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Wireless Communication

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SOLUTION FOR UNIVERSITY QUESTIONS

UNIT-1

INTRODUCTION TO WIRELESS TELECOMMUNICATION

1. Mention the differences between 1G and 2G cellular systems. (Dec 2011)

(10marks)

Solu : 1G Cellular Systems

– AMPS system components and layout

• Radio base stations

• Communications links

• Mobile switching office

First-generation cellular systems have been around for a few decades now, and we expect them to remain in place for some time because of the significant infrastructure investments made by operators. All of these systems support circuit data services and may be utilized for various forms of mobile VPN, albeit not without difficulties. This section provides a high-level overview of the air interfaces utilized by most widely deployed 1G systems.

All 1G cellular systems rely on analog frequency modulation for speech and data transmission and in-band signaling to move control information between terminals and the rest of the network during the call. Advanced Mobile Phone

System is a good example of first-generation analog technology mostly used in the United States. AMPS is based on FM radio transmission using the FDMA principle where every user is assigned their own frequency to separate user channels within the assigned spectrum (see Figure 3.2). FDMA is based on narrowband channels, each capable of supporting one phone circuit that is assigned to a particular user for the duration of the call. Frequency assignment is controlled by the system, and transmission is usually continuous in both uplink and downlink directions. The spectrum in such systems is allocated to the user for the duration of the call, whether it is being used to send voice, data, or nothing at all.

Second-generation (2G) digital cellular systems constitute the majority of cellular communication infrastructures deployed today. 2G systems such as GSM, whose rollout started in 1987, signaled a major shift in the way mobile communications is used worldwide. In part they helped fuel the transition of a mobile phone from luxury to necessity and helped to drive subscriber costs down by more efficient

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utilization of air interface and volume deployment of infrastructure components and handsets.

2. Briefly explain the techniques employed in an early AM wireless transmitter

system with diagram.

(Dec 2011) (10marks)

Solu: The early wireless transmitter consists of inductance and capacitance which is used to tune the output frequency of the spark gap. Max power is generated at lower freq and longer wavelength. The transmitter emits the signal either long or short duration depending on length of time telegraph key is closed. The transmitter signal is the EM noise produced by the spark gap discharge.

signal is the EM noise produced by the spark gap discharge. The transmitter signal propagates through

The transmitter signal propagates through the air to a receiver which is located at some distance . At the receiver the detected signal is interpreted by the operator as either a dot or dash depending upon its duration by use of Morse code.

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3. Describe with a block diagram the AMPS cellular system.

(July 2011)(10marks)

Solu:As with other 1G technologies, in AMPS a circuit—represented by a portion of spectrum—is allocated to the user and must remain available for this user, similar to the telephone copper pair used for voice communications. Similar to the analog wireline connection, a modem is also used for data access (see Chapter 4 for more on this). Error correction protocols used by wireless modems tend to be more robust than their landline counterparts, because of the necessity of dealing with a more challenging physical environment with inherently higher interference and signal-to- noise ratios than copper or fiber. The peak data rate for an AMPS modem call under good conditions is usually up to 14.4 Kbps, and as low as 4.8 Kbps under poor conditions. It can take anywhere up 20 seconds or more to establish an AMPS data connection.

up 20 seconds or more to establish an AMPS data connection. 4. Illustrate with a diagram

4. Illustrate with a diagram various signals that flow when call is established. (July 2011) (10marks)

a diagram various signals that flow when call is established. (July 2011) (10marks) Department of ECE/SJBIT

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5. List the characteristics of 3G mobile networks assuming cell size and mobile speed as

reference

(July 2011) (10marks)

Solu: Cell phones and systems are classified by the generation they belong to. Third generation (3G) phones were developed in the late 1990s and 2000s. The goal was to improve the data capability and speed. 3G phones were defined by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and later standardized by the ITU-T. Generally known as the Universal Mobile Telecomunications System (UMTS), this 3G system is based on wideband CDMA that operates in 5 MHz of bandwidth and can produce download data rates of typically 384 kb/s under normal conditions and

up to 2 Mb/s in some instances. Another 3G standard, cdma2000, was developed by

Qualcomm. It uses 1.25 MHz bands to produce data rates to 2 Mb/s. Another version

of cdma2000 is an improved IS-95 version. It is a 3GPP2 standard. It can transmit

data at a rate to 153 kb/s and up to 2 Mb/s in some cases.

