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Chapter 14 - Retention Management

Chapter 14 Retention Management Answer Key

Turnover and Its Causes

True / False Questions

1. There are several positive, functional outcomes of employee turnover. TRUE

2. Avoidable turnover is that which could have been prevented by actions like a pay raise or a new job assignment. TRUE

3. An employee's perceived desirability of movement can depend on reasons that have little or nothing to do with the job. TRUE

4. An employee's overall intention to quit depends on the desirability of leaving, ease of leaving, and alternatives available to the employee. TRUE

5. Employees who have a high intention to quit necessarily end up quitting their jobs. FALSE

6. Desirability of movement is a weak predictor of voluntary employee turnover. FALSE


Chapter 14 - Retention Management

7. Availability of promotions or transfers may lessen or eliminate any intentions to quit, even though the employee is very dissatisfied with the current job. TRUE

8. Discharge turnover is primarily due to extremely poor person/organization matches. FALSE

9. Downsizing turnover is a reflection of a staffing level mismatch in which the organization actually is, or is projected to be, overstaffed. TRUE

10. Of the three types of employee turnover, discharges are the most prevalent. FALSE

Multiple Choice Questions

11. The types of employee turnover include ___________. A. voluntary B. discharge C. downsizing D. all of the above

12. Discharge turnover is usually due to ___________. A. a site or plant closing B. permanent layoff C. poor employee performance D. none of the above


Chapter 14 - Retention Management

13. Turnover due to organizational downsizing is classified as ______. A. voluntary B. involuntary C. supplemental D. it depends on the circumstances of the downsizing

14. The desirability of leaving an organization is often an outgrowth of _________. A. poor person/organization match B. favorable labor market conditions C. general, transferable KSAOs D. none of the above

15. An employee's intention to leave an organization is influenced by __________. A. perceived desirability of movement B. perceived ease of movement C. alternatives available to the employee D. all of the above

16. Ease of leaving is greater when ____. A. employees are highly embedded B. employees possess ample employer-specific KSAOs C. labor markets are loose D. all of the above

17. Downsizing is typically a reflection of __________. A. overstaffing B. understaffing C. an appropriate staffing level D. none of the above


Chapter 14 - Retention Management

Analysis of Turnover
True / False Questions

18. Data are seldom available regarding when or where employee turnover is occurring in most organizations. FALSE

19. Research suggests that there are differences between the reasons for turnover that employees provide in exit interviews and the reasons employees provide in anonymous surveys. TRUE

20. Because it is typically very easy to collect and analyze job satisfaction data meaningfully, most organizations make this a cornerstone of their retention strategy. FALSE

21. Exit interviews should be conducted by exiting employee's immediate supervisor whenever possible. FALSE

22. The interviewee in an exit interview should be told that the comments that he/she makes will be confidential and that only aggregate results will be used by the organization. TRUE

23. Postexit surveys should ask be mailed quite some time after the employee's last day of work so the individual has sufficient time to reflect on his or her experiences. FALSE


Chapter 14 - Retention Management

24. Economic costs associated with voluntary turnover include accrued paid time off and temporary coverage. TRUE

25. Material and equipment costs are likely to be the most prevalent in replacement and training costs. TRUE

26. The primary immediate benefit of turnover for employers is hiring inducements. FALSE

27. Compared to discharge turnover, voluntary turnover is usually more costly. FALSE

28. Turnover cost estimates are very precise and accurate in most cases. FALSE

29. Many turnover costs are hidden in the time demands placed on the many employees who must handle the separation, replacement, and training activities. TRUE

30. One potential benefit of employee discharges is the development of improved performance management and disciplinary skills. TRUE

31. Downsizing costs are concentrated in separation costs for permanent reductions in force. TRUE


Chapter 14 - Retention Management

Multiple Choice Questions

32. Exit interviews can be used to explain _________ to departing employees. A. rehiring rights B. benefits C. confidentiality agreements D. all of the above

33. Which of the following is a suggestion for conducting an appropriate exit interview? A. The interviewer should be the employee's immediate supervisor. B. There should be an unstructured interview format. C. The interviewer should prepare for each interview by reviewing the interview format and the interviewee's personnel file. D. None of the above

