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Assoc. Prof. PhD. Le Kim Hung - Danang University, PhD. Thach Le Khiem - ABB VietNam, and Ivan De Mesmaeker - ABB Switzerland

ABSTRACT The use of numerical technology in protection and automation has provided multi-functions equipment, allows the development of new solutions and a higher degree of integration. The paper give the general functions, advantage and how to use IEC61850 in design, engineering application for substation protection and control.

1. INTRODUCTION AND ADVANTAGE OF IEC 61850 The standard IEC61850 - Communication Networks and Systems is the first and only global standard that considers all the communication needs within a substation, it is covering design aspects, defines guidelines for protection, monitoring, control and automation This standard also raises interoperability and free allocation of functions and devices, support all type of architectures protocol and its practical application for substation automation systems. IEC 61850 is not only issued, but also ready to use in many countries. This standard is also the request strictly by EVN (Electricity in VietNam) for the substation automation design in all 500kV and 220kV substation of VietNam power system. The advantage of IEC 61850 communication and protocol: - Apply the request an open protocol for protection, monitoring, control at least inside substations. - This is higher flexibility solution, have the possibility to make extension without being dependant on the manufacturer having delivered the previous parts of the substation equipment. - Full application and all request for substation automation, and data interoperability within the substations.

- Advantage for users: the system engineering done and documented with the help of Substation Configuration description Language (SCL) provided in the IEC 61850-6 can be re-used later when only certain system components have to be replaced after several years of operation. By introducing this kind of global language and established common naming of the function-related signal name, the substation automation will be complemented by a hierarchical plant designation scheme in IEC 61850. Since the standard is accepted worldwide, no difference between the ANSI and IEC worlds will appear.




The standard has an impact on all activities of field of protection and substation automation, but the main issues are how to implement this standard in practice which is to be done by the suppliers, and how to specify protection and substation automation systems, which is to be done by the users like utilities. Specifying according to the standard IEC 61850 means that the entire functionality is split into Logical Nodes (Fig.1) with their corresponding data, i.e. with the established common naming of the function-related signal names. If this is not done in the specification already, the system integrator has to do it. Anyway, the people anywhere in charge of the project execution (design, engineering, testing, FAT- Factory Acceptance Test, commissioning, site

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acceptance test, operation, etc.) will once have to learn this common but simple language. It is an advantage to, the use of the Standard Configuration description Language (SCL) has an important advantage: the integrity of data is warranted by using one single data entry. The users are recommended to check the signals and evaluate which ones are really needed (mandatory (M)/ optional (O)) which the system designer and integrator take this information into its design and engineering tool.

- Impacts on the engineering The informal information from the specification has to be translated into the formal description using SCL. This work may be done by the author of the specification or has to be done latest by the system integrator. The formal description warrants a high quality of work, ensures integrity and consistency during the entire implementation process, from the general system design to the final commissioning, facilitating the corresponding checks in each step of the project execution. The whole substation automation system is formally documented in SCL according to IEC 61850. Therefore, the engineering work done remains memorised and can be reused at any time for adaptations, extensions and also refurbishment. - The requested standard and compliance with IEC 61850 A prerequisite for reasonable project execution is the use of components (IEDs Intelligent Electronic Device), which are proven to be compliant with IEC 61850. The framework for the compliance test is given in part 10 of the standard (IEC 61850-10) and is now being detailed by user organizations and test bodies. A test certificate has to be supplied. The main compliance features are the data model according to the implemented functions and the proper running of the needed and specified services. It shall also be mentioned that each compliant IED has to be supplied with a formal data sheet being the SCL description of its capabilities (ICD - Interface Control Document files).

Fig.1 Modelling example of one feeder in IEC 61850

- Impacts on the general system design Based on the specification a solution concept has to be elaborated. The standard IEC 61850 allows the free allocation of functions. Due to the split into functional nodes, the system designer is free to distribute the functions, but has to respect the mentioned constraints as imposed by the specification. To ensure seamless interoperability, especially the distributed functions like breaker failure protection, busbar protection, station-wide interlocking, and load shedding have to be designed very carefully. Regarding all the requirements, only a system integrator with comprehensive experience will be able to elaborate such an optimized solution exploiting all benefits of IEC 61850.