3G phone standards have been expanded and enhanced to further expand data speed and capacity. The WCDMA phones have added high speed packet access (HSPA) that use higher level QAM modulation to get speeds up to 21 or 42 Mb/s downlink

(cell site to phone) and up to 7 and/or 14 Mb/s uplink (phone to cell site). AT&T and T-Mobile use HSPA technology. The cdma2000 phones added 1xRTT as well as Rev.

A and Rev B modifications that boost speed as well. Verizon and Sprint use

cdma2000 3G standard technology. Virtually all standard and smartphone models and most tablets still use some form of 3G.

all standard and smartphone models and most tablets still use some form of 3G. Department of

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6. With a neat block diagram explain components of SS7 system and their function. (Dec 2010 ) (10marks)

Signalling System No. 7 (SS7) is a set of telephony signaling protocols which are used to set up most of the world's public switched telephone network telephone calls. The main purpose is to set up and tear down telephone calls. Other uses include number translation, local number portability, prepaid billing mechanisms, short message service (SMS), and a variety of other mass market services.

It is usually referenced as Signalling System No. 7 or Signalling System #7, or simply abbreviated to SS7. In North America it is often referred to as CCSS7, an abbreviation for Common Channel Signalling System 7. In some European countries, specifically the United Kingdom, it is sometimes called C7 (CCITT number 7) and is also known as number 7 and CCIS7 (Common Channel Interoffice Signaling 7). In Germany it is often called as N7 (Signalisierungssystem Nummer 7).

There is only one international SS7 protocol defined by ITU-T in its Q.700-series recommendations. [1] There are however, many national variants of the SS7 protocols. Most national variants are based on two widely deployed national variants as standardized by ANSI and ETSI, which are in turn based on the international protocol defined by ITU-T. Each national variant has its own unique characteristics. Some national variants with rather striking characteristics are the China (PRC) and Japan (TTC) national variants.

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has also defined level 2, 3, and 4 protocols that are compatible with SS7:

Force (IETF) has also defined level 2, 3, and 4 protocols that are compatible with SS7:

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7. Explain AMPS handoff operation using various control messages. (Dec 2010 )

(10marks)

using various control messages. (Dec 2010 ) (10marks) 8. Explain the AMPS network operations for a

8. Explain the AMPS network operations for a mobile originated call (June2010)

(10marks)

Explain the AMPS network operations for a mobile originated call (June2010) (10marks) Department of ECE/SJBIT Page

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UNIT – 2 COMMON CELLULAR SYSTEM COMPONENTS

1. Explain common cellular network components

(Dec 2011)

(10 marks)

Solu:It is very much essential to implement increased system functionality to meet the demands of the increasing number of subscribers with the more sophisticated wireless cellular network. To achieve this the various hardware network elements used to create the wireless cellular network plays an important role.

The network element scan be divided into three basic groups

1.The mobile or subscriber device (providers the user link to the wireless network. 2.Base station ( provides wireless system links to the subscriber over air interface) 3.Network switching system (provides interface to the PSTN and PDN )

air interface) 3.Network switching system (provides interface to the PSTN and PDN ) Department of ECE/SJBIT

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2. With a block diagram explain MSC subsystem.(Dec 2011) ( July 2010)

(10 marks)

Solu:The Base station system handles all radio interface related functions for the wireless network .The BSS consists of several to many radio base stations , a base station contr5oller , Transcoder controller .The radio equipment required to serve one cell is typically called a base transceiver system. A single radio base station might contain three base transceiver systems which is used to serve a cell site that consists of three 120 degree sectors or cells.

site that consists of three 120 degree sectors or cells. 3. Describe the subscription profile of

3. Describe the subscription profile of HLR

Solu: HOME LOCATION REGISTER:

( July 2011) ( 06 marks)

It is a data base that stores information about every user that has a cellular service contract with specific wireless service provider . This database stores permanent data about the networks subscribers, information about the subscribers present location. The HLR also plays a major role in the process of handling calls terminating at the MS. The HLR analyzes the information about the incoming call and controls the routing of the call.

