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NATO i Afganistan

Obiectivul principal al NATO n Afganistan este de a mputernici capabilitile autoritilor afgane pentru a oferi securitate de efect pe teritoriul rii i de a asigura c ara nu va mai putea fi niciodat un azil pentru teroriti. nc din august 2003, Forele Internaionale de Asisten a Securitii conduse de NATO au desfurat operaiuni de securitate i n acelai timp au antrenat i dezvoltat Forele Naionale Afgane de Securitate. nceput nc din 2011, tranziia la responsabilitatea total n privina securitii Afgane se va ncheia la sfritul anului 2014, cnd misiunea Forelor Internaionale de Asisten a Securitii va lua sfrit. NATO va mai conduce apoi o misiune prin care vor continua dezvoltarea Forelor Afgane de Asisten a Securitii. O cooperare mai larg ntre NATO i Afganistan va continua prin nelegerea Parteneriatului Durabil semnat n 2010 la summit-ul de la Lisabona.

Forele Internaionale de Asisten a Securitii (FIAS)


nc din 2001 de cnd FIAS au fost desfurate iniial sub conducerea individual a aliailor NATO pe o durat de ase luni fiecare misiunea lor a fost s asiste guvernul Afgan n meninerea securitii n Kabul i n mprejurimile acestuia. NATO a acceptat comanda n augus t 2003, iar Consiliul de Securitate al ONU a mrit gradual operaiunile FIAS pentru a acoperi toat ara pn n octombrie 2006. Din iulie 2012, cinczeci de ri contribuie cu trupe pentru aceast misiune. Ele includ 22 de naiuni partenere non-NATO de pe tot globul, ce lucreaz laolalt cu cei 28 aliai NATO. Ca parte a efortului comunitii internaionale, FIAS lucreaz pentru a crea condiii prin care s ajute guvernul Afgan s-i exercite autoritatea n ar. Pentru a-i atinge acest scop, FIAS conduce operaiuni de seuritate pentru a proteja poporul Afgan, pentru a neutraliza reele insurgente i pentru a nega sanctuar extremitilor din Afganistan. FIAS de asemenea antreneaz, sftuiete i asist forele naionale Afgane de securitate, pentru ca mai trziu s poat lua asupra lor responsabilitile securitii. Prioritile FIAS Pentru a ajuta guvernul Afgan, FIAS conduc operaiuni n Afganistan pentru a reduce capabilitatea i voina insurgenilor, pentru a ajuta creterea att n privina capacitii ct i a capabilitii Forelor Naionale de Securitate Afgane (FNSA) i de asemenea pentru a facilita mbuntirile n guvernan i dezvoltare socio-economic cu scopul de a oferi un mediu sigur pentru creterea stabilitii. Pentru a-i ndeplini misiunea, FIAS efectueaz operaiuni de contrainsurgem centrate pe populaie n parteneriat cu FNSA. Aceste operaiuni vor s protejeze populaia de violen, coerciie, intimidare, n timp ce neutralizeaz reele insurgente, degradndu-le capanilitatea i negnd extremitilor sanctuar n Afganistan.

