the Grand Palace. First built under King Narai the Great, but destroyed during the second fall of Ayutthaya. It was reconstructed by King Rama IV as an observatory. The palace is now used as a national museum displaying China, weapons, Buddha images, sculptures and votive tablets of different times, and personal effects of King Rama IV. Figure 2.10: Phisai Sanyalak Hall

HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand

Phiman Rattaya Hall

A group of buildings located amidst the


compound of the Grand Palace which once served as government offices.

Wat Senasanaram
This ancient temple as Wat Sua is behind Chankasem Palace. The main attractions are two Buddha images that is Phra Samphuttha Muni, the principal image enshrined in the Ubosot, and Phra In Plaeng enshrined in the Wihan. Both were taken from Vientiane.

Wat Suwandaram Ratchaworawihan This is a temple within the royal compound, located to the southwest near Pom Phet Fort. Originally called Wat Thong, it was extended and restored several times under the Chakri

kings. The upper murals in the Ubosot depict


the gathering of the deities, and the lower ones depict stories from the life of the Buddha. The front wall shows the Buddha subduing evil. Within the Wihan, King Naresuan the Great is depicted.

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand iii) Wang Lang or the Rear Palace

Situated close to the western city wall, this palace was originally a royal garden with only one residential building. King Maha Thammaracha had more buildings built, and it became the palace of King Ekathosarot. Later, it became a residence for royal family members. Chedi Phra Si Suriyothai This memorial to the first heroine in Thai history is located at Ko Mueang to the west. Suriyothai was

King Maha Chakkraphats consort. In 1548, he


went to repel a Burmese invasion. During the fighting on elephant back, the king was in trouble and Suriyothai, clad as a warrior, rode her elephant at the Burmese commander, and was cut to death by his sword. The king had her cremated at a place which became named Wat Suanluang Sopsawan. In King Rama Vs reign, after a quest for the historical site, the exact location of Wat Suanluang Sopsawan was identified with a large indented stupa, renamed Chedi Phra Si Suriyothai. In 1990, the Chedi was restored. Figure 2.11: View of Chedi Phra Si Suriyothai

Wat Lokkayasutha This temple adjacent to Wat Worachettharam features a large reclining Buddha, of stucco-clad brick, 29 m. long. Large hexagonal pillar ruins are thought to be of the Ubosot.

Wat Kasattrathirat Worawihan. This temple is located outside Ko Mueang, opposite Chedi Phra Si Suriyothai, beside the Chao Phraya River. It has a prang as its centre.

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand Wat Chaiwatthanaram

Also located beside the river, on the west of the


city island, this temple was built by King Prasat Thong in a Khmer-influenced style with a main stupa and lesser stupas along the gallery. It can be reached by river from Chankasem Palace.

Wat Phutthaisawan

Figure 2.12: Wat Chaiwatthanaram

This temple is situated on the river bank opposite Ko Mueang to the south, in the area where King U-Thong established his city. The most interesting feature is the great principal Buddha image of the early Ayutthaya Period. Portuguese Village The Portuguese Village or Mu Ban Protuket is located at Samphao Lom, on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River to the south of the city. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to trade with the Ayutthaya Kingdom, sending a diplomatic mission to King Ramathibodi IIs court in 1511. Figure 2.13: Wat Phutthaisawan The Portuguese also came as military volunteers in the Ayutthayas army and as Christian missionaries, and they settled at this site. Remains of San Petro, a Dominican church, and some objects such as tobacco pipes, coins and religious items have been found here.

Figure 2.14: Portuguese Village

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand Wat Phukhao Thong

Located 2 km in northeast of the Grand Palace, this temple was constructed in 1387 under
King Ramesuan.

Elephant Kraal and Pavilion The kraal and pavilion is located 4 km. from the city along Highway 309. The kraal is formed by a circular teak stockade and earthen wall which was created in 1957. The enclosure was used to pen wild elephants for battle training, while being observed by royalty and other spectators. The king used the pavilion as his vantage point.

Wat Na Phramen Located on the bank of Khlong Sabua opposite the Grand Palace, this temple of unknown age is of a very old typical Thai style. Most interesting is the principal Buddha image in regal attire and another image in the small Wihan, made of black stone. Wat Kudidao Located in front of the railway station and this old temple have superb features, though deteriorated and decorative craftsmanship.