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4. Explain the terms : MSISDN , IMST CGI GTT

(Dec 2011)

(10 marks)

the terms : MSISDN , IMST CGI GTT (Dec 2011) (10 marks) 5. Explain mobile originated
the terms : MSISDN , IMST CGI GTT (Dec 2011) (10 marks) 5. Explain mobile originated

5. Explain mobile originated call operations in a cellular network with neat diagram

(Dec 2011)

(10 marks)

call operations in a cellular network with neat diagram (Dec 2011) (10 marks) Department of ECE/SJBIT

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6. What is the function of VLR. Explain (July 2010)

Solu :VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER:

(04 marks)

It is a database that temporarily stores information about any mobile station that attaches to a RBS in the area services by a particular MSC. This temporary subscriber information is required by the MSC to provide service to a visiting subscriber .

7. Explain the purpose of Global title and global translation for a cellular network(July

2010)

(6 marks)

Solu: Cellular system component addressing

• Location area identity

• Cell global identity

• Radio base station identity code

• Location numbering

• Addressing cellular network switching nodes

Global title and global title translation.

The AUC provides authentication and encryption information for the MS being used in the cellular network. Upon a request from a VLR the HLR will be delivered a triplet for a particular mobile subscriber .the HLR receives the triplet information in response to a request to the AUC for verification of a subscriber. The HLR forwards the random number and returns it to the MSC/VLR and from there to the HLR .The AUC contains a processor, a database for the storage of key information for each subscriber maintenance functions for subscriber and an interface fro communication with HLR.

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UNIT – 3

WIRELESS NETWORK ARCHITECTURE AND OPERATION

1. Mention the cellular capacity expansion techniques. (Dec 2011)(Dec2010) marks)

Solu: Cell splitting

• Split congested cell into smaller cells.

– Preserve frequency reuse plan.

– Reduce transmission power.

(10

• Transmission power reduction from to Examining the receiving power at the new

and old cell boundary

• If we take n = 4 and set the received power equal to each other

• The transmit power must be reduced by 12 dB in order to fill in the original coverage area.

• Problem: if only part of the cells are splited

– Different cell sizes will exist simultaneously

• Handoff issues - high speed and low speed traffic can be simultaneously accommodated

• Decrease the co-channel interference and keep the cell radius R unchanged

– Replacing single omni-directional antenna by several directional antennas

– Radiating within a specified sector

2. Explain the concept of frequency reuse doe cellular systems with design. (Dec 2011)

(July 2011)

(10 marks)

Solu: Each cellular base station is allocated a group of radio channels within a small geographic area called a cell.Neighboring cells are assigned different channel groups. By limiting the coverage area to within the boundary of the cell, the channel groups may be reused to cover different cells.Keep interference levels within tolerable limits. Frequency reuse or frequency planning seven groups of channel from A to G.footprint of a cell - actual radio coverage ,omni-directional antenna v.s. directional antenna

Steps for frequency reuse:

Consider a cellular system which has a total of S duplex channels.

• Each cell is allocated a group of k channels,

• The S channels are divided among N cells.

• The total number of available radio channels

.

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• The N cells which use the complete set of channels is called cluster.

• The cluster can be repeated M times within the system. The total number of channels, C, is used as a measure of capacity

• The capacity is directly proportional to the number of replication M.

• The cluster size, N, is typically equal to 4, 7, or 12.

• Small N is desirable to maximize capacity.

• The frequency reuse factor is given by

• Hexagonal geometry has

– exactly six equidistance neighbors

– the lines joining the centers of any cell and each of its neighbors are separated by multiples of 60 degrees.

• Only certain cluster sizes and cell layout are possible.

• The number of cells per cluster, N, can only have values which satisfy

• Co-channel neighbors of a particular cell, ex, i=3 and j=2.

3. With relevant figures explain a typical cellular handoff operation. (July 2011) marks)

(10

Solu: When a mobile moves into a different cell while a conversation is in progress, the MSC automatically transfers the call to a new channel belonging to the new base station.Handoff operation identifying a new base station,re-allocating the voice and control channels with the new base station.

