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2010-2012

MANUAL DE EDUCAIE OUTDOOR

OUTDOOR EDUCATION MANUAL

COMENIUS REGIO PARTNERSHIP

ECO- EDU BEYOND RHETORIC PROJECT (Szn tesinde evre ve Eitim Projesi)

CUPRINS INTRODUCERE I INTRODUCERE N EDUCAIA OUTDOOR 1. DEFINIIA EDUCAIEI OUTDOOR 2. FORMELE EDUCAIEI 5 9 4

II EXEMPLIFICAREA ABORDRII EDUCAIEI OUTDOOR PENTRU DIFERITE DISCIPLINE COLARE 1.CURRICULA COLAR VERSUS EDUCAIA OUTDOOR 2. EXEMPLE PRACTICE DE INTEGRARE A EDUCAIEI OUTDOOR N CADRUL CURRICULEI COLARE Limb i comunicare Matematic i tiine Om i societate Arte Educaie fizic i sport Educaie ecologic Educaia outdoor-metod de stimulare a creativitii elevilor o viziune a Cercetailor Metode de stimulare a creativitii elevilor Jocuri de exterior Jocuri cerceteti de exterior 3. PLANIFICAREA EDUCAIEI OUTDOOR Cum putem msura succesul/insuccesul activitilor derulate

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4. MANAGEMENTUL RISCULUI N EDUCAIA OUTDOOR Ce este planul de management al riscului? CONCLUZII 42

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Consiliul Local Catunele Inspectoratul colar din Mu

MANUAL DE EDUCAIE OUTDOOR


Versiune n limba romn

INTRODUCERE

Manualul de fa dorete a fi un instrument util pentru cadrele didactice din Comuna Catunele i nu numai, n abordarea experienelor oferite de educaia outdoor n procesul de predare-nvare al elevilor. Proiectul EcoEdu beyond rhetoric ne-a oferit posibilitatea de a aprofunda conceptul de educaie outdoor. Pe parcursul proiectului sau derulat o serie de activitati de formare (curs de educaie outdoor, seminar, activitati practice ), ocazie cu care participantii ( personalul de la toate institutiile partenere n proiect din cele 2 regiuni ) au invat ce nseamn educaia outdoor, cum poate fi aplicat in procesul de predare al diverselor discipline curriculare, cum poate fi mbinat educaia outdoor cu educaia formal pentru deprinderea de ctre elevi a abilitilor necesare mplinirii lor ca indivizi. Aadar, acest manual este rezultatul activitilor de formare din cadrul proiectului, rezultatul a ceea ce am nvat la fiecare dintre aceste activiti. Lucrarea de fa este structurat n mai multe teme relevante: ce este educaia outdoor, obiectivele educatiei outdoor, educaia formala versus educaia outdoor, exemplificarea abordrii educaiei outdoor pentru diferite discipline colare, sfaturi utile si exemple practice pentru cadre didactice, educatori, lucrtori de tineret.

I INTRODUCERE N EDUCAIA OUTDOOR

1. DEFINIIA EDUCATIEI OUTDOOR Educaia outdoor este un concept relativ nou n contextul educativ romnesc, ns ea ncepe din ce n ce mai mult s capteze interesul actorilor educaionali din sistemul de nvmnt formal. Exist numeroase accepiuni pentru termenul de educaie outdoor, ns pentru a da o definiie simpl i pe nelesul cititorilor, putem spune c aceast form de educaie se bazeaz pe nvarea n aer liber. Termenul de educaie outdoor, poate include educaia pentru mediu, activiti recreative, programe de dezvoltare personal i social, drumeii, aventur, etc. Realiznd o sintez a activitilor de formare la care am participat pe parcursul proiectului EcoEdu bezond rhetoric, am identificat caracteristicile cheie ale educaiei outdoor: - Educaia outdoor ofera posibilitatea contactului direct cu natura protecia mediului reprezint un subiect de interes mondial, urbanizarea masiva a produs un efect nociv asupra mediului si prin faptul ca oamenii nu constientizeaz imp actul pe care aciunile lor non-ecologice le au asupra mediului educaia outdoor se desprinde ca o modalitate extrem de benefic pentru schimbarea atitudinilor si comportamentelor fa de mediu; - Educaia outdoor reprezinta o puternica surs de experiene de nvare un mediu relaxant, liber, fara constrangerile pe care le impun cei 4 pereti ai unei sli de clas poate oferi elevilor nenumrate provocri, astfel c procesul de educare devine puternic, inspiraional si de natur s schimbe comportamente
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antisociale, s creeze o relaie puternic ntre oameni bazat pe sprijin reciproc; Educaia outdoor faciliteaz procesul de nvare al elevilor care ntmpin dificulti n acest sens cum spuneam mai sus, educaia outdoor ofer un climat diferit de nvare ce permite elevilor care n mod usual ntmpin dificulti de nvare si au un nivel sczut de performan colar, s devin mai motivai, cu mult mai capabili; Dezvoltare personal att al celor care o aplic, ct mai ales al elevilor; Dezvoltarea spiritului de echip conexiunea ntre elevi, eleviprofesori duce la creterea gradului de participare activ, cresterea ceteniei active in randul ambelor categorii; Educaia outdoor ofera nenumrate beneficii fizice, emoionale, mentale ce asigur bunstarea societii

Obiectivele generale ale educaiei outdoor sunt: Dezvoltarea abilitilor socio-personale: mbuntirea muncii n echip, mbuntirea relaiilor sociale, dezvoltarea competenelor de conducere, etc Dezvoltarea abilitilor de management: organizare, coordonare, evaluare Oferirea unui cadru stimulativ de nvare Ofera posibilitatea crerii unui mediu relaxant si motivant n funcie de problema identificat permite escaladarea unor nivele inalte de imaginatie n vederea obinerii rezultatelor propuse. Exist o serie de programe de educaie outdoor care pot fi utile n diferite contexte si n funcie de nevoile existente/identificate, astfel ca se pot utiliza astfel de programe axate pe sntate i educaie fizic, tiina mediului, management i psihologie. Spre exemplu un program
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de educaie outdoor axat pe educaie fizic ar putea avea efect preventiv-educativ-terapeutic, ar putea duce la scderea numrului de elevi cu obezitate crescut din coala dumneavoastr (programul ar putea include exerciii fizice, plimbri in aer liber, discuii libere cu elevii ntr-un cadru relaxant i motivant); un program de educaie outdoor axat pe tiina mediului ar avea ca efect informarea elevilor cu privire la problemele de mediu din comunitatea lor, contientizarea cu privire la impactul pe care aciunile lor le au asupra mediului (putei organiza o activitate de ecologizare, sau orice alte activiti pe care le considerati relevante n abordarea problemei identificate - o caracteristic important a educaiei outdoor este aceea c permite un grad ridicat de creativitate). Un aspect important al educaiei outdoor este acela c poate contribui la creterea nivelului de bunstare al indivizilor; pe lang nevoile de baz ale unei persoane, exist i o serie de nevoi la care educaia outdoor poate rspunde i anume: nevoia de a fi respectat, inclus social, de a fi activ i responsabil, nevoia de a te simi n siguran. Nevoia de a se simi respectat derularea de diferite activiti n aer liber incurajeaza copilul s se simt n largul su, astfel el va fi mult mai deschis, va comunica, i va exprima propriile opinii, se va simi bgat n seam i va simi ca deciziile sale conteaz pentru ceilali; elevii pot fi consultai cu privire la diferite jocuri sau activiti. Nevoia de a fi responsabil activitile outdoor permit copilului oportunitatea de a primi diferite sarcini ( educaia outdoor este printre altele o forma de nvare organizat i structurat, astfel ca profesorul trebuie s aib n vedere implicarea tuturor elevilor n activitile propuse ); sub supravegherea
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profesorului/educatorului, fiecare copil primete diferite responsabiliti i sarcini pentru atingerea scopului propus ( spre exemplu daca se opteaz pentru o activitate de ecologizare, un elev poate primi sarcina de a curaa pomii, un elev are sarcina de a uda florile este important ns ca prin comunicarea cu elevul, profesorul s-i nsueasca acestuia sentimentul c prin ceea ce ntreprinde el, mediul va fii mai curat, astfel el va contientiza c are o responsabilitate fa de protejarea mediului ). Nevoia de a fi activ implicarea n diferite activiti sportive, jocuri, plimbri tematice, nu va aduce dect beneficii dezvoltarii fizice, psihice ale elevului. Jocul este o caracteristic principal a copilriei, de aceea este important ca elevii sa fie stimulai in mod constant s se joace, s alerge, s participe la diferite activiti n mod activ. Nevoia de a fi inclus social poate cea mai important caracteristic a educaiei outdoor este aceea c este o modalitate de succes de a depi unele dificulti ale copilului ( psihice, fizice, sociale, emoionale sau economice ), astfel nct acesta s fie inclus social, s simt c aparine unei comuniti; se consider ca mediul din interiorul clasei este mai degraba unul competitiv, n timp ce cel din afara clasei este unul suportiv, care permite copiilor s se exprime, s relaioneze cu ceilali, s colaboreze. Nevoia de a se simti n siguran - un aspect pe care literatura de specialitate l consider important n
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abordarea educaiei outdoor este c aceasta trebuie s in cont de aceast nevoie. Interiorul clasei este mult mai sigur pentru elevi, n timp ce mediul exterior implic diferite riscuri i situaii neprevzute care pot avea efect negativ. Profesorul trebuie sa identifice posibilele riscuri care pot s apar i s conceap un plan de management al riscului, despre care vom vorbi mai trziu ntruct este un aspect deosebit de important care i-a facut pe unii specialiti in domeniu s nege utilitatea utilizrii educaiei outdoor. ntruct educaia outdoor se adreseaz unui public larg, indiferent de vrst, nevoile sunt similare i pentru cei mici i pentru cei mari, acest tip de educaie trebuie s acorde locul cuvenit acestor nevoi indiferent de vrsta elevului. Participarea la activitile de formare din cadrul proiectului EcoEdu beyond rhetoric a oferit cadrelor didactice din Ctunele, oportunitatea de a nelege acest fenomen nou, de a-l aprofunda i implementa cu succes n curiculara colar chiar i fr existena unor norme ale Ministerului Educaiei. Procesul de nvare a modului de abordare al acestui tip de educaie a fost unul anevoios, ntruct considerm acest proces deosebit de complex care necesit timp pentru a putea fi implementat cu succes i pentru a putea da rezultatele pe care le dorim. n cele ce urmeaz vom oferi o perspectiv a educaiei outdoor n relatia cu celelalte forme ale educaiei, pentru a nelege mai bine de ce s alegi educaia n aer liber. 2. FORMELE EDUCAIEI Educaia n aer liber este considerat a fi mult mai motivant stimulativ i cu un impact mai puternic asupra procesului de nvare
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n randul elevilor. Pentru a nelege mai bine ce aduce nou educaia outdoor procesului de predare-nvare, vom face o scurt incursiune a formelor de educaie existente. Educaia formal: acel tip de educaie care opereaz ntr-o instituie reglement de norme i reguli numit coal. Caracteristici: - instituionalizat, ierarhizat, - supravegheaz cadrul n care se desfoar procesul de educaie impune reguli i norme - este gradat cronologic (de la educaia primar pn la educaia universitar) , - organizat i condus de la centru ( Ministerul Educaiei) - evaluarea este realizat de ctre profesor, - folosete metode puin participative, autoritatea i disciplina sunt impuse prin constrngere ,relaia profesor-elev este formal. Educaia informal se realizeaz prin nvare de-a lungul vieii, fiecare individ i formeaz atitudini, valori, deprinderi din experiena cotidian, folosind resursele educative din mediul n care triete de la familie i vecini, de la locul de joac, de la magazin, de la bibliotec sau din mass-media. Aceasta se realizeaz individual sau prin interaciuni cu membrii comunitii fr a fi planificat, ajutndu-i pe oameni s nvee oricnd i oriunde. Educaia nonformal nu se traduce ca o activitate lipsit de un efect formativ, ci trebuie ineleas ca o realitate educaional mai puin formalizat. Conceptul de educaie nonformal este asociat conceptului de nvare pe tot parcursul vieii (lifelong learning). Evaluarea in cadrul educatiei nonformale este realizata de cel care invata, iar abordarea multi-disciplinar a procesului de nvare,
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ajut oamenii s neleag i s aprecieze mediului i legtura lor cu acesta. Pregtete elevii pentru un viitor durabil, analizeaz problemele pe termen lung. Caracteristici: - metodele folosite sunt axate pe participarea activa - metoda este un mijloc prin care sunt indeplinite obiectivele unei activiti - jocul este o metod des folosit. - rspunde la intrebarea Cum? - Importani furnizori de educaie nonformal sunt ONG-urile. Dintre toate aceste forme, educaia outdoor se pliaz cel mai bine cu cea non-formal, ntruct ca i aceasta, educaia outdoor se bazeaz foarte mult pe participarea activ, maximizeaz procesul de nvare, minimaliznd constrngerea specific colii, ofer o utilitate practic imediat cunotinelor nvate, se desfoar n contexte diferite avnd un cadru de nvare i un coninut lejer, folosete metode care stimuleaz implicarea i participarea, are o structur i o planificare flexibil, procesul nvrii este orientat spre participant, se bazeaz pe experiena participanilor. Att educaia non-formal ct i educaia outdoor pot fi integrate cu succes n educaia formal cu scopul de a maximiza efectele procesului de nvare, tendina actual este aceea de amplificare a celor dou forme, mai ales pentru faptul c ncorporate, ele conduc la un sistem educativ mult mai valoros din punct de vedere al calitii, produc avantaje pe termen lung, permit acoperir ea unei game largi de discipline i cel mai important, actul educaional se axeaz n aceeai msur i celor care o implementeaz ( n spe profesorilor ) i celor care fac obiectul nvrii ( n spe elevii ). Educaia formal are meritul de a fi organizat i structurat, ncorpornd o palet ntreag de informaii i cunotine de care are nevoie un individ n formarea sa educaional, educaia informal vine n sprijinul educaiei formale i asigur procesul de nvare oricnd i
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oriunde, pe tot parcursul vieii, educaia non-formal vine cu acele elemente de natur s satisfac nevoile unui individ de natura, psihica, social, emoional prin diferite metode interactive, participative, iar educaia outdoor scoate la aer cele 3 forme de educaie, le rivigoreaz, le adaug prospeime si i extinde aciunea benefic n diferite domenii ( n spe dezvoltare durabil, protecia mediului, dezvoltare personal i profesional ). Considerm c profesorii, educatorii, directorii de coal, Ministerul Educaiei mai ales, ar trebui s considere educaia outdoor ca parte semnificativ n sistemul de nvmnt, ca un ntreg ir de oportuniti de nvare.

