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OF AMERTCAN ARCH,*OLOCY RD UNIVERSITY

vol. xxrrr No, r

TEE MOUNTAINSOF GIAMS

A N.{CI^L AND CIJLII]EAI, STUDYOF TITE NORTEALBANI N MOU^-f,rIN GElcs

c]\RLpmNs. cooN

CAMBRDG4 MASSACIIITSETTS!Usl!

PIJ}I,ISIID

BY TgE MUSEUM

ri1rJs RIPruNTCO,

THE MOUNT'AINs OF GIANTS

A IACIAL AND C-IJLTVRTIL

OF TI{E

NORTITALBANIAN MOUNiAIN 'IITDY

GHEGS

TIrc @s

of thc Eloqtork

Clnh -

. FivrE

orSNizrtjon af ftd'n6

i!

r

of

mrl@@l@ in Hdnd

,h*

&frly

Univ.Bnv dd

Rrd-Lfe CoJ.8r -

c.ia

dtbkd

ords o sb@

rud

b

helP

rit;-

,fdi@

dr publiciiu "!d

.xPaG

ror P'olsr

of thi! nmognPll

Tn. foUowj.g PsPle dddihut

dl

h

CONTENTTS

i,

&cn

tb? 'dPL

As.dfusd

Ag.odPidy'

!

i

'hd.

sYPRolLaMs:AGE'FuNcflo{'EN.

THEMo(^TANGgEcPHIMTYP!'

&codn4hde*lEhdc@

$rdi'nquhM,b

Iv.

tu

drG

v.Piatfuldd

vlt'n;r

of 6.

EyGn

sE

s

r *hdc d

ot

n!

dd;hD

b!e;

PbdqFddlf.!e6bd'dd6:

Ra'qdlwfudi!bdyliadb'

rd^Jfudi!&*ddt

Gtu'"r

kih-r

*6d

d6

ii,t" r.-

'

cde

elioclfuhP'gffiM'

n4@|dc4!EMdqtur

Hdfu|!M.od,'4c.q.q

 

n.n!fri.ei'oe.

dft

rc

addhfuo'iqdldE's

.

LNu!6dwfunEEdbyild4d

sti4Bfai@bddo6Pqllg'I

dd

sd6

M*irolN

r tu;dq

I 6d rdts

rs!4b!ddd6!'

LlsT OF TAILES

@eE

Nr'hofigilEqfuilfi.Ili€.

t+

i;.

! ctrsiru

@

t

&rqc

LISTOF LINE-CUTFIGURES

:''edi!sdo'id|qfuiJ'Gbwi

rT!fu'id!trhhddlfu.

LISTOF COLLOTYPEI]GURES

r-dil'nu,ntryPdMstrliiGh4avneq

3i r, e

Lddcd &rh ii sP4 &t'q

Mie

q,,

ra

4 Tub

dDdis '

K's zod' eh&v

bridg. oq

d!

whb

Dd4

$

4 Pec

Jq Mfbjoi

d ei;q

wtu b

4 Td

Tdi,

& oq.dtur

b*

i

sld

Ftv,

Es

'rq

4Dqk:gj!Pofuctiryood!Pdb!R{

4^

twm

rtsn

d

Mffi

(;gft)

Yift

lti

.,AgaPdG&9614|i4i4'hd&.

furt!tKogas'DFb}a*ytrkhdi

t

A crtufic

cr€

4, 4 $trdd

Dbd

Moq6

.,

4

rh

B6ik

9?c d

ft

Ghq,

qonhw&

q 4

PjPhr@ b

r

dd @p.

q 4 rrdv

q t si*r b EY@9-tur6dd

b fty-rddd

'i|@d

g]NF

soP.

4 6 ah! uiddoled

bd.

u, vddoE

b

hld

rqm Ge

.

',edIuhdoidDd@j'irlfu&de

THE MOUNTAIN'S OF GIANTS

AND CVLTUML STI]DY OT TIJE ALBANIAN MOUNTAIN GHECS

R4'i''a

qrb tt' torr'iq

o1 'k q;pat$bb,

TY.:.

THE DINARIC PROBLEM

ENKER (lsJrroro as ih.6d

jor dl,rm;r

bd.6

of lIN

,

tn6

b

rtogd*

ot

th. cwoeipiEl

nI

B.U L.Ler

bnbE vid.

in Bddi.,

Atrlb,,

th.

