ISIS Educational Module 9:
Prestressing Concrete Structures with Fibre Reinforced Polymers
Prepared by ISIS Canada A Canadian Network of Centres of Excellence www.isiscanada.com Principal Contributor: Raafat ElHacha, Ph.D., P.Eng. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary Contributor: Cynthia Couture June 2007
ISIS Education Committee:
N. 
Banthia, University of British Columbia 
L. 
Bisby, Queen’s University 
R. 
Cheng, University of Alberta 
R. 
ElHacha, University of Calgary 
G. 
Fallis, Vector Construction Group 
R. 
Hutchinson, Red River College 
A. 
Mufti, University of Manitoba 
K.W. Neale, Université de Sherbrooke
J. Newhook, Dalhousie University
K. Soudki, University of Waterloo
L. Wegner, University of Saskatchewan
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
Objectives of This Module
Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcing materials for concrete structures have high strengthtoweight ratios that can provide high prestressing forces while adding only minimal additional weight to a structure. They also have good fatigue properties and exhibit low relaxation losses, both of which can increase the service lives and the load carrying capacities of reinforced concrete structures. This module is intended to:
1. provide students with a general awareness of guidelines and procedures that can be used for the design of concrete components prestressed with FRPs in buildings and bridges.
2. to facilitate the use of FRP reinforcing materials in the construction and structural rehabilitation industries; and
3. to provide guidance to students seeking additional information on this topic.
Information is presented for both internal and external prestressing applications with FRP bars, rods, and tendons. Design considerations for serviceability, strength and ductility, as well as anchorage of FRP prestressing tendons are addressed. The material presented herein is not currently part of a national or international design code, but is based mainly on the results of numerous detailed research studies conducted in Canada and around the world. Procedures, material resistance factors, and design equations are based primarily on the recommendations of ISIS Canada Design Manual No. 5: Prestressing Concrete Structures with Fibre Reinforced Polymers. As such, this module should not be used as a design document, and it is intended for educational use only. Future engineers who wish to design FRP strengthening schemes for reinforced concrete structures should consult more complete design documents (refer to Section 11 for further guidance)
Additional ISIS Educational Modules
Available from ISIS Canada (www.isiscanada.com)
Module 1 – Mechanics Examples Incorporating FRP Materials
Nineteen worked mechanics of materials problems are presented which incorporate FRP materials. These examples could be used in lectures to demonstrate various mechanics concepts, or could be assigned for assignment or exam problems. This module seeks to expose first and second year undergraduates to FRP materials at the introductory level. Mechanics topics covered at the elementary level include: equilibrium, stress, strain and deformation, elasticity, plasticity, determinacy, thermal stress and strain, flexure and shear in beams, torsion, composite beams, and deflections.
Module 2 – Introduction to FRP Composites for Construction
FRP materials are discussed in detail at the introductory level. This module seeks to expose undergraduate students to FRP materials such that they have a basic understanding of the components, manufacture, properties, mechanics, durability, and application of FRP materials in civil infrastructure applications. A suggested laboratory is included which outlines an experimental procedure for
comparing the stressstrain responses of steel versus FRPs in tension, and a sample assignment is provided.
Module 3 – Introduction to FRPReinforced Concrete
The use of FRP bars, rods, and tendons as internal tensile reinforcement for new concrete structures is presented and discussed in detail. Included are discussions of FRP materials relevant to these applications, flexural design guidelines, serviceability criteria, deformability, bar spacing, and various additional considerations. A number of case studies are also discussed. A series of worked example problems, a suggested assignment with solutions, and a suggested laboratory incorporating FRPreinforced concrete beams are all included.
Module 4 – Introduction to FRPStrengthening of Concrete Structures
The use of externallybonded FRP reinforcement for strengthening concrete structures is discussed in detail. FRP materials relevant to these applications are first presented, followed by detailed discussions of FRPstrengthening of concrete structures in flexure, shear, and axial compression.
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ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
A series of worked examples are presented, case studies are
outlined, and additional, more specialized, applications are introduced. A suggested assignment is provided with worked solutions, and a potential laboratory for strengthening concrete beams in flexure with externally bonded FRP sheets is outlined.
Module 5 – Introduction to Structural Health Monitoring
The overall motivation behind, and the benefits, design, application, and use of, structural health monitoring (SHM)
systems for infrastructure are presented and discussed at the introductory level. The motivation and goals of SHM are first presented and discussed, followed by descriptions of the various components, categories, and classifications of SHM systems. Typical SHM methodologies are outlined, innovative fibre optic sensor technology is briefly covered, and types of tests which can be carried out using SHM are explained. Finally, a series of SHM case studies is provided
to demonstrate four field applications of SHM systems in
Canada.
Module 6 – Application & Handling of FRP Reinforcements for Concrete
Important considerations in the handling and application of FRP materials for both reinforcement and strengthening of reinforced concrete structures are presented in detail. Introductory information on FRP materials, their mechanical properties, and their applications in civil engineering applications is provided. Handling and application of FRP materials as internal reinforcement for concrete structures is treated in detail, including discussions on: grades, sizes, and bar identification, handling and storage, placement and assembly, quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA), and safety precautions. This is followed by information on handling and application of FRP repair materials for concrete structures, including:
handling and storage, installation, QC, QA, safety, and maintenance and repair of FRP systems.
Module 7 – Introduction to Life Cycle Engineering & Costing for Innovative Infrastructure
Life cycle costing (LCC) is a wellrecognized means of guiding design, rehabilitation and ongoing management decisions involving infrastructure systems. LCC can be employed to enable and encourage the use of fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) and fibre optic sensor (FOS) technologies across a broad range of infrastructure applications and circumstances, even where the initial costs of innovations exceed those of conventional alternatives. The objective of this module is to provide undergraduate engineering students with a general awareness of the principles of LCC, particularly as it applies to the use of fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) and structural health monitoring (SHM) in civil engineering applications.
Module 8 – Durability of FRP Composites for Construction
Fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs), like all engineering materials, are potentially susceptible to a variety of environmental factors that may influence their longterm durability. It is thus important, when contemplating the use of FRP materials in a specific application, that allowance be made for potentially harmful environments and conditions. It is shown in this module that modern FRP materials are extremely durable and that they have tremendous promise in infrastructure applications. The objective of this module is to provide engineering students with an overall awareness and understanding of the various environmental factors that are currently considered significant with respect to the durability of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) materials in civil engineering applications.
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ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
Section 1
Introduction
BACKGROUND
The noncorrosive, high strength, and light weight characteristics of fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) make them attractive for use as either internal or external reinforcement of concrete structures. Using FRPs in new structures offers numerous potential benefits:
• Longer life cycles and reduced life cycle costs
• Reduced maintenance costs
• Enhanced durability
• Overall cost efficiencies
• New and innovative design options FRP reinforcements have high strengthtoweight ratios that can provide high prestressing forces with only minimal additional weight on a structure. They also have good fatigue properties and exhibit low relaxation losses, both of which can increase the service lives and the load carrying capacities of reinforced and/or prestressed concrete structures. Full scale FRP prestressed concrete bridges have been constructed in North America, Europe, and Japan.
During the 1990’s, several demonstration projects in Canada showed the potential of FRP applications. In 1993, the Beddington Trail Bridge was built in Calgary, Alberta, using FRP pretensioned tendons and incorporating fibre optic sensors for ongoing structural health monitoring (refer to ISIS Canada Educational Module 5). This was the first bridge of its kind in North America, and one of the first in the world. A second bridge, Taylor Bridge, incorporating FRP prestressing tendons was built at Headingly, Manitoba in 1997. In the United States, the Bridge Street Bridge in Southfield, Michigan was completed in 2001, and used bonded and unbonded carbon FRP (CFRP) prestressing tendons. The current educational module provides information on available guidelines that can be used to design concrete members fully prestressed with carbon FRP, aramid FRP (AFRP), and glass FRP (GFRP) tendons, in both buildings and bridges. The reader will note that this module is not part of national or an international standard.
Section 2
FRP Tendon Characteristics & Properties
GENERAL
Fibre reinforced polymers are anisotropic composite materials, consisting of highstrength fibres embedded in a light polymer resin matrix. The mechanical properties of an FRP product such as strength and stiffness are highly dependent on (ISIS, 2001):
• the mechanical properties of the fibre and the matrix;
• the fibre volume fraction of the composite;
• the degree of fibre matrix interfacial adhesion;
• the fibre cross section, quality, and orientation within the matrix;
• the loading history and duration, as well as environmental conditions; and
• the method of manufacturing. These factors are interdependent, and consequently it is difficult to determine the specific effect of each factor in isolation. FRP tendons may be produced from a wide variety of fibres and polymer resins, and they are typically identified by the type of fibre used to make the tendon.
COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE FRP PRESTRESSING TENDONS
FRP prestressing tendons are available in a variety of shapes and sizes; they may be in the form of bars, multiwire strands, ropes, or cables. The properties of FRP prestressing tendons are typically available from the manufacturer. Table 2.1 provides a comparison of typical mechanical properties of selected commercially available structural AFRP and CFRP prestressing tendons, together with those of steel prestressing tendons for the purposes of comparison. The two main types of FRP prestressing reinforcements, namely CFRP and AFRP, used in North America, Japan and Europe are described briefly in the following subsections.
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ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
Table 21. Typical Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Prestressing Tendons (CAN/CSAS80602)
Mechanical Properties 
Prestressing Steel 
AFRP Tendon 
CFRP Tendon 
GFRP Tendon 
Nominal yield stress (MPa) Tensile strength (MPa) Elastic Modulus (GPa) Yield Strain (%) Rupture Strain (%) Density (kg/m ^{3} ) 
_{1}_{0}_{3}_{4}_{−}_{1}_{3}_{9}_{6} 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
_{1}_{3}_{7}_{9}_{−}_{1}_{8}_{6}_{2} 
_{1}_{2}_{0}_{0}_{−}_{2}_{0}_{6}_{8} 
_{1}_{6}_{5}_{0}_{−}_{2}_{4}_{1}_{0} 
13791724 