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II EXEMPLIFICAREA ABORDRII EDUCAIEI OUTDOOR PENTRU DIFERITE DISCIPLINE COLARE

1. CURRICULA COLAR VERSUS EDUCAIA OUTDOOR Interdisciplinaritatea ne ajut s utilizm sau s integrm anumite concepte i metode ntre diferite forme de educaie, pentru atingerea acestui el, o importan deosebit o are sistemul educaional. Acesta trebuie s fie construit n aa fel nct s permit actorilor educaionali crearea unui proces de predare flexibil, ajustabil n funcie de nevoile de nvare ale elevilor. Aa cum precizam anterior educaia formal asigur necesarul de cunotine I informaii educaionale, educaia informal asigur procesul de nvare pe tot parcursul vieii, educaia non-formala este participativ, interactiv, iar educaia outdoor scoate la aer cele 3 forme de educaie, ns mpreun aceste forme de educaie creaz un sistem de nvmnt de calitate din punct de vedere al coninutului, i mai ales al rezultatelor obinute. Curricula colar desemneaz continutul invrii formale, strategiile de predare-invare, metode si mijloace, resurse materiale, modaliti de evaluare focalizate pe componenta educativinstituional. Curricula colar este prestabilit, bine delimitat de celelalte forme ale educaiei printr-un set de reguli si norme, de factorii decideni la nivel naional, in spe Ministerul Educaiei. Educaia formal este recunoscut ca fiind principala form prin care elevii nva, celorlalte forme nu li se acord atenia cuvenit chiar dac impactul lor este pe alocuri mult mai intens. Experiena ca i profesori/educatori/nvtori ne-a fcut sa identificm cteva dintre dezavantajele/efectele secundare ale educaiei formale
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curricula colar impune un set de reguli i norme pe care att elevii ct i profesorii lor trebuie sa le respecte ceea ce denot un rol autoritar din partea profesorilor - dezavantajul principal este acela c ordinea i disciplina dau natere unor temeri, tensiuni ale elevilor - exist profesori care acord o atenie excesiv disciplinei predate (spre exemplu dirigintele unei clase n loc s aloce timp i orelor de dirigenie, prefer s-i predea materia sa, efectul secundar fiind acela c elevii dezvolt repulsie fa de acea materie pe de-o parte iar pe de alt parte, orele de dirigenie sunt i ele extrem de importante ntruct asigur o apropiere a elevului de profesor) - manualele pentru diferite discipline abund deseori in noiuni teoretice, ceea ce favorizeaz nvarea mecanic n rndul elevilor, n acest sens se ntrevede necesitatea de redistribuire a informaiilor ctre partea practic-aplicativ - educaia formal creaz repetitivitate, obinuin, plafonare prin faptul c profesorii predau aceeasi lecie de nenumrate ori, astfel i pierd interesul, predarea leciei devenind astfel un proces mecanic i nu ia n considerare dac elevul este atent la lecie, dac este interesat de ceea ce nva i mai ales dac este motivat s nvee. Spre deosebire de educaia formal, educaia outdoor ntmpin o serie de obstacole: - la nivel contextual, nu exist o viziune coerent asupra educaiei romneti ceea ce face ca educaia outdoor s nu fie complementar cu cea formal. - se identific lipsa existentei contiinei locale, a iniiativei, participrii sociale pentru dezvoltarea local, - lipsa fondurilor colilor/ situatie material precar a prinilor pentru a pune n aplicare diferite activiti outdoor,
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lipsa unei legislaii care s-i ofere educaiei outdoor locul cuvenit, - lipsa parteneriatului social (relatiile dintre coli I diferii actori educaionali i nu numai sunt aproape inexistente), - la nivelul colilor, nu exist o pregtire profesional a profesorilor n domeniul educaiei outdoor, - se identific lipsa unor abiliti de cooperare i relaionare, cadre didactice reticente la nou, deficiente ale acestora in domeniul comunicrii, etc. - educaia outdoor este asociat de multe ori cu o serie de riscuri faptul ca se desfoar n aer liber, impune anumite riscuri pe care multe cadre didactice nu doresc s i le asume nu att din team ct din comoditate Integrarea educaiei outdoor n curricula colar reprezint n prezent un aspect important n asigurarea dezvoltrii personale I profesionale a elevului, mai ales pentru c contextul actual este caracterizat de lipsa interesul i motivaiei spre nvare ale elevilor, accentuarea gradului de neimplicare n viaa colar, existena unor preocupri care afecteaz negativ comportamentul elevului, lipsa respectului pentru coal ca instituie, pentru profesor, familie. Dup cum am artat anterior, educaia outdoor mprospteaz mediul academic, ofer oportuniti interactive de nvare, care dac sunt implementate corect duc la minimizarea aspectelor negative existente n actualul sistem educaional. Un prim pas in corelarea educaiei outdoor cu educaia formal l-ar reprezenta legiferarea acesteia, constituirea unor centre de asisten educaional axate pe acest model de educaie care pe de-o parte s susin implementarea educaiei outdoor n coli, iar pe de alt parte s susin formarea profesional i continu a cadrelor didactice, pentru ca acestea s dobndeasc o serie de abiliti i competene n domeniu. De asemenea, ncurajarea parteneriatului social ntre coli i diferite ONG-uri cu experien n domeniu
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faciliteaza procesul de integrare al educaiei outdoor n sistem educational actual si ofera exemple de bun practic. Recunoatem meritul colii ca principal furnizor al educaiei, ns aceasta trebuie s se plieze pe noile cerine ale sistemului, pe nevoile elevilor, profesorilor, ntruct se observ necesitatea de a mprospta actualul process de predare-nvare care nu mai corespunde societii romneti. 2. EXEMPLE PRACTICE DE INTEGRARE A EDUCAIEI OUTDOOR N CADRUL CURRICULEI COLARE Integrarea educaiei outdoor n cadrul curiculei colare implic diferite etape de la planificarea procesului i pn la implementare. Atunci cnd este planificat o activitate outdoor trebuie s se realizeze o serie de conexiuni cu disciplina colar pe care dorim s o scoatem n aer liber ( Vezi Fig. 1 )
Limba si comunicare

Matematica si stiinte EDUCATIE OUTDOOR Om si societate

Tehnologii

Educatie fizica si sport

Arte

Fig. 1
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n cele ce urmeaz v vom oferi o serie de informaii i exemple practice referitoare la diferite discipline colare. Limb i comunicare alegei s tinei orele de clas n aer liber, fie c aveti o poveste/nuvela/roman la limba romn, sau leciile de limbi straine. V prezentm mai jos cteva exemple: punerea n scena a a unei poveti, dupa ce in prealabil aceasta a fost citit n sala de clas putei solicita elevilor s schimbe firul epic al povetii (pentru a evita haosul i dezorganizarea, pregtii elevii pentru activitate cu o zi nainte, sprijinii elevii n acest proces, fr ns a interveni n deciziile lor pentru stabilirea unui nou fir epic - activitatea nu presupune o repetiie propriu-zis, este indicat s lsai elevii s fie spontani, ei se vor gandi n prealabil cum s schimbe firul epic, ns pen tru exemplificare ei vor fi ncurajai s improvizeze identificai anumite elemente naturale cu care elevii pot scrie: pe pmnt, pe pietre sau frunze ncepei o poveste alegnd un obiect din natur ( un copac, o floare, etc ) i ncurajai elevii s continue povestea creai mpreun cu elevii un loc sau mai multe locuri de citit ( atunci cand avei o lectur la clas putei merge n acel loc ) ncurajai elevii s compun poezii cu diverse obiecte din jur ( copaci, iarba, etc ). Excursie ABC: Plimbai-v n jur afar, cutnd obiecte care ncep cu literele alfabetului. Cnd zrii o furnic, cerei elevilor s scrie despre aceasta sau s deseneze o poz cu furnica sub litera A. Vezi cte litere din alfabet poi s acoperi. Povetile Copacilor: Aeaz grupulee de copiii n linite o perioad de timp lng un copac. Ce sunete aud? De unde vin? Dac copacul ar putea vorbi, ce poveti ar putea spune el? Scrie
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un haiku (un poem japonez de 17 silabe), sau alt poem despre copac. Exist o varietate de activiti ce pot fi derulate pentru a preda ntr-un mod inedit aceast materie, astfel elevii i vor forma imaginaia, creativitatea, vorbirea, exprimarea literar/artistic. Matematica i tiine Matematica ofer i ea oportuniti care mai de care mai diversificate, prin compunerea sau rezolvarea de probleme, elevii sunt pui n situaia de a evalua n cifre exacte anumite aspecte, spre exemplu: adunai o gramad de pietre din care profesorul si fiecare elev i vor alege una, compar piatra aleas de tine cu cea a elevilor,cine are piatra cea mai mare sau piatra cea mai mic, desenai cu creta semnele < > = a pentru a esemplifica scoate copiii n curtea coli i pune copiii s formeze diferite figuri geometrice, astfel vor nva ntr-un mod interactiv msurai curtea colii sau poate gradina cu flori, etc. Peisaj de Calcul - facei o plimbare, cutnd diferite culori, forme sau obiecte. Cerei elevilor s pstreze o foaie de calcul pe care s noteze obiectele gsite de clas. Face i simple grafice pentru a reprezenta numerele din categoriile variate. Cum ai descrie zona voastr unei persoane din alt ora sau ar. Clasificri: cerei elevilor s adune 20 sau mai multe frunze pe care le gsesc pe jos, s le sorteze pe grmezi diferite (dupa culoare, form, etc). Discutai despre modul cum diferite criterii de clasificare duc la diferite distribuiri de grmezi. Ce criterii folosim pentru a clasifica grupuri de organisme cum ar fi mamiferele, psrile, plantele i insectele? Cum ar putea s se
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schimbe ordinea noastr daca am sorta folosind criterii diferite? Fizic i chimie fenomenele fizico-chimice din natur ( ploile, ninsorile, tunetul/fulgerul, arderea combustibulului, circuitul apei spre exemplu coala noastr este situat ntr-o zona minier ceea ce ne-a oferit posibilitatea de a le explica elevilor anumite elemente chimice minereuri de fier, compozitia chimic a carbunelui, etc ) pot fi observate cu uurin elevii vor fi mult mai motivai s nvee avnd posibilitatea de a observa aceste fenomene pe de-o parte urmrii partea teoretic a orei de curs, iar pe de alt parte partea practic, acolo unde este posibil. Biologie - elevul dobndete organizat cunotine cu privire plantele si animalele din natura, informaii cu privire la mediul nconjurtor, la poluare i consecinele acesteia. Valenele educati ve ale leciilor de biologie pot fi puse n valoare prin: - plantarea i ngrijirea plantelor din grdina colii, din grdina de legume, - vizite la grdina zoologic, la grdina botanic, - participarea elevilor la aciuni de protecia mediului, - drumeii n pdure i construire de csue pentru psrele - fotografierea vietilor din jur ( pasri, insecte )