G.mdr

md th. Adri{ic AIF r hnn&ld Dr

noE dv

b. ftiblrd

i.

dL Bbm

&

j

with

T.nb

ldour

d!ffi

rim

qdion _f!m

md esve

dD-rrh*

th.

M

fdid.

idd6r.

tsoDh wE

M.diE@

r

I-,

difi.gs

Eropd

bnchyephrl.

Alp&

hb mihf

llq

loe-bridfrd-blobby-nG

rd

sbcLt 6uild; Dd nt! BIls. t ud.

Add.tit

o!

Dinqc wirh hi3 p]toaip

i:l

5h

, hs lm8,

Dli@

th.

whor. ncsr

b!i@

ol lrmF

ih(F;!

brr d.

dh.

wh.d rh6c di.otici!

u

;s

'

E.

coii.cdy

ImEd

d.

Dinfic

co

d hrv.

6!a

Dhctsth. b.ei']@-of

ilre

 

Bid.

Ag.

Eri

thd th. id;tgM--ts @ld

tho laM

A&i{ic

.@

A sidnr

fom, tb.

 

Atumid,

hc dro found in thc nouti$

or

ncdlv

hodomff

;.dfri.d.

Alllhii

dd

inc

C

es.

S.n6 n.Nred

ToJry the bininc ;;cohdm

sinccDmilcr's dry hE

ac.

dd

ry6".d

in

of

ob6r.rim

confnnd

d.

Oil'*

.ii*-

r

bc sd

ol $clt pcopL in ths.

hs lllou

ih{

Diuic

b

rh. vhie

De,

Iffi

of Aiic dd OMir

tf,. Indi$

fim

di

nd

!@.

'la. f.tu

bft nry

ud bont

M.nco rnd P@-Tf,*

h1ecl.d to ttc th6is dEt Ditdi-

Adritic

CdFrhirs,

Alq

vith

r s.ll6

id ronhd

w d .nd

xchtic in EjbD., sd b.c6!i

Alhsiq

qF4

lde

th. loel

c'ltio!

i! l biologicd pmc*

whhh m

hrf

'

Lrl

of th.6ly

i:mirl

mrdirl

diF

.ad

s

si

rn

CcM@otr

Icit.

fr

in the wrld.

Didric.Fci'.6

n

rb-

froE

Nothnq codd b. ndi

.mirl

I

lid

flci.l

GiLe

fos

ItiL

u

shoe hdn hdd

.

fthov.d

ol Ne.d.4hrl.

uy or$s Lnom

!

loiE fie

eFw

irq.

r drioaist

rll

ih6.

nnd

*

tb. oppoaiE .ioluti@

th. dly

ImAiniicr

spdir;B.

rn

rdG -ith

FL

fM

slruIt

Norc of rna dLy q@&mybb.

Din

Li6 in th. nucLs id ih.

tb. @6iy

De.[

d'. s.I

w

the ndr

si*

Aurhor vho pnblirh.n b.l@

l92i !.L ihr tllc !.ry edd- Mdd 6. loud

of

nl)lfunai

:tsdy

eGEd

in S.rtui

so

iddioFn.

Ghdi.

$mcd

dE tusc

ehc. in shich 6 s;dv dE Dinrric @hhifr

ths

d.bil rhc DiRii

Mod.m biol@ stuch worJd dillin

b @xy

,

eebEir

ilTq

of6

(:)

b dddib.

7 drdG

A qrtliB-

rnd (b) b.ipl.in

.t

l.s

Ditrcizrtion.

Th.a4.

1. Th. Htbriilidifu

in

'c

rio!

ielv

md iEN

bbrd

of d.nimts

f:el

in a crc

Dodl6ric

r

dt

b*.!n

2 @ts

IdE h-ad.d

lnd

brmd he4

j,q

ldi8

di6.ft

faed,

o

in. orh; mond h;d.d

drot lB4

hish h.rd,

bFrd for.hRd. @

fobna in rlE Fd lsr

Neolidtc om in EF

fre

lonp n@

rffi

Dls-:n

tlle

|lE

bDc

rhe Nar

&51

od

Afrie

ft

dtd

ddinri

oed tlEir oppsiE

ndb.b,

dd

uilordv

M.dih@

snd vhdt @ddcY

bwrd

6qch9@hdv

os

i3 cwoeipial,

mu$lv

'

st!!s

i;uAd

rM

.did

Fpubbos

. Is

Tnea$d

DiMichownodidof

ds

fr@ BmM. As

CoDd

,*uur 6k

in MGoDtuiq

&Ed

DiiGG

plmmrbly

lE

r

Dn

md Lk

d abofr rodda.c,

ninonry. Fn!@u

kic

A* _Ekn -buitb in CFni!

th4

ol rhr(

b.m trrcrnhcd h sirnh

brcoghr bBethd, e Dilinc

fom

might F

2.