_{1}_{8}_{6}_{−}_{2}_{0}_{0} 
_{5}_{0}_{−}_{7}_{4} 
_{1}_{5}_{2}_{−}_{1}_{6}_{5} 
4862 

_{1}_{.}_{4}_{−}_{2}_{.}_{5} 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 

>4 
_{2}_{−}_{2}_{.}_{6} 
_{1}_{−}_{1}_{.}_{5} 
34.5 

7900 
1250−1400 
1500−1600 
12502400 
Carbon FRP (CFRP)
Carbon fibres provide numerous potentially advantageous properties, including: high strength and high stiffness to weight ratios, excellent fatigue properties, excellent moisture resistance, high temperature and chemical resistance, and electrical and thermal conductivity. Due to their low ultimate strains, carbon fibres typically have comparatively low impact resistance. Two types (grades) of carbon fibres are widely available: (1) synthetic fibres known as polyacrylonitrile (PAN), which are similar to fibres used for making textiles, and (2) pitchbased carbon fibres, obtained from the destructive distillation of coal (Hollaway, 1989). Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) CFRPs are used to make unidirectional Carbon Fibre Composite Cables (CFCC), developed by Tokyo Rope Mfg. Co. Ltd. and Toho Rayon Mfg. Co. Ltd., both in Japan. The cables are made of carbon fibre yarns twisted together, similar in may ways to 7wire steel tendons which are widely used in the prestressed concrete industry. Carbon Fibre Composite Cables can be manufactured as a single rod, which may be used in isolation, or combined in sets of seven, nineteen, or thirty seven to form multiple strand cables (refer to Figure 21). CFCC has a lower modulus (137GPa) in comparison to steel (198GPa). This is considered to be an advantage for CFCC since smaller losses of prestress will be experienced as compared with steel tendons due to shrinkage and creep of the concrete. In addition, the same weight of CFCC carries about four times the load carried by an equivalent amount of conventional steel tendon.
Fig. 21. Carbon Fibre Composite Cables Rope, 1993)
(Tokyo
Pitchbased CFRP is used by Mitsubishi Kasei Chemical Company of Japan for both round and deformed Leadline™ CFRP rods. Plain round bar diameters range from 3mm to 17mm, and deformed bar diameters from 5mm to 12mm (refer to Figure 23). These rods have a tensile strength of 1813MPa, a tensile modulus of elasticity of 147GPa, and an elongation at failure of 1.3%.
Fig. 22. Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Leadline™ Tendons (Mitsubishi Kasei Corporation, 1993)
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ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
Aramid FRP (AFRP)
The term aramid is derived from the chemical names of the base compounds from which it is manufactured: ARomatic polyAMIDe. Aramid fibres have lower weights and a lower tensile moduli of elasticity than carbon fibres, but are generally superior to carbon fibres in terms of toughness and impact resistance (hence their widespread use in armor and ballistics applications). The cost of aramid fibres is also typically less than carbon fibres. While various modulus grades are available the modulus of elasticity of aramid fibres is generally about one quarter that of conventional colddrawn prestressing steel, and the specific density is one sixth that of prestressing steel. Prestressing reinforcement formed from this material is manufactured into rods or ropes, which are created from six main types of fibres, four different grades of proprietary aramid fibres called Kevlar® (Grades 29, 49, 129, 149), and various other proprietary aramid fibres called Twaron®, Technora®, Arapree®, FiBRA, and Parafil® (ISIS, 2001). The fibre tensile strength for these fibres varies considerably and ranges from 2800 to 4210 MPa, with moduli of elasticity ranging from 74 GPa to 179 GPa. Figure 24 shows Technora® rods.
Fig. 23. Technora® AFRP Tendons
Fig. 24. Arapree® AFRP Tendons
Arapree® comprises aramid Twaron® fibres embedded in epoxy resin, with two types of cross sectional shapes available, rectangular and circular. (refer to Figure 24). FiBRA (Fibre BRAiding) is an FRP rod formed by braiding high strength fibre tows, followed by epoxy resin
impregnation and curing (Figure 25). Two types of rods are produced for concrete reinforcement, rigid and flexible. Parafil®, is a parallel lay rope composed of dry (non impregnated) fibres within a protective polymeric sheath. It can not be bonded to concrete and contains no polymer resin. Figure 26 shows a Parafil® Rope with end fittings.
ANCHORAGE SYSTEMS
Numerous anchoring devices have been developed for steel prestressing tendons, and these are widely available, cost effective, and reliable. However, these existing anchorage devices cannot be applied directly to FRP tendons, since FRPs are sensitive to transverse pressure when subjected to high axial stress. The very high ratio of axial to lateral strength and stiffness of FRPs (which can be as high as 30:1 in some cases) translates into a need to rethink and redesign the anchoring system for cables made from FRP materials. Anchors for FRP tendons are required to have at least the same nominal load capacity as the FRP tendons, even though the full capacity of the tendon is typically not utilized in practice (because the tendons are generally stressed well below their tensile failure load during the prestressing operations). The reason for this is that anchors having a smaller capacities than the FRP tendons are inefficient in that they may overstress some fibres (which could cause premature failure of a tendon) and understress others (an inefficient use of material).
Fig. 25. FiBRA (Kevlar) (Mitsui Construction Co.)
Fig. 26. Parafil® Rope and Fittings (Linear Composites Limited)
Existing FRP tendon anchorages have to be designed in such a way that the tensile strength of the FRP is not significantly reduced by anchorage effects when subjected to both static and dynamic actions. This requires limiting the anchoring stresses on the tendon such that failure of the cable will take place outside the anchoring zone. Some of
6
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
the available anchorage systems, shown schematically in Figure 27, include: clamp anchor, plug and cone (or barrel and spike) anchor, resin sleeve anchor, resin potted anchor, metal overlay anchor, and split wedge anchor.
Clamp Anchor In a clamp anchor, the FRP rod is sandwiched between two grooved steel plates, which are held together by bolts. The shearfriction mechanism that transfers the force from the tendon to the anchor is influenced by parameters such as the roughness of the interface surfaces and the lateral clamping force applied by the bolts. The performance of the anchor can be improved by using a sleeve of soft metal such as aluminum or copper to encase the rod and distribute the gripping force. The length of the anchor may vary depending on the sleeve material chosen to insure that the ultimate strength of the rod can be developed.
Plug & Cone Anchor The plug and cone anchor is made of a metallic socket housing and a conical spike (refer to Figure 26). The gripping mechanism is similar to that in a wedge anchor, in that the rope is held by the compressive force applied to the fibres when the plug is inserted into the barrel. This compressive stress generates friction between the rod material and the socket and plug, resulting in a frictional stress that resists the slipping of the rod from the socket.
Resin Sleeve Anchor This anchor system functions by embedding the FRP tendon in a potting material that fills a tubular metallic housing comprising steel or copper. Nonshrink cement grout, with or without sand filler, expansive cement grout, or an epoxy based material may all be used as the potting material. The mechanism of load transfer is by shear and bond at the interface between the rod and the filling material, and between the filling material and the metallic sleeve.
Resin Potted Anchor This type of anchor varies depending on the internal configuration of the socket; which may be straight, linearly tapered, or parabolically tapered. This type of anchor has the same components as the resin sleeve anchorage. The load transfer mechanism from the rod to the sleeve is by interface shear stress, which is influenced by the radial stress produced by the variation of potting material profile.