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Magazinul de bcnie - Discutai despre poziia articolelor din magazinul de bcnie: unele dintre ele sunt pe raftul de sus, unele pe jos, altele sunt depozitate n subsol. Punei-i pe elevi s se uite la mediul dinafar ca la un magazin de bcnie. Ce fel de mncare se afl pe raftul de sus (acoperi), raftul de mai jos (subpoveste), raftul de jos (baz), i beci (subsol). De pe ce rafturi se cumpr diferitele animale? Majoritatea animalelor se cumpr de pe un anume raft sau sunt distribuite n mod egal? Urme de animale: cutai urme de animale n nmol, nisip sau zpad. Punei-i pe elevi s-i mite corpul n aa fel nct s lase modele de urme similare cu cele pe care le-au vazut. Ct de dificil este s ne micm ca celelalte animale? Credei c iepurii, cprioarele sau oarecii ar avea aceleai probleme de micare ca noi? Ce legtur are asta cu conceptul de adaptare? Om i societate Geografie lectiile de geografie despre formele de relief, clima, vegetaia, solurile, apa, sau fauna pot fi scoase cu uurin n aer liber folositi-va de mediul natural n care v aflai pentru a le explica i exemplifica elevilor anumite noiuni ce in de aceast disciplin cum s-au format cmpiile, dealurile, munii, apele, etc. Avei opiunea de a organiza o drumeie n puncte cheie din zona n care v aflai, s obesrvai mpreun cu elevii fenomenele climatice i s facei conexiuni cu diferite discipline cum ar fi fizica ( putei organiza o lecie comun cu profesorul de fizic ), pentru a studia vegetaia sau fauna putei realiza deasemenea o lecie comun cu profesorul de biologie, realizai mpreun cu elevii o hart a localitii, realizai o galerie foto a
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mediului geografic. Elementul cheie al educaiei outdoor este acela c ofer elevului posibilitatea de nva prin experimentare, prin observare la faa locului, elevii vor fi mult mai motivai s nvee, vor gsi cu uurin rspunsuri la ntrebrile lor. Istorie identificai i vizitai mpreun cu elevii un monument istoric din localitate, reconstituii un traseu istoric ( cum ar fi un rzboi/lupta ), organizai ad-hoc n curtea colii anumine momente istorice de importan cum ar fi Unirea Principatelor, vorbiti-le elevilor de marile personaliti istorice ale Romaniei alegnd dac este posibil anumite elemente cheie. Tinei lecii de istorie n aer liber, n curtea colii i organizaiu o dezbatere astfel - ncurajai elevii s-i exprime creativitea prin schimbarea imaginativ a istoriei spre exemplu ce s-ar fi ntmplat dac nu ar fi avut loc Primul Razboi Mondial elevii vor nelege astfel importana istoriei n dezvoltarea unei naiuni, faptul c rzboaiele ntre popoare ncetinesc procesul de dezvoltare, creaz probleme economice, sociale, au impact asupra calitii vieii elevii vor aprecia mult mai mult prezentul i vor contientiza c oamenii sunt responsabili pentru bunstarea lor i a comunitii/societii n care triesc. Discipline socio-umane Chiar i o disciplina dificil cum este psihologia, poate fi scoas din mediul clasei, spre exemplu organizai n aer liber diferite jocuri/teste psihologice pentru procesele pshice cognitive (memoria, atenia, limbajul, gndirea, imaginaia), oferii-le eleviilor informaii despre semnificaiile jocurilor sau rezultatele testelor, explicai aceste fenomene psihologice abia dup ce au avut posibilitatea de a le experimenta, astfel elevii le vor nelege mult mai bine. Spaiile outdoor ofer adesea posibiliti de explorare filosofic creai un spaiu de reflecie n aer liber, lansai discuii filosofice despre frumusee ( utiliznd elemente din natur o floare, un copac, etc ), despre adevr sau bine ( identificai o fapt bun facut de un membru al comunitii sau chiar de ctre un elev i ncurajai elevii s
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discute despre aceast fapt, s identifice elemnetele cheie ce anume a fcut acea persoan s acioneze n acel fel, de ce e important s facem bine celor din jurul nostru, etc ). Religie realizai impreun cu elevii un calendar de evenimente religioase i activii ce pot fi realizate n cadrul acestor evenimente spre exemplu de Crciun mergei cu elevii in colindat, punei n scena Naterea lui Isus, mpodobii curtea colii, nu omitei s le oferii elevilor informaii despre simbolurile religioase, vizitai biserici, etc. Educaie civic - se poate realiza o simulare a modului cum s te compori pe strad, cum s fii un pieton model cum s traversezi strada. tiinele naturii i educaia civic sunt discipline ce pot forma elevilor deprinderi legate de ocrotirea calitii mediului nconjurtor. Regulile de comportare corect fa de natur trebuie s fie respectate de toi. Totul pornete de la deprinderile simple. Hrtiile, ambalajele alimentelor, sticlele i alte deeuri nu se arunc la ntmplare, pentru a mpnzi dezagreabil mprejurimile colii, ci se depoziteaz ordonat n containerele speciale. Grupurile sanitare trebuie pstrate curate i igienizate permanent. Substanele chimice din laboratoare nu se arunc pe sol, pentru a nu se degrada.Loturile agricole colare, spaiile verzi cu flori i copaci trebuie curate, i prin grija micilor ecologiti ai colii, de sticle, pungi de plastic, cutii metalice ruginite, pute i organiza n acest sens aciuni de ecologizare periodice.

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Arte

Educaia plastic i abilitile practice ofer posibilitatea manifestrii depline a creativitii i sensibilitii copilului. Desenele, colajele, afie cu mesaj ecologic constituie o mbinare a esteticului cu informaia tiinific. Prin aceste activiti capt valoare artistic unele obiecte realizate din materiale refolosibile. Documentati-va, identificati si vizitati impreuna cu elevii un monument din comunitatea dumneavoastra, o opera de arta din apropierea localitatii, incurajati elevii sa-si exprime parerile fata de obiecte vizitate ce reprezinta aceastea, oferiti-le informatii despre autorul/autorii creatiilor. In acest fel elevii isi formeaza vorbirea, exprimarea, creativitatea gandirea analitica si critica. Educaia muzical organizai concursuri muzicale n aer liber sau mergei mpreun cu elevii la un concert, n acest fel putei descoperi elevii cu talent muzical, ei pot fi ndrumai spre o carier n acest domeniu. Creioanele colorate ale Naturii - punei-i pe elevi s adune mostre de frunze, crengue, pmnt, boabe i s le frece pe o bucat de hrtie pentru a determina ce culoare, daca exist una, are creionul lor natural. Punei-i sa deseneze o poza folosind culorile pe care le pot gsi n zona lor. Prevenii-i mpotriva materialelor pe care nu trebuie s le foloseasc ( iedera otravitoare, urzici, animale vii, etc.) Ochii: punei-i pe elevi s probeze ochii celorlalte animale. Pentru a simula un ochi in vrful capului, tine i o oglinda mic cu faa n sus i planul n mn i uitai-v direct n ea. ncercai s mergei civa metri cu aceast vedere. Pentru ochiul de pe partea capului, tinei oglinda perpendicular pe pmnt i cu faa nafar. Cum difer aceste vederi ale lumii de cea a noastr? Cum crezi c ar vrea unele
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animale s aib ochii n locuri diferite? Ce rol joaca n arta vederea lucrurilor n diferite moduri?

Educaie fizic i sport Aceasta arie disciplinar se pliaz cel mai bine cu acest concept de educaie outdoor. Unde altundeva poi ine orele de curs dect n aer liber? Avei de ales dintr-o varietate de activiti sportive- tenis, fotbal, volei, handbal, ping-pong, diferite exerciii fizicebaschet - toate aceste activiti contribuie la dezvoltarea fizic i psihic a elevului ntr un mod armonios, elevii cu probleme de obezitate vor fi ncuraja i s duc un stil de via sntos, anumite probleme de sntate pot fi prevenite printr-o via activ ce poate fi modelat n timpul orelor de educaie fizic i sport.

Tehnologii vizitai fabrici, cariere, mine observai utilajele tehnologice folosite pentru obinearea unui produs, construii mobilier exterior pentru curtea colii, etc.

Educatia ecologica

Deseori educaia outdoor este confundat cu educaia pentru mediu-ecologic, asta pentru ca cele dou se ntlnesc n aer liber, educaia outdoor nu nseamn numai acest lucru, ea are nenumarate
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valene n toate domeniiile nu doar n cel al proteciei mediului. n coal elevii sunt foarte receptivi la ce li se arat i li se spune n legtura cu mediul. Prin diferite discipline incluse n procesul de nvmnt trebuie s convingem pe fiecare elev de necesitatea aprrii mediului nconjurtor mpotriva polurii i s le formm conduita ecologic modern. Acest lucru se realizez ndeosebi n cadrul leciilor de tiine, menite s nlesneasc nelegerea organismelor vegetale i animale, a proceselor eseniale de nteinere a vieii, a legturilor indisolubile dintre plante - animale - mediu, al celor de geografie, dar i, ocazional, n cadrul unor lecii de educaie civic, limba romn, educaie muzical, educaie plastic, istorie etc. Contribuii de seam la educaia ecologic pot aduce activitile outdoor. Orice activitate ce se desfoar n afara slii de clas nseamn activitate n contact nemijlocit cu mediul nconjurtor. Aa cum i nvm pe copii s vorbeasc, s se poarte n familie, la coal i n societate, s respecte normele de igien. Tot aa trebuie s -i nvm s se poarte cu mediul n care trim. Dintre modalitile folosite, n afara clasei, n scopul educrii ecologice amintesc: excursii i vizite pentru a constata situaia n care se afl mediul , aciuni pentru aprarea mediului,igienizarea i nfrumusearea colilor, parcurilor,crearea unui col viu n clas. V prezentm mai jos 2 dintre proiectele implementate de ctre profesorii de la coala noastr care au avut drept scop contientizarea elevilor cu privire la necesitatea de a proteja mediul nconjurtor.

PROIECT EDUCATIONAL Justificare: Spaiul din spatele bisericii satului Valea Perilor este amenajat de catre preotul i prinii din sat pentru plantarea unei livezi de peri pe cinci rnduri. Spaiul se preteaz la amenajarea livezii de peri, iar n faa bisericii plantarea i amenajarea unor ronduri de flori.
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Scop: - dezvoltarea simtului raspunderii fa de mediul nconjurtor, cunoasterea a cat mai multe lucruri despre pomii fructiferi si flori cat si a materialelor si uneltelor folosite. Obiective - elevii s participe activ la sadirea si ngrijirea copacilor prin vruirea lor. - Elevii s planteze i s semene flori . - Elevii s continue activitatea prin ngrijirea permanenta a plantelor. - Cultivarea n sufletul elevilor a sentimentelor de dragoste pentru natur i frumos. Echipa de proiect: 4 profesori de la coal Parteneri: Biserica Comunei Catunele, Comitetul de prini al colii Grupul int:elevii colii Primare Dealul-Viilor, Comuna Catunele, Judetul Gorj Metodologia de intervenie: La activitate au participat mai multe grupe de elevi organizate pe nivele de vrste. Elevii din clasele mari mpreun cu dascalii i prinii au pregtit terenul prin sparea lui pentru plantarea perilor. cu hrleul i apoi greblarea lui. Prinii au ajutat o grup de elevi din clasele mari s dea cu var trunchiul pomilor. Alte grupe de elevi au plantat i semnat flori. Resurse materiale: Unelte,var,bidinele,semine de flori,rsaduri de flori,bulbi. Ingrasamant natural, puieti, Resurse temporale: O zi. Resurse spaiale: spaiul din fata i din spatele bisericii. Planul operional de aciune Etape de mediatizare: - Luna martie discuii cu grupurile ce vor participa la aciune - Luna aprilie: desfurarea activitilor n funcie de starea vremii.
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Evaluarea proiectului: - impresii despre aspectul spaiului plantat cu flori i a livezii de peri dupa aciune i dup nflorirea florilor - Discutarea respectarii i ndeplinirii sarcinilor; de a avea grij de pomul lui i a rondului de flori, - Crearea de catre elevii a unor texte, desene despre pomi, plante, natura; expunerea acestora la panoul de onoare

PROIECT ECOMATEMATICA Scop: educarea copiilor n spiritul respectului pentru mediul nconjurtor i consolidarea unor noiuni matematice n cadrul aciunilor desfurate. Concomitent cu activitile de educaie ecologic, care au sensibilizat copiii, ei au nvat importana numerelor n viaa de zi cu zi. Etapa I: Cu ajutorul elevilor am plantat gard viu pe o poriune de-a lungul gardului colii ( copiii au msurat aproximativ 5 m). Am spat un an de 30 cm adncime i 25-30 cm lime, iar puieii i-am plantat la distan de 20-25 cm ntre ei ( 23 buci). Ulterior, gardul viu a fost udat i ngrijit de copii. Etapa II: Elevii din clasa a V-a au plantat flori de primvar n ghivece. Seminele aduse de ei au fost: crciumreas, gura leului, crie i nsturei. Cu ajutorul meu au citit instruciunile de pe spatele ambalajului i le-au semnat n ghivece. crciumreasa- seminele au fost presrate direct pe pmnt. Copiii au observat i au notat timpul de germinaie: 7-9 zile. Leam precizat c planta poate ajunge pn la 90 cm nlime, dac este plantat n grdin;
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gura leului-seminele au fost plantate la o adncime de 1,5 cm. Timp de germinaie- aproximativ 2 sptmni. Planta poate ajunge pn la 15-20 cm; criele-seminele au fost plantate la adncime de 1 cm. Germinaia n 2 sptmni. Cresc pn la 25-35 cm. Toate aceste flori au nevoie de soare i ap mult (copiii au turnat o dat la dou zile o canuta mic cu ap); nstureii (conduraii). Seminele au fost plantate la 2-3 cm adncime, acoperite de pmnt. Ele germineaz dup 10-12 zile, dar nu au nevoie de soare, ci stau n zone mai ntunecoase. Cresc pn la 20-30 cm.