Wat Samanakottharam Located near Wat Kudidao, this old temples main attraction is a large prang having an unusual aspect. It is believed to be based on Chedi Chet Yot at Chiang Mai.

Figure 2.15: Wat Samanakottharam 13

HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand 3.0 CULTURAL HERITAGE IN AYUTTHAYA

i) Built forms The monastic structures in Wat Sri Sanphet were basically straight aligned on an east-west axis. The main entity was formed by the prasat, the three chedis with their mandapas, and the Royal vihara or chapel presiding over all structures The three chedis, being the core of the temple, rested on a high platform with the later built mandapas (square structures with a spire) situated at the eastern side of each chedi. The elevated platform was surrounded by a walled gallery, running from the Westside of the Royal chapel towards the eastern portico of the prasat, a cruciform structure. On both sides of the Royal chapel were minor vihara aligned north to south. On the north side stood the Vihara Phra Lokanat

(the Vihara of the Protector of the World). On its south side stood
the Vihara Phra Palelai (the Vihara of the Parileyyaka Buddha). A second north-south alignment was formed by the ordination hall (east of Vihara Phra Lokanat) and by the Sala Chom Thong (east of Vihara Phra Palelai). The bell tower stood nearly in the same axis, but in front of the Royal chapel. i) The Three Chedis The first chedi on the eastern side was constructed by King Ramathibodi II (r. 1491-1529) in 1492 A.D. to enshrine the ashes of his father, King Borommatrailokanat (r. 1448-1463). On the inner wall of the crypt is a mural painting on lead sheets believed to be from the period of the construction of the chedi, depicting Buddhist monks walking while holding lotus flowers in their clasped hands. Fine Arts Department (FAD) found during excavations in 1932 in this chedi a stupika consisting of eight smaller stupas, one enclosing the other likely to have contained the relics of the deceased king. The outer stupa crumbled. The other seven are on display at the Chao Sam Phraya Museum. Figure 3.1: Wat Sri Sanphet

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand The second chedi - the present middle one - was built at the same time of the first, to enshrine the

ashes of his elder brother, King Borommaracha III (r. 1463 -1488). The two chedis were lined up
on an east-west oriented axis. Eight years later, a Royal vihara was constructed in the same alignment of the chedis. The third and western chedi was built 40 years later by King Boromracha IV (r. 1529-1533) to enshrine the remains of his father, King Ramathibodi II. All three bell-shaped chedis are identical and were constructed on a rectangular platform. The chedis are built in the Sukhothai style derived from the Srivijayan stupa, characterized by superimposed pedestals - only differing from the latter that they have four outward-jutting porches in the four cardinal directions, decorated with a small identical to the main chedi stupika on the roof of the porch a feature probably derived from the Khmer architecture. The porches have a niche in which a standing Buddha image was placed on three sides. The porch on the east side gave access to the garbhagrha, a small sacred chamber in the interior of the chedi in which consecrated objects, in this case the Kings ashes, were contained. A typical feature of the Ayutthaya-styled chedi is the presence of vertical pillars (Th: Sao han) decorating the shaft and supporting the spire above the harmika. The vertical pillars break the monotony of the repetitive horizontal rings of the pinnacle. It is a characteristic differing from the Sukhothai-styled stupa and this

design was probably for the first time here initiated. The chedis of Wat Sri Sanphet demonstrate thus the

beginning of a new architectural style, influenced by


the Sukhothai art, at the same time abandoning the prang-styled construction of the Early Ayutthaya Period.

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand ii) Vihara Luang The Royal chapel was built in 1499 in the reign of King Ramathibodi II, prior of course the construction of the third chedi, which would contain the latters ashes. The initial vihara had eleven sections of approximately 4.6 meter length, totaling a length of 50 meters. The construction stood isolated from the two chedis already built. The building had a front and back porch, with two entries each. The walls had no windows, but vertical slit openings, bringing ventilation and providing at the same time a diffused light into the inside. Apparently even the back wall had these openings. The gabled roof was supported by two rows of pillars in the interior of the

chapel and two rows of pillars at the exterior, forming as thus a colonnade at each side of
the building, an architectural style from the Middle Ayutthaya Period. Also here is Sukhothai art influence visible as some columns still bear capitals in the form of a stylized lotus. As the gables and tiled roofs were wooden structures, it is clear that the chapel must have undergone many restorations When visiting the structure, a pedestal inside the chapel, where upon once a golden Buddha images stood, can still be seen; including some stucco displaying parts of a lions foot. The pedestal in the back has been reduced to a pile of rubble. The chapel has undergone two major restorations. During the reign of King Prasat Thong (r. 1629-1656) the building was extended at the back, in a way that the 1.6 m wide stairs of the back porch penetrated and entered the newly

built gallery. The second renovation took place during the


reign of King Borommakot (r. 1733-1758). The walls of the front porch were dismantled and six more pillars were erected to support an additional roof section.