Tbt hobriwt

 

Thedr.

As D.ln}'^-

sLTroointsoui nd

s.dcis

row hou tt {

mlhiid

Ek

lLe

!.n

brlltc

U Ditui-

cEqion ! o.ioluridn:ry

m.

s.!.

sst-sdy

md fr€

i'r6c.6., tha only

thie v.

h.rd

m.,

;

iNolRd,

ti.

loh,

10 d@mirc

neclrnic

of rh. DiMc

if

t}'is it

ftfrhmo$,

'tu

6q

rry dm*d

by tsu3t4 res id

Dindic

Drh&Eurcp.?iqor DindcAfleGnInd G rnm orh; A'nljm

rnaftd tetu6,

coloi. iTn. hair loq

Europ.ltr

sho'id no! dif.!

5

5Li4 htr,

lrm

$cn

md eYe

hdr diseibnnon,.n

oI Eurots," I Doined out

In

i2c

rh* rllov.i knbn lhpi

don h:d bm

rhc!ph:I. mderlromrbourntudihc.ntory 'n

dficnft

PoPUL-

€xpsi.nchg

3 rtddY ct

I

:tuibued dris to the slu-

d Euopq

th.

ro ihe forsb dd

ser

ii

eenc€or ^D;wrd. z.n.m d.m€n6dtrilcd ftom Prc-

_N.olilhic-@oll:uoB As i:m.R,nd

hsM

hdd!

x'd

nom_

d

n.n

lrh.r;n

;,iN. x'6rur1v

r rociJlLy5obni.4tddcmhr

DoDuhtion The hi$oricin.R{.

ixihdv u6

rh;r

kilhJih(rehs

E';J;t

virhdrw

rhe h(s

dinihied

rhe gcnrnl

o bmchy

or

du(o thciekcn{.nlu.

n;rti.ulr 'hr he,dron

$ thcnu0nqusoE

q.a*kc

c

y

oil,b $ror

Weitldlcich_hd rc.

diicci!

H.

conein

w.idd.ich 'ir

rhr-,rcocrn

6.

Tn*

nt

ly eken th. P6irion

is, ProgLs'!e vG

rhr bnchl.ephrltzbo,

ludonn :ED.

E@

lons. ndrow sknll; th.t ' rcund hcedb bst

Pc_

hE.'

icanycorec!

rlnd

,nd 'or noroI i

ri

ho doninmt is orc or our Pid.nt subjccbor

$iid

.hims L\r n Produ6 r

tor tn. br;in

th:n

1

lor th. ftqunem€ns of rh! ad

wh.rhd

not this thdis is mech,n

hr don. 1sflicc

nqhf supPonmlhemsniratconcu

bnuhvcphrlvi5cnd.nic

ddnrdon fdit

ofttr con

in .n nob&d populdon n my

ThiDr$cni

frern

,

!ui.d

for suchr

nodr ih. lrndof th. EibslGhqs i5: ,Ts I

ouirry. lidh

Ib Dd'n,rion

of ;ftn eo.ooi0r,r 6c c:tholi6 rd I d0,000

Mcl.ris.r In 1910ie vr. rold th* th€ pop_

ulrion dr i{ndns ur

olic, lhn of Prka

Mo;bm md 6000C.tltoli6 Tns. 6su*s se

,norcthr

prdb$lv ns

rr00 mird 5qu. o rbour,ro'000

$our ll,oo0 .ll Cdll

rdom. oI whom 3000w.ft

hln'd4'h'ktr@JInihdPrq.i.J66

&ia

Ho(*{.

