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VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Jnana Sangama, Belgaum-590014

Project Report on

ACCIDENT IDENTIFICATION USING GSM AND GPS TECHNOLOGY


Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING By: GURURAJA HEGDE V (1GS09EC011) TOUSIF PASHA (1GS09EC036) Under the guidance of Mr. ASHOKA.A Asst. Professor, Dept. of ECE, GSSIT. CHANDRAKANTH.H (1GS09EC007)

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

G S S Institute of Technology
#37/2, Komaghatta, New B yrohalli Road, Kengeri Upanagara, B angalore-560060

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

CERTIFICATE
Certified that the Seminar work entitled ACCIDENT IDENTIFICATION USING GSM AND GPS TECHNOLOGY carried out by Mr. GURURAJA HEGDE V [1GS09EC011],Mr. CHANDRAKANTH.H [1GS09EC007], Mr. TOUSIF PASHA [1GS09EC036] a bonafide students of Eight Semester B. E. in the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, G S S I T, in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics and Communication Engineering of the Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum during the academic year 2012-2013. It is certified that all corrections/suggestions indicated for Internal Assessment have been incorporated in the seminar report deposited in the department library. The seminar report has been approved as it satisfies the academic requirements in respect of Seminar work prescribed for the said degree.

Signature of the Guide


Mr. Ashoka A

Signature of the HOD Mr. Krishnananda

Signature of the Principal Dr. Vidyashankar. B. V

External Viva Voice Name of the Examiners 1. 2. Signature with date

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Numerous personalities, directly or indirectly have extended their support and co-operation to us during the journey of our Project work. We are truly indebted to them and hereby acknowledge their contributions. This journey would have been impossible if we had not received the mentoring and guidance of Mr.Ashoka A, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, GSS Institute of Technology and we are deeply indebted to him for his valuable guidance throughout the course of this seminar work. Every discussion with him during the course of this work was extremely useful and fruitful. We acknowledge the support and guidance of Mr. Krishnananda , Assistant Professor, Head of Department, Electronics and Communication Engineering, GSS Institute of Technology. We are thankful to Dr.Vidyashankar B.V, Principal, GSS Institute of Technology for his encouragement and support during the course of the seminar work. We would like to thank all the staff members of Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, GSS Institute of Technology for their cooperation.

Gururaja Hegde V Chandrakanth H Tousif Pasha

Dedicated To Our Beloved Parents and Lecturers

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ABSTRACT
In highly populated Countries like India, during accidents, people lose their lives due to unavailability of proper medical facilities at the right time. This project senses any accident in the vehicle and intimates pre-programmed numbers like the owner of the vehicle, ambulance, police etc. The GSM technology is used to send the position of the vehicle as a SMS to those numbers and also the position of the vehicle can be obtained by the owner of the vehicle or anyone with proper permission by sending an SMS to a number. Most of the companies want to keep track of their vehicles, with this equipment we can keep track of the vehicle by periodically sending SMS and the position of the vehicle is sent by the GSM modem as a SMS to the user. To know the position of the vehicle, the owner sends a request through a SMS. This is received by a GSM modem in the device and processed by the Spartan processor and the processor sends command to a GPS module in the device. The GPS module responds with co-ordinates position of the vehicle. This position is sent to the user as a SMS to the user with date, time, latitude and longitude positions. When there is an accident, the accelerometer sensor detects the change in position and sends a signal to the processor. The processor analyses the signal and finds there is an accident. It immediately sends the position of the vehicle and also the information that there is an accident, to pre-programmed numbers such as the owner of the vehicle, police, ambulance etc. So the ambulance arrives in time and the police can arrive in time to clear the traffic. This reduces the time taken by ambulance to arrive and also traffic can be cleared easily.

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CONTENTS
Acknowledgement Abstract Contents List of Figures List of Tables Abbreviations i iii iv vii x xii

CHAPTER 1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

INTRODUCTION
1 2 3 4 5

Embedded systems Objective of the Project Block diagram Working of the system Schematic and Explanation

CHAPTER 2 MICROCONTROLLER
2.1 P89V51RD2FN 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.2 2.3 Features Pin diagram Description Pin Description 6 7 9 10 13 14 19 19 20 23

The 8052 Oscillator and clock Memories

CHAPTER 3 POWER SUPPLY


3.1 3.2 3.3 Transformer Rectifier Voltage Regulator

CHAPTER 4 GSM MODEM


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 History Basics of Working and Specification of GSM Architecture and Building Blocks Signaling Schemes Used AT Commands iv

26
26 27 28 29 31

CHAPTER 5 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 GPS Basics GPS Principle GPS Receiver Major Components of GPS Receiver Functions of GPS Receiver Output Receiver Features Hardware Connection 38 39 39 40 40 41 42 43

CHAPTER 6 ACCELEROMETER SENSOR


6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 ADXL330 Features of ADXL330 Functional and Pin Diagram Applications of Accelerometer sensor I2C Bus 45 46 47 48 49

CHAPTER 7 MAX 232 IC


7.1 7.2 RS-232 Voltage Levels RS-232 Level Converter 50 51

CHAPTER 8 LCD DISPLAY


8.1 8.2 LCD Module Commands Used in LCD 54 56

CHAPTER 9 RELAY CIRCUIT


9.1 Single Pole Double Through Relay 54 60 62 64

CHAPTER 10 TEMPERATURE SENSOR CHAPTER 11 L293D(Driver IC) CHAPTER 12 DC MOTOR CHAPTER 13 SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
13.1 INTRODUCTION 13.2 TOOLS Used v

66 66

13.3 C51 Compiler and A51 Macro Assembler 13.4 Vision 13.5 Building an Application in Vision

66 67 67

CHAPTER 14 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES


14.1 ADVANTAGES 14.2 DISADVANTAGES 78 78 80 81

CONCLUSION REFERENCES

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LIST OF FIGURES Figures


CHAPTER 1 Figure 1.1 General Block diagram Figure 1.2 Pin Connections CHAPTER 2 Figure 2.1 Typical P89V51RD2FN MCU Figure 2.2 Functional Block Diagram Figure 2.3 Pin Diagram Figure 2.4 Functional Block Diagram of a MCU Figure 2.5 Oscillator Circuit and Timing Diagram CHAPTER 3 Figure 3.1 Fixed Regulated Power Supply Figure 3.2 Transformer Figure 3.3 Half Wave Rectifier Figure 3.4 Full Wave Rectifier Figure 3.5 Bridge Rectifier Figure 3.6 Center Tapped Transformer Figure 3.7 Variation in Capacitor Voltage Figure 3.8 Filter Capacitor Varying Voltage characteristics Figure 3.9 78xx series Regulator Figure 3.10 7805 Regulator vii 19 19 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 06 08 09 12 13 03 04

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CHAPTER 4 Figure 4.1 Combination of TDMA and FDMA Figure 4.2 Structure of the Network Figure 4.3 Transmitter for the Voice Signal 27 28 29

Figures
Figure 4.4 Receiver for the Voice Signal CHAPTER 6 Figure 6.1 Functional Block Diagram of ADXL330 Figure 6.2 Pin Configuration of ADXL330 CHAPTER 7 Figure 7.1 A view of MAX 232 IC Figure 7.2 MAX 232 Pin Configuration and internal circuit Figure 7.3 RS232 and TTL logic Conversion CHAPTER 8 Figure 8.1 16x2 LCD Display Figure 8.2 LCD and MC connection CHAPTER 9 Figure 9.1 SPDT relay switch with PIN Numbers CHAPTER 10 Figure 10.1 Pin Diagram Figure 10.2 Functional Block Diagram CHAPTER 11 viii

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46 46

50 51 52

54 56

59

60 61

Figure 11.1 Pin Diagram CHAPTER 12 Figure 12.1 2-Pole DC electric Motor Figure 12.2 Three Pole Design CHAPTER 13 Figure 13.1 Keil Software Internal Stages

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64 65

66

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LIST OF TABLES Tables


CHAPTER 2 Table 2.1 Port 3 Pin Description CHAPTER 3 Table 3.1 Regulator Specifications CHAPTER 4 Table 4.1 Basic Blocks of GSM System Table 4.2 Syntax for getting IMEI Table 4.3 Syntax for Repeat Command Table 4.4 Syntax For Received Signal Strength Table 4.5 Syntax for message repetition Table 4.6 Syntax to Store messages Table 4.7 Syntax to Read Stored messages Table 4.8 Syntax for Status Table 4.9 Syntax for Text mode Table 4.10 Syntax for deleting messages CHAPTER 6 Table 6.1 Pin Function Description of ADXL330 CHAPTER 7 Table 7.1 Signal Specifications
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29 31 32 32 33 34 34 35 35 36

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CHAPTER 8 Table 8.1 Pin Function Description Table 8.2 LCD Commands CHAPTER 10 Table 10.1 Pin Description CHAPTER 11 Table 11.1 Pin Function Description 63 60 55 56

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ABBREVIATIONS
MCU-Microcontroller Unit. LCD-Liquid Crystal Display UART- Universal Asynchronous Receiver / Transmitter. MC- Microcontroller. IC- Integrated Circuit. ROM- Read Only Memory. RAM- Random Access Memory. RF- Radio Frequency. GPS- Global Positioning System. GSM- Global System for Mobile NMEA- National Marine Electronics Association. LFCSP- Lead Frame Chip Scale Package. SPDT- Single Pole Double Throw. DC- Direct Current. CPU- Central Processing Unit. IDE Integrated Development Environment.

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 EMBEDDED SYSTEMS :
Embedded systems are designed to do some specific task, rather than be a general purpose computer for multiple tasks. Some also have real time performance constraints that must be met, for reason such as safety and usability. Others may have low or no performance requirements, allowing the system hardware to be simplified to reduce costs. Wireless communication has become an important feature for commercial products and a popular research topic within the last ten years. There are now more mobile phone subscriptions than wired-line subscriptions. Lately, one area of commercial interest has been low-cost, low-power, and short-distance wireless communication used for

networks." Technology advancements are providing smaller and more cost effective devices for integrating computational processing, wireless communication, and a host of other functionalities. These embedded communications devices will be integrated into applications ranging from homeland security to industry automation and monitoring. They will also enable custom tailored engineering solutions, creating a revolutionary way of disseminating and processing information. With new technologies and devices come new business activities, and the need for employees in these technological areas. Engineers who have knowledge of embedded systems and wireless communications will be in high demand. Unfortunately, there are few adorable environments available for development and classroom use, so students often do not learn about these technologies during hands-on lab exercises. The communication mediums were twisted pair, optical fiber, infrared, and generally wireless radio.