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand iii) The gallery The Royal Chapel, was built during the first major renovation in the reign of King Prasat Thong. Buddha images in the Subduing Mara posture were installed inside the gallery, facing outwards (back to the chedis); a bit unusual since Buddha images in a gallery face A gallery, surrounding the three main chedis and incorporating partly the back porch of

usually inward. On the four corners of the gallery, small pagodas - named Phra Agghiya
chedi - were constructed in an identical style as the principal chedi.

iv) The Mandapas There were four mandapas constructed in Wat Sri Sanphet. The first three were built on the square base between the three main chedis. These mandapas had a spired top. Scholars assume that the mandapas may have been built in the reign of King Prasat Thong. A fourth mondop was constructed close to the northern

wall of the temple. The structure

of this mondop

deviated from the classic one, as it was a cruciform structure topped in the middle with a small prang; a bit a mixture of a prasat and a classic mandapa. The doors and windows were in gothic style, bearing French influence. Scholars assume it was built during the

reign of King Narai and housed the remains of his father King Prasat Thong.

v) The prasat The prasat at the west side of the temple was a building which served religious purposes, being a shrine for venerated objects or memorial hall. The ground plan was a Greek cross, while the roof-structure ended in a slender prang. The prasat is a direct stylistic descendant of the Khmer temple. A square sanctuary with a domed sikhara (tower) and four porch-like antechambers that

project from the main building, giving the whole temple a multileveled contour. The building
was added during the reign of King Narai. 17

HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand vi) The ubosot The ubosot or ordination hall was located on the southeastern side of Royal Chapel in front of Vihara Palelai. The hall was rectangular and measured 33 meters by 15 meters. The structure was made of brick and initially open sided. The building was restored a number of times at par with the other monastic structures in situ. During probably the first renovation in the reign of King Prasat Thong walls were erected to close the structure, while the pedestal for the Buddha image inside the ubosot was extended to seal off the back portico. As most monastic structures the roof structure was made of wood and covered with unglazed terra-cotta tiles. The boundary stones,

made of slate are believed to be the originals as they bear the characteristics of the Middle
Ayutthaya Period The door panels of the ubosot survived the Burmese war of 1767 and are displayed at the Chao Sam Phraya Museum. The panels are made of wood and measure 1.10 meters by 2.40 meters. They were beautifully carved in high-relief depicting exquisite Ayutthayan art. v) Sala Kanparian The Sala Kanparian was a building where the monks studied the Buddhist scriptures. Wat Phra Sri Sanphet had such a building, named the Jom Thong Pavilion, though there were no monks residing in the temple. This pavilion was situated east of vihara Phra Lokanat and contained a Buddha in sitting posture called Phra Jom Thong. This location is referred to in the Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya as being the place where King Song Dvarapala and are testimony of the

Tham was listening to the monks explicating books at the start of


a rebellion of some Japanese traders in 1611. The latter were already present at the palace eager to find the King. Eight monks of the Monastery of the Pradu Three (the present Wat Pradu Song Tham) escorted the King away in front of the baffled Japanese, who undertook no action against him. Jomthong Pavilion also called Phra Thi Nang Jom Thong was built on a rectangular base.

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand It had three porticos, one in front and the other two at the sides. Inside the building there were

two rows of pillars supporting the beams with seven partitions (space between the pillars). The
roof was tiered and gabled with rows of pillars supporting the eaves similar to Sukhothai architecture.