Etapa III: Copiilor de clasa a V-a, le revine sarcina de a avea grij de proiectul ecologic al fotilor mei elevi, aflai n clasa a IX-a. n urm cu 4 ani am plantat cu acetia bulbi de narcise, n curtea colii. Bulbii au fost plantai toamna, la o adncime de 1,5 din nl imea lor. Narcisele rezist la temperaturi sczute. Florile apar fiecare pe cte o tulpin, n grupuri de cte 10-12, lucru observat i de copii. Ajung la o nlime de 15-20 cm i diametru de 8 cm. Copiii au reinut c narcisele sunt plante perene, care rsar an de an fr a fi nevoie s fie replantat bulbul.
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Etapa IV: Activitate individual. Fiecare elev a plantat n grdina colii cte un pom. S-au plantat meri i un viin. Am spat o groap mai mare cu 30 cm dect lungimea rdcinilor i am umplut -o cu pmnt i compost. Merii se planteaz la 9-10 m distan. Am pus copacii in groap, rsfirnd cu atenie rdcinile (iniial i adusesem n ghivece).Merii vor rodi abia dup trei ani.

Educaia outdoor metod de stimulare a creativitii elevilor o viziune a cercetailor Parteneriatul cu Organizaia Naional Cercetaii Romaniei Filiala Ecaterina Teodoroiu Trgu Jiu din cadrul proiectului EcoEdu beyond rhetoric a oferit o nou imagine asupra metodelor de stimulare a creativitii elevilor, educaia outdoor fiind una din aceste metode. Experiena cercetailor n acest tip de educaie a facilitat celor participani la proiect procesul de nelegere al acesteia i ne-a oferit n primul rnd un exemplu de bun practic. Fiind bazat pe un cadru simbolic, metoda scout stimuleaz creativitatea tinerilor prin ea nsi. De exemplu numele unei ramuri de vrst, lupisori, temerari sau exploratori, semnele de identificare, cum sunt uniforma i esarfa, nsemnele, cntecele sau ceremoniile. Toate aceste elemente ajut la crearea unui cadru, a unei atmosfere propice dezvoltrii creativitii. Iat o descriere a ramurilor de vrst ale cercetailor:

Lupisorii (7-11 ani) Cadrul simbolic, modelul folosit pentru Lupiori este Cartea Junglei scris de Rudyard Kipling. Lupisorii se ntlnesc sptmnal
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pentru vntoare. Ei pot porni in cutarea unui ora pierdut, sau a unei comori ascunse. Pe parcurs trebuie s treac de diferite probe: ghicitori, probe fizice sau care le pun creativitatea la ncercare. Li se poate cere de exemplu, s alctuiasc o strof care s conin anumite cuvinte. Insula temerarilor(11-14) Insula deoarece sugereaz un spaiu exotic (deci promitor) la care se ajunge doar n urma unei cltorii iniiatice. Temerarii trebuie s se adapteze la mediu, s-i formeze noi competene, o anume conduit i un set de valori. Insula va fi pentru ei o lu me la scar mic. Cand a venit vremea ca temerarii s fac un prim pas pe insula lor, corabia (a se citi autobuzul) i-a dus pn in apropierea insulei. Spiritele bune ale insulei i-au luat n primire i i-au condus n ciuda tuturor obstacolelor pn lng insula unde, temerarii au trebuit s treac Puntea Suspinelor, singura cale de acces. Cetatea exploratorilor (15-18) Cetatea semnific dezvoltarea progresiv a exploratorului i drumul prin care ajunge s aib un rol constructiv n societatea i comunitatea n care triete. Lucrul cu aceast ramur se bazeaz mai mult pe activiti n cadrul comunitii, activiti de dezvoltare personal, organizarea propriilor proiecte i implementarea unor idei.

Metode de stimulare a creativitii elevilor: Cafeneaua public - este o metod de dialog activ folosit la cercetai pentru un bun schimb de informaii i gsire de soluii creative de aciune. Se folosete cnd un grup sau organizaie dorete s dezbat un anumit subiect (violena n coli de exemplu). Se organizeaz n
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spaii asemantoare unei cafenele sau ntr-o cafenea. Atmosfera relaxat stimuleaz gndirea liber i creatoare prin implicarea n dialog chiar i a celor mai timizi. Prin interaciunea cu ceilali se genereaz idei noi. Teatrul de improvizaie copiii sunt adesea rugai s improvizeze o scenet. Li se va da o tem de la care ei s porneasc, ex: Jungla. Este bazat pe improvizaie, abilitatea de a crea, cnta, a se juca, dansa sau vorbi ca reacie spontan la propriile gnduri sau sentimente, presupune de multe ori o relaie interactiv cu publicul, actorii putnd solicita sugestii din partea acestuia Photo voice - este o metod de influenare i sensibilizare a decidenilor de la nivel local sau guvernamental prin prezentarea de fotografii vii realizate de membrii unor grupuri defavorizate, marginalizate. Prin fotografii ei spun ce cred, simt i ce ar trebui fcut in comunitatea lor. Pentru a fi siguri ca fiecare fotografie este ineleas, lng fotografie apare povestea, vocea fotografului care spune istoria imaginii surprinse.

Jocuri de exterior Bulldog (Toate varstele) O persoana este bulldog. Ceilali se aliniaz la un capt al curtii. Cnd persoana care este bulldog-ul striga Bulldog! toi alearg spre cealalalt parte a curii. Cel care este prins de bulldog devine ajutorul bulldog-ului. Bulldog-ul este strigat din nou, i cei care nu sunt prini alearg napoi de-a lungul curii, de unde au nceput. Bulldog-ul se
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repet pn cnd fiecare este prins. Ultima persoan prins este urmatorul bulldog. Misterul morii (Toate varstele) Copiii stau intr-un cerc. Se alege un detectiv care este scos afar pn cnd se alege un criminal. Criminalul este ales pe ascuns, n timp ce ceilali juctori i in ochii nchisi. O dat ce sunt alei, copiii i pot deschide ochii i detectivul se poate ntoarce n mijlocul cercului. Criminalul omoar aratand o fa stupid celor din cerc. Acetia trebuie s atepte cel puin 3 secunde pn mor dupa ce fa amuzant s-a uitat la ei. Unora le place s moar rznd. Detectivul trebuie s gseasc criminalul. Jucatorii trebuie tot timpul s se uite la faa unor altora. Putei s dai detectivului un numr limitat de ncercri s ghiceasc sau s jucai pn cnd mor toti nafar de detectiv i criminal. Nana, Nana, cine are banana? (4 10) : copiii stau ntr-un cerc, cu genunchii ncruciai si ndoii inainte. Ei paseaz banana n jur de la unul la altul pe sub genunchii indoii. Un copil st n mijloc i ncearc s identifice persoana care are banana n timp ce copiii cnt Nana Nana, Cine are banana. Simon spune (4-10) : un copil (seful) trebuie s spun celorlali ce s fac. De exemplu Simon spune atingei-v nasul. Atunci toi copiii i ating nasul. Farsa apare cnd eful spune scrpinai-v genunchiul FR s zic Simon spune. Copiii pot avea 3 viei i ultimul juctor rmas poate s fie eful. Rmnei n Nmol (Toate vrstele): copiii sunt mprii n dou echipe. Dai un nume fiecrei echipe pentru a se putea identifica. O echipa este activ (prinde). Cand Dilek este prins, Dilek trebuie s stea nemicat cu picioarele desprite i poate s fie eliberat numai dac
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unul din echipa lui se trte pe sub picioarele lui. Jocul se termin cnd toi sunt prini. Apoi, schimbai rolurile echipelor i juca i din nou. Deslemnete un Prieten (Toate vrstele): fiecare copil se plimb in jur cu o saco cu boabe pe cap. Dac ii pierzi sacoa, trebuie s nlemneti i s te bazezi pe un prieten ca i-o ridica i i-o nlocuiete ( n timp ce i el i-o poart pe-a lui ). Un ef poate de asemenea s schimbe ritmul jocului strignd ncet, repede, alergai sau opi i. Prinde/Nu prinde (Toi): copiii stau ntr-un cerc. Un copil st n mijloc i are o minge. Acest copil spune Prinde sau poate spune Nu prinde i apoi arunc mingea unuia din cerc. Copilul cruia i se arunc mingea trebuie ori s-o prind ori s refuze s-o prind dupa cum i s-a zis. Dac nu face asa, st jos i iese afar din joc.

Jocuri cerceteti pentru exterior: 1. Culturi Scop: stimularea spiritului de cooperare i gsirea unei identiti comune Vrsta: 6 - 60 ani Nr. participani: peste 6 persoane Materiale: hrtie, materiale din natur Durata: 60-120 min Loc de desfurare: exterior Descriere: a) Se creeaz grupe de participani din 6-10 persoane. b) Fiecare grup trebuie s-i gseasc un nume, s-i construiasca un steag i o vatr a "satului" folosindu-se de materiale din natur.
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c) Dupa ce se termin perioada de construcie, fiecare cultur se va prezenta celorlalte culturi. d) Facilitatorul va avea grij s se aprecieze toate culturile. Ulterior toate activitile se vor relaiona la culturile create de participani, introducerea activitilor fcnd referire la acestea. 2. Tomatele Scop: dezvoltarea aptitudinilor fizice, a ateniei i a strategiei. Vrsta: 5-24 ani Nr. participani: minim 7 maxim 15 Materiale: minge Durata: 20-30 min Loc de desfurare: exterior Descriere: a) Juctorii stau in cerc, aplecai nainte, cu picioarele ndeprtate. Mingea se transmite de la un juctor la altul, cu ajutorul minilor, doar la nivelul solului. b) Cel cruia i va trece mingea printre picioare va juca mai departe doar cu o mn. La a doua abatere, se va ntoarce cu spatele, jucnd din nou cu dou maini. La cel de-al treilea gol primit va continua s joace cu spatele i cu o singur mn, iar la cel de-al patrulea gol juctorul este eliminat. c) Pentru a ne feri de accidente, vom pasa mingea doar la nivelul solului, niciodat prin aer. d) Animatorul oprete jocul dac mingea este pasat prea tare.

3. Inger bun,inger rau Scop: dezvoltarea ateniei, a logicii, a simurilor. Vrsta: 10-60 ani
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Nr. participani: 3-30 preferabil multiplu de 3 Materiale: earfe de legat la ochi, obiecte pentru fiecare echip Durata:10-15min Loc de desfurare: exterior Descriere: a) Juctorii se mpart in echipe de cte 3 i primesc cte o earf i un obiect b) n fiecare echip un juctor va fi orbul i va fi legat la ochi. c) Ceilali 2 juctori se ndeprteaz i hotrsc cine va fi ngerul bun i cine va fi ngerul ru, fr ca cel legat s aud, apoi pun obiectul echipei undeva n preajm. d) ngerul bun ncearc s ghideze spre obiect, juctorul legat la ochi prin indicaii verbale, iar ingerul ru ncearc s-l induc pe "orb" n eroare. e) ngerii nu au voie s ating orbul! f) Jocul se termin atunci cnd toi juctorii legai la ochi au gsit obiectul echipei lor.

