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Didyma The ruins of the Temple of Apollo at Didyma Shown within Turkey Location Didim, Aydin Province, Turkey

Region Ionia Coordinates 3723'06?N 2715'23?ECoordinates: 3723'06?N 2715'23?E Type Sanctuary History Cultures Greek, Roman Satellite of Miletus Site notes Condition Ruined Ownership Public Public access Yes Didyma (Ancient Greek: ??d?a) was an ancient Greek sanctuary on the coast of Ioni a. It contained a temple and oracle of Apollo, the Didymaion. In Greek didyma me ans "twin", but the Greeks who sought a "twin" at Didyma ignored the Carian orig in of the name.[1] Next to Delphi, Didyma was the most renowned oracle of the He llenic world, first mentioned among the Greeks in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo,[2] but an establishment preceding literacy and even the Hellenic colonization of I onia. Mythic genealogies of the origins of the Branchidae line of priests, desig ned to capture the origins of Didyma as a Hellenic tradition, date to the Hellen istic period.[3] The ruins of Didyma are located at a short distance to the nort hwest of modern Didim in Aydin Province, Turkey, Didyma was the largest and most significant sanctuary on the territory of the gr eat classical city Miletus. To approach it, visitors would follow the Sacred Way to Didyma, about 17 km long. Along the way, were ritual waystations, and statue s of members of the Branchidae family, male and female, as well as animal figure s. Some of these statues, dating to the 6th century BC are now in the British Mu seum, taken by Charles Newton in the 19th century. not Greek and Roman authors laboured to refer the name Didyma to "twin" temples a feature of the site or to temples of the twins, Apollo and Artemis, whose own cult center at Didyma was only recently established, or whether, as Wilamowitz s uggested[4] there is a connection to Cybele Dindymene, "Cybele of Mount Dindymon ", is mooted. Recent excavations by the German team of archaeologists have uncov ered a major sanctuary dedicated to Artemis, with the key ritual focus being wat er. The 6th century Didymaion, dedicated to Apollo, enclosed its smaller predecessor , which archaeologists have identified. Its treasury was enriched by gifts from Croesus. Contents [hide] 1 The Branchidae 2 Notes 3 External links 4 Further reading The Branchidae [edit]

A stone-carved Medusa head Until its destruction by the Persians in 494 BC, Didyma's sanctuary was administ ered by the family of the Branchidae, who claimed descent from a purely eponymou s Branchos,[5] a youth beloved of Apollo.[6] The priestess, seated above the sac

red spring, gave utterances that were interpreted by the Branchidae. Both Herodo tus[7] and Pausanias[8] dated the origins of the oracle at Didyma before the Ion ian colonization of this coast. The Branchidae were expelled by Darius' Persians , who burned the temple in 493 BC and carried away to Ecbatana the archaic bronz e statue of Apollo, traditionally made by Canachus of Sicyon[9] in the 6th centu ry; the spring dried up, it was reported, and the archaic oracle was silenced.[1 0] Though the sanctuaries of Delphi and Ephesus were swiftly rebuilt, Didyma rem ained a ruin until the first steps of restoration were undertaken, in 334 BC. Ca llisthenes, a court historian of Alexander, reported that the spring began once more to flow after Alexander passed through, but there had been a complete break in the oracles' personnel and tradition.[11] Inscriptions, including inquiries and responses, and literary testimony record Didyma's role as an oracle, with th e "grim epilogue"[12] of Apollo's supposed sanction of Diocletian's persecution of Christians, until the closing of the temples under Theodosius I.

A map of the main sanctuaries in Classical Greece After his capture of Miletus in 334 BC, Alexander the Great reconsecrated the or acle but placed its administration of the oracle in the hands of the city, where the priest in charge was annually elected. About 300 BC,[13] Seleucus I Nicator brought the bronze cult image back, and the Milesians began to build a new temp le, which, if it had ever been completed, would have been the largest in the Hel lenic world. Vitruvius recorded a tradition that the architects were Paeonius of Ephesus, whom Vitruvius credited with the rebuilding of the Temple of Artemis t here, and Daphnis of Miletus. The peripteral temple[14] was surrounded by a doub le file of Ionic columns. With a pronaos of three rows of four columns, the appr oaching visitor passed through a regularized grove formed of columns. The usual door leading to a cella was replaced by a blank wall with a large upper opening through which one could glimpse the upper part of the naiskos in the inner court (adyton). The entry route lay down either of two long constricted sloping passa geways built within the thickness of the walls which gave access to the inner co urt, still open to the sky but isolated from the world by the high walls of the cella: there was the ancient spring, the naiskos which was a small temple itself, containing in its own small cella the bronze cult image of the god and a grove of laurels, sacred to Apollo. The inner walls of the cella were articulated by pil asters standing on a base the height of a man (1.94 m). Turning back again, the visitor saw a monumental staircase that led up to three openings to a room[15] w hose roof was supported by two columns on the central cross-axis. The oracular p rocedure, so well documented at Delphi, is unknown at Didyma and must be reconst ructed on the basis of the temple's construction, but it appears that several fe atures of Delphi were now adopted: a priestess[16] and answers delivered in clas sical hexameters. At Delphi, nothing was written; at Didyma, inquiries and answe rs were written; a small structure, the Chresmographion featured in this process : it was meticulously disassembled in the Christian period. The annual festival held there under the auspices of Miletus was the Didymeia; i t was made a Panhellenic festival in the beginning of the 2nd century BC.