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1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT


There is a drastic increase in the number of vehicles in these days which also cause a steep rise in the number of accidents with a lot of people losing their lives. As per the Commission for Global Road Safety (2012), road vehicle accidents kill an estimated 1.3 million people and injure 50 million people per year globally, and the global road fatalities are forecast to reach 1.9 million by 2020. Indias road accidents records 16% of the worlds road accident deaths, whereas India has only 1% of the worlds road vehicles. Today road traffic injuries are one of the leading causes of deaths, disabilities and hospitalizations with severe socioeconomic costs across the world. It is due to the increase in the number of vehicles without a subsequent increase in the road facilities required for it. In most of the accident cases, the victims lose their lives because of the unavailability of medical facilities at the right time. In large companies with a large number of vehicles, the drives use the companys vehicle seven for their own purposes and impact a loss to the company. To solve problems like these, this project came into existence. This project is mainly used to track the position of the vehicle by the owner or also can be used in the public transportation system by the people to know the location of the buses or trains. In case of any accidents, the system sends automated messages to the pre- programmed numbers. We can send messages to any number of mobile. The owner of the vehicle, police to clear the traffic, Ambulance to save the people can be informed by this device. This uses a GPS(Global positioning system) to know the exact position of the vehicle with an accuracy of a few feet.GSM is used to receive SMS from the user and reply the position of the vehicle through a SMS, A Microcontroller (MC) is used to control and co-ordinate all the parts used in the system. When there is any accident, an accelerometer sensor is triggered and its sends signal to the MC. The MC processes the input and sends the appropriate output according to the programming done. The main concept in this design is introducing the GSM and GPS Technologies into the embedded system. The designed unit is very simple & low cost. The entire designed unit is on as single chip.

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1.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM PROPOSAL FOR THE SYSTEM

Figure 1.1 General Block Diagram

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
Microcontroller-P89V51RD2. LCD 16x2 Rs232- MAX232 GSM Modem(RS232 based) GPS Modem 7812/7805 voltage regulators for power supply Power supply circuit Temperature Sensor(LM35) Accelerometer Sensor(ADXL330) L293D Driver IC. DC motor

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1.4 Brief Working Of the System


The main components of this system are the microcontroller, GSM and GPS .These components co-ordinate together with the sensors to send the message to the pre-programmed number. When an accident occurs the two sensors i.e the accelerometer sensor and the limit switch sensor which are installed on the vehicle will have a abrupt change in their ordinary values or the threshold values thereby sensing the accident and intimates it to the MC. The microcontroller (MC) generates a interrupt and alerts the GSM modem which send a message to the Master number or the pre-programmed numbers where the owner of the master number gets a message indicating accident alert. The Master number replies to the GSM modem to identify the location through a particular message format. The MC then extracts the longitude and latitude positions from the information received from the GPS modem and then send the information about the position to the master number. The latitude and longitude position are loaded into the Google Maps which finds the location of the Vehicle where accident has occurred and medical assistance is provided. immediate

Figure 1.2 Pin Connections


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1.5 Schematic and Explanation


This Schematic explanation includes the detailed pin connections of every device with the microcontroller. The power supply of 12V and 5V are given to the respective devices which are supplied from the regulators. The crystal oscillator of 11.0592 MHz crystal in conjunction with couple of capacitors is placed at 18th and 19th pin of the MC. Buzzer is an output device .It is used as an indication as crossing of preset value. It will sound to alert the human. Buzzer is connected to P3.6 Key is a device used to turn on the model. It is a safety measure. . It is connected to P3.7 of the MC. LCD is the output device. It is used to display the status of the vehicle. Data pins of LCD are connected to Port 1.0 to Port 1.7 pin, control pins are connected to pin 29,30,31 of microcontroller. ADXL330 is the sensor which has an analog output X, Y, Z which is connected to the microcontroller through the ADC 0808 converter in the port P2.0 P 2.7 pins of MC. LM35 Temperature sensor also has an analog output, which is connected to the MC through the ADC. Since only 2 conversions are needed, only two channels out of 8 channels are selected in the ADC 0808 through the A, B, C inputs of ADC. The RXT and TXT pins of the MC are connected to the GSM/GPS SIM COM Modem. i.e P3.0 and P3.1 of port 3. The Pins of the port P3.2- P 3.5 are used to connect to the DC motor to run the wheels in the vehicle through a L293D driver IC, Which amplifies the voltage to

12V for the DC motors to run from the microcontroller which has a 5V operating voltage.

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CHAPTER 2

MICROCONTROLLER(P89V51RD2FN)
The P89V51RD2FN is an 80C51 microcontroller with 64KB Flash and 1024 bytes of data RAM. A key feature of the P89V51RD2 is its X2 mode option. The design engineer can choose to run the application with the conventional 80C51 clock rate (12 clocks per machine cycle) or select the X2 mode (6 clocks per machine cycle) to achieve twice the throughput at the same clock frequency. Another way to benefit from this feature is to keep the same performance by reducing the clock frequency by half, thus dramatically reducing the EMI. The Flash program memory supports both parallel programming and in serial InSystem Programming (ISP). Parallel programming mode offers gang-programming

at high speed, reducing programming costs and time to market. ISP allows a device to be reprogrammed in the end product under software control. The capability to field/update the application firmware makes a wide range of applications possible. The P89V51RD2 is also In-Application Programmable (IAP), allowing the Flash program memory to be reconfigured even while the application is running.

Figure 2.1 Typical P89V51RD2FN MCU

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2.1.1 Features
80C51 Central Processing Unit. 5 V Operating voltage from 0 to 40 MHz. 64kB of on-chip Flash program memory with ISP (In-System Programming) and IAP (In-Application Programming). Supports 12-clock (default) or 6-clock mode selection via software or ISP n SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) and enhanced UART. PCA (Programmable Counter Array) with PWM and Capture/Compare functions. Four 8-bit I/O ports with three high-current Port 1 pins (16 mA each). Three 16-bit timers/counters. Eight interrupt sources with four priority levels n Second DPTR register. TTL- and CMOS-compatible logic levels. Brown-out detection. Low power modes. Power-down mod with external interrupt wake-up. Idle mode.

PDIP40, PLCC44 and TQFP44 packages.

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Figure 2.2 P89V51RD2 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM The 8051 is the name of a big family of microcontrollers. The device which we are going to use along this tutorial is the 'P89V51RD2FN' which is a typical 8051 microcontroller manufactured by NXP (Philips). Note that this part doesn't aim to explain the functioning of the different components of a microcontroller, but rather to give you a general idea of the organization of the chip and the available features, which shall be explained in detail in next parts. This figure shows the main features and components that the designer can interact with. You can notice that it has 4 different ports, each one having 8 Input/output lines providing a total of 32 I/O lines. Those ports can be used to output DATA and orders do other devices, or to read the state of a sensor, or a switch. Most of the ports have 'dual function' meaning that they can be used for two different functions: the first one is to perform input/output operations and the second one is used to implement special features of the microcontroller like
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counting external pulses, interrupting the execution of the program according to external events, performing serial data transfer or connecting the chip to a computer to update the software. Microprocessor has following instructions to perform: 1. Reading instructions or data from program memory ROM. 2. Interpreting the instruction and executing it. 3. Microprocessor Program is a collection of instructions stored in a Nonvolatile memory. 4. Read Data from I/O device 5. Process the input read, as per the instructions read in program memory. 6. Read or write data to Data memory. 7. Write data to I/O device and output the result of processing to O/P device.

2.1.2 PIN DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION.

Figure 2.3 PIN DIAGRAM

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2.1.3 PIN DESCRIPTION


Pin Description: Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as

high impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 external count

2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as

shown in the following table. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification. PORT 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups.The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits

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the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. PORT 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups .The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52, as shown in the following table. Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.

Table 2.1 Port 3 pin and its functions RST Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives High for 96 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0
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of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. PSEN Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the MC is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. EA/VPP External Access Enable . EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming.

Figure 2.4 Functional block diagram of micro controller

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2.2 The 8052 Oscillator and Clock: The heart of the 8051 circuitry that generates the clock pulses by which all the internal all internal operations are synchronized. Pins XTAL1 And XTAL2 is provided for

connecting a resonant network to form an oscillator. Typically a quartz crystal and capacitors are employed. The crystal frequency is the basic internal clock frequency of the microcontroller. The manufacturers make 8051 designs that run at specific minimum and maximum frequencies typically 1 to 16 MHz.

Fig-2.5 Oscillator and timing circuit

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2.3 MEMORIES Types of memory: The 8052 have three general types of memory. They are on-chip memory, external Code memory and external Ram. On-Chip memory refers to physically existing memory on the micro controller itself. External code memory is the code memory that resides off chip. This is often in the form of an external EPROM. External RAM is the Ram that resides off chip. This often is in the form of standard static RAM or flash RAM. a) Code memory Code memory is the memory that holds the actual 8052 programs that is to be run. This memory is limited to 64K. Code memory may be found on-chip or off-chip. It is possible to have 8K of code memory on-chip and 60K off chip memory simultaneously. If only off-chip memory is available then there can be 64K of off chip ROM. This is controlled by pin provided as EA b) Internal RAM The 8052 have a bank of 256 bytes of internal RAM. The internal RAM is found on-chip. So it is the fastest Ram available. And also it is most flexible in terms of reading and writing. Internal Ram is volatile, so when 8051 is reset, this memory is cleared. 256 bytes of internal memory are subdivided. The first 32 bytes are divided into 4 register banks. Each bank contains 8 registers. Internal RAM also contains 256 bits, which are addressed from 20h to 2Fh. These bits are bit addressed i.e. each individual bit of a byte can be addressed by the user. They are numbered 00h to FFh. The user may make use of these variables with commands such as SETB and CLR. Special Function registered memory: Special function registers are the areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8052 micro controller. a) Accumulator (0E0h) As its name suggests, it is used to accumulate the results of large no of instructions. It can hold 8 bit values.