Metal Overlay Anchor In this system, a metal overlay is added to each end of the tendon by means of diemolding during the manufacturing process. This enables the tendon to be gripped at the locations of the metal material using a typical wedge anchor as would be used for a steel tendon. The use of this system is limited because of the length of the tendon between anchorages must be predefined during the manufacturing process. The load transfer in this anchor is achieved by
shear (friction) stress, which is a function of the compressive radial stress and friction at the contact surfaces.
Split Wedge Anchor The split wedge anchorage, which contains steel wedges in
a steel tube with an inner conical profile and outer
cylindrical surface, has been widely used for anchoring steel prestressing tendons. The number of the wedges within the anchor’s barrel may vary from two to six, depending on the specific system. Increasing the number of wedges induces a contact pressure that is more uniformly distributed around the rod. This type of anchor is comparatively convenient because of its compactness, ease of assembly, reusability, and reliability. The gripping mechanism relies on both friction between the FRP rod and the wedges, as well as the clamping force between the wedges, barrel and tendon.
CFCC Anchoring System
In some cases, combinations of the above noted anchorage
systems may be used in combination. As an example, Figure 28 shows a wedge system used in conjunction with die casting, while Figure 29 shows different anchoring systems used by Tokyo Rope Mfg. Co. for anchoring CFCC cables.
Fig. 28. CFCC system (ElHacha, 1997)
LEADLINE™ Anchoring System Several types of multirod anchorages are available for each size of Leadline™ CFRP rod and tension capacity (refer to Figure 210). In addition, a metallic anchor was developed,
as part of the ISIS Canada research program for 8mm
diameter LEADLINE ^{T}^{M} CFRP prestressing tendons. This stainless steel wedgetype anchorage, requires no new technology for manufacture and is relatively simple to assemble in the field (it is shown in Figure 211).
ARAPREE®, FIBRA, TECHNORA® & PARAFIL® Anchoring System The anchoring systems developed for Arapree® aramid prestressing rods, both flat and round rod types, consist of tapered metal sleeves into which the tendon is either grouted (in posttensioning applications) or clamped between two wedges (refer to Figure 212).
7
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
Conical socket
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Rod
Wedge
Fig. 27. Anchoring Systems (ACI 440.4R, 2004)
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ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
Fig. 29. Various Anchoring Systems for CFCC (Tokyo Rope, 1993)
Fig. 210. Anchoring Systems for CFRP _{L}_{E}_{A}_{D}_{L}_{I}_{N}_{E}_{™} (Mitsubishi Kasei Corporation, 1993)
threaded
barrel
wedges
tendon
with
copper
sleeve
Fig. 211. Calgary Anchor for LEADLINE™ (Sayed Ahmed and Shrive, 1998)
Fig. 212. Wedge Anchor System for Arapree®
FiBRA has two different types of anchoring systems: a resinpotted anchor used for single tendon anchoring, and a wedge anchor for either single or multiple tendon anchoring (shown in Figure 213).
Fig. 213. Anchorage Systems for Fibra (Kevlar 49) (Mitsui Construction Co. Ltd).
Parafil® ropes are anchored by means of a barrel and spike fitting, which grips the fibres between a central tapered spike and an external matching barrel (Figure 26). Because of problems in finding a standard FRP anchorage system, pretensioning rather than posttensioning prestressed systems using FRP have gained increased popularity
9
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
CREEP RUPTURE OF FRP TENDONS
Creeprupture is the failure of a material subjected to a sustained load level less than its shortterm load tensile capacity. FRP tendons used as prestressed reinforcement for concrete members are, their very application as prestressed
reinforcement, subjected to longterm static stresses, and as
a result the longterm tensile strength of the FRP tendons
may be reduced. To assure that FRP tendons do not fail due to creep rupture, the initial prestress in the tendon must be
limited to some prescribed percent of its ultimate shortterm tensile stress. To prevent creeprupture failure, and to have the design life of the tendon exceed 100 years, it has been recommended (Burke and Dolan (2001) that the maximum prestress level should be limited to 60% of the ultimate capacity for carbon tendons, and to 50% of the ultimate capacity for aramid tendons. Glass tendons are used only very rarely, but the stress limits for GFRP tendons are typically lower than either carbon or aramid tendons.
Section 3
Placement, Handling, Construction & Protection
PRECUATIONS
FRP tendons can be damaged due to poor handling and storage, if sharp or heavy objects pierce the surface or crush the bars. Surface defects could lead to lower strength capacity. To avoid damage to FRP tendons, instructions requiring careful handling, storage and placement shall be specified in the work plans. FRP tendons must be protected from damage during transportation, and should be stored in such a way that they are not exposed to rain, excessive heat, or direct sunlight for a prolonged period of time. When placing concrete, care should be taken not to damage the FRP tendons by vibrators, tamping rods, or other placement equipment. Concrete with FRP tendons should typically be moistcured, but should not be heatcured or autoclaved, as this may lead to damage to the polymer resin of the tendons, (CAN/CSA, 2005).
Installation & Prestressing Precautions
Clearly, the tendons must be installed as specified in the
design plans and construction drawings. Inspection should be made frequently to ensure that the tendons have minimal surface damage, kinks, or exposure to adverse environments or chemicals. When installing FRP tendons, care should be taken not
to cause damage by trampling or bending. The cutting of the
tendons should be done using a highspeed cutter. Heating and cutting with the help of gas torches can damage the tendons and should not be used. During restressing of a tendon, the gripping mechanism should not be applied at the same location. Because FRP tendons are brittle and may break suddenly during prestressing, precautions to safeguard against the explosive release of energy stored in these tendons must be considered (CAN/CSA, 2005).
Cover to Reinforcement
According to CAN/CSAS80602 (CAN/CSA, 2002), the minimum clear concrete cover in pretensioned members shall be 3.5 times the diameter of the tendon or 40mm, whichever is greater. If concrete of higher compressive strength than 80MPs is used, the cover may be reduced to 3 times the diameter or 35mm, whichever is greater. According to CAN/CSAS606 (CAN/CSA, 2006), the minimum clear cover shall be 50mm ±10mm for FRP tendons. For pretensioned concrete, the cover and construction tolerance shall not be less than the equivalent diameter of the tendons ±10mm. For posttensioned concrete, the cover shall not be less than onehalf the diameter of the posttensioning duct ±10mm.
End Zone in Prestressed Components
The end zones of pretensioned concrete components are required to be reinforced against splitting, using additional closed stirrups added to the stirrups which are already provided at the ends of a typical prestressed beam. Reinforcement of the anchorage zones of beams post tensioned with FRP tendons should consist of an anchor bearing steel plate provided at both ends of the beam to transfer the prestress force into the concrete beam and to resist high bearing stresses. Spiral reinforcement behind the bearing area should be provided around each tendon to confine the concrete, so as to improve the bearing capacity and resist splitting forces.
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ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
Section 4
Stress Limitations for FRP Tendons
STRESSES AT JACKING & TRANSFER
The maximum permissible stresses in FRP tendons at jacking and transfer for concrete beams and slabs are given in Table 4.1. As previously discussed, the stresses are typically limited to values significantly less than the tensile capacity of the FRP tendon itself.
Table 41. Maximum Permissible Stresses in FRP Tendons at Jacking and Transfer for Concrete Beams and Slabs (CAN/CSAS606, and CAN/CSAS80602)
At Jacking
At Transfer
^{T}^{e}^{n}^{d}^{o}^{n} 
Pretensioned 
Posttensioned 
Pretensioned 
Posttensioned 