Handoff Threshold

Minimum usable signal for acceptable voice quality (-90dBm to -100dBm),Handoff margin cannot be too large or too small,If it is too large, unnecessary handoffs burden the MSC,If it is too small, there may be insufficient time to complete handoff before a call is lost.

too small, there may be insufficient time to complete handoff before a call is lost. Department

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4.

Explain the concept of mobility management with the basic performance.(July 2010) (10 marks)

Solu:

Mobility ManagementPaging messages

– Different paging schemes

– Transmission of the location information between network elements Mobility Management

– Handoff management

• Handoff control

• Handoff operation

• Handoff algorithm

– Handoff management • Handoff control • Handoff operation • Handoff algorithm Department of ECE/SJBIT Page

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UNIT – 4

GSM AND TDMA TECHNIQUES

1. Explain GSM logical channel concept

(Dec 2011) (Dec 2010)

(10 marks)

Solu: A single GSM RF carrier can support up to eight MS subscribers simultaneously. Each channel occupies the carrier for one eighth of the time.

This is a technique called Time Division Multiple Access. Time is divided into discrete periods called “timeslots�. The timeslots are arranged in sequence and are conventionally numbered 0 to 7. Each repetition of this sequence is called a “TDMA frame�. Each MS telephone call occupies one timeslot (0–7) within the frame until the call is terminated, or a handover occurs.

The TDMA frames are then built into further frame structures according to the type of channel. We shall later examine how the information carried by the air interface builds into frames and multi-frames and discuss the associated timing. For such a system to work correctly, the timing of the transmissions to and from the mobiles is critical. The MS or Base Station must transmit the information related to one call at exactly the right moment, or the timeslot will be missed. The information carried in one timeslot is called a “burst�. Each data burst, occupying its allocated timeslot within successive TDMA frames, provides a single GSM physical channel carrying a varying number of logical channels between the MS and BTS.

a varying number of logical channels between the MS and BTS. GSM Channel Concept – Logical

GSM Channel Concept

– Logical channels

• Broadcast channels

– Broadcast control channel

– Frequency correction channel

Synchronization channel

– Logical channels

• Common control channels

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– Paging channel

– Random access channel

– Access grant channel

– Dedicated control channels

• Stand-alone dedicated control channel

• Slow associated control channel

• Fast associated control channel

• Cell broadcast channel

– Speech processing

Operations

Bit rate

2.

Mention the GSM identities

(Dec 2011)

(10 marks)

Solu:

To switch a call to a mobile subscriber, the right identities need to be involved. It is therefore important to address them correctly. Followings are those identities;

Mobile Station ISDN Number (MSISDN)

The MSISDN is a number, which uniquely identifies a mobile telephone subscription in the public switched telephone network numbering plan. These are the digits dialed when calling a mobile subscriber.

The MSISDN is consisted with followings;

Country Code (CC)

National Destination Code (NDC)

Subscriber Number (SN)

MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN

International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)

The IMSI is a unique identity allocated to each subscriber to allow correct identification over the radio path and through the network and is used for all signaling in the PLMN. All network-related subscriber information is connected to the IMSI. The IMSI is stored in the SIM, as well as in the HLR and in the serving VLR.

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The IMSI is consisted with followings;

Mobile Country Code (MCC)

Mobile Network Code (MNC)

Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (MSIN )

IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN

Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)

The TMSI is a temporary number used instead of IMSI to identify an MS. The TMSI is used for the subscriber’s confidentiality on the air interface. The TMSI has only local significance (that is, within the MSC/VLR area) and is changed at certain events or time intervals.

3.

List the services provided by GSM briefly (July 2011) (7 marks)

Solu:

Registration, call setup, and location updating

 

Call setup

 
 

Interrogation phase Radio resource connection establishment Service request Authentication

GSM System Operations (Traffic Cases)

Call setup

 
 

• Ciphering mode setting

• IMEI check

• TMSI reallocation

• Call initiation procedure

• Assignment of a traffic channel

• Call confirmation, call accepted, and call release

GSM System Operations (Traffic Cases)

– Other aspects of call establishment

• Location updating

– Normal location updating (idle mode) IMSI detach/attach location updating Periodic location updating

