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Diod semiconductoare

De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liber

Simbolul diodei

Dioda semiconductoare este un dispozitiv electronic constituit dintr-o jonciune pn prevzut cu contacte metalice la regiunile p i n i introdus ntr-o capsul din sticl, metal, ceramic sau plastic[1]. Regiunea p a jonciunii constituie anodul diodei, iar jonciunea n , catodul. Dioda semiconductoare se caracterizeaz prin conductivitate unidirecional, ca i dioda cu vid:


- n cazul polarizrii n sens direct permite trecerea unui curent mare (curent direct), - n cazul polarizrii n sens invers permite trecerea unui curent mic (curent invers).

[modificare]Clasificare
Dup materialul din care se realizeaz:

- diod cu germaniu, - diod cu siliciu.

Dup caracteristicile jonciunii:

- diod redresoare - diod stabilizatoare de tensiune (diod Zener) - diod de comutaie - diod cu capacitate variabil (varactor sau varicap) - diod tunel - diod diac - diod Gunn

Principalele caracteristici ale diodelor, trecute n cataloage, sunt urmtoarele: VRRM - tensiunea invers repetitiv maxim, este tensiunea maxim invers la care poate rezista dioda, atunci cnd aceast tensiune este atins n mod repetat. Ideal, aceast valoare ar fi infinit.

VR sau VDC - tensiunea maxim invers de curent continuu, este valoarea maxim a tensiunii la care dioda poate funciona nentrerupt, fr distrugerea acesteia. Ideal, aceast valoare a fi infinit. VF - tensiunea (de polarizare) direct maxim, de obicei este specificat mpreun cu valoarea curentului direct. Ideal, aceast valoare ar fi zero: ideal, dioda nu ar prezenta niciun fel de opoziie n faa deplasrii electronilor. n realitate, tensiunea direct este descris de ecuaia diodei. IF(AV) - valoarea maxim (medie) a curentului direct, valoarea maxim medie a curentului pe care bobina o poate suport la polarizarea direct. Aceast limitarea este practic o limitare termic: ct cldur poate suporta jonciunea P-N, avnd n vedere c puterea disipat reprezint produsul dintre curent i tensiune, iar tensiunea de polarizare direct depinde att de curent ct i de temperatura jonciunii. Ideal, aceast valoare ar fi infinit. IFSM sau if(vrf) - curentul de polarizare direct maxim, reprezint curentul de vrf maxim pe care dioda l poate conduce la polarizare direct, fr ca acest curent s duc la distrugerea diodei. Din nou, aceast valoare este limitat de capacitatea termic a jonciunii diodei, i este de obicei mult mai mare dect valoarea curentului mediu datorit ineriei termice. Ideal, aceast valoare ar fi infinit. PD - puterea maxim disipat total, reprezint valoarea puterii (n Watt) pe care dioda o poate disipa fr ca aceast putere s duc la distrugerea diodei. Aceast valoare este limitat de capacitatea termic a diodei. Ideal, aceast valoare ar fi infinit. TJ - temperatura de funcionare a jonciunii, reprezint temperatura maxim admis a jonciunii P -N a diodei, valoare dat de obicei n oC. Cldura reprezint punctul critic al dispozitivelor semiconductoare: acestea trebuie meninute la o temperatur ct mai apropiat de temperatura camerei pentru funcionarea lor corect i o durat de funcionare ct mai lung. TSTG - temperatura de depozitare, reprezint valoarea temperaturii de stocare a diodelor (nepolarizate). R() - rezistena termic, reprezint diferena dintre temperatura jonciunii i temperatura aerului exterior diodei (R()JA), sau dintre jonciune i contacte (R()JL), pentru o anumit putere disipat. Valoarea este exprimat n oC/W. Ideal, aceast valoare ar fi zero, ceea ce ar nseamna c nveliul (carcasa) diodei ar fi un conductor i radiator termic perfect, fiind capabil s transfere energie sub form de cldur dinspre jonciune spre mediul exterior (sau spre contacte) fr nicio diferen de temperatur existent n grosimea carcasei. O rezisten termic ridicat se traduce prin faptul c dioda va stoca o temperatur excesiv n jurul jonciunii (punctul critic), n ciuda eforturilor susinute de rcire a mediului exterior diodei; acest lucru duce la limitarea puterii maxime disipate. IR - curentul maxim de polarizare invers, reprezint valoarea curentului prin diod la polarizarea invers i aplicarea tensiunii de polarizare invers maxim de curent continuu(VDC). Mai este cunoscut i sub numele de curent de scpri. Ideal, aceast valoare ar fi zero, deoarece o diod perfect ar bloca toi curenii atunci cnd

