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Biodiesel

The Market
The Kyoto Protocol which is the United Nations framework convention on climate change requires the introduction of biofuels into the transport fuel market in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The energy extracted from biomass is perhaps the oldest source of renewable energy. Biomass can be generated from various sources, such as seeds for edible and non-edible oils, algae and bacteria, litter fall from trees, forest residues, leftover from cash crops, waste from food processing, kitchen wastes, municipal solid waste, etc. Biomass obtained from such sources can be converted to gaseous and liquid fuels. The most important biofuels generated from biomass are biodiesel and bioethanol. The EU Biofuels Directive requires the member states to ensure the increase of the market share of biofuels in the transport fuel market from 2% in 2005 to a remarkable 5.75% in 2010, resulting in a demand of approximately 13.5 million tons per year. Future shortage in petroleum supply and surging prices for petroleum-based fuels will significantly boost the shift towards the alternative fuels sector. Biodiesel will become a vital part of our energy supply. What is Biodiesel? An alternative to petroleum-based diesel replacing it or being simply admixed as fuel additive due to its very similar combustion properties Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid methyl esters It can be transported and sold using todays infrastructure It is therefore, considered one of the most realistic candidates to replace fossil fuels as the worlds primary fuel energy source. Biodiesel is made from renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal oils and fats. Raw materials Raw materials for biodiesel production are country-specific and depend on the availability of the feed. The US uses soybean seeds and animal fat whereas, in Europe, rapeseeds and animal fats are used. Canada uses Canola seeds, and Japan prefers animal fats. Palm oil seeds are used in Malaysia. But many countries are net importers of edible vegetable oil, while animal fats are also scarce. Such countries can only consider using non-edible vegetable oil for biodiesel production. Advantages of Biodiesel Bio-degradable Closed CO2 loop Minimum greenhouse gas emissions Sulfur-free Less dependence on fuels from mineral oils Non-toxix Reduction of particulate emissions by approx. 50% Biodiesel does not contain benzene or other aromatics Higher engine efficiency and durability Improvement of ignition and lubricity Flash point at approx. 150C petroleum diesel at approx. 70C Safest fuel to store and handle

Lurgi AG Lurgiallee 5 D-60295 Frankfurt am Main Phone: +49 (0) 69 5808-0 Fax: +49 (0) 69 5808-3888 E-Mail: kommunikation@lurgi.de Internet: www.lurgi.com

Biodiesel
Investment and Production Cost The development of the biodiesel industry strongly depends on four non-technological factors: Feedstock prices Biodiesel production cost Taxation of energy products Crude oil prices The cost of feedstock, compared to processing charges and capital cost of equipment, is the largest single cost factor of biodiesel production and the major obstacle to the marketability of biodiesel. The feedstock cost share in the final product is about 70% and even higher when using, for example, rape seeds. This share can be partly reduced by the sale of by-products accounting for about 15% and more of the total production cost. The European Community supports the market for biofuels recommending time-limited exemptions or reductions of taxes on biofuels. Taxation of fossil diesel, linked to the CO2 emissions, will further promote the replacement of fossil diesel by biodiesel.

The continuous increase of crude oil prices experienced in the past approaches biodiesel production cost to those of fossil diesel. Taking into account the factors mentioned above, biodiesel becomes increasingly competitive compared to petroleumbased diesel. The biodiesel share in the blended fuel is exempted from free of any fuel taxes. Blends are a real opportunity to promote the use of biodiesel due to the favorable cost structure and better environmental compatibility.

Lurgi AG Lurgiallee 5 D-60295 Frankfurt am Main Phone: +49 (0) 69 5808-0 Fax: +49 (0) 69 5808-3888 E-Mail: kommunikation@lurgi.de Internet: www.lurgi.com

Biodiesel
Why choose Lurgi?
Experience and References Lurgi biodiesel technology provides significant competitive advantages over other biodiesel production processes through high yields at lower costs, in terms of both, raw material and utility consumption and capital investment. Lurgi offers biodiesel plants with capacities from 40,000 to 250,000 tons per year built as lump sum turnkey projects with single-line responsibility. The outstanding reference list of numerous turnkey biodiesel plants also attests to the expertise of Lurgi as a world market leader in the technological field of oleochemicals from renewable resources.

