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# 414 Compressible Fluid Flow FIGURE 13.28 Coordinate transformation.

CHAPTER 13: An

## 13.10 CONCLUDING REMARKS

The equations for two-dimensional compressible flow have been derived in this chapter and some methods of solving these equations have been presented. Approximate linearized methods which assume that the disturbances produced in the flow are small have been discussed in some detail and a brief discussion of the method of characteristics has also been given. Some brief remarks about numerical methods of solving the equations have also been presented.

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Transformed plane

PROBLEMS
methods such as the finite-element method, the finite-difference method, and the finitevolume method is available. Two main difficulties arise in developing software for the numerical calculation of multidimensional compressible fluid flows: 13.1. Air flows with a Mach number of2.8 over a flat plate which is set at an angle of 7 to the upstream flow. The pressure in the upstream flow is 100 kPa. Find the lift and drag coefficients using linearized theory. 13.2. A thin symmetrical supersonic airfoil has parabolic upper and lower surfaces with a maximum thickness occurring at midchord. Using linearized theory, compute the drag coefficient on this airfoil when it is set at an angle of attack of 0.

Because the bodies that are usually of interest are complex in shape, with some types of numerical method a coordinate transformation that converts the nonorthogonal mesh in the real coordinate system into an orthogonal mesh in the transformed coordinate system has to be adopted. This is schematically illustrated in Fig. 13.28. With some numerical methods, such as the finite-element method, this is not necessary. If shock waves occur in the flow, some form of iterative procedure has to be used because the shock wave shape is not known. One approach involves guessing a shock shape, carrying out the solutions upstream and downstream of the shock, and then altering the shock shape to match the two solutions correctly. This is shown very schematically in Fig. 13.29. A number of other approaches are also used to deal with this difficulty, most of these relying on some form of adaptive modification of the mesh.

13.3. The pressure coefficient at a certain point on a two-dimensional airfoil in a very low Mach number air flow is found to be -0.5. Using linearized theory, estimate the pressure coefficients that would exist at the same point on this airfoil in flows at Mach numbers of 0.5 and 0.8. 13.4. A thin airfoil can be approximated as a flat plate. The airfoil is set at an angle of 10 to an air flow with a Mach number of 2, a temperature of -50C, and a pressure of 50 kPa. Using linearized theory, find the pressures on the upper and lower surfaces of this wing. 13.5. An airfoil has a triangular cross-sectional shape. The lower surface of the airfoil is flat and the ratio of the maximum thickness to the chord is 0.1. The maximum thickness occurs at a distance of 0.3 times the chord downstream of the leading edge. If this airfoil is placed with its lower surface at an angle of attack of 2 to an airflow in which the Mach number is 3, use linearized theory to determine the distribution of the pressure coefficient over the surface of the airfoil.

## FIGURE 13.29 Shock adaptation during iterative form of solution.

13.6. A symmetrical double-wedge airfoil has a maximum thickness equal to 0.05 times the chord. This airfoil is placed at an angle of attack of 5 to an airstream with a Mach number of 2, a pressure of 50 kPa and a temperature of -50C. Find the lift and drag acting on the airfoil using linearized theory and using shock wave and expansion wave results.