AFRP 
0.40f _{f}_{r}_{p}_{u} 
0.40f _{f}_{r}_{p}_{u} 
^{a}^{)} ^{0}^{.}^{3}^{5}^{f} ^{f}^{r}^{p}^{u} 
^{0}^{.}^{3}^{5}^{f} ^{f}^{r}^{p}^{u} 

b) 
0.38f _{f}_{r}_{p}_{u} 

CFRP 
0.70f _{f}_{r}_{p}_{u} 
0.70f _{f}_{r}_{p}_{u} 
^{a}^{)} ^{0}^{.}^{6}^{5}^{f} ^{f}^{r}^{p}^{u} 
^{0}^{.}^{6}^{5}^{f} ^{f}^{r}^{p}^{u} 

b) 
0.60f _{f}_{r}_{p}_{u} 

GFRP ^{†} 
0.30f _{f}_{r}_{p}_{u} 
0.30f _{f}_{r}_{p}_{u} 
0.25f _{f}_{r}_{p}_{u} 
0.25f _{f}_{r}_{p}_{u} 
^{†} only permitted by CAN/CSAS606 (CAN/CSA, 2006)
a) by CAN/CSAS606 b) by CAN/CSAS80602
Correction of Stress for Harped or Draped Tendons
Occasionally, the profile of a pretensioned FRP tendon is altered by harping at the midspan or the third points of a member before casting of the concrete. Because FRP tendons exhibit linear elastic behaviour to failure, draping or harping of tendons results in a loss of tendon strength. Thus, when an FRP tendon is bent, the jacking stresses must be reduced to account for stress increases. The degree of the stress increase is dependent on the radius of curvature of the tendon at the harping point(s), the tendon’s modulus of elasticity, and the crosssectional properties of the tendon. Dolan et al. (2000) proposed that the stress increase due to harping in both solid and stranded tendons can be defined by the following equation:
σ
h
=
E
frp
y
R ch
where
E frp
= Modulus of elasticity of the FRP tendon
(Eq. 4.1)
y = Distance from the centroid to the tensile face of the bent tendon (radius of tendon)
R ch
= Radius of curvature of the harping saddle
Research carried out at the University of Waterloo (Quayle, 2005) indicates that this approach may overestimate the
harping stress, and recommends that the value of R _{c}_{h} in Equation 4.1 be taken as the greater of the radius of curvature of the harping saddle or the natural radius of curvature, R _{n} , of the harped tendon given by:
(Eq. 4.2)
_{θ} = Angle of deviation of tendon at the deviator point
The efficiency of the prestressing tendons can be significantly reduced when this stress is deducted from the permissible stress at jacking. The combined stress in a tendon of crosssectional area, A _{f}_{r}_{p} , at a harping saddle, due to the jacking load, P _{j} ,, is given by:
_{σ} =
P
E
y
frp
j
+
A
frp
R
c.h.
PRESTRESS LOSSES
(Eq. 4.3)
Prestress loss in concrete structures is an important design parameter which must be taken into consideration with FRP materials (as in the case of prestressing with conventional
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
steel prestressing strands). Losses due to initial elastic shortening (ES), concrete creep (CR), and concrete shrinkage (SH), can be computed according to CAN/CSA S606 in the same manner as for beams prestressed with steel tendons (taking into account the typically lower modulus of elasticity of FRP tendons).
Elastic Shortening (ES)
The loss due to elastic shortening (ES), should be calculated as follows. For pretensioned members:
ES =
E
p
E
ci
f
cir
for posttensioned members:
ES =
⎛
⎜
⎝
N − 1 ⎞
⎟
⎠
E
^{p}
2 N
E
ci
f
cir
where
E
p = Modulus of elasticity of tendons
(Eq. 4.4a)
(Eq. 4.4b)
^{N} = Total number of posttensioning tendons
f
cir
= Concrete stress at the level of the tendon
=
P
i
+
P e
i
2
M
d
e
−
A
g
I
g
I
g
(Eq. 4.5)
Creep of Concrete (CR)
Prestress losses due to creep of concrete (CR) may be calculated as follows (using an empirical equation):
CR =
[
1.37
−
(
0.77 0.01
RH
)]
2
K
cr
E
p
E
c
(
f
cir
−
f
cds
)
(Eq. 4.6)
where
_{R}_{H}
is the mean annual relative humidity expressed as
percentage
K
K
f
cr
cr
cds
= 2.0 for pretensioned members
= 1.6 for posttensioned members
= Concrete stress at the centre of gravity of the
tendons due to all dead loads except the dead load present at transfer, the stress being positive when tensile, given by:
f
cds
=
M
sd
e
I
g
(Eq. 4.7)
Note that
f cir
should be taken as positive in Equation 4.6
Shrinkage of Concrete (SH)
Prestress losses due to shrinkage of concrete (SH) may be calculated, again using empiricallyderived equations, as follows. For pretensioned members:
SH = 117 − 1.05RH 
(Eq. 4.8a) 
for posttensioned members: 