!

mEh 6c

h'Lei

Fiq

{d

Drob.6lY t o lov.

i,aat-mMB

Tn. r9r7 (ffG

!.Poed

-IiIs

io arbxnir: th? rero

isd th;

f@re to r,00r,rrt ol wnm 104,134

Th.

t9r0 ans

a

31vd rbc

3 1 v d rbc

r6t

milt

P.i

Tb€

v.c

Npubnon

ioLlft llnom€F. or ro, Ds squ*

n:unrM

c:th6lic.

d.triry for Albdi.

ch!.

couno: ncdv d,v'd.dd@

I @vr.6

vs

a;thout Rgrd

b

nrv!

d

dbn

bound

Pd

*il

qu.E

oiovince dd 6,tin KNvo

'

squrrc

rlic dsiw

eid

100 iihbitmb

nile in Djbn provincq 7J in sodi

Drovinc'

of Albrni.va

In lerdthehnd ft.

t0,600

niLx. Widr r popuii@. or l,oor,r2a

M

ths

ta pd squrt nilc, not

ror.

Ir w; $bdd

3 froin ac1

ol th. othd

,qAUA,v.

D,bn a

bc .heck.d hy hds

Of rhe ro4,oobCrtholic

.itis,

hnd!. Tribd l.nds.xclEiv.lv C{Mlic .ovd d. I2lt quae njl6i rhose@cupiedby Carb-

olics dd Moslemsogeher

'rn4-

obed tI. Jousins.om.dc

sduL

l

vinE

Tns

o?.Ko$ovF 6 Thi! cr

of ih. Ctholic 6g]16

j'

t

Lst

14,m0It

no norc rhm 90,000on dib{l

14J0squc

$out 44osquue

nil.s

6,y

viih

be con-

. FoPUI

Dd s0@

ridq.d carholic couirry, {d

don.f 4 om rhisYiel& 6, Esm

lhich ,c.od

Sbt iq:

for [l6hm

wirh $a corFded c;nsu' poinrbrtun d,eDibE:nd

M obrm.bo't ?0 Ps sqs-.

hndi, trhich co\er :bour

'nil 6nre

LNo"o hNE

nik

,r00{usr

rbouri60.oo0on. huii,cd rdniry

.quds2t0 H€nrtour6nm{. ol: bul Ch.g

mild. Th6li.

d5r Populion or

Plus o0

Ou .dia

ent

of

I 100mm mY EPGent

mL

0

d, ;

sflels

li4.

or

on. sr

$m;1., conwd

sd

of 'Bdr thi dutt

6 othd.,tional

druil lrss

dnsn lrdmrlluibd rd

hbn.vrG Drftofcrchtr$e. it n!l!d$chief

elds. Fid;m6.

dq l,ti,i

oonorrl. popuhnonbothrcS'ocnLyin non

frmen, wl*

dh'6

ihd.

rnd j. sho{ 3 cmplorc .rcs s{-

qnd

rc difi(driraotr b*.d

r$c.

rndltr

on rk md occuprtio. lve did not n€N&

m

Mu!m.

.^rb1s4

rN

Dr;

d4{n,I

/"",

i,F{.

qu

Jui!

r, Fr,

d,j.(

@

Ior c6$

mu&i!

citiq

eo

vio

Ye wEt nb

id

c@€ doM

to thc

the nombiG

,nd n6-

B6idr th.

dthrcpom.Ei.

d.E

jB.jf

ft

hr!.

&k.n rm!

mitl!

io ddsib.

rnd dn-

cN

rh. mdrd

dd

scirl

.nrt@.nb

in

whicn or

*biirl

rd

not orly d€s.rib6 ihe DhFia-.hdiel

trs

,ko d6sruid

r. of Drin. imodne

in

sdll $€ thl5 is ,bo or

sbieu

fd

ou

liv.d. Thn n:dhl

6

It

irnu-

blr

oi nidng, vhich

i!

ltudy 6 th€ m@rc'mE

.n

th. lrm

th.melB,

q,nnq

inc*d

v.

h

ards';

.hqfl{i.a

t6I

ber on nh. iFaq

ih.ir !Fk6

rc swd.

a@Ac rb['E

Fufthemior., dd

e''urery

ionhjled

r

npomnk,

Ft

iotu€ncG which litanlly

dr

d1. c'i6Ely

*chri.:l

"sh.p. ou

b'bia

@nnbrs

ot udl6q

th.n ih. 'hiL A]b,nid

;hlil

nd

rE

!s{ts c

nNcjn

€m[@F

tD !h.

siil Dlsdc. dd-vhich

.q

ii:t

md 6cd

foloMc

chiDs

re

oth.r F.pls in souh6-

Aria 6ploy,

kmDr b coE! eGry

noi:

w.

m.ir oldim of 6; cde

i!