34. Which of the following is a common tool to assess employee reasons for leaving? A. Position analysis B. Job rotation C. Exit interview D. Discharge notification

35. Economic separation costs associated with voluntary turnover include ________. A. hiring inducements B. rehiring costs C. manager's time D. more than one of the above

36. Replacement costs associated with voluntary turnover include __________. A. HR staff induction costs B. mentoring C. severance pay D. contagion


Chapter 14 - Retention Management

37. Which of the following is a potential benefit associated with voluntary employee turnover? A. lowered replacement costs B. savings from not replacing an employee C. vacancy creates an open job that must be staffed D. all of the above

38. Which of the following makes involuntary turnover potentially more costly than a similar level of voluntary turnover? A. Accrued paid time off B. Possibility of a lawsuit C. Staffing costs for a new hire D. Formal training

39. Economic costs associated with downsizing include ___________. A. threat to harmonious labor-management relations B. decreased employee morale C. higher unemployment insurance premiums D. difficulty in attracting new employees

40. Which of the following is a potential benefit associated with downsizing? A. focus on core businesses, eliminating peripheral ones B. spreading risk by outsourcing activities to other organizations C. lower payroll and benefit costs D. all of the above

Retention Initiatives: Voluntary Turnover

True / False Questions

41. A recent Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) survey found that the most effective organizational strategy for retaining employees is the provision of concierge services. FALSE


Chapter 14 - Retention Management

42. Surveys suggest that HR managers believe that a totally different set of factors lead to turnover compared to regular employees. FALSE

43. To have the power to attract and retain employees, rewards must be unique and unlikely to be offered by competitors. TRUE

44. In general, most employees report that the opportunity for higher compensation is a more powerful predictor of turnover than conflict with supervisors. TRUE

45. Research has shown that the best performers are least likely to quit when an organization either rewards performance with higher compensation or widely communicates its compensation practices; doing both adds little to these independent effects. FALSE

46. Of the factors that influence an employee's desirability of leaving, job satisfaction is the one that cannot be influenced to a significant degree by organizations. FALSE

47. Providing employees increased autonomy and requiring them to learn a variety of skills increases stress significantly, which leads to greater turnover rates. FALSE

48. One guideline for increasing job satisfaction and retention is to ensure that fairness and justice exist in the workplace. TRUE


Chapter 14 - Retention Management

49. Employee perceptions of injustice are often rooted in misunderstanding or ignorance of company policies that could be resolved with increased communication. TRUE

50. Employees may not like a supervisor who speaks in a derogatory way towards them, but evidence suggests they seldom actually turnover as a result of these feelings. FALSE

51. Some employees who do not take advantage of work-life balance options resent their coworkers who are more likely to use work-life programs. TRUE

52. Evidence suggests that personality dispositions have little or no impact on employee tendencies to turnover. FALSE

53. Because employees quit companies, not jobs, internal staffing systems are usually seen as a poor substitute for a job at another company. As such, they do little to reduce intentions to leave. FALSE

Multiple Choice Questions

54. The first strategy for improving employee retention is to _____________. A. redesign employee jobs B. increase pay C. improve job satisfaction D. none of the above


Chapter 14 - Retention Management

55. Guidelines for increasing job satisfaction and retention include ___________. A. establish a lag pay policy for all employees B. link rewards to retention behaviors C. keeping core operations information secret D. none of the above

56. Which of the following is an attribute of a high value employee that an organization would want to prevent from leaving? A. low training investment B. strong KSAOs C. retirement D. low seniority

57. Which of the following is an attribute of a low value employee that an organization would not want to prevent from leaving? A. little intellectual capital B. high seniority C. high performance D. all of the above

58. Research most clearly suggests that when organizations wish to increase retention they need to _____. A. provide team-building B. convince employees that there are few alternatives C. offer "bundles" of HR practices that complement one another D. demonstrate executive commitment to outreach

59. Which of the following factors leading to turnover cannot usually be addressed by the organization? A. Poor social environment at work B. Low levels of job satisfaction C. Employee shocks D. All of these can be addressed by organizational policy


Chapter 14 - Retention Management

60. Organizations can use compensation to reduce turnover by _____. A. providing deferred compensation B. giving specific rewards for seniority C. increasing pay levels to surpass the market D. all of the above