SH = 94 − 0.85RH 
(Eq. 4.8b) 
Since the modulus of elasticity of FRP tendons is typically lower than a corresponding steel tendon, losses for prestressed FRP tendons due to elastic shortening, creep,
and shrinkage of concrete will be less than for prestressed
steel tendons.
Relaxation Losses (REL)
According to Rostásy (1988), the losses due to relaxation for carbon FRPs is negligible when the initial stress is equal to 50% of the ultimate tensile stress. However, relaxation losses vary with the fibre type. The relaxation losses in FRP tendons are a combination of three sources, and the total
relaxation loss (as percentage of transfer stress), REL, can
be calculated by assessing these three effects separately.
ACI 440.4R (ACI, 2004) describes these three effects as
follows:
REL = REL + REL + REL
1
2
3
(Eq. 4.9)
Relaxation of Polymer (REL _{1} ) When a tendon is initially stressed, a portion of the load
is carried in the resin matrix. The matrix, which is a
viscoelastic material, relaxes and loses its contribution
to the load carrying capacity. This relaxation is given by
the modular ratio of the resin to the fibre,
volume of fibres in the tendon,
,. The modular ratio
of the resin is defined as the ratio of the elastic modulus
of the resin,
given in Equation 4.5:
, as
, and the
n
r
fibre,
v
f
E
r
, to the modulus of the
E
f
n
r
=
E
r
E
f
(Eq. 4.10)
The volume of fibres in the tendon can be determined
from
fractions of fibre and resin, respectively. The relaxation
v
f
+
v
r
= 1.0
,where
v f
and
v
r
are the volume
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
loss is the product of the volume fraction of resin,
may be used (with t = time in days), expressed as a
v
r
= 1.0 − v
f
, and the modular ratio of the resin,
n
r
, percentage of the transfer stress. For CFRP:
giving:
Relaxation
(%) = 0.231 + 0.345log(t) (Eq. 4.12)
REL = n
1
r
× v
r
(Eq. 4.11)
For AFRP:
Straightening of Fibres (REL _{2} ) The fibres in a pultruded section are nearly but not completely parallel. Therefore, stressed fibres flow through the matrix and straighten, and this straightening appears as a relaxation loss in typical applications. An assumed one to two percent relaxation of the transfer stress is adequate to predict this portion of the relaxation loss calculation.
Relaxation of Fibres (REL _{3} ) Fibre relaxation is dependent upon the fibre type. According to CAN/CSAS80602, in the absence of specific information, the following values of relaxation
Relaxation (%) = 3.38 + 2.88 log(t)
(Eq. 4.13)
Friction Losses (FR)
In assessing friction loss, relevant curvature friction and wobble coefficients must be used, as would typically be used when designing with steel prestressing tendons. Such data are sparse. Burke and Dolan (2001) found that, for a CFRP tendon in a PVC duct, the curvature friction coefficient could range from 0.25 for stickslip behaviour to 0.6 for no stickslip behaviour. Since the wobble coefficient relates primarily to the type of duct, values specified for steel prestressing systems may be applied for this component.
Section 5
Flexural Design
The overall design approach for flexure in concrete beams prestressed with FRP tendons is based on the concept of determining the area of the prestressing tendons required to meet the strength requirements of the section. A prestress level of 40 to 70 percent of the ultimate tensile strength of the tendons can be selected for the initial applied prestress force, and service level of stresses in the concrete are checked on this basis. If the stresses meet the prescribed requirements (discussed below), the flexural design is complete; otherwise, the number or size of the tendons is adjusted to meet serviceability requirements (i.e. stress limits), and the strength capacity is rechecked until an appropriate solution is obtained.
Flexural Service Stresses
Flexural service level stresses, which may be computed using techniques similar to conventional steel prestressed concrete members, should not exceed the stress levels given in Table 5.1. These are the same concrete service stress limits imposed by Canadian codes for steel prestressed concrete. As is the case for steel prestressed concrete, the stresses in the concrete in tension at transfer may be exceeded, provided that bonded reinforcement is added to resist the total tensile force in the concrete.
DESIGN PROCESS
Under the overarching philosophy of Limit States Design (LSD), structures are designed in Canada such that the factored resistance of a given structural member is greater than the effect of the factored loads (NBCC, 2005, Sentence 4.1.3.2(1)). This requirement can be expressed as:
Factored Resistance ≥ Effect of Factored Loads
(Eq. 5.1)
where Factored Resistance is the resistance of a crosssection, including application of the appropriate resistance factors, φ , to the specified material properties. Effect of Factored Loads means the structural effect due to the factored loads and load combinations as specified in CAN/CSAA23.304 (CAN/CSA, 2004) Clause 8.3.2 and 8.3.3 or Sentence 4.1.3.2 of NBCC 2005.
Resistance Factors (φ )
The material resistance factor for concrete in buildings is
given as
= 0.65 for castinplace and precast concrete
strength (CAN/CSAA23.304, clause 8.4.2). For bridges
φ
c
φ
c
= 0.75 in accordance with CAN/CSA S606.
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
, is based
on variability of the material characteristics, the effect of sustained load and the type of fibres. Values of resistance
factors,
, for various types of prestressed FRP
The material resistance factor for FRP,
φ frp
φ frp
reinforcement in buildings, according to CAN/CSAS806 02, are given in Table 5.2. CAN/CSAS606 gives a value for the resistance factor of 0.55 for AFRP, 0.75 for CFRP, and 0.50 for GFRP tendons in bridges, respectively.
Table 51. Allowable Concrete Stresses (CAN/CSAA23.304)
Allowable stresses at transfer of prestress (immediately after prestress transfer due to prestress and the specified load present at transfer, prior losses)
Limits (MPa)
(a) 
Extreme fibre stress in compression 
(b) 
Extreme fibre stress in tension except for (c) 
(c) 
Extreme fibre stress in tension at ends 
Allowable stresses under service or specified loads and prestress (after allowance for all prestress losses)
(a) 
Extreme fibre stress in compression due to prestress plus sustained loads 
(b) 
Extreme fibre stress in compression due to prestress plus total loads 
(c) 
Extreme fibre stress in precompressed tensile zone 
Table 52. Resistance Factors for Prestressed FRP Reinforcement for Buildings (CAN/CSAS80602)
Tendon Type 
Pretensioned 
Posttensioned (bonded) 
Posttensioned (unbonded) 
CFRP 
0.85 
0.85 
0.80 
AFRP 
0.70 
0.70 
0.65 
Assumptions for Flexural Design
The analysis of prestressed concrete beams should be
performed using a simple plane sections, strain compatibility analysis. The main standard assumptions are summarized below:
1. Plane sections before bending remain plane after bending, leading to a linear strain distribution over the