Our Technology
In principle, all edible oils and fats vegetable and animal can be transesterified. Transesterification indicated in the block diagram is based on the chemical reaction of triglycerides with methanol to form methyl esters and glycerin in the presence of alkaline catalyst. If the feedstock quality does not meet the required specification, pre-treatment and/or esterification are the appropriate options. Transesterification takes place in the mixing section of a two-stage mixer-settler unit, while the subsequent settling section allows the separation of methyl esters as the light phase and glycerin as the heavy phase. After rectification, the surplus methanol contained in the glycerin-water is used as a recycle stream to the process. Lurgi biodiesel technology ensures the production of biodiesel meeting the European specification EN 14214 and produces glycerin of the purity required by British Standard 2621 or EU Pharmacopoeia 99.5. Glycerin is a valuable by-product for the cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and soap industries.

Lurgi AG Lurgiallee 5 D-60295 Frankfurt am Main Phone: +49 (0) 69 5808-0 E-Mail: kommunikation@lurgi.de Internet: www.lurgi.com

Fax: +49 (0) 69 5808-3888

Biodiesel
Advantages of our Technology
Feedstock In principle all edible oils and fats vegetable and animal can be transesterified; fatty acids can be esterified. For fuelspecific properties, pretreated oils from rape and sunflower seeds are preferred in Europe. Pretreatment and/or esterification as optional process steps are only required if the feedstock quality does not meet the following specifications:

Final Products Biodiesel: E DIN 51606 / EN 14214 Crude glycerin: British Standard 2621 Pharmaceutical-grade glycerin: EU Pharmacopoeia 99.5 Consumption Figures The consumption figures without glycerin distillation and bleaching stated below are valid for the production of 1 ton of rapeseed methylester in continuous operation and at nominal capacity. Steam consumption: approx. 415kg Cooling water consumption (delta t = 10C): approx. 25m3 Electrical energy: approx. 12kWh Methanol: approx. 96kg Catalyst (Na-Methylate 100%): approx. 5kg Hydrochloric acid (37%): approx. 10kg Caustic soda (50%): approx. 1.5kg Nitrogen: approx. 1Nm3 Process water: approx. 20kg

FFA content max. 0.1% Water content max. 0.1% Unsaponifiables max. 0.8% Phosphorus content max. 10ppm

Yields 1,000kg of dried, degummed and deacidified rapeseed oil will give: Biodiesel: approx. 1,000kg Crude glycerin: approx. 128kg Pharmaceutrical-grade glycerin: approx. 93kg Technical-grade glycerin: approx. 5kg

Process Highlights

Advantages

Customer Benefit

Multipurpose and fullyautomatic continuous process High product yield High quality biodiesel and glycerin

Suitable for various raw materials Based on catalyzed transesterficaction Direct conversion with no inermediate steps Minimal side reactions and reaction time Standard materials of construction Highly efficient process 1kg of biodiesel per 1kg of raw material Moderate operating conditions

High flexibility Handling of various feedstock Reduction of investment

Operation at atmospheric pressure and low temperature (~60C) Na-Methylate as catalyst Clear phase seperation by special gravity process

Reduction of operating and maintenance cost Reduction of operating cost Reduction of maintenance cost and investment

Low catalyst consumption No rotating equpment, i. e. centrifuges required

Lurgi AG Lurgiallee 5 D-60295 Frankfurt am Main Phone: +49 (0) 69 5808-0 Fax: +49 (0) 69 5808-3888 E-Mail: kommunikation@lurgi.de Internet: www.lurgi.com