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b) B registers (0F0h) The B register is very similar to accumulator. It may hold 8-bit value. The b register is only used by MUL AB and DIV AB instructions. In MUL AB the higher byte of the product gets stored in B register. In div AB the quotient gets stored in B with the remainder in A. 1. Stack pointer (81h) The stack pointer holds 8-bit value. This is used to indicate where the next value to be removed from the stack should be taken from. When a value is to be pushed onto the stack, the 8052 first store the value of SP and then store the value at the resulting memory location. When a value is to be popped from the stack, the 8052 returns the value from the memory location indicated by SP and then decrements the value of SP. d) Data pointer The SFRs DPL and DPH work together work together to represent a 16-bit value called the data pointer. The data pointer is used in operations regarding external RAM and some instructions code memory. It is a 16-bit SFR and also an addressable SFR. e) Program counter The program counter is a 16 bit register, which contains the 2 byte address, which tells the 8052 where the next instruction to execute to be found in memory. When the 8052 is initialized PC starts at 0000h. And is incremented each time an instruction is executes. It is not addressable SFR. f) PCON (power control, 87h) The power control SFR is used to control the 8051s power control modes. Certain operation modes of the 8051 allow the 8051 to go into a type of sleep mode which consumes much lee power.

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g) TCON (timer control, 88h) The timer control SFR is used to configure and modify the way in which the 8051s two timers operate. This SFR controls whether each of the two timers is running or stopped and contains a flag to indicate that each timer has overflowed. Additionally, some nontimer related bits are located in TCON SFR. These bits are used to configure the way in which the external interrupt flags are activated, which are set when an external interrupt occurs.

h) TMOD (Timer Mode, 89h) The timer mode SFR is used to configure the mode of operation of each of the two timers. Using this SFR your program may configure each timer to be a 16-bit timer, or 13 bit timer, 8-bit auto reload timer, or two separate timers. Additionally you may configure the timers to only count when an external pin is activated or to count events that are indicated on an external pin.

i) TO (Timer 0 low/high, address 8A/8C h) These two SFRs taken together represent timer 0. Their exact behavior depends on how the timer is configured in the TMOD SFR; however, these timers always count up. What is configurable is how and when they increment in value. j) T1 (Timer 1 Low/High, address 8B/ 8D h) These two SFRs, taken together, represent timer 1. Their exact behavior depends on how the timer is configured in the TMOD SFR; however, these timers always count up..

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k) P0 (Port 0, address 90h, bit addressable) This is port 0 latch. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on a micro controller. Any data to be outputted to port 0 is first written on P0 register. For e.g., bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0.0, bit 7 is pin p0.7. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to low level. l) P1 (port 1, address 90h, bit addressable) This is port latch1. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on a micro controller. Any data to be outputted to port 0 is first written on P0 register. For e.g., bit 0 of port 0 is pin P1.0, bit 7 is pin P1.7. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to low level m) P2 (port 2, address 0A0h, bit addressable): This is a port latch2. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on a micro controller. Any data to be outputted to port 0 is first written on P0 register. For e.g., bit 0 of port 0 is pin P2.0, bit 7 is pin P2.7. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to low level. n) P3 (port 3, address B0h, bit addressable) :

This is a port latch3. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on a micro controller. Any data to be outputted to port 0 is first written on P0 register. For e.g., bit 0 of port 0 is pin P3.0, bit 7 is pin P3.7. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to low level.

p) IP (Interrupt Priority, 0B8h) The interrupt priority SFR is used to specify the relative priority of each interrupt.On 8051, an interrupt maybe either low or high priority. An interrupt may interrupt interrupts. For e.g., if we configure all interrupts as low priority other than serial interrupt.
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The serial interrupt always interrupts the system, even if another interrupt is currently executing. However, if a serial interrupt is executing no other interrupt will be able to interrupt the serial interrupt routine since the serial interrupt routine has the highest priority.

q) PSW (Program Status Word, 0D0h) The program Status Word is used to store a number of important bits that are set and cleared by 8052 instructions. The PSW SFR contains the carry flag, the auxiliary carry flag, the parity flag and the overflow flag. Additionally, it also contains the register bank select flags, which are used to select, which of the R register banks currently in use.

r) SBUF (Serial Buffer, 99h) SBUF is used to hold data in serial communication. It is physically two registers. One is writing only and is used to hold data to be transmitted out of 8052 via TXD. The other is read only and holds received data from external sources via RXD. Both mutually exclusive registers use address 99h.

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CHAPTER 3

POWER SUPPLY
All digital circuits require regulated power supply. In this article we are going to learn how to get a regulated positive supply from the mains supply.

Figure 3.1 Basic block diagram of a fixed regulated power supply

3.1 TRANSFORMER

Figure 3.2 Transformer and its type A transformer consists of two coils also called as WINDINGS namely

PRIMARY & SECONDARY. They are linked together through inductively coupled electrical conductors also called as CORE. A changing current in the primary causes a
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change in the Magnetic Field in the core & this in turn induces an alternating voltage in the secondary coil. If load is applied to the secondary then an alternating current will flow through the load. If we consider an ideal condition then all the energy from the primary circuit will be transferred to the secondary circuit through the magnetic field. The secondary voltage of the transformer depends on the number of turns in the Primary as well as in the secondary. 3.2 Rectifier A rectifier is a device that converts an AC signal into DC signal. For rectification purpose we use a diode, a diode is a device that allows current to pass only in one direction i.e. when the anode of the diode is positive with respect to the cathode also called as forward biased condition & blocks current in the reversed biased condition. Rectifier can be classified as follows: 1) Half Wave rectifier.

Figure 3.3 Half wave Rectifier This is the simplest type of rectifier as you can see in the diagram a half wave rectifier consists of only one diode. When an AC signal is applied to it during the positive half cycle the diode is forward biased & current flows through it. But during the negative half cycle diode is reverse biased & no current flows through it. Since only one half of the input reaches the output, it is very inefficient to be used in power supplies. 2) Full wave rectifier.

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Figure 3.4 Full Wave Rectifier Half wave rectifier is quite simple but it is very inefficient, for greater efficiency we would like to use both the half cycles of the AC signal. This can be achieved by using a center tapped transformer i.e. we would have to double the size of secondary winding & provide connection to the center. So during the positive half cycle diode D1 conducts & D2 is in reverse biased condition. During the negative half cycle diode D2 conducts & D1 is reverse biased. Thus we get both the half cycles across the load. One of the disadvantages of Full Wave Rectifier design is the necessity of using a center tapped transformer, thus increasing the size & cost of the circuit. This can be avoided by using the Full Wave Bridge Rectifier. 3) Bridge Rectifier.

Figure 3.5 Bridge Rectifier As the name suggests it converts the full wave i.e. both the positive & the negative half cycle into DC thus it is much more efficient than Half Wave Rectifier & that too without using a center tapped transformer thus much more cost effective than Full Wave Rectifier.
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Full Bridge Wave Rectifier consists of four diodes namely D1, D2, D3 and D4. During the positive half cycle diodes D1 & D4 conduct whereas in the negative half cycle diodes D2 & D3 conduct thus the diodes keep switching the transformer connections so we get positive half cycles in the output.

Figure 3.6 Center Tapped Transformer If we use a center tapped transformer for a bridge rectifier we can get both positive & negative half cycles which can thus be used for generating fixed positive & fixed negative voltages. FILTER CAPACITOR Even though half wave & full wave rectifier give DC output, none of them provides a constant output voltage. For this we require to smoothen the waveform received from the rectifier. This can be done by using a capacitor at the output of the rectifier this capacitor is also called as FILTER CAPACITOR or SMOOTHING CAPACITOR or RESERVOIR CAPACITOR. Even after using this capacitor a small amount of ripple will remain. We place the Filter Capacitor at the output of the rectifier the capacitor will charge to the peak voltage during each half cycle then will discharge its stored energy slowly through the load while the rectified voltage drops to zero, thus trying to keep the voltage as constant as possible.

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Figure 3.7 variation in Voltage

Figure 3.8 Filter Capacitor Varying Voltage Characteristics If we go on increasing the value of the filter capacitor then the Ripple will decrease. But then the costing will increase. The value of the Filter capacitor depends on the current consumed by the circuit, the frequency of the waveform & the accepted ripple. 3.3 VOLTAGE REGULATOR A Voltage regulator is a device which converts varying input voltage into a constant regulated output voltage. Voltage regulator can be of two types 1) Linear Voltage Regulator Also called as Resistive Voltage regulator because they dissipate the excessive voltage resistively as heat. 2) Switching Regulators. They regulate the output voltage by switching the Current ON/OFF very rapidly. Since their output is either ON or OFF it dissipates very low power thus achieving higher efficiency as compared to linear voltage regulators. But they are more complex & generate high noise due to their switching action. For low level of output power switching regulators tend to be costly but for higher output wattage they are much cheaper than linear regulators. The most commonly available Linear Positive Voltage Regulators are the 78XX series where the XX indicates the output voltage. And 79XX series is for Negative Voltage Regulators.
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Figure 3.9 78xx series Regulator After filtering the rectifier output the signal is given to a voltage regulator. The maximum input voltage that can be applied at the input is 35V.Normally there is a 2-3 Volts drop across the regulator so the input voltage should be at least 2-3 Volts higher than the output voltage. If the input voltage gets below the Vmin of the regulator due to the ripple voltage or due to any other reason the voltage regulator will not be able to produce the correct regulated voltage.

Figure 3.10 7805 Regulator (ii) IC 7805: 7805 is an integrated three-terminal positive fixed linear voltage regulator. It supports an input voltage of 10 volts to 35 volts and output voltage of 5 volts. It has a current rating of 1 amp although lower current models are available. Its output voltage is fixed at 5.0V. The 7805 also has a built-in current limiter as a safety feature. 7805 is manufactured by many companies, including National Semiconductors and Fairchild Semiconductors.