3. PLANIFICAREA EDUCAIEI OUTDOOR Abordarea disciplinelor colare n aer liber se bazeaz n primul rnd pe un proces de planificare bine consolidat care susine nelegerea de ctre profesor a pailor eseniali pentru derularea unei activiti outdoor. Un aspect important in procesul de pla nificare l reprezint implicarea elevilor, este important s cunoatem prerea lor n legtur cu inteniilor noastre, acest lucru ne ajut s nelegem mai bine ce anume i motiveaz pe elevii nostrii, lucrurile care prezint interes pentru ei ( se ntmpl adesea ca implicarea elevilor ntr-o activitate outdoor s fie imposibil din diferite motive fie pentru c elevii nu au cunotinele necesare pentru a se implica n activitate, fie activitatea nu se pliaz pe nevoile de nvare ale elevilor in aceasta situaie ceea ce profesorul i-a planificat va fi crea haos i
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dezorganizare, sau chiar va fi un eec ceea ce nseamna irosirea timpului elevului/profesorului, irosirea materialelor, etc. ). Procesul de planificare implic urmtoarele etape: 1. Identificarea activitii pe care o derulezi n funcie de vrsta elevilor - aceasta trebuie s fie n strns legatur cu disciplina colar pentru sugestii i idei putei cere prerea elevilor, vei fii mirat de creativitatea i imaginaia elevilor vostri i veti descoperi n ei un ajutor de ndejde. 2. Realizarea unui plan al orei de curs scopul, obiectivele, activitile, rezultate dorite 3. Detalii tehnice - condiiile climatice - vremea nu trebuie s fie ntotdeauna un impediment (pentru predarea leciilor despre fenomenele climatice, vremea ploioas, ninsoarea reprezint un avantaj trebuie ns s avei n vedere ca elevii s fie bine mbrcai conform condiiilor meteorologice ) - Locaia raspunde la urmtoarele ntrebri: o deplasarea presupune costuri? Dac da, care sunt acelea i de unde voi obine resursele necesare? o este nevoie de acordul prinilor, conducerii? o locaia aleas este n strns legatur cu tema pe care doresc s o abordez? o profesorul trebuie s in cont de oportunitile pe de -o parte, iar pe de alt parte de restriciile pe care le poate avea un spaiu n aer liber pentru ca elevii s se simt confortabil - trebuie s aib loc s se mite, s aib bncue unde s se aeze, etc. ce numr de elevi va participa la ora de curs? Am nevoi e de un sprijin din partea unui alt profesor? ct va dura aceast activitate? Timpul pentru activitate va afecta cellalte ore de curs ale elevilor mei i implicit colegilor mei?
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Care sunt resursele materiale, financiare? Reursele necesare pentru realizarea unei activiti trebuie s fie accesibile, spre exmplu v putei axa n primul rnd pe resurse din mediul natural. Daca avei nevoie de resurse financiare, apelai la ajutorul conducerii, sponsorilor sau familiilor, ns avei n vedere un posibil refuz din partea acestora, pentru aceasta construii mereu un plan de rezerv. Realizai un set de reguli pe care s-l comunicai elevilor pentru a evita posibile conflicte ntre elevi sau orice fel de probleme neprevzute Care sunt riscurile derulrii cursului n aer liber? Care sunt pericolele? Cum pot preveni riscurile i cu ce instrumente? 4. Evaluarea activitatii: - evaluare cantitativa, ex. Resurse materiale utilizate, numarul elevilor implicati, numarul cadrelor didactice - evaluare calitativa, ex. gradul de implicare al elevilor in activitate, competente dobandite - metode si instrumente de evaluare utilizate ( ex. Chestionar, focus grup, discutii, dezbateri, observatie, interviu ) - feedback-ul este un aspect important in cadrul oricarei activitati derulate, intrucat ne ofera o imagine de ansamblu asupra opiniilor participantilor, nemultumirilor, propunerilor; dezirabil este ca in fiecare etapa de planificare a unei activitati outdoor, sa obtinem feedback-ul tuturor celor implicati pentru ca o activitate outdoor sa fie de succes, ea trebuie sa aiba in vedere cooperarea constanta, comunicarea, oferirea posibilitatii de exprimare al celor implicati. ( Vezi Fig. 2 )

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Identificarea riscurilor

Derularea activitatii

Stabilirea detaliilor practice si logistice

FEEDBACK
Evaluare Planificarea activitatii

Identificarea nevoilor

Fig.2 Educaia outdoor este diferit de celelalte metode de predare pentru c ofer profesorului posibilitatea de a identifica diferite probleme de comportament ale elevilor. Observarea modului n care elevii acioneaz fa de activitatea propus poate fi relevant pentru identificarea unor comportamente agresive sau probleme de integrare urmrii ca fiecare elev s participe activ, s-i asume responsabilitI i s raspund rolurilor i sarcinilor primite, daca observai elevi pasivi, alocai-le timp n plus, ncurajai-i s se implice, apelai la sprijinul celorlali copii. Activitile outdoor transpun elevul n diferite ipostaze, n acest fel profesorul are posibilitatea de a identifica observa un copil problema, un copil maltratat.

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Cum msurm succesul/insucesul activitii derulate? Pentru a ne asigura ca activitatea ce tocmai am derulat-o a avut efectul scontat, este necesar s msurm acest impact prin: - chestionare de evaluare att pentru personalul implicat ct mai ales pentru elevi, chestionarele trebuie realizate n funcie de profilul fiecrui participant la activitate, va trebui s conin att ntrebri nchise pentru a realiza o evaluare cantitativ a activitii( spre ex. numarul de participanti, resursele utilizate, etc), ct i ntrebri deschise pentru a realiza evaluarea calitativ a activitii ( spre exemplu gradul de implicare n activitate, motivaia de participa, msuri de mbuntire a activitilor viitoare) - dei este mult mai complex, se poate realiza o evaluare a activitilor prin chestionare adresate prinilor elevilor petrecnd mare parte din timp cu copiii lor, prinii pot fi n msur s ofere o imagine de ansamblu asupra a ceea ce s-a ntmplat aceast sesiune de evaluare cu prinii poate fi un aspect important n pstrarea contactului permanent cu acetia, astfel ei sunt informai n permanen cu privire la ceea ce nva copiii lor sau pot oferi un real sprijin n alte activiti viitoare - discuii interactive ntre cei implicai este necesar o atenie sporit n timp ce derulm activitatea asupra nivelului de implicare al tuturor elevilor, s agrenm fiecare participant la discuii, s le oferim elevilor posibilitatea de a pune ntrebri atunci cnd nu le este clar un anumit aspect i mai ales s le oferim posibilitatea de a-i exprima prerea cu privire la respectiva activitate.

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4. MANAGEMENTUL RISCULUI N EDUCAIA OUTDOOR Toate activitile n aer liber, indiferent de locatie, implic un element de risc. Sigurana elevilor implicai n educaia experentiala este extrem de importanta. Dei riscul real nu poate fi n totalitate eliminat, un profesor trebuie s se asigure c riscurile reale sunt reduse la niveluri acceptabile, astfel nct elevii sa participe ntr-un context care este comparativ mai sigur din punct de vedere al comunitatii. Un plan de gestionare a riscurilor, care identific i analizeaz cu atenie riscurile i pericolelor inerente ntr-un program special experential, ntr-un efort de a elimina, evita sau a reduce riscurile la niveluri acceptabile, este cel mai eficient mod de a gestiona riscurile n domeniul educaiei experentiale. Tot personalul implicat n educaia n aer liber ar trebui s fie pe deplin contieni de toate principiile i procedurile obligatorii. Directorii trebuie s se asigure c sunt luate msuri de precauie n ceea ce privete sigurana participanilor, i c supravegherea va fi adecvat n raport cu numrul acestora, maturitatea lor, comportamentul lor i activitile planificate. Pentru obinerea permisiunii de a desfura activitile, se vor obtine informaii cu privire la o serie de probleme de securitate, inclusiv itinerarul propus, componena grupului, planuri de urgen . Ce este un plan de gestionare a riscurilor? Pentru a se asigura c toate activitile n aer liber de nvmnt sunt planificate i efectuate n condiii de siguran, gestionarea eficient a riscurilor ar trebui s fie puse n aplicare. Un plan de gestionare a riscurilor implic o analiz sistematic a activitii, echipamentul, locul de desfurare, participanilor, precum i personalul, astfel c factorii de risc inacceptabil pot fi identificai i eliminai sau controlai corespunztor. Planificarea de management al riscului include:
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identificarea riscurilor i problemelor de siguran, gestionarea pericolelor, riscurilor i problemelor de siguran. Prin dezvoltarea unui plan de management al siguranei, evitm orice pericole i riscuri, care nu pot fi controlate n mod satisfctor. Trebuie luate n considerare lucruri, cum ar fi natura activitii, locaie sau locul de desfurare, caracteristicile, participanii, experiena personalului i condiiile meteorologice. Pentru a identifica problemele de siguran, se iau n considerare si nevoile fizice, sociale i emoionale ale participanilor i a personalului, calificrile i experiena personalului, inclusiv punctele forte i limitri, siguran obligatorie n locaii, cum ar fi stnci, lacuri adnci i reci sau apa rului, intlnirea unui obstacol, roci scufundate i alte pericole n cursurile de ap naturale i butelii de aragaz inflamabile, starea echipamentelor, efectele condiiilor meteorologice diferite , orice pericole potenial duntoare, cum ar fi un copac czut , comunicare i acces la asisten n caz de urgen . Planul de management al riscului este un rspuns la evaluarea riscurilor, astfel nct acestea sunt reduse suficient pentru ca activitatea s fie desfurat n condiii de siguran, acesta se realizeaz n mod difereniat n funcie de activitatea outdoor derulat

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CONCLUZII Manualul a abordat experienele oferite de educaia n aer liber n cadrul procesului de predare-nvare al elevilor. Proiectul EcoEdu beyond rhetoric ne-a oferit posibilitatea de a aprofunda conceptul de educaie outdoor i a adunat laolalt personalul implicat n procesul educaional din 2 regiuni, Turcia i Romania cu scopul de a facilita schimbul de experien, de a promova diversitatea lingvistic i cultural, de a dezvolta materialele de predare experimentale, de a mprti opiniile i valorile cu privire la consolidarea dimensiunii europene n educaie. Toate activitile proiectului au reprezentat oportuniti de a consolida nelegerea reciproc, de a contientiza relaiile la nivel local i european i de a lansa o sensibilitate intercultural ntre cadrele didactice i elevii implicai n proiect. Prezentul proiect a oferit cadrelor didactice oportuniti de a intra n contact i de a participa la activiti mpreun cu cadrele didactice din spaiul european i prin urmare s beneficieze de schimburile de bune practici pe teme educaionale. n timpul implementrii proiectului profesorii implicai au realizat noi activiti outdoor, au mprtit idei, profesorii au aflat c deja realizaser astfel de activiti n procesul de predare, astfel c aprofundarea educaiei outdoor prin acest proiect a fcut procesul de predare+nvare mult mai accesibil att pentru profesori ct i pentru elevi. n timpul derulrii activitilor, elevii au dezvoltat o relaie profund cu natura, i-au mbuntit abilitile, competenele sociopersonale au contientizat importana mediului nconjurtor. Manualul este rezultatul unei lungi cooperri dintre parteneri i obiectivul lor principal este de a oferi o nou perspectiv asupra educaiei, de a oferi exemple de metode de predare interactive, care n final se vor reflecta ntr-un sistem educaional de calitate n termeni de
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coninut, i n special din punct de vedere al rezultatelor, deoarece n timpul implementrii proiectului, noi am neles c educa ia outdoor poate fi o parte semnificativ din sistemul educaional, i pe ansamblu o gam de oportuniti de nvare.