Eob,o,

icquiE tun

deEil ot Ghq

olilia-

This s Dor. tiorL of €drnogsphy,bn

r.

iitEi€d

s

spcciiely

in the

vhdl. md odrv

'

d

orir

ey

chmdn-

oneof sMd@,

rhE

debils rbn b.d

qbarthtGha'ndhdidA

p€.nr

miomiol

On. Iunh(

Dhc.e

rt

of d€fniti@ is

cNly:

b

dGiribing my olt{r.,

gmDG .n rh. scd. of tio

In

rh. ainognpher hst

lc6+Plc4dG@''q,,'dlddP|!€i

si hissc.r. it sod sFciic

cdtrc

ty iD d.Djr, ;d

Doidi ir ri*,

d

AI

mE-

,ihjcn Doe. d.

cb@

.ithd n cdrDlqiN

do

!hs.

md

dowly siry dNgh

in :

Is

y.,6

b

m,L. n\is tu

nt@

Such g

scific

iim

lofls

s exed rh.

.rhiqnphic

pluot."t

Foi ih.

bre

dI

itu

ndv

rhr .d,r

frrDhic DdHi

ifi

should b. the ;mc bllw

dlc

dft

i'r wbich !h. ftjonry

of ou

Fd.Eic

$bi6

vo.

concciEd ,nd th.t.r

vhich

tnry li.d Mhed

!dul(

Dhvsiel flm.

Tbs

bodi htrdtry

rnd Nnci;.nt

vil

b.

giv.n dnc .totior,

Th.

r0r3 nm

in

ru

$i6

$iti

ThlllrmlBlo.+)ts. ins n 1929-30.Th. nm

!h!,

br9rr.1f

nng€d f'm

ih. grn

13 )6

of rg.

b

shiliry,

m:iodry b.dm

:J :nd 49.

W. didoorm€lry-

d*

{s

1360or du.r

of biril'

tor dr naMrion

lscq vftn . nnqe of fod

w. rdd20vs

eees

dr! mge riH from lhot

1330to th.

a*.

of ndsnfis,

vitl

ib rd

4 lelo.

Ou

.dn@Dhic

rd.nr

b

rfiscf@

t

dc

b.nd 2 di.:ila

ddq

com.ndred r

lhe

pdiod Isco-roio, At thh in.

rh. momein

dthrl :'E

of Gh@L

foded.

lile

the Gr

ot Albhia

pm of the Tu rish Empire zdd

dE hmic

.tc of fnilv

f€ndsmd iimibrl

 

wrtu

M-h

ftll siiq.

In th. cDltul

d-

scriDoo6 sikn

osirnd oiDprtid

*is

lPecGd w

in chr;tu

, ilmush 6, Riturl Ufq"

on

Tannol-

hrE relm.

d

y to tti;

' (sdPdd {d

trhdd

noDebdIo4u@Picdd.

LAND Of THE HIGHLAND GHEGS

.-r1HE

I

mdi

FDL

;e

who f.rm d.

the nomEin(a

d

ci.n

bv dE ri6

ohi.ct of tl

.ithE sid. of

t

;ho i.h$E

@ iE

%y

ihc Din dc nouEin

de

EorF s

Ddn

6vns rlong th. SerbGAl6rid

s.d

bord.r vhid

s u .cfromic

ddd

for both D.oDl6

Thb .thnic

Scv.r:l vhol.

bordd

eibd

is lr

frm

of Gh@

cfard,

lirc

on tnr

f@-rhi

Ssbiri

DLr

o

dr

A&irdc

Md!

Kosdo

DLir

rllru

wltn eilLc

of S.rbd

oI their couEa [asicid.

the Fliticd

bomd-

Th.

udbE

of d*

l,owld;

chs

ni-

of Albria

blr

 

ffi

oI ii hr.

bel@.d

geEd rnc

i!

th. dft

of rhc Tu[s, .6r

rnc

'd6

D Y@o6hvi f;r

tlle Dd

n\ird oI .

@|;ry.

d.Id

ol

tlk

Trr

D6hd

1rs.

dbbc.d

Th.y-sF,I

 

dr

nonriem of thr 2 Albinir

GhlE m Dmb,slv d.sdd.d

lrm

thahiqh-

l{siaa,

or dirlE6,r

Gh.q, Thly

c

nor

Irnd-Eiba but n vould Ek much wdf@

hofoir.

thr o.lv Gh.s $a!6.

Thd

r

eblih

th.n dd

r.LiiochiF.

W.

re

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