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The 7805 will automatically reduce output current if it gets too hot. The last two digits represent the voltage; for instance, the 7812 is a 12-volt regulator. The 78xx series of

regulators is designed to work in complement with the 79xx series of negative voltage regulators in systems that provide both positive and negative regulated voltages, since the 78xx series can't regulate negative voltages in such a system. The 7805 & 78 is one of the most common and well-known of the 78xx series regulators, as it's small component count and medium-power regulated powering TTL devices. Specifications Vin Vin Vout Operation Ambient Temp Output Imax IC7805 5v 5v-20v 0 - 125C 1A Table 3.1 Regulator Specifications 5V make it useful for

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CHAPTER 4

GSM MODEM
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is an open, digital cellular technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data services. GSM supports voice calls and data transfer speeds of up to 9.6 kbit/s, together with the transmission of SMS (Short Message Service). GSM operates in the 900MHz and 1.8GHz bands in Europe and the 1.9GHz and 850MHz bands in the US. The 850MHz band is also used for GSM and 3G in Australia, Canada and many South American countries. By having harmonized spectrum across most of the globe, GSMs international roaming capability allows users to access the same

services when travelling abroad as at home. This gives consumers seamless and same number connectivity in more than 218 countries.

4.1 HISTORY
In 1980s the analog cellular telephone systems were growing rapidly all throughout Europe, France and Germany. Each country defined its own protocols and frequencies to work on. For example UK used the Total Access Communication System (TACS), USA used the AMPS technology and Germany used the C-netz technology. None of these systems were interoperable and also they were analog in nature. In 1982 the Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) formed a study group called the GROUPE SPECIAL MOBILE (GSM) The main area this focused on was to get the cellular system working throughout the world, and ISDN compatibility with the ability to incorporate any future enhancements. In 1989 the GSM transferred the work to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI.) the ETS defined all the standards used in GSM.

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4.2 BASICS OF WORKING AND SPECIFICATIONS OF GSM


The GSM architecture is nothing but a network of computers. The system has to partition available frequency and assign only that part of the frequency spectrum to any base transreceiver station and also has to reuse the scarce frequency as often as possible.
GSM uses TDMA and FDMA together. Graphically this can be shown below -

Figure 4.1 combination of FDMA and TDMA

Some of the technical specifications of GSM are listed below.

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GSM was originally defined for the 900 Mhz range but after some time even the 1800 Mhz range was used for cellular technology. The 1800 MHz range has its architecture and specifications almost same to that of the 900 Mhz GSM technology but building the Mobile exchanges is easier and the high frequency Synergy effects add to the advantages of the 1800 Mhz range.

4.3 ARCITECTURE AND BUILDIGN BLOCKS.


GSM is mainly built on 3 building blocks.

GSM Radio Network - This is concerned with the signaling of the system. Hand-overs

occur in the radio network. Each BTS is allocated a set of frequency channels.

GSM Mobile switching Network - This network is concerned with the storage of data required for routing and service provision. GSM Operation and and Maintenance The task carried out by it include Network

Administration

commercial operation ,

Security

management,

configuration, operation, performance management and maintenance tasks.

Figure 4.2: Structure of the Network

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Public Land Mobile Network(PLMN) Mobile System (MS)

The whole GSM system The actual cell phone that we use Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Provides connectivity between network and mobile station via the Air- interface Controls the whole subsystem.

BaseStationController(BSC) Mobile Services Switching Center The BSC is connected to the MSC. The MSC routes the incoming and outgoing calls and assigns user cannels on the A- interface. This register stores data of large no of users. It is like a database that manages data of all the users. Every PLMN will have at least one HLR. This contains part of data so that the HLR is not overloaded with inquiries. If a subscriber moves out of VLR area the HLR requests removal of data related to that user from the VLR. The IMEI no. is allocated by the manufacturer

Home Location Register

(HLR)

Visitor Location Resigter (VLR)

Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

Table 4.1 The basic blocks of the whole GSM system

4.4 SIGNALLING SCHEMES USED -

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Figure 4.4 Receiver for the Voice signal

The voice signal is sampled at 8000 bits/sec and is quantized to get a 13 bit resolution corresponding to a bit rate of 104 Kbits/sec. This signal is given to a speech coder (codec) that compresses this speech into a source-coded speech signal of 260 bit blocks at a bit rate of 13 Kbit/sec. The codec achieves a compression ratio of 1:8. The coder also has a Voice activity detector (VAD) and comfort noise synthesizer. The VAD decides whether the current speech frame contains speech or pause, this is turn is used to decide whether to turn on or off the transmitter under the control of the Discontinuous Transmission (DTX). This transmission takes advantage of the fact that during a phone conversation both the parties rarely speak at the same time. Thus the DTX helps in reducing the power consumption and prolonging battery life. The missing speech frames are replaced by synthetic background noise generated by the comfort noise synthesize in a Silence Descriptor (SID) frame. Suppose a loss off speech frame occurs due to noisy transmission and it cannot be corrected by the channel coding protection mechanism then the decoder flags such frames with a bad frame indicator (BFI) In such a case the speech frame is discarded and using a technique called error concealment which calculates the next frame based on the previous frame.

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4.5 AT Commands
Commands always start with AT (which means Attention) and finish with a <CR> character. Information responses and result codes Responses start and end with

<CR><LF>, except for the ATV0 DCE response format) and the ATQ1 (result code suppression) commands. If command syntax is incorrect, an ERROR string is returned. If command syntax is correct but with some incorrect parameters, the +CME ERROR: <Err> or +CMS ERROR: <SmsErr> strings are returned with different error codes. If the command line has been performed successfully, an OK string is returned. In some cases, such as AT+CPIN? or (unsolicited) incoming events, the product does not Return the OK string as a response. Product Serial Number +CGSN Description This command allows the user application to get the IMEI (International Mobile

Equipment Identity) of the product. Syntax: Command syntax: AT+CGSN Command AT+CGSN Possible responses 012345678901234 OK Note : IMEI read from EEPROM AT+CGSN +CME ERROR : 22 Note : IMEI not found in EEPROM Table 4.2 syntax for getting IMEI

Repeat last command A/ Description: This command repeats the previous command. Only the A/ command itself cannot be repeated.
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Syntax: Command syntax: A/ Command A/ Note: Repeat last command Table 4.3 Syntax for Repeat command Signal Quality +CSQ Description: This command determines the received signal strength indication (<rssi>) and the channel bit error. Rate (<ber>) with or without a SIM card inserted . Syntax: Command syntax: AT+CSQ Command AT+CSQ Possible Responses +CSQ : <rssi>,<ber> OK Note:<rssi> and <ber> as defined below Table 4.4 Syntax for Received Signal Strength Possible Responses

Defined Values:
0: -113 dBm or less 1: -111 dBm 30: -109 to -53 dBm 31: -51dBm or greater 99: not known or not detectable <ber>: 07: as RXQUAL values in the table GSM 05.08 99: not known or not detectable

New message indication +CNMI


Description: This command selects the procedure for message reception from the network.
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Syntax: Command syntax: AT+CNMI=<mode>,<mt>,<bm>,<ds>,<bfr>

Table 4.5 syntax for message repetition Read message +CMGR Description: This command allows the application to read stored messages. The messages are read from the memory selected by +CPMS command. Command syntax: AT+CMGR=<index>

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Table 4.6 Syntax to Store messages List message +CMGL Description: This command allows the application to read stored messages, by indicating the type of the Message to read. The messages are read from the memory selected by the +CPMS command. Syntax: Command syntax: AT+CMGL=<stat> .

Table 4.7 Syntax to read stored messages

Defined values:

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<stat> possible values (status of messages in memory):

Table 4.8 syntax for status Send message +CMGS Description: The <address> field is the address of the terminal to which the message is sent. To send the Message, simply type, <ctrl-Z> character (ASCII 26). The text can contain all existing Characters except <ctrl-Z> and <ESC> (ASCII 27). This command can be aborted using the <ESC> character when entering text. In PDU mode, only hexadecimal characters are used (09,AF). Syntax: Command syntax in text mode: AT+CMGS=<da>[,<toda>]<CR> text is entered <ctrl-Z / ESC >

Table 4.9 Syntax for text mode

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The message reference, <mr>, which is returned to the application, is allocated by the product. This number begins with 0 and is incremented by one for each outgoing message (successful and failure cases); it is cyclic on one byte (0 follows 255). Note : This number is not a storage number. Outgoing messages are not stored. Delete message +CMGD Description: This command deletes one or several messages from preferred message storage (BM SMS CB RAM storage, SM SMSPP storage SIM storage or SR SMS Status -Report storage). Syntax: Command syntax: AT+CMGD=<Index> [,<DelFalg>]

Table 4.10 syntax for deleting messages Defines values (1- 20) when the preferred message storage is BM Integer type values in the range of location numbers of SIM Message memory.
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When the preferred message storage is SM or SR. <DelFlag> 0 Delete message at location <index>. 1 Delete All READ messages 2 Delete All READ and SENT messages 3 Delete All READ, SENT and UNSENT messages 4 Delete all messages.

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CHAPTER 5

GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM


5.1 GPS Basics: The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that provides reliable location and time information in all weather and at all times and anywhere on or near the Earth when and where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver. When people talk about "a GPS," they usually mean a GPS receiver. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is actually a constellation of 27 Earth-orbiting satellites (24 in operation and three extras in case one fails). The U.S. military developed and implemented this satellite network as a military navigation system, but soon opened it up to everybody else. Each of these 3,000- to 4,000-pound solar-powered satellites circles the globe at about 12,000 miles (19,300 km), making two complete rotations every day. The orbits are arranged so that at anytime, anywhere on Earth, there are at least four satellites "visible" in the sky. A GPS receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by GPS satellites high above the Earth. Each satellite continually transmits messages that include the time the message was transmitted precise orbital information (the ephemeris) the general system health and rough orbits of all GPS satellites (the almanac). The receiver uses the messages it receives to determine the transit time of each message and computes the distance to each satellite. These distances along with the satellites' locations are used with the possible aid of trilateration, depending on which algorithm is used, to compute the position of the receiver. This position is then displayed, perhaps with a moving map display or latitude and longitude; elevation information may be included. Many GPS units show derived information such as direction and speed, calculated from position changes .

