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 CONTENTS • PrEFACE 1 • acknowledgements 3 • 1979 5 • 1981 19 • 1982 29 • 1983 37 • 1984 45 • 1985 61 • 1986 73 • 1987 87 • 1988 105 • 1989 117 • 1990 127 • 1991 143 • 1992 155 • 1993 165 • 1994 177 • 1995 189 • general references 201 • amoc honour roll 203

1979

Problems

Wednesday 26 September, 3 hours

1. A prism with pentagons

A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 A 5 and B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 B 5 as top

and bottom faces is given. Each side of the two pentagons and

each of the line-segments A i B j , for all i, j = 1,

, either red or green. Every triangle whose vertices are vertices of the prism and whose sides have all been coloured has two sides of a diﬀerent colour. Show that all 10 sides of the top and bottom faces are the same colour.

5 is coloured

2. Two circles in a plane intersect. Let A and B be the two points of intersection. Starting simultaneously from A two points P and Q move with constant speeds around diﬀerent circles, each point travelling along its own circle in the same sense as the other point. The two points return to A simultaneously after one revolution. Prove

(i) P , B and Q are always collinear (on the same straight line);

(ii) that there is a ﬁxed point S in the plane such that, at any time, the distances from S to the moving points are equal.

3. Let A and E be opposite vertices of a regular octagon. A frog starts jumping at vertex A. From any vertex of the octagon except E, it may jump to either of the two adjacent vertices. When it reaches vertex E, the frog stops and stays there.

Let a n be the number of distinct paths of exactly n jumps ending at E. Prove

(a)

(b) a 2 n =

a 2 n1 = 0,

1

2 x n 1 y n 1 , n = 1, 2, 3,

and y = 2 2.

,

where x = 2+ 2

Note: A path of n jumps is a sequence of vertices P 0 , that

,P n such

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(i) P 0 = A, P n = E; (ii) for every i, 0 i n 1, P i is distinct from E; (iii) for every i, 0 i n 1, P i and P i +1 are adjacent.

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Solution 1

We use the fact that from any vertex A i of the base, there are 5 lines A i B j drawn to the top. We prove ﬁrst that the edges A 1 A 2 and A 2 A 3 , say, are the same colour by assuming they are diﬀerent and showing that this assumption requires the contradictory condition that no more than 2 of the lines A 2 B j are red and no more than 2 are green.

(i) Suppose A 1 A 2 is red, then I shall prove that no more than 2 of the lines A 2 B j can be red.

Let these be A 2 B j 1 , A 2 B j 2 ,

A 3 B j 3 . At least one of the lines B j 1 B j 2 , B j 2 B j 3 , B j 3 B j 1 is an edge of the top. Let it be B 2 B 3 .

Assume 3 of the lines A 2 B j are

red.

 B 3 A 3 A 2

B

2

A 1

Then A 2 A 1 , A 2 B 3 , A 2 B 2 are red. Then B 2 B 3 must be green.

Consider the lines A 1 B 2 and A 1 B 3 . If A 1 B 3 is red then A 1 A 2 B 3

is a red triangle. If A 1 B 3 is green then A 1 B 2 is red and A 1 A 2 B 2 is

a red triangle. So on the assumption that 3 of the lines A 2 B j are

red, A 1 B 3 is not

coloured. So no more than 2 of A 2 B j are red.

(ii) Similarly if A 2 A 3 is green, no more than two of A 2 B j can be green. Thus from the ﬁve segments A 2 B j , not more than four are coloured which contradicts the data that all are coloured. Thus A 2 A 1 and A 2 A 3 are the same colour.

A 2 A 3 and A 3 A 4 are the same colour and thus all the

Similarly

edges of the base A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 A 5 are the same colour.

(iii) Similarly all the edges of the top B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 B 5 are the same

colour.

We next prove that the top and bottom are all of the same colour, by assuming that they are not and obtaining a contradiction.

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 (iv) Suppose now all the edges of the base A 1 A 5 are red and all of the top B 1 B 5 are green. B 3 B 1 B 2 A 1 A 3 A 2

Since all the edges of B 1

A 2 B j are red and as above let two of them be vertices of the edge

B 2 B 3 of the top. Then A 3 B 2 is green from A 3 A 2 B 3 , and thus

contradicts the data. It follows that all the edges of A 1

B 1

A 5 and

A 3 B 2 B 3 is a green triangle which

green from A 3 A 2 B 2 and A 3 B 3 is

B 5 are green, at least 3 of the lines

B 5 are of the same colour.

Solution 2

(i) Case 1 , ( AOP > AOB) Join AB. Let O, C be the centres of the two circles. Then for each pair of positions (P, Q), ACQ = AOP = x .

P

R

.

O

B

A

Q
C

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Then ABQ = 2 x . For any point R on the circle with centre O, on that arc of the circumference distinct from that on which B lies,

ARP =

But ABP R is concyclic, so ARP + ABP = 180 , i.e. ABP = 180 2 x . Therefore

1

2 AOP =

2

1

1

x .

1

ABP + ABQ = 180 1

2 x + 2 x = 180 ,

1

so P , B

Case 2 , ( AOP < AOB) Here the ﬁgure is as shown below, and a similar proof results.

and Q are collinear.

O

B

A

P

Q

C

Join AB, BP and BQ. Then

and

ABQ = 1 2 ACQ = 1 2 x

ABP = 1 2

AOP = 1 2 x

so ABP = ABQ and BP and BQ are the same line.

(ii) Alternative 1 (A Euclidean Geometry proof. The problem had been set in the 1979 IMO which was the last IMO not attended by Australia. This proof, by a Vietnamese student, won the only special prize at that IMO.