A frieze on the base a column German excavations made between 1905 and 1930 revealed all of the incomplete new temple and some carved fragments that belonged to the earlier temple and to ass ociated statues. In 1979 came the biggest discovery by the German archaeological institute. On the left wall of the adyton, small very thin scratched lines were discovered. A closer examination brought the first ancient blueprint of a templ e back to life. Starting just after the entrance on an area of 200 square metres (2,200 sq ft) were the blueprints and a roughly calculated estimate. The discov ery and interpretation made by Lothar Haselberger led to some important informat

ion about the planning and the building phase of the Apollo Temple, notably that , in addition to meticulous use of geometry in scribing the profiles of moulding s, the architect permitted himself some intuitive adjustments, guided, but not b ound, by the strict obligations imposed on him by the traditional geometry of th e design: he transcended these self-imposed rules whenever his aesthetics demand ed it.[17] Today it is known that three different contractors worked until the e nd. All three had the responsibility to get the material on site, place the ston es and do the first refinement. After that, a small part was left on every place d block, a small cachet with a special sign of the contractor which indicated th at this particular block was not paid yet. Further on, the inscriptions led to t he information that one column would have taken 20,000 workdays to complete by o ne mason. (There where more masons per column, but just for the calculation.) Th e daily income of a stonemason was 2 drachmas, which is approx. 8.6 grams of sil ver. So with that information one can calculate the bare craftsmanship cost of o ne column, which was 20,000 (workdays) 8.6 (grams of silver) equals 172 kilogram s (380 lb) of silver. Pausanias visited Didyma in the later 2nd century AD.[18] Pliny reported[19] the worship of Apollo Didymiae, Apollo of Didymus, in Central Asia, transported to Sogdiana by a general of Seleucus and Antiochus whose inscribed altars there wer e still to be seen by Pliny's correspondents. Corroborating inscriptions on amph oras were found by I. R. Pichikyan at Dilbergin.[20] Clement of Alexandria quotes Leandrios saying that Cleochus, grandfather of the eponymous founder Miletus, was buried within the temple enclosure of Didyma.[21] Notes [edit] ^ Joseph Eddy Fontenrose noted that Didyma is akin to Idyma in Caria, and Sidyma in Lycia. See Fontenrose, Joseph Eddy (1932). "Zeus Didymaeus". Transactions an d Proceedings of the American Philological Association 62: 251. JSTOR 283217. ^ Fontenrose demonstrated that a "Zeus Didymeus" that was mentioned once, by Nic ander, is a phantom based on a merely geographical epithet: the Zeus who shared honors of patronage at Didyma, though not in the Didymaion itself, was actually Zeus Soter, "Zeus the Saviour". See Fontenrose, Joseph Eddy (1932). "Zeus Didyma eus". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 62: 245. JSTOR 283217. ^ Parke, H. W. (1986). "The Temple of Apollo at Didyma: The Building and Its Fun ction". The Journal of Hellenic Studies 106: 123. JSTOR 629647. ^ Based on the suggestion in Strabo that the Magnesians came from the region rou nd Mount Didyma in Thessaly and erected in their new home a temple to Dindymene, "Mother of the Gods", i.e. Cybele. See Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Ulrich von (189 5). "Die Herkunft am Magneten-um-Maeander". Hermes 30: 181. ^ Bragxos, ??????, "hoarse". See Hammond, N. G. L. (1998). "The Branchidae at Did yma and in Sogdiana". The Classical Quarterly 48 (2): 339. JSTOR 639826. Note 1. ^ Strabo, 634. ^ Herodotus, Histories 1.157.3. ^ Pausanias, 7.2.6. ^ Pausanias, 2.10.5. ^ Parke reports that the adyton is normally dry today. ^ Parke 1986. ^ Robert Parker, reviewing Fontenrose 1988 in The Classical Review New Series 39 .2 (1989), p 270. ^ Pausanias (i.16.3, viii.46.3) offers no date, but Seleucus gained control of M edia in the years immediately after 312. ^ This description follows that of Parke 1986:21-131. ^ Its rear wall divided it from the pronaos outside. ^ Iamblychus' profetis (in De mysteriis) ^ Haselberger, Die Bauzeichnungen des Apollontempels von Didyma (Deutscher Kunst verlag), 1983; "Antike Planzeichnungen am Apollontempel von Didyma" Spektrum der

Wissenschaft, 1985; "Aspekte der Bauzeichnungen von Didyma", Revue archologique, 1991 ^ Pausanias. Description of Greece, 7.2.6. ^ Pliny's Natural History, 6.18. ^ Hammond, N. G. L. (1998). "The Branchidae at Didyma and in Sogdiana". The Clas sical Quarterly 48 (2): 339. JSTOR 639826. Note 2. ^ Clement Alexandrinus. Protrepticus, 3.45.2-3.