5.2 GPS Principle: The GPS satellites act as reference points from which receivers on the ground detect their
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position. The fundamental navigation principle is based on the measurement of pseudo ranges between the user and four satellites. Ground stations precisely monitor the orbit of every satellite and by measuring the travel time of the signals transmitted from the satellite four distances between receiver and satellites will yield accurate position, direction and speed. Though three range measurements are sufficient, the fourth observation is essential for solving clock synchronization error between receiver and satellite. Thus, the term pseudo ranges is derived. The secret of GPS measurement is due to the ability of measuring carrier phases to about 1/100 of a cycle equalling to 2 to 3 mm in linear distance. Moreover the high frequency L1 and L2 carrier signal can easily penetrate the ionosphere to reduce its effect. Dual frequency observations are important for large station separation and for eliminating most of the error parameters.

5.3 GPS Receiver:


A GPS navigation device is any device that receives Global Positioning System (GPS) signals for the purpose of determining the device's current location on Earth. GPS devices provide latitude and longitude information, and some may also calculate altitude, although this is not considered sufficiently accurate or continuously available enough (due to the possibility of signal blockage and other factors) to rely on exclusively to pilot aircraft. GPS devices are used in military, aviation, marine and consumer product applications. The user segment is composed of hundreds of thousands of U.S. and allied military users of the secure GPS Precise Positioning Service, and tens of millions of civil, commercial and scientific users of the Standard Positioning Service. GPS receivers are composed of an antenna, tuned to the frequencies transmitted by the satellites, receiver-processors, and a highly stable clock (often a crystal oscillator). They may also include a display for providing location and speed information to the user. A receiver is often described by its number of channels: this signifies how many satellites it can monitor simultaneously. Originally limited to four or five, this has progressively increased over the years so that, as of 2007, receivers typically have between 12 and 20 channels. GPS receivers may include an input for differential corrections, using the RTCM SC-104 format. This is typically in the form of an RS-232 port at 4,800 bit/s speed. Data is actually sent at a much lower rate, which limits the accuracy of the signal sent using RTCM. Receivers with internal DGPS receivers can outperform those using external RTCM data. As of 2006, even low-cost units commonly include
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Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) receivers. Many GPS receivers can relay position data to a PC or other device using the NMEA 0183 protocol.

5.4 Major Components of a GPS Receiver:


The main components of a GPS receiver are : Antenna with pre-amplifier RF section with signal identification and signal processing Micro-processor for receiver control, data sampling and data processing oscillator Power supply User interface, command and display panel Memory, data storage.

5.5 Function Of GPS:


It is a "constellation" of twenty-four 20,000km high GPS satellites. The satellites are distributed on 6 orbits, 4 per orbit. Every satellite makes a complete rotation of the Earth every 12 hours. Every satellite possesses an atomic clock, allowing a very precise measure of time. They emit on two different frequencies: L1: 1575 MHz and L2: 1227 MHz. L2 being reserved for the American Army. Every satellite thus sends ceaselessly a code of 1500 bits, containing numerous data such as the time at which the code is to be sent, the position of the satellite, its state, the position of the other satellites... This data allows the receiver to calculate its position. Each GPS satellite transmits radio signals that enable the GPS receivers to calculate where its (or your vehicles) location on the Earth and convert the calculations into geodetic

latitude, longitude and velocity. A receiver needs signals from at least three GPS satellites to pinpoint your vehicles position. GPS Receivers commonly used in most Vehicle tracking systems can only receive data from GPS Satellites. They cannot communicate back with GPS or any other satellite. A system based on GPS can only calculate its location but cannot send it to central control room. In order to do this they normally use GSM-GPRS Cellular networks connectivity using additional GSM modem/module. Two levels of navigation and positioning are offered by the Global Positioning System: The Standard Positioning Service (SPS). and the Precise Positioning Service (PPS). The Precise Positioning Service is a highly accurate positioning,
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velocity and timing service that is designed primarily for the military and other authorized users, although under certain conditions can be used by civilians who have specialized

equipment. The Standard Positioning Service offers a base-line accuracy that is much lower than the PPS, but is available to all users with even the most inexpensive receivers. As we will see, there are various techniques available that substantially increase the SPS accuracy, even well beyond that which is offered by the PPS.

5.6 RECEIVER OUTPUT:


Typically receivers provide two different formats.

1. NMEA (Nation Marine Electronics Association) ASCII Format Defines a set of standard messages. 2. Proprietary Format Typically Binary No limit on information transmitted Receiver output is related to position, velocity and time. The output in the following Position: Latitude: degrees: minutes: seconds Longitude: degrees: minutes: seconds Altitude m Velocity: Speed knots Heading degrees Time (UTC): Date dd/mm/yy Time hh/mm/ss.sss

GPS receiver gives the latitude, longitude, date, time, speed of the satellite, no of satellites on view etc

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The National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) has developed a specification that defines the interface between various pieces of marine electronic equipment. The standard permits marine electronics to send information to computers and to other marine equipment. A full copy of this standard is available for purchase at their web site. None of the information on this site comes from this standard and I do not have a copy. Anyone attempting to design anything to this standard should obtain an official copy.

5.7 RECEIVER FEATURES:


12 parallel channel L1 Band SPS GPS. Very good acquisition and good tracking sensitivity. Antenna open short detection/protection Tracking sensitivity:-154dB-m Acquisition sensitivity -148dB-m 5v and 3.3volt option available Most computer programs that provide real time position information understand and expect data to be in NMEA format. This data includes the complete PVT (position, velocity, time) solution computed by the GPS receiver. The idea of NMEA is to send a line of data called a sentence that is totally self-contained and independent from other sentences. There are standard sentences for each device category and there is also the ability to define proprietary sentences for use by the individual company. All of the standard sentences have a two-letter prefix that defines the device that uses that sentence type. (For GPS receivers the prefix is GP.) This is followed by a three-letter sequence that defines the sentence contents. In addition NMEA permits hardware manufactures to define their own proprietary sentences for whatever purpose they see fit. All proprietary sentences begin with the letter P and are followed with 3 letters that identifies the manufacturer controlling that sentence. For example a Garmin sentence would start with PGRM and Magellan would begin with PMGN. Each sentence begins with a '$' and ends with a carriage return/line feed sequence and can be no longer than 80 characters of visible text (plus the line terminators). The data is contained within this single line with data items separated by commas. The data itself is just ASCII text and may extend over multiple sentences in certain specialized instances but is normally fully contained in one variable length sentence. The data may vary in the amount of precision
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contained in the message. For example time might be indicated to decimal parts of a second or location may be show with 3 or even 4 digits after the decimal point. Programs that read the data should only use the commas to determine the field boundaries and not depend on column positions. There is a provision for a checksum at the end of each sentence, which may or may not be checked by the unit that reads the data. The checksum field consists of a '*' and two hex digits representing an 8 bit exclusive OR of all characters between, but not including, the '$' and '*'. A checksum is required on some sentences. There have been several changes to the standard but for GPS use the only ones that are likely to be encountered are 1.5 and 2.0 through 2.3. These just specify some different sentence configurations which may be peculiar to the needs of a particular device thus the GPS may need to be changed to match the devices being interfaced to. Some GPS's provide the ability configure a custom set the sentences while other may offer a set of fixed choices. Many GPS receivers simply output a fixed set of sentences that cannot be changed by the user. The current version of the standard is 3.01. I have no specific information on this version, but I am not aware of any GPS products that require conformance to this version. 5.8 Hardware Connection: The hardware interface for GPS units is designed to meet the NMEA requirements. They are also compatible with most computer serial ports using RS232 protocols, however strictly speaking the NMEA standard is not RS232. They recommend conformance to EIA-422. The interface speed can be adjusted on some models but the NMEA standard is 4800 b/s (bit per second rate) with 8 bits of data, no parity, and one stop bit. All units that support NMEA should support this speed. Note that, at a b/s rate of 4800, you can easily send enough data to more than fill a full second of time. For this reason some units only send updates every two seconds or may send some data every second while reserving other data to be sent less often. In addition some units may send data a couple of seconds old while other units may send data that is collected within the second it is sent. Generally time is sent in some field within each second so it is pretty easy to figure out what a particular GPS is doing. Some sentences may be sent only during a particular action of the receiver such as while following a route while other receivers may always send the sentence and just null out the values. Other difference will be noted in the specific data descriptions defined later in the text. At 4800 b/s you can only send 480 characters in one second. Since an NMEA sentence can be as long as 82 characters you can be limited to less than 6
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different sentences. The actual limit is determined by the specific sentences used, but this shows that it is easy to overrun the capabilities if you want rapid sentence response. NMEA is designed to run as a process in the background spitting out sentences which are then captured as needed by the using program. Some programs cannot do this and these programs will sample the data stream, then use the data for screen display, and then sample the data again. Depending on the time needed to use the data there can easily be a lag of 4 seconds in the responsiveness to changed data. This may be fine in some applications but totally unacceptable in others. For example a car traveling at 60 mph will travel 88 feet in one second. Several second delays could make the entire system seem unresponsive and could cause you to miss

your turn. The NMEA standard has been around for many years (1983) and has undergone several revisions. The protocol has changed and the number and types of sentences may be different depending on the revision. Most GPS receivers understand the standard, which is called: 0183 version 2. This standard dictates a transfer rate of 4800 b/s. Some receivers also understand older standards. The oldest standard was 0180 followed by 0182, which transferred data at 1200 b/s. Some receivers also understand an earlier version of 0183 called version 1.5. Some Garmin units and other brands can be set to 9600 for NMEA output or even higher but this is only recommended if you have determined that 4800 works ok and then you can try to set it faster. Setting it to run as fast as you can may improve the responsiveness of the program.