cross section.
2. The concrete is assumed to have a maximum usable compressive strain capacity of 0.0035 at the extreme compression fibre, in accordance with existing prestressed concrete design codes in Canada (CAN/CSA, 2004; CAN/CSA, 2006; CAN/CSA, 2002).
3. After cracking the tensile strength of concrete may be neglected.
4. Flexural deformations are small, and shear deformations are negligible.
5. The stressstrain relationships for the constituent materials are known from experimental tests and theoretical curves.
Two additional assumptions are required specifically for the design of FRP prestressed concrete members:
6. Nominal balanced strain conditions for FRP prestressed members are assumed to exist at a cross section where the tensile FRP reinforcement reaches its ultimate strain, ε _{f}_{r}_{p}_{u} , at the same instant as the concrete in compression reaches its maximum usable strain, ε _{c}_{u} , of
0.0035. At the balanced strain condition, an FRP prestressed member will fail suddenly and with little warning, since the FRP does not yield like conventional steel reinforcement. 7. For all FRP prestressed concrete members, it is permissible to allow rupture of the FRP, provided that the structure as a whole contains supplementary reinforcement designed to carry the unfactored dead loads or has alternative load paths such that the failure of the member does not lead to progressive collapse of the structure (CAN/CSAS606 and CAN/CSAS806
02).
FAILURE MODES & STRENGTH DESIGN
The approach to strength design of an FRP prestressed beam is based on the mode of failure. Three possible failure modes exist (if it is assumed that “premature” failure modes such as anchorage failure do not occur):
• Balanced strain condition  Simultaneous failure by rupture of the FRP tendons in tension and crushing of the concrete in compression at the extreme compression fibre. The balanced failure of FRP prestressed beams is similar to the balanced strain condition used in reinforced concrete design, and defines the point at which the failure mode changes. However, the behaviour is somewhat different than for steel tendons in that the FRP tendons rupture at the balanced point,
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
rather than yield as is the case for steel tendons. This leads to the FRP balanced ratio being an indicator of the failure mode, rather than any measure (or assurance) of ductility.
• Tension failure  Tensile rupture of the FRP tendons occurs before crushing of the concrete, i.e., the strain in the most highly stressed FRP tendon reaches the ultimate tensile strain of the FRP, ε _{f}_{r}_{p}_{u} , while the strain in the concrete at the extreme fibre of the compression zone is less than 0.0035. This type of failure is typically very sudden and occurs when the reinforcement ratio is less than the balanced failure reinforcement ratio.
• Compression failure  Concrete crushing in compression occurs while the FRP tendons have a tensile strain level smaller than their ultimate strain. Compression failure, which occurs when the reinforcement ratio is more than the balanced ratio, is less violent and more desirable than tension failure, and is similar to that of an “overreinforced” concrete beam with internal steel reinforcement. Because the strain at failure for an FRP tendon is greater than the yield strain of a typical steel prestressing tendon, beams prestressed with FRP tendons will generally exhibit larger
deformations prior to compression failure than beams prestressed with steel tendons; therefore, the beams provide warning of failure in the form of large deformations.
Reinforcement Ratio at Balanced Strain Condition
Fig. 51. Stress and Strain Conditions for Balanced Reinforcement Ratio
An FRP reinforcement ratio above the balanced ratio,
results in failure due to concrete crushing, while a reinforcement ratio below the balanced ratio results in failure due to tendon rupture in tension. Using strain compatibility and similar triangles from Figure 51, the depth to the Neutral Axis at the balanced strain condition can be determined from:
ρ
b
where, the strain in the FRP which contributes to flexural
, strength (again, refer to Figure 51) can be determined from:
ε =ε −ε −ε −ε
f
frpu
pe
d
pr
thus, we have:
c
b
ε
cu
=
d ε
cu
+
ε
f
(Eq. 5.13)
c
b
ε
cu
=
d
ε
cu
+
ε
frpu
−
ε
pe
−
ε
d
−
ε
pr
where,
(Eq. 5.14)
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
c
b
d
= Depth neutral axis at balanced condition (mm).
= Effective depth of outermost layer of FRP tendons in
tension (mm).
ε
cu
=
Ultimate strain of concrete in compression (i.e.,
0.0035 in Canada).
ε
frpu
= Ultimate tensile strain of FRP tendons.
ε
pe
= Effective strain in the FRP tendon due to
prestressing. In a typical design,
is known because it is
specified and selected by the designer based upon the level of desired prestress, the type of tendons being used, and the ultimate stress and strain capacity of the tendons provided by the manufacturer.
= Strain used to decompress the precompressed zone,
which can be usually ignored (this is a conservative assumption), because it is a negative value and is an order of magnitude smaller than the other strains.
= Loss of strain capacity due to sustained loads. This
strain loss due to sustained loads is nearly zero, if the sustained load is less than the load corresponding to 50% of the ultimate tensile strain (Dolan et al., 2000), and, thus, can be ignored. This condition is typically satisfied, because the prestress strain is around 50% of the ultimate strain in order to leave some capacity for flexural strain needed for strength requirements.
ε pe
ε
d
ε
pr
Now taking equilibrium of forces in the cross section (Figure 51):
_{T}
_{=} _{C}
(Eq. 5.15)
where,
= α φ
C
T
A
f
1
c
f
c
b
β
1
c
b
frpu
= A φ f
frp b
frp
frp b
= ρ
b
bd
frpu
′
(Eq. 5.15(a))
(Eq. 5.15(b))
(Eq. 5.15(c))
= Ultimate tensile stress of FRP tendons (MPa).
A frp b
E frp
=ε E
frpu
frp
= Area of FRP for balanced conditions (mm ^{2} ).
= Modulus of elasticity of FRP tendons (MPa).
Thus, we have:
′bβ c = ρ bdφ f
α φ f
1
c
c
1
b
b
frp
frpu
(Eq. 5.16)
where
α 1 = Ratio of average concrete strength in the rectangular
compression block to the specified concrete strength, given
by the following (CAN/CSAA23.304, CAN/CSAS606 and CAN/CSAS80602):
α
1
=
0.85 0.0015
−
′≥
f
c
0.67
(Eq. 5.17)
= Factor defined as the ratio of depth of equivalent
rectangular compression stress block to the depth of the neutral axis, given as (CAN/CSAA23.304, CAN/CSAS6 06 and CAN/CSAS80602):
β
1
β
1
=
0.97 0.0025
−
′≥
f
c
0.67
(Eq. 5.18)
b 
= Width of compression face of a member (mm). 
d 
= Effective depth of outermost layer of FRP (mm). 
′ = Compressive strength of concrete (MPa).
f
c
Thus, solving equation 5.16 for the balanced reinforcement ratio gives:
ρ αβ
b
=
1
1
φ
c
f
'
c
c
b
φ
frp
f
frpu
d
(Eq. 5.19)
Substituting the expression for c _{b} /d from Equation 5.14 into Equation 5.19 gives the balanced reinforcement ratio in terms of basic material properties as follows:
φ c f ' 
c ⎛ ⎜ 
ε cu 