vi) The chapels (Vihara & Chedi rai) Twenty-six chapels consisting each of a vihara and a bell-shaped chedi in Ayutthayan style, were built along the outer wall, within the monastery compound. The ashes of the members of the royal family were kept inside these chedis. Traces of lime stucco still can be found on the walls of a vihara on the south side of the temple. vii) The Bell tower The bell tower has undergone three restorations. A new structure was built over the original gong and drum tower, made with brick columns and a wooden floor. The last restorations had a five-tiered rooftop and four porticos viii) The outer wall and bastions The Sri Sanphet monastery is surrounded on all sides with a high thick brick wall with The embattlements on the top. There were four gates built in the cardinal directions. southern gate giving access to the front court of Viharn Mongkhon Bophit, was

called "Pratu Bowon Nimit" or "Gate of the Excellent Omen. Pratu Chong Kud, the western gate gave access to the Tamnak Suan Kratai or the Rabbit Garden Royal Pavillion. The western gate

gave access to the inner court of Phra Thi Nang Jakkrawan Phaichayon (throne hall), while the
northern gate was the entry to the palace. The entry was a long covered corridor (Th: chanuan) running through the palace area from Tha Wasukri in the north until Wat Sri Sanphet in the south, offering discretion and shade. The monastery had two forts. A main fort called Pom Sala Phra Viharn Mongkhon Bophit was a semi- large bastion protecting the southern part of the palace area. From the protruded bastion, soldiers could control the whole southern wall. A second smaller bastion called Pom Mum Wat Sri San Phet stood on the southwestern corner of

the monastery's premises


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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand ii) Population and People The rapid increase in population, especially between 1950 and 1970 Population growth has now been brought down to about 1.5 per cent a year, largely as a result of a successful campaign by the government to popularize family planning. But today the population faces a bigger threat in AIDS, which some Thai experts believe may reach disastrous proportions by the year 2000. Three-quarters of the inhabitants are ethnic Thais, with the Chinese providing up to 15 per cent of the population and the remaining 10 per cent including Malays, Khmers, Laotions, Mons, Shans and numerous hill tribes. The Chinese population in Thailand is said to be the largest outside China itself. Some to go so far as to dub Thailand Chinas number one colony.

Figure 3.2: Thai traditional clothing iii) Marriage, customs, equality A wedding is usually celebrated in stages, the couple being ceremonially blessed in the morning at the brides house and having holy water poured into their hands ) a Brahmin ritual in origin) in the afternoon.

That is usually followed by an informal party. In


rural areas ceremonies can last for two or three days, during which time the groom is not supposed to touch the bride. Figure 3.3: Wedding tradition in Thailand Women rank below men in the traditional order of things, and do not get equal treatment in the legal aspects of marriage and divorce. 20

HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand iv) Language

The spoken word is tonal: the same sounds can have different meanings according to the tone
with which it is pronounced. There are five tones low, high, mid-pitch and rising and falling. Westerners find it difficult to learn when one world ma can mean horse, dog or the verb to come depending on pronunciation.

v) Epic Tales Thai folk tales draw on Indian mythology, using themes of romance or the feats of divine heroes. They were usually written in verse form. Khun Chang Khun Phan is a Thai epic about a love triangle of a woman with two lovers and often recited with a rhythmic percussion accompaniment. Another classic is the Ramakian, the Thai version of the famous Indian epic Ramayana. The version current in Thailand today was written by the first two kings of the Chakri dynasty. It records the state ceremonies and traditions of the Thai royalty and is the theme of the large murals which adorn the walls of Wat Phra Keo, the Royal Chapel of the Emerald Buddha in Bangkok.

Figure 3.4: A scene from the story of Khun Chang Khun Phaen, showing Khun Chang and Nang Pim Pilalai

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand vi) Art A mural from the Ayutthaya period, at the Buddha Kosacharn depicts pavilion, Wat

Buddhaisawan, sailboats.

western-style

The mural on the wall of Wat Pradu Songtham's vihara shows a royal procession.

Detail of a preaching pulpit from the Ayutthaya Period

Detail of the mural paintings showing celestial deities dating from the late Ayutthaya period

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand vii) Literature A journalistic heritage is reflected in modern social realism novels which deal with problems such as poverty, prostitution and corruption, as well as the formulaic themes of cops and robbers, romance and ghost stories. Thailands most famous novelist is Kukrit Pramoj, whose career as writer, critic and left-ofcentre politician eventually led him to become prime minister in 1975. One of his best known works in Red Bamboo, the conflict between two boyhood friends in a remote village: one

becomes a Buddhist monk, the other a Communist cell organizer. Both have a zeal for improving
the village but disagree totally on how to do it. They finally unite to drive out a rapacious landowner. One of the most celebrated of the new wave writers in Pira Sudhaam, a Thai who writes in English about live in poverty-stricken Isan, in the north east of Thailand. His Monsoon Country portrays the odyssey of Prem, an outcast in his own village. He is taunted by the other village children who call him Tadpole.