este polarizat invers. n realitate, aceast valoarea este mic n comparaie cu valoarea curentului maxim de polarizare direct. CJ - capacitatea tipic a jonciunii, reprezint capacitatea intrinsec jonciunii, datorit comportrii zonei de golire precum un dielectric ntre anod i catod. Aceast valoare este de obicei foarte mic, de ordinul picofarazilor (pF). trr - timpul de revenire invers, reprezint durata de timp necesar stingerii diodei atunci cnd tensiunea la bornele sale alterneaz ntre polarizare direct i polarizare invers. Ideal, aceast valoare ar fi zero: dioda se stinge imediat dup inversarea polaritii. Pentru o diod redresoare tipic, timpul de revenire este de ordinul zecilor de microsecunde (ms); pentru o diod de comutaie rapid, acest timp poate ajunge la doar cteva nanosecunde (ns).

Convertorul buck (Wikipedia)

A buck converter is a step-down DC to DC converter. Its design is similar to the step-up boost converter, and like the boost converter it is a switched-mode power supply that uses two switches (a transistor and a diode), an inductor and a capacitor. The simplest way to reduce the voltage of a DC supply is to use a linear regulator (such as a 7805), but linear regulators waste energy as they operate by dissipating excess power as heat. Buck converters, on the other hand, can be remarkably efficient (95% or higher for integrated circuits), making them useful for tasks such as converting the main voltage in a computer (12 V in a desktop, 12-24 V in a laptop) down to the 0.8-1.8 volts needed by the processor.
Contents
[hide]

1 Theory of operation

o o o o o

1.1 Conceptual Overview 1.2 Continuous mode 1.3 Discontinuous mode 1.4 From discontinuous to continuous mode (and vice versa) 1.5 Non-ideal circuit

1.5.1 Output voltage ripple 1.5.2 Effects of non-ideality on the efficiency

1.6 Specific structures

1.6.1 Synchronous rectification 1.6.2 Multiphase buck

2 Efficiency factors 3 Impedance matching 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

[edit]Theory

of operation

Fig. 1: Buck converter circuit diagram.

Fig. 2: The two circuit configurations of a buck converter: On-state, when the switch is closed, and Off-state, when the switch is open (Arrows indicate current as the conventional flow model).

Fig. 3: Naming conventions of the components, voltages and current of the buck converter.

Fig. 4: Evolution of the voltages and currents with time in an ideal buck converter operating in continuous mode.

The operation of the buck converter is fairly simple, with an inductor and two switches (usually a transistor and a diode) that control the inductor converter. In the idealised converter, all the components are considered to be perfect. Specifically, the switch and the diode have zero voltage drop when on and zero current flow when off and the inductor has zero series resistance. Further, it is assumed that the input and output voltages do not change over the course of a cycle (this would imply the output capacitance as being infinite). [edit]Conceptual

Overview

The conceptual model of the buck converter is best understood in terms of an inductor's "reluctance" to allow a change in current. Beginning with the switch open (in the "off" position), the current in the circuit is 0. When the switch is first closed, the current will begin to increase, but the inductor doesn't want it to change from 0, so it will attempt to fight the increase by dropping a voltage. This voltage drop counteracts the voltage of the source and therefore reduces the net voltage across the load. Over time, the inductor

will allow the current to increase slowly by decreasing the voltage it drops and therefore increasing the net voltage seen by the load. During this time, the inductor is storing energy in the form of a magnetic field. If the switch is opened before the inductor has fully charged (i.e., before it has allowed all of the current to pass through by reducing its own voltage drop to 0), then there will always be a voltage drop across it, so the net voltage seen by the load will always be less than the input voltage source. When the switch is opened again, the voltage source will be removed from the circuit, so the current will try to drop. Again, the inductor will try to fight against it changing, which it does by reversing the direction of its voltage and acting like a voltage source. Put another way, there is a certain current flowing through the load due to the input voltage source: in order to maintain this current when the input source is removed, the inductor will have to take the place of the voltage source and provide the same net voltage to the load. Over time, the inductor will allow the current to decrease gradually, which it does by decreasing the voltage across itself. During this time, the inductor is discharging its stored energy into the rest of the circuit If the switch is closed again before the inductor fully discharges, the load will always see a non-zero voltage. The capacitor placed in parallel with the load helps to smooth out voltage waveform as the inductor charges and discharges in each cycle. [edit]Continuous