1 φ frp 
f frpu ⎜ ⎝ 
ε cu 
+ 
ε 
frpu 
− ε 
pe 
− 
ε d 
− 
ε pr 
ρ αβ
b
=
1
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
(Eq. 5.20)
As explained previously, the strain loss due to sustained
loads,
, can typically
be ignored (Dolan et al., 2000), giving the following
simplified definition for
ε
pr
, and the decompression strain,
ε
d
ρ 
b 
: 

φ c 
f ' c ⎛ ⎜ 
ε 
cu 

1 
φ frp 
f frpu ⎜ ⎝ 
ε cu 
+ 
ε frpu 
− 
ε pe 
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
ρ αβ
b
=
1
(Eq. 5.21)
Equation 5.21 is valid for both flanged and rectangular sections, provided that the depth of the compression block remains within the flange.
Failure Due to Concrete Crushing
, flexural failure will occur by
crushing of the concrete before rupture of the FRP tendons in tension. The stress and strain distributions at ultimate condition for this type of section are shown in Figure 52. In
In a beam which has
ρ > ρ
b
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
this case, the strain in the FRP tendon is not known since
, the strain in the extreme compression fibre of
the concrete is equal to the ultimate compressive strain of
concrete in compression, again
nonlinear concrete stress field in the compression zone is replaced by an equivalent uniform rectangular stress block (as is done for conventional reinforced or prestressed concrete flexural design). The ultimate moment resistance for such an overreinforced section is determined as follows. The compressive force in the concrete is calculated as:
the
ε
frp
< ε
frpu
ε cu
= 0.0035
,
and
C
= α φ ′ β
1
c
f
c
1
cb
(Eq. 5.22)
and the tensile force in the FRP tendon at failure is:
T = A
frp
φ
frp
f
frp
(Eq. 5.23)
where,
c
= Depth of neutral axis (mm).
φ
c
A
frp
= Material resistance factor for concrete.
(mm
=
Area of FRP _{(} _{A}
frp
= ρ
frp
_{b}_{d} _{)}
^{2} ).
φ
frp
= Material resistance factor of FRP.
f
frp
= Stress in FRP tendon at failure, which is smaller
The strain in the FRP tendon,
prestrain,
known:
ε
p
, is equal to the effective
, which is not
ε pe
, plus the flexural strain,
ε
f
ε
p
=
ε + ε
f
pe
(Eq. 5.25)
Thus, Equation 5.24 can be rewritten as follows:
ε
c cu
d
ε
cu
+
−
ε
pe
=
(
ε
p
)
(Eq. 5.26)
Substituting the neutral axis depth from Equation 5.26 into Equation 5.22, and satisfying equilibrium of forces on the cross section, by equating Equation 5.22 to Equation 5.23, gives a quadratic equation in terms of the stress in the FRP
tendon at failure
. An iterative process may be adopted
in solving this quadratic equation. In each iteration, for an assumed depth of neutral axis the strain in the FRP tendon
) is calculated from Equation 5.26, the internal forces in
the concrete and the FRP tendon are calculated using Equations 5.22 and 5.23, and their equilibrium is checked:
f frp
(
ε
p
αφ f ′β cb = A φ ε E
1
c
c
1
frp
frp
p
frp
(Eq. 5.27)
than the ultimate tensile strength of the FRP tendon (MPa).
From strain compatibility in the cross section (Figure 52):
c
ε cu
=
d
ε
cu
+
ε
f
(Eq. 5.24)
If equilibrium is not satisfied, a new value of depth of neutral axis is chosen and the compressive force in the concrete and the tensile force in the FRP tendon are recalculated. When equilibrium of internal forces is satisfied (i.e., T = C ), the moment resistance can be calculated as:
(Eq. 5.28)
Fig. 52. Strain and Stress Distribution at Ultimate for Concrete Crushing Failure Mode
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
Failure Due to Tendon Rupture
will fail by rupture of the FRP
tendons before crushing of the concrete. In this case, the strain in the FRP tendons reaches their ultimate tensile
, before the strain in the concrete in the extreme
A beam which has
ρ≤ρ
b
strain,
ε
frpu
compressive fibre reaches its ultimate value. The strain in the FRP tendon at failure is thus given by:
ε
frpu
f frpu
_{=}
E
frp
(Eq. 5.29)
Because the corresponding strain in the concrete at the extreme compression fibre is less than the ultimate strain, the traditional rectangular stress block, and the stress block
, cannot be used to idealize the
distribution of concrete stress in the compressive zone. However, Tables 5.6, 5.7 and 5.8 provide stress block factors α and β for the stress blocks at extreme fibre concrete compressive strains of less than ultimate, and are given in Tables 5.6, 5.7 and 5.8 for different ratios of
factors
α
1
and
β
1
ε ε
c'
and different concrete compressive strengths.
Using these tables and an iterative process assuming strain compatibility and force equilibrium, the flexural strength can be determined. The process begins by specifying the strain in the FRP tendon equal to the ultimate
, and assuming a value of the depth of
neutral axis, c . The strain in the extreme compression
, is then calculated using strain
compatibility from similar of triangles (refer to Figure 53),
concrete
tensile strain,
ε frpu
ε
c
fibre,
assuming
strain of concrete in compression,
force in the concrete can be calculated as:
ε
d
= 0
; this value must be less than the ultimate
. The compressive
ε
cu
C
= α φ ′ β
c
f
c
cb
(Eq. 5.30)
The tensile force in the FRP tendon at failure is subsequently calculated as:
_{T} _{=} _{A} _{φ} _{ε} _{E}
frp
frp
frpu
frp
(Eq. 5.31)
And equilibrium of forces requires that _{C} _{=} _{T} , hence:
αφ f ′β cb = A φ ε E
c
c
frp
frp
frpu
frp
If equilibrium is not satisfied, another iteration is made using a new value of depth of neutral axis, _{c} , while the strain in the FRP tendon is kept equal to the ultimate tensile
strain,
. When equilibrium of internal forces is
satisfied, the moment of resistance of the section can be found by taking moments about the resultant of the compressive stresses in concrete, _{C} , giving the following equation for flexural capacity:
ε frpu
M
r
=
⎛
T ⎜ d
⎝
^{−}
c ⎞
⎟
⎠
β
2
(Eq. 5.32)
Fig. 53. Strain and Stress Distributions at Ultimate for Rupture of FRP
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
Table 56. Stress Block Factors α and β for 20 to 30 MPa Concrete (ISIS,
2001a)
c
ε ε 
f 
′ =20 MPa c 
f 
′ =25 MPa c 
f 
′ =30 MPa c 