viii) Artifacts

The Persian style is evident in these A stone pillar which carries the Ayutthaya's included money,pod bia duang currency cowrie bullet inscription 'a monument to the japanese village at Ayutthaya', is found in the Japanese gold ornaments

retrieved from the crypt of the stupa at Wat Ratchaburana

money and coins, which


either took a round or ftower shape

community area to the south of


the island. 23

HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand

The Japanese sword was a popular weapon among the elite in Ayutthaya. It remained one of the regalia of Siamese royals up to the Rattanakosin period.

Ayutthaya imported cannons from Europe. The photo shows a cannon from Spain, engraved with a symbol of the cross and the year 1651.

Pa Lai yang patterns feature designs that Thai people then sent to India for production. The chintz would then be sent back for sale in Siam. The pa-lai-yang-patterned textile was expensive and considered a luxury fit only for royals or nobles.

ix) Religion

Buddhist traditions
Thai Buddhism follows the Theravada tradition, which is based on the oldest Buddhist writings recorded in Pali, the ancient Indian language. Theravada Buddhism aims to preserve the way of life described in those early writings..

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand The other important Buddhist traditions is the Mahayana,

which spread to China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam, and


developed Buddhist philosophy while also trying to make the early teachings more accessible to lay followers Buddhist beliefs Buddhism does not involve a belief in any god or gods. The central feature of Buddhism is the concept of karma, which literally means action. Every action, word or thought has a consequence which becomes manifest sometime in the future. Buddhism is a tolerant religion, and there are small minorities of other the countryside. There is a smaller minority of Christians in Thailand. Muslims in the southern provinces, adjoining Malaysia. They are mostly Sunni Muslims although there has recently been some concern about the growth of fundamentalist Shiite adherents. Three province, Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat are dominated by Muslims.

Figure 3.5: Muslims women in Thailand

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand 4.0 CONSERVATION APPROACH OR ACTIVITIES 4.1 Organization that involves in restoration work Ministry of Culture Bangkok Thailand Thai specialists from the Asian Institute of Technology, The Department of Public Works and Town Planning The Engineering Institute of Thailand ICOMOS Thailand The Association of Siamese Architects. Fine Arts Department

4.2 Management The historic city of Ayutthaya and associated historic towns are protected by various national laws such as:

- The Act on Ancient Monuments, Antiques, Objects of Art and National


Museums B.E. 2504 (1961) and the Amended Act on Ancient Monuments, Antiques, Objects of Art and National Museums B.E. 2535 (1992) - The Ratchaphasadu Land Act B.E. 2518 (1975) - The Urban Planning Act B.E. 2518 (1975) - The Building Control Act B.E. 2522 (1979) - Land Code B.E. 2497 (1954)

- Regulations of the Fine Arts Department Concerning the Conservation of


Monuments B.E. 2528 (1985)

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand 4.3 Thai World Heritage Information Centre Established in 2553 BE. (2010 AD.) by Implementation Centre Committee for Thailands Representative to the World Heritage Committee. The center comprises committee members assigned by the Minister of Culture (Mr. Teera Slukpetch) to support the mission of Thai representative in the World Heritage Committee since Mrs. Somsuda Leyavanija, Deputy Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Culture was elected as a World Heritage Committee member during the 17th General Assembly of States

Parties, 23 October - 28 October 2009 at the UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, France.


Mrs Somsuda Leyavanija will assume her role as committee member for a 4-year term, during 2009 2013. "Thai World Heritage Information Centre A center for dissemination of knowledge on World Heritage : World Heritage Convention, roles and responsibilities of World Heritage Committee, World Heritage sites in Thailand, (as well as information, news and related activities to the general public)

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand 4.4 The Ayutthaya Historical Study Center The Ayutthaya Historical Study Center located on Rochana Road is devoted to the study of Ayutthaya and is responsible for the Museum of the History of Ayutthaya, which exhibits reconstructions from the citys past. The center also supports an information service and a library containing historical materials.

i.