De asemenea FIAS ofer suport guvernului i comunitii internaionale n reforma sectorului de securitate, incluznd nvarea, antrenarea i oferirea de suport operaional Armatei Naionale Afgane (ANA) i Poliei Naionale Afgane (PNA). Scopul lor este de a construi fore ale ANA i PNA profesionale i independente, ce vor fi capabile s ofere securitate i ntrire a legii poporului Afgan n toat ara. Aceast misiune este efectuat n comun de ctre M isiunea NATO de Antrenament-Afganistan (MNA-A) i de Comanda Comun a FIAS (CCF), mpreun cu Misiunea European de Poliie n Afganistan (EUPOL) i Fora European de Jandarmerie (FEJ). MNA-A se axeaz pe antrenarea recruilor i a capabilitilor de antrenament instituionale ale FNAS n timp ce FEJ este responsabil pentru dezvoltarea trupelor staionate FNAS prin sfaturi i asisten. De asemenea FIAS mai contribuie i la reconstruiarea i dezvoltarea n Afganistan prin Echipele Provinciale de Reconstrucie (EPR), securiznd zone n care munca de reconstrucie este condus de ctre actori internaionali i naionali. Unde trebuie i n strns coordonare i cooperarea cu guvernul Afgan i Misiunea de Asisten a Naiunilor Unite n Afganistan (MANUA) FIAS au oferit suport pentru reconstruirea i dezvoltarea eforturilor precum i suport pentru eforturile asistenei umanitare conduse de ali actori. Prin EPR, FIAS ajut i atoritile Afgane s i ntreasc instituiile necesare pentru a stabili o bun guvernan i o respectare a legii, precum i s promoveze drepturile omului. Rolul principal al EPR este de a susine creterea structurilor de guvernmnt i s promoveze un mediu n care guvernana poate s fie mbuntit. Evouluia Misiunii FIAS Tranziia la conducerea Afgan a securitii a nceput n iulie 2011 i continu i acum. FNAS sunt ntr-o continu cretere i mbuntire a capacitii de a ntri securitatea. Ca rezultat la aceast schimbare rolul FIAS s-a schimbat dintr-unul de conducere a operaiunilor ntr-unul de ghidare a forele Afgane de securitate n a demara operaiuni independente. De aici se nelege c rolul FIAS a evoluat de la cel focusarea doar pe lupt la cel de For de Asisten a Securitii , care este centrat doar pe antrenament, sftuire i asistare a partenerilor si Afgani. Scopul acestei evoluii este de a asigura c FIAS continu s susin dezvoltarea eficienei operaionale a FNAS, pentru ca acetia s i poat asuma n totalitate responsabilitatea asupra securitii prin completarea tranziiei la rspunderea total asupra securitii Afgane la sfritul lui 2014. Prin faptul c ncet dar sigur FNAS vor ajunge s ndeplineasc acest scop, trupele FIAS vor putea s ias din peisaj i vor putea ncepe s se rentoarc n rile natale. Aceast retragere

nu va avea loc instant ci se va face n msur ce FNAS vor prealua mai mult controlul asupra securitii. Un scop important va fi atins n acest an cnd ultimul dintre traneele de tranziie vor fi anunate i FNAS i vor asuma responsabilitatea total asupra ntregii ri. Acum FIAS se vor fi retraas aproape n totalitate, rmnnd totui cteva echipe de logistic militar. Acesta este unul dintre cei mai importani pai n tranziia ctre responsabilitatea total asupra securitii Afgane pn la sfritul anului 2014. Totodat, la Summit-ul din Chicago din mai 2012 s-a propus c dup 2014 NATO va conduce o nou misiune cu scopul de a antrena, a asista i a sftui FNAS. Istoria FIAS Originea FIAS FIAS a fost creat n concordan cu Conferina Bonn din decembrie 2001. Liderii opoziiei Afgane ce au fost prezeni la conferin au nceput procesul de reconstrucie a rii lor prin crearea unei noi structuri de guvernmnt sub numele de Autoritatea Tranziional Afgan. Tot n aceast conferin a fost propus i conceptul unei fore internaionale sub mandat ONU pentru a asista noua structur de guvernmnt i de asemenea de a crea un mediu sigur n Kabul i n mprejurimile acestuia. Aceste nelegeri au creat un triplu parteneriat ntre Autoritatea Tranziional Afgan, Misiunea de Asisten a ONU n Afganistan i FIAS. NATO preia conducerea FIAS n august 2003 NATO i-a asumat conducerea asupra operaiunilor FIAS, ncheind astfel ciclul celor ase luni de conducere a rilor alate i non-NATO/ Aliana a devenit responsabil pentru comanda, coordonarea i planificarea forelor, incluznd de asemenea i numirea unui comandant al forelor precum i un sediu n Afganistan. Noua conducere a depit problema unei continue cutri n vederea prelurii responsabilitii asupra FIAS depindu-se astfel dezavantajul de a crea odat la ase luni un nou mediu de lucru de ctre cei ce urmau a prelua conducerea. Expansiunea FIAS n Afganistan Iniial mandatul FIAS a fost limitat la oferirea de securitate n Kabul ct i mprejurul acestuia. n octombrie 2003 , ONU a extins mandatul FIAS pentru a acoperi tot Afganistanul.
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Stadiul 1: spre nord

n decembrie 2003 Consiliul Atlanticului de Nord a autorizat Comandantul Suprem al Aliailor, generalul James Jones, s iniieze expansiunea FIAS prin luarea controlului asupra Echipelor Provinciale de Reconstrucie (EPR) ce erau sub conducere german n Kunduz.