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Manual realizat n cadrul proiectului EcoEdu dincolo de retoric, cu nr. De referin COM-10-PR-16-GJ-RO, TR, proiectul s-a derulat n perioada 1.08.2010 31.07.2012 i a fost co-finanat de Comisia European prin Programul Sectorial Comenius Regio. Manual poate fi vizualizat i n format electronic pe site -ul proiectului www.edu-catunele.ro. Coordonatori: Liliana Bucic, Dana Lorena Bran, Gheorghia Caranda, Nazan Turan

Date de contact parteneri locali: Consiliul Local Ctunele Com.Catunele, sat Valea Perilor, jud Gorj Nr. tel: 0253411023 Organizaia Naional Cercetaii Romaniei Filiala Trgu Jiu EcaterinaTeodoroiu Trgu Jiu,str Aleea Teilor, Bl.14, Sc.1, Et.3, Ap. 12, jud Gorj Nr.tel.: 0353405844 coala General Mazilu Vipie Gheorghe Com. Ctunele, Sat Valea Mnstirii, jud Gorj Nr. tel.: 0253411002 coala Primar nvtor Nicolae Caranda Com. Glogova, sat Glogova, jud Gorj Nr.tel: 0253411405

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Ctunele Local Council - Mu Provincial Directorate of Education

OUTDOOR EDUCATION MANUAL


English version

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION I INTRODUCTION TO OUTDOOR EDUCATION
1. DEFINITION OF OUTDOOR EDUCATION 2. EDUCATION FORMS 47 47 53 46

II EXAMPLES OF OUTDOOR EDUCATION APPROACH FOR DIFFERENT SCHOOL SUBJECTS


1.SCHOOL CURRICULUM VERSUS OUTDOOR EDUCATION 2.PRACTICAL EXAMPLES OF INTEGRATION OF OUTDOOR EDUCATION INTO SCHOOL CURRICULUM 55 55 58

Language and Communication Mathematics and Science Social Studies Arts Physical Education and Sports Environmental Education Outdoor Education - the method for stimulating student creativity Scouts vision Methods To Stimulate Students' Creativity Outdoor Games Scouting Outdoor Games
3. OUTDOOR EDUCATION PLANNING 4. THE MANAGEMENT OF RISK IN OUTDOOR EDUCATION) 73 76

How Can We Measure The Success / Unsuccessful Of The Performed Activity? What Is A Risk Management Plan? CONCLUSIONS
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INTRODUCTION
The present manual is meant to be a useful instrument for the teaching staff from the village of Catunele and and Mu, in approaching the experiences offered by the outdoor education in the students teaching-learning process. The EcoEdu beyond rhetoric offered us the possibility of deepenning the concept of outdoor education. During the project, a variety of formation activities has been done (outdoor education course, active learning seminar, practice), and thus all the participants (the teaching staff of the schools from Mu and villages of Catunele, youth staff from ONCR Ecaterina Teodoroiu Filial, staffs from Mu Provincial Directorate of Education and Mu Provincial Direvctorate of Agriculture and members of Mu TEMA Foundation) have learnt: what outdoor education means, how it can be applied in the teaching process of different subjects from the curriculum, how the outdoor education can be combined with the formal education so that the students could acquire the necessary abilities for their own performance as individuals. So, this manual is the result of the formation activities of the project, the result of what we have learnt during these activities. The present paper is structured in several relevant themes: what the outdoor education is, the goals of outdoor education, formal education versus outdoor education, the exemplification of approaching the outdoor education for different teaching lines, useful advice and practical examples for teaching staff, youth staff.

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I INTRODUCTION TO OUTDOOR EDUCATION


1. DEFINITION OF OUTDOOR EDUCATION
Outdoor education is a quite new concept in the both Romanian and Turkish education context, but its starting to draw the interest of more and more teachers from the formal teaching system. There are numerous meanings of the outdoor education concept, but to define it simple and for readers understanding, we could say that this education form is based on the learning in the open air. The outdoor education could include the education for the environment, recreative activities, personal and social development programs, hiking, adventure, etc. When making a summary of the formation activities that we took part in during the EcoEdu beyond rhetoric project, we could identify the key characteristics of the outdoor education: - the outdoor education offers the possibility of the direct contact with the nature the environment protection represents a subject of world-wide concern, the massive urbanisation has given rise to an injurious effect on the environment also because people are not aware of the impact of their non-ecological actions on the environment the outdoor education is a very benefic modality to change the attitudes and the behaviours towards the environment; - the outdoor education represents a strong source of learning experiences a relaxing, free atmosphere, without the constraints imposed by the 4 walls of a classroom can offer numerous challenges to students, thus the learning process
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becomes strong, it inspires the students and it can change antisocial behaviours and create a strong interpersonal relation based on reciprocal support; the outdoor education facilitates the learning process of the students who have learning difficulties as mentioned above, the outdoor education offers a different learning climate which allows the students (who usually have learning difficulties and a low level of school performance) to become more motivated and much more competent; personal development both of those who apply it and especially of the students; development of team spirit connection between students, students teachers, leads to a better involvement and to the increase of active citizenship in both categories; the outdoor education offers numerous physical, emotional and mental benefits which ensure the society well-being; The general objectives of the outdoor education are: Development of socio-personal abilities: improvement of team work, improvement of social relations, development of leadership skills, etc. Development of management abilities: organization, conduct, assessment To offer a changelling learning environment To offer the possibility of establishing a relaxing and motivating environment according to the identified problem allows the getting over high levels of imagination in order to obtain the planned results.

There are various outdoor education programs which can be useful in different contexts and according to the actual/identified needs, therefore such programs which are focused on health and
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physical education, natural sciences, management and psycology, can be very well used. For example, an outdoor education program that is focused on physical education could have a deterrent-educativetherapeutic effect, could lead to a decreasing number of obese students from school (the program could include physical exercices, walks in the open air, open discussions with the students in a relaxing and motivating environment); an outdoor education program focused on the natural sciences would have as effect the students information about the environment problems from their community, and also would make them be aware of the impact of their actions on the environment (there can be organized a greening activity or any other activities considered relevant in approaching the identified problem one important characteristic of the outdoor education is that it allows a high level of creativity). An important characteristic of the outdoor education is that it can contribute to the growth of peoples well-being level; besides a person basic needs, the outdoor education can answer to a range of needs such as: the need of being respected, the need of being socially included, the need of being active and responsible, the need of feeling safe. The need of feeling respected different activities in the open air encourage the child to feel at ease, thus he will be more open, he will communicate, he will express his own opinions, he will feel given heed to and will feel that his decisions matter to others; students can be consulted on different games and activities. The need of being responsible the outdoor activities allows the child the oportunity of receiving different tasks (the outdoor education is among other things a
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form of organized and structured learning, therefore the teacher must take into account the involvement of all students in the proposed activities); under the teachers supervision, each child receive different responsibilities and tasks in order to achive the intended goal (for example, if there is a greening activity, a student may receive the task to prune the trees, another one receives the task to water the plants what is important is that through communication, the teacher must make the student feel that because of this activity, the environment will be cleaner; in this way, the student will be aware that he has a responsibility for the environment protection). The need of being active the involvement in different sports, games, thematic walks, will bring only benefits to the students physical and psychical development. The game is an essential characteristic of childhood, therefore its important that students be constantly stimulated to play, to race along, to participate actively in different activities. The need of being socially included maybe the most important characteristic of the outdoor education is that it is a successful modality of going beyond some of the childs difficulties (physical, psychical, social, emotional and economical), so that he could feel socially included and that he belongs to a community; it is considered that the indoor atmosphere (the classroom) is rather competitive, while the outdoor one is supportive, because it allows children to express themselves, to relate to others, to collaborate.
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The need of feeling safe one aspect that the specialized literature considers important in approaching the outdoor education is that this education must take into account this need. The indoor is safer for students, while the outdoor implies different risks and unexpected situations which could have a negative effect. The teacher must identify the possible risks which may occur and make a plan of risk management - subject that we shall discuss below as it is a very important aspect which determined some specialists to deny the utility of outdoor education use. Since the outdoor education addresses to the public at large, regardless the age (the needs are similar both for the children and for the grown-ups), this kind of education must confer the right place to these needs regardless the students age. The participation at the formation activities of the EcoEdu beyond rhetoric project offered to the teaching staffs from some schools in Catunele and in Mu, the opportunity to understand this new phenomenon, to deepen it and successfully implement it in the curriculum even without the existence of any act of the Ministry of Education. The learning process of approaching this kind of education was a difficult one, since we consider this process as being a complex one which demands time for its successful implementation and for the expected results. We shall describe below an outdoor education perspective compared together with the other education forms, in order to understand why its better to choose the outdoor education.

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2. EDUCATION FORMS
The outdoor education is considered more motivatingchallenging and with a stronger impact on the students learning process. To understand better what outdoor education brings new in the teaching-learning process, we shall make a short incursion in the existent education forms. Formal Education: type of education from an institution, called school, and tied to rules and norms. Characteristics: institutionalized, gradated, supervises the education process, imposes rules and norms, its chronologically gradated (from primary education to university education), organized and managed from the center the Ministry of Education, the assessment is done by the teacher, uses less participative methods; the authority and discipline are imposed by constraint; the relation teacher-student is formal. Informal Education it is achieved by lifelong learning, each individual acquires attitudes, values, habits from the quotidian experience, using educational resources from the environment he lives in family and neighbours, playground, shop, library or mass-media. This education is achieved individually or by interactions with the members of the community without having been planned; it helps people learn anytime and anywhere. Non-formal Education it is not an activity without a forming effect, but it should be understood as an educational reality less formal. The
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concept of non-formal education is associated with the concept of lifelong learning. The assessment in the non-formal education is done by the learner, and the multi-discipline approach of the learning process helps people understand and appreciate the environment and their relation with it. The non-formal education prepares the students for a lasting future, it analizes the problems for a long term. Characteristics: the applied methods are focused on the active participation the method is an instrument to achieve the activity objectives the game is a frequent used method. answers the question HOW? the NGO-s are important providers of non-formal education. Of all these types of education, the outdoor education is closest to the non-formal education, since, like this one, the outdoor education is focused on the active participation; it maximizes the learning process by minimalizing the constraint specific to school; offers a practical utility imediate to the achieved knowledge; it is used in different contexts and has a relaxing learning environment and an easy content; uses methods that stimulate the involvement and the participation; it has flexible structure and planning; the learning process trends towards the participant; it is based on the participantsexperience. Both non-formal and outdoor education can be successfully integrated in the formal education so that the learning process effects could be maximized. The present tendency is to amplify the two forms, especially because the moment they are applied, they lead to a more valuable educative system from a quality point of view; they have long term advantages; they cover a wide range of teaching line; and the most important, the educational act focuses equally on
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those who implement it (the teachers) and on those who are the learning object (the students). The formal education has the credit of being well organized and structured, containing a wide range of information and knowledge that a person needs in his/her educational formation; the informal education completes the formal education and it ensures the learning process anytime and anywhere, throughout the entire life; the nonformal education comes with such elements to satisfy the persons needs (psychical, social and emotional needs), using different interactive and involvement methods; and the outdoor education revives the 3 forms of education and extends its benefic action to different fields (especially strong development, environment protection, personal and professional development). We consider that teachers, head teachers and especially the Ministry of Education should consider the outdoor education a significant part in the education system, and as a whole range of learning opportunities.

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II EXAMPLES OF OUTDOOR EDUCATION APPROACH FOR DIFFERENT SCHOOL SUBJECTS


1. SCHOOL CURRICULUM VERSUS OUTDOOR EDUCATION
The interdisciplinary approach helps us to use or integrate concepts and methods among different forms of education. The education system plays an important role in achieving this goal. It should be organized in order to allow educational players to create a flexible educational teaching process, adjustable according to the learning needs of students. As we mentioned earlier, the formal education provides appropriate knowledge and educational information, the informal education provides a lifelong learning process, the non-formal education is participatory, interactive while the outdoor education "revives" the three forms of education. Together these forms of education create a quality education system in terms of content, and especially the results. The school curriculum designates the content of formal learning, the teaching-learning strategies, the methods and means, the resources, the assessment methods focused on the educationalinstitutional component. School curriculum is predetermined, clearly defined from other forms of education through a set of rules and regulations by national decision makers, in this case the Ministry of Education. Formal education is recognized as the main means of instruction by which students learn; other forms are not given due attention even though their impact is sometimes more intense. The experience as teachers / educators /primary school teachers made us identify some of the disadvantages / side effects of formal education.
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the school curriculum requires a set of rules and regulations that both students and their teachers should observe which denotes an authoritarian role of the teacher - the main disadvantage is that order and discipline give rise to fears and tensions among students There are teachers who pay excessive attention to their school subjects (for example a tutor who prefers to teach his school subject instead of devoting his time for tutoring his classes; the side effect being that students develop aversion towards that school subject on one hand and on the other hand, homeroom classes are also extremely important as they ensure a spiritual connection between student and teacher) The manuals for different disciplines often abound in theoretical terms, which causes mechanical learning among students; as a consequence there is an essential need to direct the information towards practice The formal education leads to repetition, habit and boredom because teachers teach the same lesson over and over again, so they lose interest; the process of teaching the lesson becomes a mechanical one and it does not take into account whether the student is paying attention to the lesson or if he is interested in the learning process and especially if he is motivated to learn. Unlike formal education, outdoor education faces several obstacles: Generally, there is no coherent vision of both Romanian and Turkish education; as a consequence outdoor education is not complementary to the formal education, There is a lack of local awareness, initiative, social participation for local development Lack of school funding / parents precarious situation to implement various outdoor activities,
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Lack of legislation that would provide outdoor education its rightful place, - Lack of social partnership (the connections between schools and various education actors are almost nonexistent), - In schools, there is no training for teachers in the field of outdoor education, - There is a lack of cooperation and communication skills, there are teachers reluctant to change and deficiencies in communication, etc.. - Outdoor education is often associated with some risks the fact that it takes place outdoors , pose some risks that many teachers do not want to assume not so much from fear as convenience The integration of outdoor education into school curriculum is an important part of ensuring the student's personal and professional development, especially because the current situation is characterized by lack of interest and motivation for learning on students part, increased level of non-involvement in school life, preoccupations which affect students behavior in a negative way, lack of respect for the school as an institution, for the teacher and for the family. As we mentioned above, outdoor education refreshes academic education, it also provides interactive learning opportunities which if properly implemented could lead to minimizing the negative aspects existing in the current education system. A first step in linking outdoor education to formal education would be its enactment, the establishment of educational assistance centers focused on this model of education on the one hand to support the implementation of outdoor education in schools and on the other hand to support vocational and continuing training of teachers, so that they acquire a range of skills and expertise. Moreover the encouragement of social partnership between schools and various experienced NGOs, would facilitate the integration of outdoor
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education in the current education system, would provide examples of good practice. We recognize school as the leading provider of school education, however the school should adapt to the new system requirements, the needs of students and teachers; there is a constant necessity to refresh the current teaching-learning process which no longer meets the needs of the present society. 2. PRACTICAL EXAMPLES OF INTEGRATION OF OUTDOOR EDUCATION INTO SCHOOL CURRICULUM The integration process of outdoor education into school curricula involves different stages from the planning to implementation. When an outdoor activity is planned, we should undertake a series of connections with a particular school subject that we want to "revive" (see Fig. 1).
Language and Communication Mathematics and Science OUTDOOR EDUCATION Social studies Arts Physical Education and Sports Technologies