Chao Sam Phraya National Museum

Location On the Main Island, at Tambon Pratu Chai, on Rotchana Road opposite Rajabhat University Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya The Chao Sam Phraya National Museum is where you can find some of the Buddha heads that are so conspicuously missing at the sites themselves. Opened in 1961 and looks the part. Perhaps the most interesting displays are the golden regalia from Wat Ratchaburana, on the 2nd floor of Hall 1. ii. Chantharakasem National Museum The grounds of this national museum are actually more interesting than its collection of artifacts, sculptures and ancient weapons. The museum, near the banks of Mae Nam Pasak, is within the grounds of Wang Chan Kasem (Chan Kasem Palace), which was built for King Naresuan by his father in 1577. Figure 4.1 : Golden antiques

4.5 Restoration of Ayutthaya


The reconstruction of Ayutthaya began during the reign of King Rama IV, who had the Chandra Kasem Palace, located to the northeast of the island, restored. King Rama V set aside the island area of Ayutthaya as part of Siam's national heritage. Excavation work began at the site of what had formerly been the Grand palace. Since then the ruins of Ayutthaya have received due attention as the embodiment of national history.

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand The Department of Fine Arts registered Ayutthaya as an archaeological site in 1935.

Restoration work continued until 1993, when the Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Historical Park
master plan was mapped out. The idea was that Ayutthaya should be preserved, not only as an important piece of the country's history but also as a link in the development of world civilisations. Even thought Ayutthaya suffered a lot of damage, both at the hands of humans during its fall to Burma and by negligence after that, what remains still bears witness to a once magnificent kingdom. In 1991 UNESCO agreed at its meeting at Carthage, Tunisia, to include Ayutthaya in its list of World Heritage Sites. The main reasons were

The excellent location at the confluence of rivers, and city plan suitable for a waterbased community that relied on waterways as the main transportation system

Ayutthaya was a model for Rattanakosin, in terms of city plan, architectural format, buildings layout, place names and people's lifestyles. Ayutthaya was a unique kingdom physically, historically and culturally. Ayutthaya's archaeological remains bear a unique design of their own. Even though they were based on the achitectural formats of prior eras, they were further developed and adapted until they had their own identity.

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand Thailand signed in the state party of ICCROM since 1967 and World Heritage Convention in

1987,
Several years later three cultural heritage site were announced as the World Heritage, 1. Historic Town of Sukhothai and Associated Historic Towns (1991), 2. Historic City of Ayutthaya and Associated Historic Towns (1991) 3. Ban Chiang Archaeological Site (1992). Below are the descriptions of each site. Founded c. 1350, Ayutthaya became the second Siamese capital after Sukhothai. Destroyed by the Burmese in the 18th century. Its remains, characterized by the prang

(reliquary towers) and gigantic monasteries, give an idea of its past splendour

Figure 4.2 : Wat Phra Si Sanphet 4.6 The conservation Started from the establishment of the Archaeological club in 1906 by the King RAMA V. Some establishments of private society regarding culture, the Siam Society (1904).

Private organizations have not had much role on the conservation system.
The Archaeological club was united with other governmental authorities dealing with various fields of cultural heritage, (history, literature, drama, music, and so on), by the royal command of the King RAMA VI.

The new authority- the Fine Arts Department (FAD) in 1911. Since then, the FAD became the sole authority in cultural heritage conservation work responsible for the Declaration, Registration, Safeguard, Restoration work Daily maintenance

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand

The safeguarding task became clear after enactment of the protection of Ancient and

Artistic Object stealing Act in 1926 and the first Ancient Sites and Objects, Artistic Objects and National Museum Act 1934. The enactment of the Act in 1934 was the starting point of restoration work. During 1935-

1962 most of the restoration work was stabilization of ruin monuments and ancient buildings. The restoration work was improved and new techniques were tested after the FAD officers have been trained by ICCROM in Italy during 1963-1977.

The restoration work in this period tried to strictly follow the Venice Charter, for
example, the dates were marked on the new bricks used for restoration in Sukhothai to distinguish from the original bricks. However, one of the characteristics of this type of brick is that since it is easy to look old, as time goes by, the new bricks used for restoration became undistinguishable in a glance.