Celelalte opt EPR ce operau n Afganistan n 2003 au rmas sub comanda Operaiunii Enduring Freedom, operaiune ce era nc n desfurare n Afganistan i era condus de ctre SUA. Un prim pas spre expansiunea FIAS a avut loc n decembrie 2003 cnd componena militar a EPR din Kunduz a fost plasat sub comanda FIAS. Un al doilea pas a avut loc pe 28 iunie 2004 cnd la ntlnirea capilor NATO de stat i guvern din Istambul, NATO a anunat c va crea nc patru EPR n nordul rii. (Mazar-e-Sharif, Meymana, Feyzabad i Baghlan) Aceast prima faz a luat sfrit pe 1 octombrie 2004, astfel aria n care FIAS putea conduce operaiuni ajungea undeva pe la 3,600 de kilometri ptrai n nordul rii i de asemenea ei i-au putut extinde influena i asupra altor nou provincii din nordul ndeprtat al rii.
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Stadiul 2: spre vest

Pe 10 februarie 2005, NATO a anunat c operaiunile FIAS se vor extinde n vestul Afganistanului. Acest process a ncput pe 31 mai 2006, cnd FIAS i-au nsuit comanda asupra a nc dou EPR n provinciile Herat i Farah. La nceputul lui septembrie, nc dou EPR conduse de FIAS n vestul Afganistanului au devenit operaionale, una n Chaghcharan, capitala provinciei Ghor, i una n Qala-e-Naw, capitala provinciei Badghis, completnd astfel expansiunea FIAS spre vest. FIAS a ajuns s conduc un total de nou echipe EPR n nordul i vestul Afganistanului, oferind astfel asisten n materie de securitate la peste 50% din teritoriul rii. Aliana a continuat s fac pregtiri pentru expansiunea n continuare a FIAS spre sudul teritoriului. La 18 septembrie 2005 aliana a trimis nc 2000 de trupe n Afganistan pentru a susine alegerile parlamentare i provinciale.
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Stadiul 3: spre sud

La 8 decembrie 2005, ntlnindu-se la Sediul Central NATO din Brussels, Minitri de Externe Aliai au susinut un plan ce a pavat calea extinderii rolului i prezenei n Afganistan. Primul element al acestui plan a fost extinderea prezenei FIAS spre sud n 2006, cunoscut i sub numele de stadiul al 3-lea. Aceasta a fost implementat pe 31 iulie 2006, cnd FIAS a preluat comanda asupra regiunii din sud a Afganistanului de la forele de Coaliie
On 8 December 2005, meeting at NATO Headquarters in Brussels, the Allied Foreign Ministers endorsed a plan that paved the way for an expanded ISAF role and presence in Afghanistan. The first element of this plan was the expansion of ISAF to the south in 2006, also known as Stage 3.

This was implemented on 31 July 2006, when ISAF assumed command of the southern region of Afghanistan from US-led Coalition forces, expanding its area of operations to cover an additional six provinces Daikundi, Helmand, Kandahar, Nimroz, Uruzgan and Zabul and taking on command of four additional PRTs. The expanded ISAF led a total of 13 PRTs in the north, west and south, covering some three-quarters of Afghanistans territory. The number of ISAF forces in the country also increased significantly, from about 10,000 prior to the expansion to about 20,000 after.

Stage 4: ISAF expands to the east, takes responsibility for entire country

On 5 October 2006, ISAF implemented the final stage of its expansion, by taking on command of the international military forces in eastern Afghanistan from the US-led Coalition. In addition to expanding the Alliances area of operations, the revised operational plan also paved the way for a greater ISAF role in the country. This includes the deployment of ISAF training and mentoring teams to Afghan National Army units at various levels of command.