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4. Describe the frame format used for GSM taffic (July 2011)( Dec 2010) (6 marks)

format used for GSM taffic (July 2011)( Dec 2010) (6 marks) 5. Draw the neat diagram

5. Draw the neat diagram of GSM signaling model with different

protocols((Dec 2010)

(10 marks)

OR

6. Explain the GSM network interfaces and protocols (Dec 2010)

(10 marks)

marks) OR 6. Explain the GSM network interfaces and protocols (Dec 2010) (10 marks) Department of

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UNIT – 5

GSM SYSTEM OPERATION

1. Explain the steps for call setup in GSM.

(Dec 2011) (Dec 2010)

(10 marks)

Solu: To switch a call to a mobile subscriber, the right identities need to be involved. It is therefore important to address them correctly. Followings are those identities;

Mobile Station ISDN Number (MSISDN)

The MSISDN is a number, which uniquely identifies a mobile telephone subscription in the public switched telephone network numbering plan. These are the digits dialed when calling a mobile subscriber.

The MSISDN is consisted with followings;

Country Code (CC)

National Destination Code (NDC)

Subscriber Number (SN)

MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN

International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)

The IMSI is a unique identity allocated to each subscriber to allow correct identification over the radio path and through the network and is used for all signaling in the PLMN. All network-related subscriber information is connected to the IMSI. The IMSI is stored in the SIM, as well as in the HLR and in the serving VLR.

The IMSI is consisted with followings;

Mobile Country Code (MCC)

Mobile Network Code (MNC)

Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (MSIN )

IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN

Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)

The TMSI is a temporary number used instead of IMSI to identify an MS. The TMSI is used for the subscriber’s confidentiality on the air interface. The TMSI has only local significance (that is, within the MSC/VLR area) and is changed at certain events or time intervals.

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International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI)

The IMEI is used for equipment identification and uniquely identifies a MS as a piece or assembly of equipment.

The IMEI is consisted with followings;

Type Approval Code (TAC), determined by a central GSM body

Final Assembly Code (FAC), identifies the manufacture

Serial Number (SNR), uniquely identifies all equipment within each TAC &

FAC Spare, a spare bit for future use.

IMEI = TAC + FAC + SNR + Spare

Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN)

A MSRN is used during the call setup phase for mobile terminating calls. Each mobile terminating call enters the GMSC in the PLMN. The call is then re-routed by the GMSC, to the MSC where the called mobile subscriber is located. For this purpose MSRN is allocated by the MSC and provided to the GMSC.

The MSRN is consisted with followings;

Country Code (CC)

National Destination Code (NDC)

Subscriber Number (SN)

MSRN = CC + NDC + SN

Location Area Identity (LAI)

The LAI is used for paging, to indicate to the MSC in which Location Area (LA) the MS is currently situated and also for location updating of mobile subscribers.

The LAI is consisted with followings;

Mobile Country Code (MCC)

Mobile Network Code (MNC)

Location Area Code (LAC)

LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC

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2. How call handoff is done in GSM technology

(Dec 2011)

(10 marks)

Solu:The process that occurs during the handover intra BSC as follows:

A). During the call, MS will measure the strength and quality of the signal on the TCH and the signal strength from the neighboring cell. MS to evaluate and assess the average for each cell.

MS send the results to the BTS measurements every two times in one second cell not only on their own but also the results of measurements from the BTS neighboring cell. B). The BTS will send the results of measurements on the TCH to the BSC. In the BSC, the function is activated when the placement is required to handover to another cell. C). When the handover is done, BSC will check whether the channel had requested be met by another cell, if not the BSC will be the new BTS to enable TCH. D). BSC will ask the BTS for a long time to send a message to MS with information about the frequency, time slot, and the output power for the change. E). MS choose a new frequency handover and access to the appropriate time slot. F). When the BTS to detect the handover, the BTS will send the information contains the physical "timing advance" (the distance between MS to the BTS) to MS. BTS also inform the BSC to send a "message HO detection" so that point on the new GS is connected. G). MS send a "HO complete message." H). Last time the BTS ordered not to activate the old TCH.

complete message." H). Last time the BTS ordered not to activate the old TCH. Department of

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3.

Explain in detail the registration and call setup in GSM (July 2011) marks) .