3. IEC 61850 FOR SCADA APPLICATION IN SUBSTATIONS 3.1 Tasks SCADA - Supervisory control and data acquisition is one of the basic tasks of a substation automation system. The tasks of SCADA are:

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Local and remote operation of the switchgear and another equipment. Acquisition of switchgear information and measurments. Handling of events and alarms. The SCADA application is related to human operation of the network and is performed by a local or remote operator. The data communication for this application is directed vertically, i.e. from a higher control level down to a lower one (commands of any kind from the operators place) or reverse (binary indications like breakers or isolators position, measurands from instrument transformers...) as Figure 2. 3.2 Model (fig.2) The vertical relationship IEC 61850 is using the client - server concept. The server is the process or bay level (IEDs), which provides all data to the client at station or remote level. The data are provided on request by the server or automatically by a report from the server issued if certain conditions are fulfilled. The client is mostly a computer representing the operators work place. The client can send commands to the server for changing data in the server to:

parameter sets, analog set-points, enabling or disabling functions). In a client-server communication, the client controls the data exchange. Therefore, clientserver communication is very flexible in terms of the data to be transmitted. Compared to a master slave system, the client-server concept allows the implementation of multiple clients in the same system. (e.g. the gateway and the HMI - Human Machine interface are clients). IEC 61850 not only specifies the method of the data transfer but also defines the process data of the servers. For that purpose, IEC 61850 uses an object-oriented approach with Logical Nodes (LN) as core objects. A logical node is a functional grouping of data and represents the smallest function, which may be implemented independently in devices. Examples Logical Node XCBR contains group data of circuit breaker or Logical Node PTOC is the data of a timed overcurrent protection.

Fig.3 Data model and naming

Fig.2 Vertical comminication in the substation automation system Issue commands for the operation to the switchgear. Modify the behavior of the server through the change of internal data (e.g. change of

Logical Nodes have object data, and objectdata have data attributes. For example, the XCBR (Q0_XCBR) has a data called Pos, with one attribute stVal, which indicates the position (values according the common double point indication: off, on, intermediate-state, bad-state) and another attribute ctlVal for the opening and closing command (values: off, on). Logical Nodes are grouped in Logical Devices. Example: Logical Device Tampa_Protection for two zone distance protection Logical Node PDIS per zone (PDIS1 and PDIS2 in Fig.3). Logical Devices are implemented in physical

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devices (IEDs). There is some actual information needed not only about the Logical Nodes and Logical Devices but also about the complete IED like the status of the common power supply. This information is modeled in the Logical Node LPHD (see Error! Reference source not found.3). 3.3 Application A typical application of SCADA is the creation of alarm and event lists. With IEC 61850, datasets used together with the report service can be used for that purpose. As an example, a utility may specify a dataset per IED that contains all data for the alarm list. The NCC gateway provides the interface from the NCC (National Control Center) to the substation. It has two basic tasks: Protocol and data conversion Data collection For the data collection, the NCC gateway is a client in the IEC 61850 based substation automation system. The data is typically collected using the report model. The dataset used in that case corresponds to the traditional signal list specifying the information from the substation to be transmitted to the NCC.

Typically, these functions are not using human interaction and are time critical. They are time critical because they are safety critical. The maximal accepted communication delay is in the range of several milliseconds. This information exchange is a horizontal communication between devices at the same hierarchical level (Fig.4).

Fig.4 Horizontal comminication in the substation automation system 4.2 Model As an example, for the information exchange between the protection function and the breaker failure function, the following logical nodes are involved: PTRC (protection trip conditioning) representing the logic in a protection device that creates the binary outputs (start and trip output of e.g. the line protection device). RBRF representing the protection related function Breaker Failure function. The information exchange between these logical nodes is also modeled as data. The data is part of the logical node that is the source of the information exchange. As example, the LN PTRC has a data Tr with an attribute general representing the trip output of the protection device for a general trip. That signal is not only used to operate the breaker, but it also is used to trigger the breaker failure function. For the exchange of this type, IEC 61850 introduces a specific information exchange service called GOOSE (Generic Object Oriented

4. IEC 61850 FOR TIME CRITICAL INFORMATION EXCHANGE 4.1 Tasks There are several functions in the substation automation system, which require a time critical exchange of binary information between functions located within the same bay or in different bays. Examples: Exchange between line protection and autorecloser. Exchange between bays for breaker failure. Exchange interlocking. between bays for station