Sport

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In the following part, we will give you some information and practical examples about different school subjects. Language and Communication Choose to hold your classes outdoor, whether you have a story / a novel /a novel to Romanian or foreign language lessons. Here are a few examples: Stage a scene of a story after it was previously read in class you can ask students to change the storyline of the story (to avoid chaos and disorganization, prepare students for work the day before, support students through the process, without interfering in their decisions to establish a new narrative this work does not require a rehearsal, it is advisable to allow students to be spontaneous, they will think in advance how to change the storyline, but for example they will be encouraged to improvise. Identify natural elements that students can write on: the earth, stones or leaves Start a story by choosing a natural object (a tree, a flower, etc.) and encourage students to continue the story Create a place or more places to read (when you have something to read you can go to that place). Ask your students to help you organize that place. Encourage students to write poems about various objects (trees, grass, etc.). ABC Hike: Walk around outside looking for things that begin with the letters of the alphabet. As you come across an ant, have the students either write about or draw a picture of the
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ant under the letter A. See how many letters of the alphabet you can cover. - Tree Tales: Have small groups of students sit silently for a short period of time next to a tree. What sounds do they hear? Where do they come from? If the tree could talk, what stories could it tell? Write a haiku, or other poem about the tree. There is a variety of activities that can be developed to teach languages in a unique way so that students will form their imagination, creativity, communication skills and literary / artistic skills. Mathematics and Science Mathematics also provides diversified opportunities through the composition or solving of problems; students are placed in the position to assess numbers in different terms, for example: - gather a pile of stones; the teacher and each student will choose one stone ; the teacher will compare his stone with that of his students; they will compare the stones in terms of size and then they take a piece of chalk and draw the symbols <> = a to exemplify. - Go out in the school yard and ask students to form various geometric shapes, so that they learn in an interactive way - Measure the school yard or the flower garden, etc.. Landscape Tally Take a walk, looking for different colors, shapes, or objects. Have students keep a tally sheet, marking down the objects as the class finds them. Make simple graphs to represent the numbers in the various categories. How would you describe your area to someone from another city or country? Classifications Have students collect 20 or so leaves that they find lying on the ground, and sort them into different piles (by color, shape, etc.). Discuss how different classification criteria lead to different pile
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distributions. What are some of the criteria we use to classify groups of organisms such as mammals, birds, plants, and insects? How might our ordering change if we sorted using different criteria? Physics and Chemistry - physical and chemical phenomena of nature (rain, snow, thunder / lightning, burning fuel, water cycle - for example our school is located in a mining area - which gave us the opportunity to explain to students some chemicals, iron ore, coal chemical composition, etc.) can be easily observed. Students will be more motivated to learn if they have the opportunity to observe these phenomena. On the one hand follow the theoretical aspects of the course but on the other hand focus on the practical aspects where it is possible. Biology the student acquires knowledge about plants and animals in nature, information about environment, pollution and its consequences. The educational aspects of the Biology lessons can be highlighted by: - Planting and caring for plants in the school garden, the vegetable garden, - Visits to the zoo, the botanical garden, - Student participation in environmental actions, - Hiking in the forest and building houses for birds - Taking photos of wild animals (birds, insects)

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Wild Groceries Discuss the position of items in a grocery store: some are on the top shelf, some on the floor, some are stored in the basement. Have students look at the outside environment as a grocery store. What types of food are located on the top shelf (canopy), lower shelf (understory), bottom shelf (ground), and basement (underground). From what shelves do different animals `shop'? Do most animals `shop' from one specific shelf, or are they evenly distributed? Animal Tracks Look for animal tracks in mud, sand or snow. Have the students try to move their bodies in such a way as to leave track patterns similar to those they have seen. How difficult is it to move like other animals? Do you think rabbits, deer or mice would have problems walking like us? How does this relate to the concept of adaptation?

Social Studies Geography - the geography lessons about landforms, climate, vegetation, soils, water, and wildlife can be easily taught outside the classroom - make use of the natural environment in which you are to explain and illustrate certain concepts of this school subject the way plains, hills, mountains, waters appeared. You have the option to organize a hike in the key points of your area, to analyze the weather changes with your students and make connections with different disciplines such as physics (you can hold a joint lesson with the teacher of physics); to study vegetation and fauna you can also teach a common lesson with the biology teacher, you can ask students to make a map of the city, take a photo gallery of the geographical environment. Outdoor education is the key element that allows students to learn by experience, by
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observation on site, students will be more motivated to learn, will easily find answers to their questions. History - identify and visit a local historical monument with your students, reconstruct a historical route (such as a war / fight), organize certain important historical moments in the school yard - such as the Union of the Principalities, talk to the students about the major historical figures of Romania choosing if it is possible some key elements. Hold outdoor history lessons in the school yard and organize a debate. In this way you - encourage students to express their creativity by an imaginary changing of history - such as "what would have happened had it not been World War I" - students will understand the importance of history in the development process of a nation, the fact that wars between nations slow the development process and have an economic, social, impact on the quality of life - students will appreciate this and much more will realize that people are responsible for their welfare and that of the community / society in which they live. Humanities - Even a difficult subject such as psychology, can be taken out of the classroom environment, for example organize various outdoor games / psychological tests for cognitive psychological processes (memory, attention, language, thought, imagination), give students information about the significance of games or test results, explain the psychological phenomena only after they have been able to make experiments, in this way students will understand theoretical aspects much better. Outdoor spaces often provide opportunities for philosophical reflections - create a space for reflection outdoor, start a philosophical discussion about beauty (using elements of nature - a flower, a tree, etc.), about the truth or goodness (identify a good deed done by a member of the community or by a student and encouraged students to discuss what happened, to identify key elements which
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are the reasons for that persons behavior, why it is important to help those around us, etc). Religion make with your students a calendar of religious events and activities that can be achieved in these events - for example go caroling with the students, play the scene of Jesus' birth, decorate the school, dont forget to tell them information about religious symbols, visit churches, mosques, etc.. Civic Education - can be a simulation of how to behave on the street, how to be a model pedestrian - how to cross the street. Science and civic education are subjects that can shape students skills related to environmental protection. Rules of proper behavior towards nature must be respected by all. Everything starts from simple skills. Paper, food packaging, bottles and other waste should not be placed at random because they will dirty the school area, they should be stored in special containers. Toilets must be kept clean and always sanitized. Chemicals in laboratories should not be placed on the ground, not to degrade. The school lands, the green spaces with flowers and trees should be cleaned by the little environmentalists of the school; the bottles, the plastic bags and the rusty cans should be removed; you can organize ecological actions from time to time.

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Arts Arts and Crafts allow full manifestation of childs creativity and sensitivity. Drawings, collages, posters with environmental message are a combination of aesthetics with scientific information. Through these activities the objects made from recyclable materials take some artistic value. Research, identify and visit with your students a monument from your community or a work of art near your city, encouraged students to express their opinion regarding the exhibits what the objects represent, give them information about the author / authors who created the objects. In this way students develop their communication skills, their creativity and their critical analytical thinking. Music Organize outdoor music competitions or go to a concert with your students, so that you can discover students with musical talent; they can be directed to a career in this field. Nature Crayons Have students collect small samples of leaves, twigs, dirt, berries, etc., and rub them on a piece of paper to determine what colour, if any, their `nature crayon' has. Have them draw a picture using the colours they can find in their area. Caution them on what items they shouldn't use (poison ivy, nettles, live animals, etc.) Eyes Have students `try on' the eyes of other animals. To simulate having an eye on the top of your head, hold a small mirror face up and level in your hand and look straight into it. Try walking a few yards with this view. For an eye on the side of the head, hold the mirror perpendicular to the ground and facing to the side. How do these views of the world differ from our own? Why do you suppose some animals would want to have eyes in different places? What role does seeing things in different ways play in art?
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Physical Education and Sports This disciplinary area folds best with the concept of outdoor education. Where else can you teach physical education best? You can choose from a variety of sports -tennis, football, volleyball, handball, table tennis, various physical exercises, basketball - all these activities contribute to the student's physical and mental development in a harmonious way, students with problems of obesity will be encouraged to lead a healthy lifestyle; physical problems can be prevented by an active life can be shaped during physical education classes and sports. Technologies - visit factories, quarries, and mines - see technological equipment used to manufacture a product, build outdoor furniture for the school, etc.

Environmental Education

Outdoor education is often confused with environmental education because the two meet outdoors; outdoor education is not only this, it refers to many education areas not only to the protection of the environment. At school students are very receptive to what they are told and shown in connection with the environment. Through various school subjects included in the education process every student should be convinced of the need to defend the environment against pollution. In this way we should develop their modern ecological behavior.
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This behavior is developed especially during science lessons which are meant to facilitate the understanding of plants, animals, essential processes of life and the indissoluble links between plants - animals environment; the geography lessons, but also civics lessons, language, music, arts, history can help students to achieve this behavior. Outdoor activities can bring important contributions to environmental education. Any activity that takes place outside the classroom is working in direct contact with the environment. As we teach children to speak, to behave at home, at school and in society, to observe rules of hygiene, we must teach them how to treat our environment. Among methods used outside the classroom we can mention: trips and visits to see the situation of the environment, actions to protect the environment and to sanitize schools, parks, the building of a green corner. Outdoor Education - the method for stimulating student creativity
a vision of Scouting

The partnership with the National Organization of Romanian Scouts - Ecaterina Teodoroiu Trgu Jiu Branch in the "EcoEdu beyond rhetoric" offers a new insight into methods of stimulating the pupils' creativity, outdoor education being one of these methods. Scouting experience in this type of education facilitated the project participants to understand its process and gave us an example good practice. Based on a symbolic frame, scout method stimulates youth creativity itself. For example the name of a branch of age, " little wolves", "temerarious" or "explorers", identifying marks, such as uniform and scarf, signs, songs and ceremonies. All these elements help create a framework, an atmosphere conducive to developing creativity. Here is a description of the age branches of Scouting:
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" Little wolves", (7-11 years) symbolic framewiork, the model used for " Little wolves" is Jungle Book" written by Rudyard Kipling. " Little wolves",meet weekly for "hunting". They can start looking for a lost city, or a hidden treasure. On the route they must pass various tests: riddles, physical tests or other tests that put creativity on testing. for example, they may be required to form a stanza containing certain words. Temerarious Island (11-14 years) Island because it suggests an exotic area (so bright) which is reached only after a journey of initiation. Temerarious must adapt to the environment, to build new skills, a certain conduct and set of values. The Island will be for them a small world. When it came the time for temerarious to make a first step on their island, the boat (the bus) , went up near the island. Good spirits of the island have taken over and led them in spite of all obstacles to the island where temerarious had to pass the Bridge of Sighs, the only way of access. The stronghold explorers (15-18 years) "stronghold" means the progressive development of the explorer and the way that gets to have a constructive role in society and community living. Working with this branch relies more on activities in the community, personal development activities, organizing and implementing their projects ideas. Methods To Stimulate Students' Creativity Public cafe - is an active dialogue method for a better exchange of information and finding creative solutions for action. It is used when a group or organization would like to discuss a particular topic (eg violence in
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schools). Is organized in spaces like a cafeteria or in a cafeteria. Free and relaxed atmosphere stimulates creative thinking by engaging in dialogue even the most timid. Through interaction with others they generate new ideas. Improvisational theater - children are often asked to improvise a sketch. Will be given a theme from which they start, eg jungle. It is based on improvisation, the ability to create, to sing, to play, dance or speak in response to their spontaneous thoughts and feelings, often involves an interactive relationship with the public, stakeholders may request suggestions from public. Photo voice - is a way of influencing and awareness of local decision makers and government by providing vivid images by members of disadvantaged groups or marginalized groups. Though photos they say what they think, feel and what should be done in their community. To ensure that each photo is understood, it appears next to the photo a story, the voice of photographer that tells the story of the captured image. Outdoor Games Bulldog (All ages) One person is the bulldog. All others line up at one end of the yard. When the person who is the bulldog shouts Bulldog! e veryone runs to the other side of the yard. Anyone caught by the bulldog becomes a bulldog helper. Bulldog is called again, and everyone who is not
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captive runs back across the yard, to where they started. Bulldog is repeated until everyone is caught. The last person to be caught is the next bulldog. Murder mystery (All Ages) Children sit in a circle. One detective is chosen and sent away until the murderer is chosen. The murderer is chosen secretly, while the other players have their eyes closed. Once they are chosen the children may open their eyes and the detective may return to the centre of the circle. The murderer kills by making a silly face at people in the circle. They must wait at least 3 seconds to die after being looked at funny. Some like to die laughing. It's the detective's job to find the murderer. The players have to look at each other's faces constantly. You can give the detective a limited number of guesses or play until everyone but the murderer and the detective are dead. Nana, Nana, whos got the banana? (4-10) Children sit in a circle, knees crossed and bent upwards. They pass around a banana underneath their bent knees. One child stands in the centre and tries to spot who has the banana while the children sing 'Nana Nana, Who's got the Banana'. Simon Says: (4-10) One child (the leader) has to tell the others what to do. For example 'Simon says - touch your nose'. All the children then touch their noses. The trick arises when the leader says 'scratch you knee' WITHOUT saying 'Simon says'. Children can have 3 lives and last player left can be the leader. Stick in the Mud (All Ages) Children are divided into two teams. Give names to the teams to help group identity etc. One team is 'on' (catching). When Dilek is caught, Dilek has to stand still with legs apart and can only be 'freed' if a team71