(10

Solu:

and call setup in GSM (July 2011) marks) . (10 Solu: 4. Describe GSM ciphering mode

4. Describe GSM ciphering mode setting operations and ME check(July 2011) (10 marks)

4. Describe GSM ciphering mode setting operations and ME check(July 2011) (10 marks) Department of ECE/SJBIT

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5. Explain GSM intra BSC handover with neat diagram. (Dec 2010)

(10 marks)

intra BSC handover with neat diagram. (Dec 2010) (10 marks) 6. Explain TDMA concept . and

6. Explain TDMA concept . and its implementation. (June 2010)

(10 marks)

(10 marks) 6. Explain TDMA concept . and its implementation. (June 2010) (10 marks) Department of

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UNIT – 6

CDMA TECHNOLOGY

1. Compare FDMA, TDMA, CDMA air interface (Dec 2011) (July 2011) (10 marks)

Solu: The CDMA is a digital modulation and radio access system that employs signature codes (rather than time slots or frequency bands) to arrange simultaneous and continuous access to a radio network by multiple users. Contribution to the radio channel interference in mobile communications arises from multiple user access, multipath radio propagation, adjacent channel radiation and radio jamming.

The spread spectrum system’s performance is relatively immune to radio interference. Cell sectorisation and voice activity used in CDMA radio schemes provide additional capacity compared to FDMA and TDMA. However, CDMA still has a few drawbacks, the main one being that capacity (number of active users at any instant of time) is limited by the access interference. Furthermore, Near-far effect requires an accurate and fast power control scheme. The first cellular CDMA radio system has been constructed in conformity with IS-95 specifications and is now known commercially as cdmaOne.

specifications and is now known commercially as cdmaOne. 2. Explain CDMA spectrum spreading operation (Dec 2011)

2. Explain CDMA spectrum spreading operation (Dec 2011) (Dec 2010) (July

2011)

(10 marks)

Explain CDMA spectrum spreading operation (Dec 2011) (Dec 2010) (July 2011) (10 marks) Department of ECE/SJBIT

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3. With a block diagram explain IS95 CDMA architecture( July 2011)

(10 marks)

explain IS95 CDMA architecture( July 2011) (10 marks) 4. Describe CDMA reverse traffic channel with neat

4. Describe CDMA reverse traffic channel with neat diagram (Dec 2010)(10 marks)

marks) 4. Describe CDMA reverse traffic channel with neat diagram (Dec 2010)(10 marks) Department of ECE/SJBIT

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UNIT - 7

WIRELESS MODULATION TECHNIQUES

1. Briefly explain the different types of coding technique used in wireless

telecommunications.

Solu:

Wireless Telecommunications Coding Techniques

– Error detection and correction coding

• Error fundamentals

• Block codes

• Convolutional and turbo encoders

Speech coding

• Rates and subrates

Block interleaving

(Dec 2011)

(10 marks)

• Examples of coding and interleaving GSM channel encoding

• Classes of bits

• Encoding

• Interleaving operations

GSM channel encoding • Classes of bits • Encoding • Interleaving operations Department of ECE/SJBIT Page
GSM channel encoding • Classes of bits • Encoding • Interleaving operations Department of ECE/SJBIT Page

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2. Explain rake receiver for diversity techniques with block diagram. (Dec 2011) (Dec 2010) (10 marks)

with block diagram. (Dec 2011) (Dec 2010) (10 marks) 3. Explain space and polarization diversity scheme

3. Explain space and polarization diversity scheme

(July 2011)

(10 marks)

(10 marks) 3. Explain space and polarization diversity scheme (July 2011) (10 marks) Department of ECE/SJBIT

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Wireless Communication 06EC81 4. Define OFDM and explain OFDM technique (June 2010) (10 marks) Department of

4. Define OFDM and explain OFDM technique (June 2010)

(10 marks)

06EC81 4. Define OFDM and explain OFDM technique (June 2010) (10 marks) Department of ECE/SJBIT Page

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UNIT - 8

INTRODUCTION TO WIRELESS LAN 802.11X TECHNOLOGIES

1. Explain the architecture of Bluetooth .

(Dec 2011) ( July 2011) (10 marks)

Solu:Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength radio transmissions in the ISM band from 2400–2480 MHz) from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security. Created by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization.

Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, which has more than 17,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. The SIG oversees the development of the specification, manages the qualification program, and protects the trademarks. To be marketed as a Bluetooth device, it must be qualified to standards defined by the SIG. [ A network of patents is required to implement the technology and are licensed only for those qualifying devices.

Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spread spectrum, which chops up the data being sent and transmits chunks of it on up to 79 bands (1 MHz each; centered from 2402 to 2480 MHz) in the range 2,400–2,483.5 MHz (allowing for guard bands). This range is in the globally unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency band. It usually performs 800 hops per second, with Adaptive Frequency-Hopping (AFH) enabled. [9]

Originally Gaussian frequency-shift keying (GFSK) modulation was the only modulation scheme available; subsequently, since the introduction of Bluetooth 2.0+EDR, π/4-DQPSK and 8DPSK modulation may also be used between compatible devices. Devices functioning with GFSK are said to be operating in basic rate (BR) mode where an instantaneous data rate of 1 Mbit/s is possible. The term Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) is used to describe π/4-DPSK and 8DPSK schemes, each giving 2 and 3 Mbit/s respectively. The combination of these (BR and EDR) modes in Bluetooth radio technology is classified as a "BR/EDR radio".

Bluetooth is a packet-based protocol with a master-slave structure. One master may communicate with up to 7 slaves in a piconet; all devices share the master's clock. Packet exchange is based on the basic clock, defined by the master, which ticks at 312.5 µs intervals. Two clock ticks make up a slot of 625 µs; two slots make up a slot pair of 1250 µs. In the simple case of single-slot packets the master transmits in even slots and receives in odd slots; the slave, conversely, receives in even slots and transmits in odd slots. Packets may be 1, 3 or 5 slots long but in all cases the master transmit will begin in even slots and the slave transmit in odd slots.

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Bluetooth provides a secure way to connect and exchange information between devices such as faxes, mobile phones, telephones, laptops, personal computers, printers, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, digital cameras, and video game consoles. It was principally designed as a low-bandwidth technology.

Many USB Bluetooth adapters or "dongles" are available, some of which also include an IrDA adapter. Older (pre-2003) Bluetooth dongles, however, have limited capabilities, offering only the Bluetooth Enumerator and a less-powerful Bluetooth Radio incarnation. [citation needed] Such devices can link computers with Bluetooth with a distance of 100 meters, but they do not offer as many services as modern adapters do.

Uses:

Bluetooth is a standard wire-replacement communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range (power-class-dependent, but effective ranges vary in practice; see table below) based on low-cost transceiver microchips in each device. [10] Because the devices use a radio (broadcast) communications system, they do not have to be in visual line of sight of each other, however a quasi optical wireless path must be viable

2. Describe the basic wireless MAN

(June2010)

(Dec 2011)

(10 marks)

Solu: Wi-Fi is a wireless version of a common wired Ethernet network, and requires configuration to set up shared resources, transmit files, and to set up audio links (for example, headsets and hands-free devices). Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth, but with higher power, resulting in higher bit rates and better range from the base station. The nearest equivalents in Bluetooth are the DUN profile, which allows devices to act as modem interfaces, and the PAN profile, which allows for ad- hoc networking

A Bluetooth USB dongle with a 100 m range. The MacBook Pro, shown, also has a built in Bluetooth adaptor.Bluetooth exists in many products, such as telephones, tablets, media players, Lego Mindstorms NXT, PlayStation 3, PS Vita, the Nintendo Wii, and some high definition headsets, modems, and watches. The technology is useful when transferring information between two or more devices that are near each other in low-bandwidth situations. Bluetooth is commonly used to transfer sound data with telephones (i.e., with a Bluetooth headset) or byte data with hand-held computers (transferring files).

