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CONTENTS

 

PrEFACE

1

• acknowledgements

3

• 1979

5

• 1981

19

• 1982

29

• 1983

37

• 1984

45

• 1985

61

• 1986

73

• 1987

87

• 1988

105

• 1989

117

• 1990

127

• 1991

143

• 1992

155

• 1993

165

• 1994

177

• 1995

189

• general references

201

• amoc honour roll

203

1979

Problems

Wednesday 26 September, 3 hours

1. A prism with pentagons

A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 A 5 and B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 B 5 as top

and bottom faces is given. Each side of the two pentagons and

each of the line-segments A i B j , for all i, j = 1,

, either red or green. Every triangle whose vertices are vertices of the prism and whose sides have all been coloured has two sides of a different colour. Show that all 10 sides of the top and bottom faces are the same colour.

5 is coloured

2. Two circles in a plane intersect. Let A and B be the two points of intersection. Starting simultaneously from A two points P and Q move with constant speeds around different circles, each point travelling along its own circle in the same sense as the other point. The two points return to A simultaneously after one revolution. Prove

(i) P , B and Q are always collinear (on the same straight line);

(ii) that there is a fixed point S in the plane such that, at any time, the distances from S to the moving points are equal.

3. Let A and E be opposite vertices of a regular octagon. A frog starts jumping at vertex A. From any vertex of the octagon except E, it may jump to either of the two adjacent vertices. When it reaches vertex E, the frog stops and stays there.

Let a n be the number of distinct paths of exactly n jumps ending at E. Prove

(a)

(b) a 2 n =

a 2 n1 = 0,

1

2 x n 1 y n 1 , n = 1, 2, 3,

and y = 2 2.

,

where x = 2+ 2

Note: A path of n jumps is a sequence of vertices P 0 , that

,P n such

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(i) P 0 = A, P n = E; (ii) for every i, 0 i n 1, P i is distinct from E; (iii) for every i, 0 i n 1, P i and P i +1 are adjacent.

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Solution 1

We use the fact that from any vertex A i of the base, there are 5 lines A i B j drawn to the top. We prove first that the edges A 1 A 2 and A 2 A 3 , say, are the same colour by assuming they are different and showing that this assumption requires the contradictory condition that no more than 2 of the lines A 2 B j are red and no more than 2 are green.

(i) Suppose A 1 A 2 is red, then I shall prove that no more than 2 of the lines A 2 B j can be red.

Let these be A 2 B j 1 , A 2 B j 2 ,

A 3 B j 3 . At least one of the lines B j 1 B j 2 , B j 2 B j 3 , B j 3 B j 1 is an edge of the top. Let it be B 2 B 3 .

Assume 3 of the lines A 2 B j are

red.

 

B

3

A

3

 

A

2

B

2

A 1

Then A 2 A 1 , A 2 B 3 , A 2 B 2 are red. Then B 2 B 3 must be green.

Consider the lines A 1 B 2 and A 1 B 3 . If A 1 B 3 is red then A 1 A 2 B 3

is a red triangle. If A 1 B 3 is green then A 1 B 2 is red and A 1 A 2 B 2 is

a red triangle. So on the assumption that 3 of the lines A 2 B j are

red, A 1 B 3 is not

coloured. So no more than 2 of A 2 B j are red.

(ii) Similarly if A 2 A 3 is green, no more than two of A 2 B j can be green. Thus from the five segments A 2 B j , not more than four are coloured which contradicts the data that all are coloured. Thus A 2 A 1 and A 2 A 3 are the same colour.

A 2 A 3 and A 3 A 4 are the same colour and thus all the

Similarly

edges of the base A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 A 5 are the same colour.

(iii) Similarly all the edges of the top B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 B 5 are the same

colour.

We next prove that the top and bottom are all of the same colour, by assuming that they are not and obtaining a contradiction.

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(iv) Suppose now all the edges of the base A 1

A

5 are red and all of

the top B 1

B

5 are green.

 
 

B

3

B

1

 

B

2

 

A

1

 

A

3

 

A

2

Since all the edges of B 1

A 2 B j are red and as above let two of them be vertices of the edge

B 2 B 3 of the top. Then A 3 B 2 is green from A 3 A 2 B 3 , and thus

contradicts the data. It follows that all the edges of A 1

B 1

A 5 and

A 3 B 2 B 3 is a green triangle which

green from A 3 A 2 B 2 and A 3 B 3 is

B 5 are green, at least 3 of the lines

B 5 are of the same colour.

Solution 2

(i) Case 1 , ( AOP > AOB) Join AB. Let O, C be the centres of the two circles. Then for each pair of positions (P, Q), ACQ = AOP = x .

P

R

.

O

B

A

Q
C

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Then ABQ = 2 x . For any point R on the circle with centre O, on that arc of the circumference distinct from that on which B lies,

ARP =

But ABP R is concyclic, so ARP + ABP = 180 , i.e. ABP = 180 2 x . Therefore

1

2 AOP =

2

1

1

x .

1

ABP + ABQ = 180 1

2 x + 2 x = 180 ,

1

so P , B

Case 2 , ( AOP < AOB) Here the figure is as shown below, and a similar proof results.

and Q are collinear.

O

B

A

P

Q

C

Join AB, BP and BQ. Then

and

ABQ = 1 2 ACQ = 1 2 x

ABP = 1 2

AOP = 1 2 x

so ABP = ABQ and BP and BQ are the same line.

(ii) Alternative 1 (A Euclidean Geometry proof. The problem had been set in the 1979 IMO which was the last IMO not attended by Australia. This proof, by a Vietnamese student, won the only special prize at that IMO.