mate crawls through. The game finishes when all are caught. Then, reverse team roles and play again. Un-Freeze A Friend (All Ages) Each child walks around while balancing a beanbag on their head. If you lose your beanbag, you have to freeze and rely on a friend to pick it up and replace it for you (while still balancing their own). A leader can also change the speed of the game by calling slow, fast, run or hop. Catch/Dont Catch (All) Children stand in a circle. One child is in the centre and has a bag or beanbag or sock. This child says 'Catch' or else can say 'Don't catch' and then throw the ball to someone in the circle. The child to whom the ball is thrown must either catch or refuse to catch as directed. If they fail to do as told, they sit down and are out of the game. Scouting Outdoor Games 1. Cultures Purpose: To stimulate the spirit of cooperation and finding a common identity Age: 6 - 60 years No. Participants: 6 people Materials: paper, materials from nature Duration: 60-120 minutes Venue: Outdoor Description: a) it will be created participants groups of 6-10 people. b) Each group should find a name, to build a fireplace and a flag of "village" using materials from nature.
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c) After the end of construction period, each culture will present other cultures. d) The facilitator will take care to appreciate all cultures. Subsequently, all activities will relate to the created culture by the participants, introducing activities referring to them. 1. Tomatoes Purpose: To develop physical skills, attention and strategy. Age: 5-24 years No. Participants: at least 7 up to 15 Materials: Ball Duration: 20-30 minutes Venue: Outdoor Description: a) Players sit in a circle, lean forward with legs apart. The ball is passed from player to player by hands, just at ground level. b) One who passes the ball through the legs will use in the future only one hand. The second instance will turn away, playing with two hands again. In the third goals will continue to play back with one hand and the fourth goal the player is eliminated. c) In order to avoid the accident, we just pass the ball to the ground, never by air. d) Game animator stops the game if the ball is passed too hard. 2. Good angel, bad angel Purpose: development of attention, logic and the senses. Age: 10-60 years No. participants: 3-30 preferably multiples of 3 Materials: scarves blindfolded, objects for each team Duration :10-15min Venue: Outdoor Description:
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a) Players are divided into teams of three and get one scarf and an object b)In each team there will be a blind player - that will be blindfolded. c) The other two players will walk away and decide who will be good angel and who will be bad angel without the blind to hear, then put the object somewhere in the neighborhood. d) good angel tries to guide the blind player to object, through verbal instructions, and the bad angel tries to induce the "blind" in error. e) The angels are not allowed to touch the blind! f) The game ends when all blindfolded players have found their team object.

3. OUTDOOR EDUCATION PLANNING


Addressing outdoor school subjects is based primarily on a well established planning process that supports the teacher understanding of the essential steps for the development of outdoor activities. An important aspect in the planning process is to involve students, it is important to know their opinion about our intentions, it helps us to understand better what motivates our students, things of interest to them (it happens often that the involvement of students in an outdoor activity to be impossible for various reasons - either because students dont have the knowledge to engage in the activity or the activuty doesnt suit on the learning needs of students - in this case what the teacher- planed will create chaos and disorganization, or will be a failure - which means wasting time for student / teacher, waste materials, etc..). The planning process involves the following steps: 1. Identify the activity depending on the student ages - it must be closely related to school discipline - for suggestions and ideas you can
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always ask students, you will be amazed by the creativity and imagination of your students and you will find in them a reliable aid . 2. Making a plan of course - goals, objectives, activities, desired results 3. Technical details Climatic conditions - weather must not always be an obstacle (to teach lessons about weather events, rainy weather, snow is an advantage - but need to make sure that students are well dressed according to weather conditions) Location - answer the following questions: o A movement involves costs? If so, which are and from where you get resources o A parental consent is needed, or leadership consent? o The chosen location is closely related to the topic I want to tackle? o The teacher should consider the opportunities on the one hand, and on the other hand the restrictions that may have an outdoor space for students to feel comfortable - must have place to move, have benches where to sit, etc.. o How many students will participate in the classroom? Do I need support from another teacher? o How long will be this activity? the activity will affect other classes of my students or my colleagues? o Which are the material resources, financial resources? The requirements resources for a job should be accessible, for example you can focus primarily on the natural resources. If you need financial resources, seek the assistance of management, sponsors and families, but note the possibility of deny from their part, for this build always a backup plan.

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o Develop a set of rules and communicate it to students in order to avoid conflicts between students or any unforeseen problems o Which are the risks of running the course outdoor ? What are the dangers? How can I prevent risks and with witch tools? Evaluation activity: - Quantitative evaluation, eg. materials resource used, number of students involved, number of teachers - Qualitative assessment, eg. involvement of students in activities, skills acquired - Methods and assessment tools used (eg questionnaire, focus group, discussions, debates, observation, interview) Feedback is an important aspect in any activity carried out, because it offers an overview of the participants opinions, complaints, suggestions, desirable is that in every stage of planning an outdoor activity, to get feedback from all involved for an successful outdoor activity it must take into account the constant cooperation, communication, offering the possibility of expression of those involved. Outdoor education is different from other teaching methods because it enables teachers to identify different behavior problems. Observing how students work in the proposed activity may be relevant to identify aggressive behavior or integration issues - all students have to participate actively, to assume responsibilities and to answer to the roles and tasks they received, if notice passive students allocate them extra time, encourage them to get involved, and call for the support of other children. Outdoor activities transpose the student in some views, and in this way the teacher is able to identify a child with problems, an abused child.
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How can we measure the success / unsuccessful of the performed activity?

To ensure that the work that I just ran had the desired effect, it is necessary to measure this impact by: - Evaluation questionnaires for both the staff involved and especially for students, questionnaires must be made according to the profile activity of each participant, it will have to contain both closed questions to make a quantitative assessment of activity (eg. number of participants, resources used, etc.) and open questions to make qualitative assessment of activity (eg involvement in activity, motivation to participate in activity, measures to improve future activities) - Although it is more complex, it can be realized an evaluation of the activities by verified questionnaire replies of the parents of students - spending most of the time with their children, parents may be able to provide an overview of what happened - this evaluation session of parents may be an important factor in maintaining constant contact with them, so they are kept informed about what their children learn and can provide real support future activities - Interactive discussion between those involved - we need to pay attention while we work on the involvement of all students, to agree each participant in discussions, to offer students the opportunity to ask questions when there are not clearly in an aspect and especially to enable them to express their opinions on the activity.

4. THE MANAGEMENT OF RISK IN OUTDOOR EDUCATION


All outdoor activities, regardless of location, involve an element of risk. The safety of the involved students in the experiential education is extremely important. Although the real risk can not be
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totally eliminated, a teacher must ensure that the real risks are reduced to acceptable levels so that the students will participate in a context which is comparatively safe in terms of community. A risk management plan that identifies and analyzes carefully the risks and dangers inherent in a particular experiential program, in an effort to eliminate, avoid or reduce risks to acceptable levels is the most effective way to manage risks in experiential education. All staff involved in outdoor education should be fully aware of all the principles and procedures it required. Directors should ensure that precautions are taken regarding the safety of participants, and that supervision will be appropriate to the number, maturity, behavior and planned activities. For the permission to carry out the outdoor activities, we have to get information on security issues, including proposed itinerary, composition group, emergency plans. What Is A Risk Management Plan? To ensure that all outdoor education activities are planned and conducted in safe, effective risk management should be implemented. A risk management plan involves a systematic analysis of activity, equipment, venue, participants and staff so unacceptable risk factors can be identified and eliminated or adequately controlled. Risk Management Plan includes: - Identify risks and safety issues, - Management of hazards, risks and safety issues. By developing a safety management plan, we avoid any dangers and risks that can not be controlled satisfactorily. It has to be taken into account things such as the nature of location or venue, participants, staff experience and weather conditions. To identify safety problems, have to take into account physical, social and emotional needs of participants and staff, staff qualifications and experience, including
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strengths and limitations, mandatory safe locations such as cliffs, deep and cold lakes or the river, encountering obstructions, submerged rocks and other hazards in natural watercourses and flammable gas cylinders, equipment condition, the effects of different weather conditions, any hazards potentially harmful, such as a fallen tree, communication and access to assistive emergency. Risk Management Plan is a response to risk assessment, in order that this to be low enough so that the performed activity to be done safely, it is done differently depending on the outdoor activities that are conducted.

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CONCLUSIONS

The present manual approached the experiences offered by the outdoor education in the students teaching-learning process. The project EcoEdu beyond rhetoric offered us the possibility of deepenning the concept of outdoor education. The project brought together the personnel involved in the educational process from 2 regions Turkey and Romania with the aim to facilitate the exchange of experience, to promote the linguistic and cultural diversity, to develop experimental teaching materials, to share opinions and values as regards the consolidation of the European dimension in the education. All the project activities represented opportunities to consolidate the mutual understanding, to make one conscious about the relations at the local and European level and to launch an intercultural sensitiveness among the teaching staffs and the pupils involved in the project. The present project offered to the teaching staffs opportunities to get in contact and to participate to activities together with teaching staffs from the European space and consequently to benefit by exchanges of good practices on educational themes. During the implementation of the project our teachers both in Mu and in Catunele did new outdoor education activities. They shared new and different activities with eachother. Our teacher found out that they have already done many outdoorlearning activities currently. And these activities make easier to teach for teachers and to learn for students. During these activities especially our students developed a deep relaationship with nature. Outdoor learning activities help them to improve their problem solving skills, to enhance teamwork, to develop leadership skills, to understand natural environments and to promote their spirituality. The manual is a result of a long cooperation between the partners and its main objective is to offer a new perspective on
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education, to offer examples of interactive teaching methods, that in the end will be reflected in a quality education system in terms of content, and especially the results, because during the projects implementation we understood that outdoor education can be a significant part in the education system, and as a whole range of learning opportunities.

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Material made within the project "EduEco beyond rhetoric," reference no. COM-10-PR-16-GJ-RO, TR, the project was carried out between 08.01.2010 - 31.07.2012 and it was co-financed by the European Commission through The Sectorial Programme Comenius Regio. The manual can be visualize on the projects website www.edu-catunele.ro Coordinators: Liliana Bucic, Dana Lorena Bran, Gheorghia Caranda, Nazan Turan Contact local parteners: Local Council Catunele Com.Catunele, sat Valea Perilor, jud Gorj Nr. tel: 0253411023 National Organization Romanian Scouts Tirgu Jiu Branch EcaterinaTeodoroiu Targu Jiu,str Aleea Teilor, Bl.14, Sc.1, Et.3, Ap. 12, jud Gorj Nr.tel.: 0353405844 General School Mazilu Vipie Gheorghe Com. Catunele, Sat Valea Manastirii, jud Gorj Nr. tel.: 0253411002 Primary School Invatator Nicolae Caranda Com. Glogova, sat Glogova, jud Gorj

Nr.tel: 0253411405

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