Bluetooth protocols simplify the discovery and setup of services between devices. [20] Bluetooth devices can advertise all of the services they provide. [21] This makes using services easier because more of the security, network address and permission configuration can be automated than with many other network types

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Air interface

The protocol operates in the license-free ISM band at 2.402–2.480 GHz. [53] To avoid interfering with other protocols that use the 2.45 GHz band, the Bluetooth protocol divides the band into 79 channels (each 1 MHz wide) and changes channels, generally 800 times per second. Implementations with versions 1.1 and 1.2 reach speeds of 723.1 kbit/s. Version 2.0 implementations feature Bluetooth Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) and reach 2.1 Mbit/s. Technically, version 2.0 devices have a higher power consumption, but the three times faster rate reduces the transmission times, effectively reducing power consumption to half that of 1.x devices

3. List the features of IEEE 802.11x technologies.( Dec2010) (July 2011) (05 marks)

Solu: ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on an IEEE 802 standard for personal area networks. ZigBee devices are often used in mesh network form to transmit data over longer distances, passing data through intermediate devices to reach more distant ones. This allows ZigBee networks to be formed ad-hoc, with no centralized control or high-power transmitter/receiver able to reach all of the devices. Any ZigBee device can be tasked with running the network.

ZigBee is targeted at applications that require a low data rate, long battery life, and secure networking. ZigBee has a defined rate of 250 kbit/s, best suited for periodic or intermittent data or a single signal transmission from a sensor or input device. Applications include wireless light switches, electrical meters with in-home-displays, traffic management systems, and other consumer and industrial equipment that requires short-range wireless transfer of data at relatively low rates. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs,

ZigBee is a low-cost, low-power, wireless mesh network standard. The low cost allows the technology to be widely deployed in wireless control and monitoring applications. Low power-usage allows longer life with smaller batteries. Mesh networking provides high reliability and more extensive range. ZigBee chip vendors typically sell integrated radios and microcontrollers with between 60 KB and 256 KB flash memory.

ZigBee operates in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands; 868 MHz in Europe, 915 MHz in the USA and Australia and 2.4 GHz in most jurisdictions worldwide. Data transmission rates vary from 20 to 250 kilobits/second.The ZigBee network layer natively supports both star and tree typical networks, and generic mesh networks. Every network must have one coordinator device, tasked with its creation, the control of its parameters and basic maintenance. Within star networks, the

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coordinator must be the central node. Both trees and meshes allows the use of ZigBee routers to extend communication at the network level.ZigBee builds upon the physical layer and medium access control defined in IEEE standard 802.15.4 (2003 version) for low-rate WPANs. The specification goes on to complete the standard by adding four main components: network layer, application layer, ZigBee device objects (ZDOs) and manufacturer-defined application objects which allow for customization and favor total integration.

Besides adding two high-level network layers to the underlying structure, the most significant improvement is the introduction of ZDOs. These are responsible for a number of tasks, which include keeping of device roles, management of requests to join a network, device discovery and security.ZigBee is not intended to support powerline networking but to interface with it at least for smart metering and smart appliance purposes.

Because ZigBee nodes can go from sleep to active mode in 30 ms or less, the latency can be low and devices can be responsive, particularly compared to Bluetooth wake- up delays, which are typically around three seconds. [2] Because ZigBee nodes can sleep most of the time, average power consumption can be low, resulting in long battery life.

4. Explain the two types of links by Bluetooth standards marks).

(July 2011)

(10

Solu:A Bluetooth USB dongle with a 100 m range. The MacBook Pro, shown, also has a built in Bluetooth adaptor.Bluetooth exists in many products, such as telephones, tablets, media players, Lego Mindstorms NXT, PlayStation 3, PS Vita, the Nintendo Wii, and some high definition headsets, modems, and watches. The technology is useful when transferring information between two or more devices that are near each other in low-bandwidth situations. Bluetooth is commonly used to transfer sound data with telephones (i.e., with a Bluetooth headset) or byte data with hand-held computers (transferring files).

Bluetooth vs. Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11)

Bluetooth and Wi-Fi (the brand name for products using IEEE 802.11 standards) have some similar applications: setting up networks, printing, or transferring files. Wi-Fi is intended as a replacement for cabling for general local area network access in work areas. This category of applications is sometimes called wireless local area networks (WLAN). Bluetooth was intended for portable equipment and its applications. The category of applications is outlined as the wireless personal area network (WPAN). Bluetooth is a replacement for cabling in a variety of personally carried applications in any setting and also works for fixed location applications such as smart energy functionality in the home (thermostats, etc.).

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