o 
α 
β 
αβ 
α 
β 
αβ 
α 
β 
αβ 

0.1 
0.184 
0.602 
0.111 
0.163 
0.600 
0.098 
0.150 
0.600 
0.090 

0.2 
0.325 
0.639 
0.208 
0.293 
0.636 
0.186 
0.271 
0.634 
0.172 

0.3 
0.455 
0.657 
0.299 
0.418 
0.650 
0.272 
0.390 
0.647 
0.252 

0.4 
0.569 
0.672 
0.382 
0.533 
0.661 
0.353 
0.503 
0.656 
0.330 

0.5 
0.666 
0.686 
0.457 
0.636 
0.672 
0.428 
0.609 
0.664 
0.404 

0.6 
0.746 
0.700 
0.522 
0.724 
0.684 
0.495 
0.702 
0.674 
0.473 

0.7 
0.810 
0.714 
0.578 
0.796 
0.697 
0.555 
0.781 
0.685 
0.535 

0.8 
0.860 
0.728 
0.626 
0.853 
0.711 
0.606 
0.844 
0.698 
0.589 

0.9 
0.897 
0.743 
0.666 
0.894 
0.726 
0.649 
0.890 
0.713 
0.635 

1.0 
0.923 
0.757 
0.699 
0.923 
0.742 
0.685 
0.921 
0.729 
0.671 

1.1 
0.941 
0.772 
0.726 
0.940 
0.758 
0.713 
0.938 
0.747 
0.700 

1.2 
0.952 
0.786 
0.748 
0.948 
0.775 
0.734 
0.942 
0.766 
0.722 

1.3 
0.958 
0.800 
0.766 
0.949 
0.791 
0.751 
0.938 
0.785 
0.736 

1.4 
0.959 
0.813 
0.780 
0.943 
0.808 
0.762 
0.926 
0.805 
0.745 

1.5 
0.956 
0.827 
0.791 
0.934 
0.825 
0.770 
0.909 
0.825 
0.750 

1.6 
0.951 
0.840 
0.798 
0.921 
0.841 
0.774 
0.887 
0.846 
0.750 

1.7 
0.944 
0.852 
0.804 
0.905 
0.857 
0.776 
0.864 
0.866 
0.748 

1.8 
0.935 
0.864 
0.807 
0.888 
0.873 
0.775 
0.839 
0.885 
0.743 

1.9 
0.924 
0.876 
0.809 
0.870 
0.888 
0.773 
0.813 
0.905 
0.736 

2.0 
0.913 
0.887 
0.810 
0.851 
0.903 
0.769 
0.787 
0.924 
0.727 
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
Table 57. Stress Block Factors α and β for 35 to 45 MPa Concrete (ISIS, 2001a)
c
ε ε 
f 
′ =35 MPa c 
f 
′ =40 MPa c 
f c 
′ =45 MPa 

o 
α 
β 
αβ 
α 
β 
αβ 
α 
β 
αβ 

0.1 
0.141 
0.600 
0.085 
0.134 
0.600 
0.080 
0.129 
0.600 
0.077 

0.2 
0.255 
0.634 
0.161 
0.243 
0.633 
0.154 
0.23 
0.633 
0.148 

0.3 
0.368 
0.645 
0.238 
0.352 
0.645 
0.227 
0.339 
0.645 
0.218 

0.4 
0.479 
0.653 
0.313 
0.459 
0.651 
0.299 
0.443 
0.651 
0.288 

0.5 
0.584 
0.660 
0.385 
0.564 
0.657 
0.370 
0.546 
0.655 
0.358 

0.6 
0.681 
0.667 
0.454 
0.662 
0.663 
0.438 
0.644 
0.660 
0.425 

0.7 
0.765 
0.676 
0.518 
0.750 
0.670 
0.503 
0.735 
0.666 
0.489 

0.8 
0.834 
0.688 
0.574 
0.823 
0.680 
0.560 
0.812 
0.675 
0.548 

0.9 
0.885 
0.702 
0.621 
0.879 
0.694 
0.610 
0.872 
0.687 
0.599 

1.0 
0.918 
0.719 
0.660 
0.915 
0.710 
0.650 
0.911 
0.703 
0.641 

1.1 
0.934 
0.738 
0.689 
0.931 
0.730 
0.679 
0.926 
0.724 
0.671 

1.2 
0.936 
0.759 
0.710 
0.929 
0.753 
0.699 
0.920 
0.749 
0.689 

1.3 
0.926 
0.781 
0.723 
0.912 
0.778 
0.710 
0.898 
0.777 
0.697 

1.4 
0.907 
0.804 
0.729 
0.885 
0.805 
0.713 
0.863 
0.808 
0.697 

1.5 
0.881 
0.828 
0.730 
0.852 
0.833 
0.710 
0.821 
0.840 
0.690 

1.6 
0.852 
0.853 
0.726 
0.814 
0.862 
0.702 
0.776 
0.874 
0.678 

1.7 
0.820 
0.877 
0.719 
0.775 
0.891 
0.691 
0.730 
0.907 
0.662 

1.8 
0.788 
0.901 
0.710 
0.736 
0.920 
0.677 
0.686 
0.940 
0.645 

1.9 
0.755 
0.925 
0.699 
0.698 
0.948 
0.662 
0.643 
0.973 
0.626 

2.0 
0.723 
0.948 
0.686 
0.662 
0.976 
0.646 
0.604 
1.005 
0.607 
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 10: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP
Table 58. Stress Block Factors α and β for 50 to 60 MPa Concrete (ISIS, 2001a)
c
ε ε 
f ′ =50 MPa c 
f ′ =55 MPa c 
f ′ =60 MPa c 

o 
α 
β 
αβ 
α 
β 
αβ 
α 
β 
αβ 

0.1 
0.125 
0.600 
0.075 
0.122 
0.600 
0.073 
0.119 
0.600 
0.071 

0.2 
0.226 
0.633 
0.143 
0.220 
0.633 
0.141 
0.216 
0.633 
0.136 

0.3 
0.328 
0.644 
0.211 
0.320 
0.644 
0.206 
0.313 
0.644 
0.202 

0.4 
0.430 
0.650 
0.280 
0.419 
0.650 
0.272 
0.410 
0.650 
0.266 

0.5 
0.531 
0.654 
0.347 
0.518 
0.654 
0.339 
0.507 
0.654 
0.331 

0.6 
0.629 
0.658 
0.414 
0.615 
0.657 
0.404 
0.603 
0.656 
0.396 

0.7 
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