mode

A buck converter operates in continuous mode if the current through the inductor (IL) never falls to zero during the commutation cycle. In this mode, the operating principle is described by the plots in figure 4: When the switch pictured above is closed (On-state, top of figure 2), the voltage across the inductor is . The current through the inductor rises linearly. As the diode is reverse-biased

by the voltage source V, no current flows through it; When the switch is opened (off state, bottom of figure 2), the diode is forward biased. The voltage across the inductor is The energy stored in inductor L is (neglecting diode drop). Current IL decreases.

Therefore, it can be seen that the energy stored in L increases during On-time (as IL increases) and then decreases during the Off-state. L is used to transfer energy from the input to the output of the converter. The rate of change of IL can be calculated from:

With VL equal to

during the On-state and to

during the Off-state. Therefore, the

increase in current during the On-state is given by:

Identically, the decrease in current during the Off-state is given by:

If we assume that the converter operates in steady state, the energy stored in each component at the end of a commutation cycle T is equal to that at the beginning of the cycle. That means that the current IL is the same at t=0 and at t=T (see figure 4). So we can write from the above equations:

It is worth noting that the above integrations can be done graphically: In figure 4, is proportional to the area of the yellow surface, and to the

area of the orange surface, as these surfaces are defined by the inductor voltage (red) curve. As these surfaces are simple rectangles, their areas can be found easily: for the yellow rectangle and for the orange one.

For steady state operation, these areas must be equal. As can be seen on figure 4, and . D is a scalar called

the duty cycle with a value between 0 and 1. This yields:

From this equation, it can be seen that the output voltage of the converter varies linearly with the duty cycle for a given input voltage. As the duty cycle D is equal to the ratio between tOn and the period T, it cannot be more than 1. Therefore, converter. . This is why this converter is referred to as step-down

So, for example, stepping 12 V down to 3 V (output voltage equal to a fourth of the input voltage) would require a duty cycle of 25%, in our theoretically ideal circuit. [edit]Discontinuous

mode

In some cases, the amount of energy required by the load is too small. In this case, the current through the inductor falls to zero during part of the period. The only difference in the principle described above is that the inductor is completely discharged at the end of the commutation cycle (see figure 5). This has, however, some effect on the previous equations.

Fig. 5: Evolution of the voltages and currents with time in an ideal buck converter operating in discontinuous mode.

We still consider that the converter operates in steady state. Therefore, the energy in the inductor is the same at the beginning and at the end of the cycle (in the case of discontinuous mode, it is zero). This means that the average value of the inductor voltage (VL) is zero; i.e., that the area of the yellow and orange rectangles in figure 5 are the same. This yields:

So the value of is:

The output current delivered to the load (

) is constant, as we

consider that the output capacitor is large enough to maintain a constant voltage across its terminals during a commutation cycle. This implies that the current flowing through the capacitor has a zero average value. Therefore, we have :

Where

is the average value of the inductor current. As can be

seen in figure 5, the inductor current waveform has a triangular shape. Therefore, the average value of IL can be sorted out geometrically as follow:

The inductor current is zero at the beginning and rises during ton up to ILmax. That means that ILmax is equal to:

Substituting the value of ILmax in the previous equation leads to:

And substituting by the expression given above yields:

This expression can be rewritten as:

It can be seen that the output voltage of a buck converter operating in discontinuous

mode is much more complicated than its counterpart of the continuous mode.

Furthermore, the output voltage is now a function not only of the input voltage (Vi) and the duty cycle D, but also of the inductor value (L), the commutation period (T) and the output current (Io). [edit]From

discontinuous to continuous mode (and vice versa)

Fig. 6: Evolution of the normalized output voltages with the normalized output current.

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