4.7 Restoration Techniques The Temple Door at Wat Yai Suwannaram Wat Suwrannaram is in Petchaburi province just South of Bangkok, and these close up photographs are probably the last look at the original carving before restoration preservatives were applied. The door was constructed by King Som Dej Phra Chao Sua, the 29th King in a line of Kings, in the year 2251 making the door 293 years old as of 2001 This particular door is a national treasure of Thailand, and is the only door of its kind in all of Thailand from the high culture of the Ayutthaya period. The arts of Thailand is undisputed in international circles, and the history of carving is among the richest in Thailand's history. My documentation of the door at Wat Yai Suwannaram took place on September 11th 2001. A controversial restoration effort was going on in Thailand at this period. A law was passed by the Fine Art Department of Thailand to restore ancient artifacts for the heritage of Thailand. Curators of antiquity were concerned that the original carvings would loose their original effect with new applications of wood preservatives and laquers that would be applied to the surfaces thus ruining forever the autheticity of the carvings. 31

HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand 4.8 Flooding in Ayutthaya (2011)

Figure 4.3: Flooding Area map 4.8.1 Article And Newspaper For Restoration Work Figure 4.4: restoration and repair work In late 2011, as a result of the floods around Bangkok, many of the temples in Ayutthaya were damaged, and restoration efforts have been underway since. Ayutthaya is one of the area that flooding always happen. Most of the newspapers have reported about the restoration process in the historic area in Ayutthaya by the government , UNESCO World Heritage, NGO-owned Global Heritage Fund and so on. Ayutthaya as among historic sites in Asia under threat due to a variety of factors from unsustainable tourism development, poor management and wars. Ayutthaya was severely hit by flooding late last year which damaged 158 historic monuments.

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand Floods hit Ayutthayas UNESCO sites 4 Oct 2011 The UNESCO World Heritage site, Wat Chaiwatthanaram and surrounding historical buildings including an ancient fortress, were hit by floods after an embankment collapsed in Ayutthaya town Tuesday morning. The temple lies on the west bank of Chao Phraya River in Ayutthaya and has been threatened by floods and heavy rains for months, but the temporary mud and sand bag barriers, some three metres high, collapsed under the weight and power of the river in full flood. Officials said the three-metre high sandbag barriers had failed to protect the 500-year historical area of the city that was one of Thailands first UNESCO World Heritage sites. The surging waters submerged Phet Fortress (Pom Phet) on Monday despite efforts by 100 staff from the Fine Art Department to save the historical complex. Tour operators have postponed tours to the ancient city until further notice. However officials said they are hopeful that the surge of water, mostly run-off from dams upstream will recede later this evening. But the damage has been done to UNESCO sites with at least one ancient chedi collapsing under the force of flood water. [Source:

http://www.ttrweekly.com by Wanwisa Ngamsangchaikit

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand 5.0 RECENT DEVELOPMENT AND STATUS 5.1 Early era of Ayutthaya Kao Muang (City of Island) is named for its location on the low planes of the land in the province of Ayutthaya. Four rivers pass through this city and join at its center: the Chao Phraya, the Noi, the Pasak, and the Lop Buri Rivers. Today Ayutthaya is seen as a city surrounded by water. In the past, Ayutthaya was noted as a city near the sea, and was considered important for international trade with other countries, including China, India, and Japan

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand 5.2 Before and After Restoration Work in Ayuttaya

The remains of Ayutthaya were used to lay down the foundation of the Rattanakosin era. Bricks from old palaces and bridges in Ayutthaya were used as construction materials for such Bangkok landmarks as the Phu Khao Thong (Golden Mountain) pagoda at Wat Sraket and Loha Prasat (Lohaprasada) at Wat Ratchanadda.

The elephant roundup took place in the presence of royalty during the later period of the reign of King Rama V.

The Kraal at Thung Talay-yah was used to contain rounded up wild elephants during the Ayutthaya and Rattanakosin periods

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand

Figure 5.1: The vihara that houses the important image of Phra Mongkolbophit after major restoration in 1956.

The

Phra

Mongkolbophit

The large, bronze Buddha image of Phra

vihara during the later period of the reign of King Rama V or early in the reign of King Rama VI, before the restoration..

Mongkolbophit, which has been renovated consistently, is a landmark of Ayutthaya.