The transition to Afghan lead for security and beyond

By the end of 2014, Afghan National Security Forces are expected to assume full security responsibility for their people and country, and ISAFs mission will end. The process of transition to full Afghan security responsibility known as Inteqal in Dari and Pashtu was launched in 2011 and is well underway. With the announcement of the fourth set of areas to enter the transition process in December 2012, some 87 percent of the population will soon live in areas under Afghan security lead. Increasing ANSF capacity and leadership allows the ISAF mission to evolve, shifting progressively from a combat-centric role to a more enabling role focusing on training, advising and assisting the Afghan national security forces to ensure that they are able to assume their full security responsibilities by the end of transition. In full coordination with the Afghan authorities, ISAF will gradually and responsibly draw down its forces as progress on transition is made, until the scheduled completion of transition at the end of 2014. (More on Transition) NATOs commitment to Afghanistan stands firm and will remain beyond transition. At NATOs summit in Chicago in May 2012, Allies agreed to a follow-on NATO-led mission to continue to support the development of the Afghan security forces post-2014. This mission will not be a combat mission but will be a mission to provide training, advice and assistance. The broad

political framework for the new mission was endorsed in October 2012, at a meeting of NATO defence ministers with counterparts from ISAF troop-contributing nations. A more detailed outline for the post-2014 mission will be completed in 2013. At the Chicago Summit, Allied leaders also discussed how best to continue to support the Afghan security forces after 2014. The responsibility to contribute to the financing of this effort is one for the international community as a whole. NATO will participate in that process, under terms which are yet to be finalised. The issue was also high on the agenda of the July 2012 Tokyo Conference on Afghanistan (Tokyo declaration), which aimed to pave the way for the sustainable development of Afghanistan, taking into account the situation after 2014. The Tokyo Conference also noted the areas in which the Afghan government must continue to make progress. At the conference, the Afghan government undertook to pursue the commitments and values set out in the countrys constitution, concerning democracy, the rule of law and good governance, including fighting corruption and promoting human rights (Tokyo Annex on mutual accountability). Wider cooperation between NATO and Afghanistan will also continue beyond 2014 under the Enduring Partnership an agreement signed at NATOs Lisbon Summit in 2010 (see below).

Building the capacity of Afghan National Security Forces Developing professional, capable and self-sustaining Afghan National Security Forces is at the centre of ISAFs efforts and the core mission of the NATO Training Mission in Afghanistan (NTM-A). This enables implementation of the transition process until end 2014 and will also guide NATOs commitment to Afghanistan over the long term. Since its creation in 2002, the Afghan National Army (ANA) has been moving from an infantrycentric force to a fully-fledged army to comprise both fighting elements and enabling capabilities - such as military police, intelligence, route clearance, combat support, medical, aviation, and logistics The role of the Afghan National Police (ANP) is shifting from countering the insurgency to a more civilian policing role, by further developing capabilities from criminal investigations to traffic control. Meanwhile the Afghan Air Force now has over 150 trained pilots and 96 aircraft, including gunship, attack and transport helicopters and light aircraft. The ANSF met their October 2012 goal of recruiting a force of approximately 352,000 soldiers, airmen, and police. NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan Established on 21 November 2009, the NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan (NTM-A) brings together NATO and national training efforts under one umbrella. It works in close partnership

with the Afghan Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Interior, as well as in collaboration with the European Police Mission in Afghanistan (EUPOL) and the European Gendarmerie Force (EGF). Currently, 38 nations contribute to NTM-A. NTM-As key tasks include the provision of training and mentoring to the Afghan national security forces, support the ANAs institutional training base, and the ANP reform at the district level and below. It also aims at addressing the ANA enabling capability shortfalls (including close air support, medical evacuation, intelligence) through train the trainer programmes. The launch of NTM-A was made hand in hand with the establishment of the ISAFs Joint Command (IJC), which is focused on operations. While NTM-A focuses on training the initial recruits and building the institutional training capability of the Afghan national security forces, development of the Afghan army and police continues in the field. The IJC is responsible for developing fielded ANSF units through advising and assisting, with ISAF forces gradually taking on more of an enabling Security Force Assistance role.