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CHAPTER 6

ACCELEROMETER SENSOR
Accelerometers are sensors or transducers that measure acceleration. Accelerometers generally measure acceleration forces applied to a body by being mounted directly onto a surface of the accelerated body. Accelerometers are useful in detecting motion in objects. An accelerometer measures force exerted by a body as a result of a change in the velocity of the body. A moving body possesses an inertia which tends to resist change in velocity. It is this resistance to change in velocity that is the source of the force exerted by the moving body. This force is directly proportional to the acceleration component in the direction of movement when the moving body is accelerated. The motion is detected in a sensitive portion of the accelerometer. This motion is indicative of motion in the larger object or application in which the accelerometer is mounted. Thus, a sensitive accelerometer can quickly detect motion in the application. 6.1 ADXL330: 3 Axis Acceleration Sensor Board based on ADXL330 from Analog devices. It is a first generation 3 axis acceleration sensor. User could get acceleration value of X, Y, and Z axis. And it is widely used in shock, slope, and moving detection. Output sensitivity could be select by simply set voltage level on few pins. The output of MMA7260Q is analog mode, so you need a A/D converter to read the acceleration value.

6.2FEATURES OF ADXL330 :
3-axis sensing Small, low profile package 4 mm 4 mm 1.45 mm LFCSP Low power : 350 mA (typical) Single-Supply operation: 1.8 V to 3.6 V 10,000 g shock survival Excellent temperature stability BW adjustment with a single capacitor per axis RoHS/WEEE lead-free compliant

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6.3 Functional Block Diagram:

Figure 6.1 Functional Block Diagram of ADXL330

Pin Configuration:

Figure 6.2 Pin Configuration of ADXL330

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Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 EP

Mnemonic NC ST COM NC COM COM COM ZO UT NC YO UT NC ZO UT NC Vs Vs NC Exposed pad

Description No Connect Self-Test Common No Connect Common Common Common Z Channel Output No Connect Y Channel Output No Connect X Channel Output No Connect Supply Voltage(1.8-3.3v) Supply Voltage(1.8-3.3v) No Connect Not Internally Connected

Table 6.1 Pin Function Descriptions of ADXL330 THEORY OF OPERATION : The ADXL330 is a complete 3-axis acceleration measurement system. The ADXL330 has a measurement range of 3 g mini-mum. It contains a polysilicon surface-micromachined sensor and signal conditioning circuitry to implement an open-loop acceleration measurement architecture. The output signals are analog voltages that are proportional to acceleration. The accelerometer can measure the static acceleration of gravity in tilt-sensing applications as well as dynamic acceleration resulting from motion, shock, or vibration. The sensor is a polysilicon surface-micro machined structure built on top of a silicon wafer. Polysilicon springs suspend the structure over the surface of the wafer and provide a
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resistance against acceleration forces. Deflection of the structure is measured using a differential capacitor that consists of independent fixed plates and plates attached to the moving mass. The fixed plates are driven by 180 out-of-phase square waves. Acceleration deflects the moving mass and unbalances the differential capacitor resulting in a sensor output whose amplitude is proportional to acceleration. Phase-sensitive demodulation techniques are then used to determine the magnitude and direction of the acceleration. The demodulator output is amplified and brought off- chip through a 32 k resistor. The user then sets the signal bandwidth of the device by adding a capacitor. This filtering improves measurement resolution and helps prevent aliasing Performance : Rather than using additional temperature compensation circuit, innovative design techniques ensure that high performance is built in to the ADXL335. As a result, there is no quantization error or no monotonic behaviour, and temperature hysteresis is very low (typically less than 3 mg over the 25C to +70C temperature range). Setting The Bandwidth Using Cx, Cy, And Cz : The ADXL335 has provisions for band limiting the XOUT, YOUT, and ZOUT pins. Capacitors must be added at these pins to implement low-pass filtering for antialiasing and noise reduction. The equation for the 3 dB bandwidth is F3 dB = 1/(2(32 k) C(X, Y, Z)) or more simply F- 3 dB = 5 F/C(X, Y, Z) The tolerance of the internal resistor (RFILT) typically varies as much as 15% of its nominal value (32 k), and the bandwidth varies accordingly. A minimum capacitance of 0.0047 F for CX, CY, and CZ is recommended in all cases. 6.4 Applications of Accelerometer Sensor: Mobile devices Gaming systems Disk drive protection Image stabilization Sports and health devices Commercial, military, and scientific applications including inertial navigation, vehicular safety systems such as airbags, ride comfort control, platform stabilization, tilt sensing,
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and vibration monitoring. Automobile suspension systems, vehicle air bag systems, anti-lock brake systems (ABS),vibrometers, and computer hard disc drivers. Employed to help determine the acceleration or deceleration of a ship or plane, to monitor the forces being applied to an apparatus or device, such as a car, train, bus. Accelerometers are used as a GPS-aid to obtain position information when the GPS receivers lose their line-of-sight with the satellites. Monitor the vibration of electrical motors, pumps and the like in industrial applications, especially in continuous production operations. 6.5 I2C BUS: The I2C bus was designed by Philips in the early '80s to allow easy communication between components which reside on the same circuit board. Philips Semiconductors migrated to NXP in 2006. The name I2C translates into "Inter IC". Sometimes the bus is called IIC or IC bus. The original communication speed was defined with a maximum of 100 kbit per second and many applications don't require faster transmissions. For those that do there is a 400 kbit fastmode and -since 1998 - a high speed 3.4 Mbits option available. Recently, fast mode plus a transfer rate between this has been specified.

FEATURES OF I2C BUS: Single power supply Operating supply voltage 2.5 V to 6 V Low standby current Serial input/output via I2C-bus Address by 3 hardware address pins Sampling rate given by I2C-bus speed 4 analog inputs programmable as single-ended or Differential inputs Auto-incremented channel selection Analog voltage range from VSS to VDD On-chip track and hold circuit 8-bit successive approximation A/D conversion
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CHAPTER 7

MAX 232 IC

Figure 7.1 TTL/CM OS Serial Logic Waveform The diagram above shows the expected waveform from the UART when using the common 8N1 format. 8N1 signifies 8 Data bits, No Parity and 1 Stop Bit. The RS-232 line, when idle is in the Mark State (Logic 1). A transmission starts with a start bit which is (Logic 0). Then each bit is sent down the line, one at a time. The LSB (Least Significant Bit) is sent first. A Stop Bit (Logic 1) is then appended to the signal to make up the transmission. The data sent using this method, is said to be framed. That is the data is framed between a Start and Stop Bit. 7.1 RS-232 Voltage levels +3 to +25 volts to signify a "Space" (Logic 0) -3 to -25 volts for a "Mark" (logic 1). Any voltage in between these regions (i.e. between +3 and -3 Volts) is undefined. The data byte is always transmitted least-significant-bit first. The bits are transmitted at specific time intervals determined by the baud rate of the serial signal. This is the signal present on the RS232 port of your computer shown below.

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7.2 RS-232 LEVEL CONVERTER Standard serial interfacing of microcontroller (TTL) with PC or any RS232C Standard device , requires TTL to RS232 Level converter . A MAX232 is used for this purpose. It provides 2-channel RS232C port and requires external 10uF capacitors. The driver requires a single supply of +5V.

Figure 7.2 MAX232 PIN Diagram and internal circuit MAX-232 includes a Charge Pump, which generates +10V and -10V from a single 5v supply. Serial communication When a processor communicates with the outside world, it provides data in byte sized chunks. Computers transfer data in two ways: parallel and serial. In parallel data transfers, often more lines are used to transfer data to a device and 8 bit data path is expensive. The serial communication transfer uses only a single data line instead of the 8 bit data line of parallel communication which makes the data transfer not only cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over telephone.
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Serial data communication uses two methods, asynchronous and synchronous. The synchronous method transfers data at a time while the asynchronous transfers a single byte at a time. There are some special IC chips made by many manufacturers for data communications. These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter). The AT89C51 chip has a built in UART. In asynchronous method, each character is placed between start and stop bits. This is called framing. In data framing of asynchronous communications, the data, such as ASCII characters, are packed in between a start and stop bit. We have a total of 10 bits for a character: 8 bits for the ASCII code and 1 bit each for the start and stop bits. The rate of serial data transfer communication is stated in bps or it can be called as baud rate. To allow the compatibility among data communication equipment made by various manufacturers, and interfacing standard called RS232 was set by the Electronics industries Association in 1960. Today RS232 is the most widely used I/O interfacing standard. This standard is used in PCs and numerous types of equipment. However, since the standard was set long before the advent of the TTL logic family, its input and output voltage levels are not TTL compatible. In RS232, a 1 bit is represented by -3 to -25V, while a 0 bit is represented +3 to +25V, making -3 to +3 undefined. For this reason, to connect any RS232 to a microcontroller system we must use voltage converters such as MAX232 to connect the TTL logic levels to RS232 voltage levels and vice versa. MAX232 ICs are commonly referred to as line drivers.

Figure 7.3 RS232 and TTL logic conversion

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The RS232 cables are generally referred to as DB-9 connector. In labeling, DB-9P refers to the plug connector (male) and DB-9S is for the socket connector (female). The simplest connection between a PC and microcontroller requires a minimum of three pin, TXD, RXD, and ground. Many of the pins of the RS232 connector are used for handshaking signals. They are bypassed since they are not supported by the UART chip. Pin 1 2 3 4 5 Signal Data Carrier Detect Received Data Transmitted Data Data Terminal Ready Signal Ground Table 7.1 Signal Specifications IBM PC/ compatible computers based on x86(8086, 80286, 386, 486 and Pentium) microprocessors normally have two COM ports. Both COM ports have RS232 type connectors. Many PCs use one each of the DB-25 and DB-9 RS232 connectors. The COM ports are designated as COM1 and COM2. We can connect the serial port to the COM 2 port of a PC for serial communication experiments. We use a DB9 connector in our arrangement. Pin 6 7 8 9 Signal Data Set Ready Request To Send Clear To Send Ring Indicator

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CHAPTER 8

LCD DISPLAY
8.1 LCD MODULE To display interactive messages we are using LCD Module. We examine an intelligent LCD display of two lines,16 characters per line that is interfaced to the controllers. The protocol (handshaking) for the display is as shown. Whereas D0 to D7th bit is the Data lines, RS, RW and EN pins are the control pins and remaining pins are +5V, -5V and GND to provide supply. Where RS is the Register Select, RW is the Read Write and EN is the Enable pin. The display contains two internal byte-wide registers, one for commands (RS=0) and the second for characters to be displayed (RS=1). It also contains a user-programmed RAM area (the character RAM) that can be programmed to generate any desired character that can be formed using a dot matrix. To distinguish between these two data areas, the hex command byte 80 will be used to signify that the display RAM address 00h will be chosen.Port1 is used to furnish the command or data type, and ports 3.2 to3.4 furnish register select and read/write levels. The display takes varying amounts of time to accomplish the functions as listed. LCD bit 7 is monitored for logic high (busy) to ensure the display is overwritten. Liquid Crystal Display also called as LCD is very helpful in providing user interface as well as for debugging purpose. The most common type of LCD controller is HITACHI 44780 which provides a simple interface between the controller & an LCD. These LCD's are very simple to interface with the controller as well as are cost effective.