61. Organizations that link extrinsic rewards to employee performance (i.e. that use incentive compensation plans) find that _____. A. turnover of high performers decreases and turnover of low performers increases B. turnover is increased across the board C. turnover is decreased across the board D. turnover rates are largely unaffected

62. Work-life balance programs are an example of _____. A. communal distribution B. intrinsic rewards C. instrumentality D. a completely ineffective retention strategy

63. Research on organizational justice suggests that ____. A. justice only influences turnover in highly industrialized Western countries B. communication has little impact on employee attitudes or turnover intentions C. employees are typically well-informed about organizational policies D. none of the above

64. To increase the cost of leaving, employers ____. A. reduce headcount B. provide deferred compensation C. increase workloads D. provide free stock to employees


Chapter 14 - Retention Management

Retention Initiatives: Discharge

True / False Questions

65. Performance management systems enable organizations to ensure that an initial person/job match yields an effectively performing employee. TRUE

66. One recommendation for an effective performance appraisal or management system is that appraisal criteria should be job-related, specific, and communicated in advance to the employee. TRUE

67. Performance management systems are used primarily to detect individuals whose performance is unsatisfactory and should be terminated. FALSE

68. Poor task performance is the result of insufficient ability, knowledge, skills, or motivation. TRUE

69. In progressive discipline, termination is seen as a viable early option to avoid having to work through a potentially fruitless cycle of improving a low-ability worker. FALSE

70. Employee termination is the final step in progressive discipline, and ideally it would never be necessary. TRUE


Chapter 14 - Retention Management

Multiple Choice Questions

71. As assessment of employee success in reaching goals, ratings of competencies, and suggestions for improvement are all part of _____. A. performance planning B. performance appraisal C. performance execution D. progressive discipline

72. Recommendations for the effective design and use of a performance appraisal or management system include that ____________. A. evaluations should be in writing B. the employee should receive timely feedback about the evaluation and an explanation for any outcome decision C. there should be agreement among different raters in their evaluation of the employee's performance D. all of the above

73. ______ includes the completion of job tasks that are specifically included in the job description. A. Citizenship B. Task performance C. (Low) Counterproductivity D. All of the above

74. Which of the following is not a part of normal progressive discipline? A. Give employees notice of the rules of conduct B. Provide employees with alternative employment if performance problems persist C. Allow for full investigation of alleged employee misconduct D. Give employees the right to appeal a decision


Chapter 14 - Retention Management

75. Which of the following is an example of a major employee offense? A. sabotage B. theft C. drug/alcohol abuse at work D. all of the above

76. The typical penalty for a first major offense by an employee is _____________. A. suspension or discharge B. written reprimand C. verbal reprimand D. none of the above

Retention Initiatives: Downsizing

True / False Questions

77. Discharge turnover targets groups of employees and is also known as reduction in force. (RIF). FALSE

78. Data shows dramatic decreases in organizational stock price following a downsizing, especially if the downsizing organization restructures assets during downsizing. FALSE

79. Research shows that downsizing has negative impacts on employee morale and health, workgroup creativity and communication, and workforce quality. TRUE

80. No-layoff policies cannot be implemented effectively by organizations. FALSE


Chapter 14 - Retention Management

Multiple Choice Questions

81. One problem that has been shown to accompany downsizing is _____. A. increased payroll costs B. decreases in employee health and motivation C. most companies fail to downsize sufficiently D. insufficient attention to issues of seniority

82. Which of the following is the most commonly pursued alternative to layoffs for reducing staffing levels? A. Attrition B. Retraining C. Benefits reductions D. Job sharing

83. In many cases, the post-layoff environment for those who remain is marked by _____. A. reductions in trust of management B. stress among those who remain C. reductions in workforce quality D. all of the above

Legal Issues
True / False Questions

84. Legal experts usually advise organizations to avoid documenting performance problems because the "paper trail" is likely to just lead to problems in court. FALSE


Chapter 14 - Retention Management

Multiple Choice Questions

85. From a legal standpoint, if performance appraisal information is to be used in the retention management and termination process for an organization, the organization needs to ensure that the information is _____. A. organizationally relevant B. sufficiently general to cover a variety of situations C. communicated in advance to the employee D. all of the above