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Substation Event) based on the publishersubscriber concept. The content of a GOOSE message is defined with a dataset (similar like for the report model described above). The GOOSE message is sent as a multicast message over the communication network. That means that multiple devices can receive the message and retrieve the information required from the message. The communication service is not confirmed; instead, the message is repeated several times.

the Logical Device Recloser containing the LN RREC in case these both functions are installed in separate devices as Fig.5. The LD Distance Protection sends information to the LD Recloser: start of starting elements in LN PTRC (PTRC.Str) and trip in LN PTRC (PTRC.Op). Based on these information and depending on the settings (single pole recloser or three pole recloser; RREC.TrMod) the recloser function represented by RREC will send information (RREC.TrBeh) to the LD Distance Protection in order to enable the expected trip (if one or three phases PTRC.Tr) to the breaker. The open command to the breaker is issued by the recloser function (RREC.Op).

5. IEC 61850 FOR SUBSTATION AUTOMATION DESIGN Substation automation designs have many steps from the specification up to the commissioning of a project specific system. SCL was introduced for a comprehensive description of the complete substation automation system supporting the goal interoperability of the standard. The description in SCL allows: single line diagram, function allocation to the single line diagram, function allocation to devices, data as being mandatory and optional according to IEC 61850 (optional if needed or provided), connection in the communication system, setting of all configuration parameters as defined in IEC 61850. To use IEC 61850 for building the substation automation, the system designer need: - ICD files of IEDs - SSD files of system

Fig.5 Connection between distance protection and recloser functions In the example of the breaker failure function a GOOSE message is configured in the protection device that contains at least the data PTRC.Tr.general. As soon as PTRC.Tr.general changes its the value to TRUE, the GOOSE message is sent. The device performing the breaker failure function is receiving this message and detects that PTRC.Tr.general has changed its value to TRUE. Another GOOSE message is sent when the value changes back to FALSE. 4.3 Application There are two types of application, depending if the exchange of information is between devices inside the bay or between devices placed in different bays. Exchange of information inside the bay: A typical example is the exchange of information between Logical Device Distance Protection containing instances of LN PDIS, LN PTRC and

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structure of the SA system. Any extension or update in the future will not start from the scratch but from the archived SCD file.

6. CONCLUSION IEC 61850 is efficient standard in building protection and control automation in the substation. It provides not only a powerful method to reach interoperability, but also supports to cover all aspects related to the communication, naming, engineering capabilities, conformity, testing... in Substation Automation Systems, optimized solution exploiting all benefits for users. It doesnt mean that all delivered IEC 61850 systems will have the same quality independently of the manufacturer because architecture remains free as architecture of the communication system as well as location of the different functionality as well as the quality of each protection functions. The first experiences done by manufacturers and utilities have now to confirm if the expectations are fulfilled and if some extensions inside the standard will be needed.

Fig.6 Engineering process using SCL files The capabilities of an IEC 61850 compliant device are described in an IED Capability Description (ICD) file. A vendor of devices claiming conformance to IEC 61850 has not only to supply paper documentation like a data sheet but also an ICD file. The SSD file is used to describe the single line diagram and the allocated functions. The optional data that need to be supported can also be described in the SSD file. This replaces the traditional signal list, the elements of a signal list being the data of LNs. Any system integration tool needs the SSD file and the ICD files of all devices of the system. The output is the Substation Configuration Description (SCD) file. For maintenance and future system modifications the SCD files have to be archived as part of the project documentation. The system configuration tool will take these files written according to SCL and merge these by the system engineering process to a SCD file. The formal SCL description will result in a consistent data exchange, allow exchanges between compliant tools independent from the supplier and, finally, in a machine-readable documentation of the data and communication

REFERENCES 1. Klaus-Peter Brand, Christoph Brunner, Ivan De Mesmaeker. How to use IEC 61850 in protection and automation. Baden and Zrich, Switzerland, 2005. 2. De Mesmaeker Ivan - CIGRE. Protection and substation automation systems: handling of standardisation, integration and information technology. ABB Switzerland, 2006. 3. De Mesmaeker Ivan, Klaus-Peter Brand, Peter Rietmann, Petra Reinhardt. Practical considerations in applying IEC 61850 for protection and substation automation systems. Baden and Zrich, Switzerland, 2005.

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