Figure 8.1 2x16 Line Alphanumeric LCD Display


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The most commonly used ALPHANUMERIC displays are 1x16 (Single Line & 16 characters), 2x16 (Double Line & 16 character per line) & 4x20 (four lines & Twenty characters per line). The LCD requires 3 control lines (RS, R/W & EN) & 8 (or 4) data lines. The number on data lines depends on the mode of operation. If operated in 8-bit mode then 8 data lines + 3 control lines i.e. total 11 lines are required. And if operated in 4-bit mode then 4 data lines + 3 control lines i.e. 7 lines are required. How do we decide which mode to use? Its simple if you have sufficient data lines you can go for 8 bit mode & if there is a time constrain i.e. display should be faster then we have to use 8-bit mode because basically 4-bit mode takes twice as more time as compared to 8-bit mode. Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7-14 15 16 Symbol Vss Vdd Vo RS R/W En DB0-DB7 A/Vee K Table 8.1 Pins and its function When RS is low (0), the data is to be treated as a command. When RS is high (1), the data being sent is considered as text data which should be displayed on the screen. When R/W is low (0), the information on the data bus is being written to the LCD. When RW is high (1), the program is effectively reading from the LCD. Most of the times there is no need to read from the LCD so this line can directly be connected to Gnd thus saving one controller line. The ENABLE pin is used to latch the data present on the data pins. A HIGH - LOW signal is required to latch the data. The LCD interprets and executes our command at the instant the EN line is brought low. If you never bring EN low, your instruction will never be executed. Function Ground Supply Voltage Contrast Setting Register Select Read/Write Select Chip Enable Signal Data Lines Gnd for the backlight Vcc for backlight

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Figure 8.2 LCD and MC connection

8.2 COMMANDS USED IN LCD:


No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Instruction Function Set,8-bit,1 Line, 5x7 Dots Function Set,8-bit,2 Line, 5x7 Dots Function Set,4-bit,1 Line, 5x7 Dots Function Set,4-bit,2 Line, 5x7 Dots Entry Mode Disply Cursor Off Disply Cursor On Disply Cursor Off Disply on Cursor blanking Shift entire display left Hex 0x30 0x38 0x20 0x28 0x06 0x08 0x0E 0x0C 0x0F 0x18 Decimal 40 56 32 40 6 8 14 12 15 24
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11 12 13 14

Shift entire display right Move Cursor left by one character Move Cursor right by one character Clear Display Table 8.2 LCD commands

0x1C 0x10 0x14 0x01

30 16 20 1

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CHAPTER 9

RELAY CIRCUIT
A relay is an electrically operated switch used to isolate one electrical circuit from another. In its simplest form, a relay consists of a coil used as an electromagnet to open and close switch contacts. Since the two circuits are isolated from one another, a lower voltage circuit can be used to trip a relay, which will control a separate circuit that requires a higher voltage or amperage. Relays can be found in early telephone exchange equipment, in industrial control circuits, in car audio systems, in automobiles, on water pumps, in high-power audio amplifiers and as protection devices.

9.1 Single Pole Double Throw Relay


A single pole double throw (SPDT) relay configuration switches one common pole to two other poles, flipping between them. As shown in the schematic diagram, the common point E completes a circuit with C when the relay coil is at rest, that is, no voltage is applied to it. This circuit is "closed." A gap between the contacts of point E and D creates an "open" circuit. When you apply power to the coil, a metal level is pulled down, closing the circuit between points E and D and opening the circuit between E and C. A single pole double throw relay can be used to alternate which circuit a voltage or signal will be sent to. SPDT Relay Single Pole Double Throw Relay an electromagnetic switch , consist of a coil and 1 common terminal, 1 normally closed terminal, and one normally open terminal.When the coil of an SPDT relay is at rest , the common terminal and the normally closed terminal have a continuity . When the coil is energized, the common terminal and the normally open terminal have continuity. The diagram below center shows an SPDT relay at rest,with the coil not energized. The diagram below right shows the relay with the coil energized. As you can see, the coil is an electromagnet that causes the arm that is always broken form the normally closed terminal and made with the normally open terminal. When energizing the coil of a relay, polarity of the coil does not matter unless there is a diode across the coil. If a diode is not present, you may attach positive voltage to either terminal
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of the coil and negative voltage to the other, otherwise you may attach positive to the side of the coil that the cathode side of the diode is connected and negative side of the coil that the anode ide of the diode is connected.

Figure 9.1 SPDT relay switch with PIN Numbers The need for SPDT in our project (model) is that, whenever we want to switch a device that draws more current you will need to use relay. The coil draws less current and the current which flows through common, normally closed ,normally open contacts will handle up to 30 or 40 amperes.

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CHAPTER 10

Temperature Sensor (LM35).


LM35 is a precision IC temperature Sensor with its output proportional to the temperature. The sensor circuitry is sealed and therefore it is not subjected to oxidation and other process. With LM35, temperature can be measured more accurately than a thermistor. It also possess low self heating and does not cause more than 0.1 o C temperature rise in still air.

Figure 10.1 Pin diagram Pin NO 1 2 Function Supply Volatge;5v(+35 to -2v)) Output Voltage(+6v to -1v) Name Vcc Output

Ground Table 10.1 Pin Description

Ground

Features Calibrated directly in Celsius (Centigrade) n Linear + 10.0 mV/C scale factor. 0.5C accuracy guaranteeable (at +25C) n Rated for full 55 to +150C range Suitable for remote applications Low cost due to wafer-level trimming
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Operates from 4 to 30 volts Less than 60 A current drain Low self- heating, 0.08C in still air Nonlinearity only 14C typical Low impedance output, 0.1 W for 1 mA load It has an output proportional to the Celsius temperature. The scale factor is 0.0 1V/ C . The LM35 does not require any calibration and maintain an good accuracy at room temperature. It draws on 60 micro amps from its supply and possesses a low self-heating capability. The sensor self- heating causes less than 0.1 C temperature rise in air. The output of the Sensor is analog output, hence it is further connected to ADC for intimation through Microcontroller.
o o

Figure 10.2 Functional Block Diagram

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CHAPTER 11 L293D (Driver IC)


L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC). Motor drivers act as current amplifiers since they take a low-current control signal and provide a higher-current signal. This higher current signal is used to drive the motors. L293D contains two inbuilt H-bridge driver circuits. In its common mode of operation, two DC motors can be driven simultaneously, both in forward and reverse direction. The microcontroller is driven by a 5V voltage from the regulator. Hence it cannot control the DC motor whose operating voltage is 12V. The Drive IC acts as an amplifier and send the 12V Dc supply to the motors connected to the wheel. The motor operations of two motors can be controlled by input logic at pins 2 & 7 and 10 & 15. Input logic 00 or 11 will stop the corresponding motor. Logic 01 and 10 will rotate it in clockwise and anticlockwise directions, respectively. Enable pins 1 and 9 (corresponding to the two motors) must be high for motors to start operating. When an enable input is high, the associated driver gets enabled. As a result, the outputs become active and work in phase with their inputs. Similarly, when the enable input is low, that driver is disabled, and their outputs are off and in the high-impedance state.

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Figure 11.1 Pin Diagram

Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Function Enable pin for Motor 1; active high Input 1 for Motor 1 Output 1 for Motor 1 Ground (0V) Ground (0V) Output 2 for Motor 1 Input 2 for Motor 1 Supply voltage for Motors; 9-12V (up to 36V) Enable pin for Motor 2; active high Input 1 for Motor 1 Output 1 for Motor 1 Ground (0V) Ground (0V) Output 2 for Motor 1 Input2 for Motor 1 Supply voltage; 5V (up to 36V)

Name Enable 1,2 Input 1 Output 1 Ground Ground Output 2 Input 2 Vcc 2 Enable 3,4 Input 3 Output 3 Ground Ground Output 4 Input 4 Vcc 1

Table 11.1 Pin Description


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CHAPTER 12

DC MOTOR
DC motors are configured in many ways including brush, servo and gear motor types. A motor consists of a rotor and a permanent magnetic field stator, The magnetic field is maintained using either permanent magnets or electromagnetic windings. DC motors are most commonly used in variable speed and torque. In any electric motor, operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A currentcarrying conductor generates a magnetic field; when this is then placed in an external magnetic field, it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor, and to the strength of the external magnetic field. As you are well aware of from playing with magnets as a kid, opposite (North and South) polarities attract, while like polarities (North and North, South and South) repel. The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic interaction between a current-carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate rotational motion.

Figure 12.1 2-pole DC electric motor Here, Red represents a magnet or winding with a North Polarization, while a green represents a magnet or winding with a South Polarization. Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor (a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes. In most common DC motors (and all that Beamers will see), the external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets1. The stator is the stationary part of the motor -- this includes the motor casing, as well as two or more permanent magnet pole pieces. The rotor (together with the axle and attached commutator) rotates with respect to the stator. The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core), the windings being electrically connected to the commutator. The above diagram shows a common motor layout -- with the rotor inside the stator (field) magnets.
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In real life, though, DC motors will always have more than two poles (three is a very common number).

Figure 12.2 Three-pole design. From the above figures ,we can infer that one pole is fully energized at a time (but two others are "partially" energized). As each brush transitions from one commutator contact to the next, one coil's field will rapidly collapse, as the next coil's field will rapidly charge up (this occurs within a few microsecond). We'll see more about the effects of this later, but in the meantime you can see that this is a direct result of the coil windings' series wiring. In our project DC motor is being used for the moving of the vehicle. The DC motors are connected to the four wheels. The DC motor connected to the wheels can run in both Clockwise and AntiClock-wise direction based on the input to the driver IC.