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand 5.3 Modern Cities of Ayutthaya Shma's bold "water city" concept is a reimagining of the medieval Thai city of Ayutthaya, that rethinks flood defenses for the 21st century by drawing inspiration from the past. It's a concept, yes, but one worthy of a second look, given that this is a uniquely Thai response to the catastrophic flooding that hit the country last year. Gizmag takes a moment to set Shma's scheme in its proper context: that of the very recent past, as well as that of Ayutthaya's heyday as one of Asia's, if not the world's, foremost cities

Figure 5.2: Shma's consept The relative depth of the reservoirs is clear in Shma's physical model of the

The scheme blurs the distinction between the industrial and the agricultural (and to a point, the urban and the rural), envisaging as it does a patchwork of rice fields, water storage

conceptual Ayutthaya of the future on display at Architect Expo 2012

infrastructure and settlements

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand 6. 0 CONCLUSION In conclusion we can state that in the Ayutthaya era this area likely provided the construction materials for the building of walls, palaces and temples . Besides that, Ayutthaya also describe an interesting place that filled with heritage history of the artifacts, the story of Buddhist religion and have a unique culture. There are several organization that are participate with the conservation approach or activities like UNESCO, ICOMOS, Ministry of cultural Bangkok, Fine Arts Department and so on. The recent development of Ayutthaya are show that the condition of structural and monument of Ayutthaya historical site before and after restoration work. The Modern Cities of Ayutthaya is show how the responsible organization try to protect the historical area from damage by climate condition like flooding. The Shma's bold "water city" concept is one of a reimagining of the medieval Thai city of Ayutthaya, that rethinks flood defenses for the 21st century by drawing inspiration from the past. The Conservation of Ayutthaya Historic City in the past was restricted in various aspects, therefore, it was emphasized on important monuments with more distinguishable remain whereas smaller monuments, archaeological sites, historical places and monuments which were parts of urban

structures. Later On, when cultural heritage conservation concept was widely known, the
government realized its significance and was well- prepared financially thus began survey, study, planning and preparation of conservation master plan in order to realize conservation and development and to resolve various problems which have long been accumulated .

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand

APPENDIX

Flood-hit districts in Ayutthaya declared disaster zones Friday, 14 September 2012

BANGKOK, 11 September 2012 - Six districts in Ayutthaya have been declared flood disaster zones. The provincial governor has instructed river basin committees to work with relevant units in draining the flood water and find areas to be used as floodways. Ayutthaya Governor Witthaya Phiewphong stated on Tuesday after a meeting on the provinces flood situation that six flood-hit districts, namely Phak Hai, Bang Ban, Sena, Bang Pa-in, Bang Sai and Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, had been designated as disaster zones. Up to 5,000 households have been affected by flood waters of 10-50 centimeters deep. The governor suggested that local administrative organizations in the province spend their budgets on financial assistance for the flood-affected. Irrigation, district and agricultural offices in Ayutthaya will figure out the way to drain the flood waters through floodways in order to decrease the water levels of local rivers. The offices will try to protect residential and agricultural areas with the flood drainage channels.

For locals who are entitled to receive compensation from the government, Mr Witthaya
stressed that they must have household registration documents and inform the province of the exact number of family members affected by the flooding.

formation and Source Correspondent : suwit rattiwan suwit rattiwan Rewriter : Surapan Laotharanarit Surapan Laotharanarit National News Bureau & Public Relations : http://thainews.prd.go.th

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HCM 721 HISTORY & THEORY ARCHITECTURE Ancient Civilization in South-east Asia- Ayutthaya, Thailand REFERENCES

T. Locke, Explorer Thailand, 1998 Nastuko Akagawa, Sirisrisak Tiamsoon, Journal of Setting In Cultural Heritage Conservation In Thailand, Department of Architecture ,Faculty of Architecture king Mongkuts institute of Technology ladkrabang

http://www.thaiwave.com/ayutthaya/ayutthaya-world-heritage.htm
http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/576 http://www.mongabay.com/reference/country_studies/thailand/HISTORY.html http://www.thaiwave.com/ayutthaya/activities.htm http://www.kingdom-of-thailand.com/ http://www.isaan.com/en/about/other-cities-in-thailand/ayutthaya/attractions/wat-phra-ram.html http://www.earthportals.com/Portal_Messenger/ayutthaya.html http://ayudhaya.blogspot.com/ http://ayutthayainfo.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=149&Itemid=46 http://www.nationmultimedia.com/national/Unesco-surveys-damage-to-Ayutthaya-WorldHeritage--30171583.html http://www.international.icomos.org/risk/world_report/2000/thail_2000.htm http://www.ayutthaya-history.com/PressFocus2011.html http://www.thaiwhic.go.th/eng/heritage_culture2.aspx http://en.m-culture.go.th/ http://www.thaicruises.com/index.php?lay=show&ac=article&Id=5343309&Ntype=3

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