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CHAPTER 13

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
13.1 INTRODUCTION:
In this chapter the software used and the language in which the program code is defined is mentioned and the program code dumping tools are explained. The chapter also documents the development of the program for the application. This program has been termed as Source code. Before we look at the source code we define the two header files that we have used in the code.

13.2 Tools Used:

Figure 13.1 Kiel Software- internal stages 13.3 C51 Compiler & A51 Macro Assembler:
Source files are created by the Vision IDE and are passed to the C51 Compiler or A51 Macro Assembler. The compiler and assembler process source files and create replaceable
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object files. The Keil C51 Compiler is a full ANSI implementation of the C programming language that supports all standard features of the C language. In addition, numerous features for direct support of the 8051 architecture have been added.

13.4 VISION:
Vision3 adds many new features to the Editor like Text Templates, Quick Function Navigation, and Syntax Coloring with brace high lighting Configuration Wizard for dialog based startup and debugger setup. Vision3 is fully compatible to Vision2 and can be used in parallel with Vision2. Vision3 is an IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that helps you write, compile, and debug embedded programs. It encapsulates the following components: A project manager. A make facility. Tool configuration. Editor. A powerful debugger.

13.5 BUILDING AN APPLICATION IN VISION


To build (compile, assemble, and link) an application in Vision2, you must:
1. Select Project -(forexample,166\EXAMPLES\HELLO\HELLO.UV2).

2. Select Project - Rebuild all target files or Build target.Vision2 compiles, assembles, and links the files in your project.

Creating Your Own Application in Vision2:


To create a new project in Vision2, you must: 1. Select Project - New Project. 2. Select a directory and enter the name of the project file. 3. Select Project - Select Device and select an 8051, 251, or C16x/ST10 device from the Device Database.
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4. Create source files to add to the project.


5. Select Project - Targets, Groups, Files. Add/Files, select Source Group1, and

add the source files to the project. 6. Select Project - Options and set the tool options. Note when you select the target device from the Device Database all special options are set automatically. You typically only need to configure the memory map of your target hardware. Default memory model settings are optimal for most applications. 7. Select Project - Rebuild all target files or Build target. Debugging an Application in Vision2: To debug an application created using Vision2, you must:

1. Select Debug - Start/Stop Debug Session.


2. Use the Step toolbar buttons to single-step through your program. You may

enter G, main in the Output Window to execute to the main C function.


3. Open the Serial Window using the Serial #1 button on the toolbar. Debug your

program using standard options like Step, Go, Break, and so on. Starting Vision2 and creating a Project Vision2 is a standard Windows application and started by clicking on the program icon. To create a new project file select from the Vision2 menu Project New Project. This opens a standard Windows dialog that asks you for the new project file name. We suggest that you use a separate folder for each project. You can simply use the icon Create New Folder in this dialog to get a new empty folder. Then select this folder and enter the file name for the new project, i.e. Project1. Vision2 creates a new project file with the name PROJECT1.UV2 which contain default target and file group name. You can see these names in the Project
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Window - Files . Now use from the menu Project - Select Device for Target and select a CPU for your project. The Select Device dialog box shows the Vision2 device database. Just select the microcontroller you use. We are using for our examples the Philips 80C51RD+ CPU. This selection sets necessary tool options for the 80C51RD+ device and simplifies in this way the tool Configuration Building Projects and Creating a HEX Files Typical, the tool settings under Options - Target are all you need to start a new application. You may translate all source files and line the application with a click on the Build Target toolbar icon. When you build an application with syntax errors, Vision2 will display errors and warning messages in the Output Window - Build page. A double click on a message line opens the source file on the correct location in a Vision2 editor window. Once you have successfully generated your application you can start debugging. After you have tested your application, it is required to create an Philips HEX file to download the software into an EPROM programmer or simulator. Vision2 creates HEX files with each build process when Create HEX files under Options for Target - Output is enabled. You may start your PROM programming utility after the make process when you specify the program under the option Run User Program #1. CPU Simulation Vision2 simulates up to 16 Mbytes of memory from which areas can be mapped for read, write, or code execution access. The Vision2 simulator traps and reports illegal memory access . In addition to memory mapping, the simulator also provides support for the integrated peripherals of the various 8051 derivatives. The on-chip peripherals of the CPU you have selected are configured from the Device Database selection You have made when you create your project target. Refer page 58 for more Information about selecting a device. You may select and display the on-chip peripheral

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components using the Debug menu. You can also change the aspects of each peripheral using the controls in the dialog boxes. Start Debugging You start the debug mode of Vision2 with the Debug - Start/Stop Debug Session command. Depending on the Options for Target - Debug Configuration, Vision2 will load the application program and run the startup code Vision2 saves the editor screen layout and restores the screen layout of the last debug session. If the program execution stops, Vision2 opens an editor window with the source text or shows CPU instructions in the disassembly window. The next executable statement is marked with a yellow arrow. During debugging, most editor features are still available. For example, you can use the find command or correct program errors. Program source text of your application is shown in the same windows. The Vision2 debug mode differs from the edit mode in the following aspects: The Debug Menu and Debug Commands described below are available. The additional debug windows are discussed in the following. The project structure or tool parameters cannot be modified. All build Commands are disabled. Disassembly Window The Disassembly window shows your target program as mixed source and assembly program or just assembly code. A trace history of previously executed instructions may be displayed with Debug - View Trace Records. To enable the trace history set Debug Enable/Disable

Trace Recording. If you select the Disassembly Window as the active window all program step commands work on CPU instruction level rather than program source lines. You can select a text line and set or modify code breakpoints using toolbar buttons or the context menu commands. You may use the dialog Debug - Inline Assembly to modify the CPU instructions. That allows you to correct mistakes or to make temporary changes to the target program you are debugging.

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1. Click on the Keil uVision Icon on Desktop 2. . Click on the Project menu from the title bar

3. Then Click on New Project.

5. Save the Project by typing suitable project name with no extension in your own folder site in either C:\ or D:\ 6. Then Click on Save button above.
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7. 8.

Select the component for your project. i.e. NXP or Philips Click on the + Symbol beside of NXP

9. 10. 11.

Select P89V51RD2FN as shown below Then Click on OK The Following fig will appear

12.

Then Click either YES or NOmostly NO


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13. 14.

Now your project is ready to USE Now double click on the Target1, you would get another option Source group 1 as shown in next page.

15.

Click on the file option from menu bar and select new

16.

The next screen will be as shown in next page, and just maximize it by double clicking on its blue boarder.

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17. 18.

Now start writing program in either in C or ASM For a program written in Assembly, then save it with extension . asm Cbased program save it with extension .C. and for

19.Now right click on Source group 1 and click on Add files to Group Source

20.

Now you will get another window, on which by default C files will appear.

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21. 22. 23.

Now select as per your file extension given while saving the file Click only one time on option ADD Now Press function key F7 to compile. Any error will appear if so happen.

24. 25.

If the file contains no error, then press Control+F5 simultaneously. The new window is as follows.
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Accident Identification using GPS and GSM Technology

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26. 27.

Then Click OK Now Click on the Peripherals from menu bar, and check your required port as shown below.

28. Drag the port a side and click in the program file.

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29.Now keep Pressing function key F11 slowly and observe. 30.You are running your program successfully.

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CHAPTER 14

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES


14.1 Advantages
The vehicle which is undergone through an accident can be identified by using tracking technology without any delay. The immediate medication or the first aid will be provided to the victims in remote areas. Allows the remote locations of asset from anywhere there is cellular service. A low cost Vehicle tracking with accident identification system can reduce the fatalities during accidents. Can avoid misusage of the vehicle thereby reducing fuel consumption.

14.2 Disadvantages
The anti GPS tracker disrupter if installed will knock out GPS logging or GPS tracking system which may be operating on a vehicle, using GPS disrupter system will make it very hard for anyone to keep tabs on a vehicle. If a vehicle is out of reach of the network then this tracking cant be do ne. It may misused for tracking a VIP vehicle for destructive purposes . If the GSM module gets damaged during the accident the message intimation cant be sent.

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CONCLUSION
This version of our project will send a reply when we send a SMS and also sends the position of the vehicle in terms of latitude and longitude when there is any accident. It doesnt tell the exact nature of the accident, whether it is severe or just a mild one. With the help of accelerometer sensor, we can tell the exact position of the vehicle. We can predict whether the vehicle is in normal position or upside down. This project can be enhanced in future by modifying in the program to find out the actual position of the vehicle and also in accident prevention. This can also be enhanced by automatically locking all the brakes in case of accident. In many accidents, it becomes severe as the drivers lose control and cant stop the vehicle. During the accident, the accelerometer

sensor will triggered due to vibrations which is received and processed by the Spartan processor. The processor should be connected to devices which can lock the brakes when triggered. By this enhancement, we can stop the vehicle and can reduce the impact of the accident. This can be used to prevent vehicle theft. In case of any theft, the owner can track the location of the vehicle. In public transport system, the implementation of this equipment will ease the people. When public transport systems like bus, trains these are installed with this equipment, People can know the location of the vehicle and arrive in the stop in time. Modifying the code, we can make it to send the position of the vehicle periodically to a subscribed mobile number so that companies can keep an eye on their vehicles. Thus we can make use of the available technology to the benefit of the people by saving the lives of the people and helping the owners of the vehicle to keep track of their vehicles.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
[1].THE 8051 MICROCONTROLLER AND EMBEDDED SYSTEMS , Using Assemby and C , Muhammad Ali Mazidi , Janice Gillispie, Rolin D.McKinlay, Second Edition 2008. [2]. The 8051 Micro controller Architecture,Programming & Applications Kenneth J Ayala.

REFERENCES ON THE WEB


[1]. http://www.engineersgarage.com/ [2]. http://www.datasheetarchive.com/simcom-datasheet.html. [3]. http://www.datasheetcatalog.com/philips/1/ [4]. http://www.8051projects.info/projects.asp [5]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System [6]. http://www.8051projects.info/

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