At the NATO Lisbon Summit in November 2010, NATO and Afghanistan reaffirmed their longterm ties with the signing of a Declaration on Enduring Partnership. The document, which marks NATOs continued commitment to Afghanistan, provides a political framework for future enhanced cooperation, particularly in the field of Afghan National Security Forces capacitybuilding and security sector reform. The initial set of Enduring Partnership activities, agreed by foreign ministers in April 2011, brings together a number of previously separate initiatives. Over time, the Enduring Partnership will evolve to reflect the changing nature of NATOs mission and its relationship with Afghanistan. Cooperation within the framework of the Enduring Partnership currently includes:
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capacity building efforts, such as professional military education programmes; courses to promote the fight against corruption and good governance initiatives, including under the Building Integrity programme; assisting the Afghan civil aviation sector in meeting international standards; an Afghan First policy to identify Afghan companies eligible for ISAF contracts; the SILK-Afghanistan project which provides affordable, high-speed Internet access via satellite and fiber optics to Afghan universities and governmental institutions in Kabul; training in civil emergency planning and disaster preparedness; and public diplomacy efforts to promote a better understanding of NATO and its role in Afghanistan.

Working with partners

Addressing the Afghanistans challenges requires a comprehensive approach, involving civilian and military actors, aimed not only at providing security but also at promoting good governance, the rule of law and long-term development. The Alliance acts in a supporting role to the Afghan government and works in close coordination with other international partners, including the United Nations Assistance Mission to Afghanistan, the World Bank, the European Union and the development community.

The Alliance also works closely with many non-member countries to help secure Afghanistans future. Currently, ISAF troop contributors include 22 partners from as far afield as Australia and Latin America. Altogether, they represent almost a quarter of all the member countries of the United Nations, underlining the broad international support for ISAFs mission. For many years, Australia has been the top non-NATO troop-contributing nation. Georgia currently the second largest partner troop contributor is likely to become the largest, following planned deployments in autumn 2012.

Beyond troop contributors, many partners are supporting ISAFs mission and the international communitys objectives in Afghanistan in other ways, such as through overflight and transit rights, or through financial support for building the capacity of the Afghan National Security Forces and for development projects. Examples of this important support are given below.

Cooperation with countries in the region

Countries in the region, particularly Pakistan, have important roles in ensuring enduring peace, stability and security in Afghanistan. They share a common interest in reducing the threat of extremism, promoting regional security, and addressing the problem of drug trafficking. NATO shares the same interests and concerns. One of the main NATO supply routes into and out of Afghanistan passes south through Pakistan. And NATOs Central Asian partners Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have all provided some form of support to ISAF, including over-flight rights and the leasing of military bases to individual Allies. Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan (along with Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine) have provided rail networks through which non-lethal supplies can be transported to and from Afghanistan along a northern route.

NATO-Russia cooperation

NATO and Russia have a common interest in stabilizing Afghanistan and the broader region. Several initiatives are underway to help stabilize the country. One NRC project is assisting the Afghan Armed Forces to operate and maintain their helicopter fleet, as transition to Afghan security lead takes hold. Training of Afghan army helicopter maintenance staff on Russian territory began in April 2012. Under another successful NRC project, some 2000 Afghan, Central Asian and Pakistani counter-narcotics personnel have been trained to date, helping to develop regional capacity against the threat of drug trafficking.

Since 2008, Russia has facilitated the transit of non-military equipment for ISAF contributors across Russian territory in support of the ISAF mission. NATO-Russia transit arrangements proved critical to the development of the northern supply route to Afghanistan, linking rail transportation between Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. Initially set for non-lethal equipment originating from NATO member states, the arrangement was extended to the nonNATO troop contributing nations, including reverse transit, at the NATO Lisbon Summit in November 2010. The current arrangement allows cargoes to travel by rail both to and from Afghanistan. At the Chicago Summit in May 2012, Allied leaders welcomed the progress on developing arrangements with Central Asian partners and Russia, which will allow multi-modal reverse transit, using a mix of rail and air transit for ISAF equipment through Russian territory.

Cooperation with Japan

While not a troop contributor, Japan is involved in a range of projects that enhance ISAFs capabilities. By May 2011, Japan had given $2.49 billion worth of assistance to Afghanistan, in addition to providing more than 100 Japanese aid workers. In particular, Japan has provided financial support to human security projects in numerous regions of Afghanistan since 2007, in coordination with ISAF. Japan maintains a direct presence in the office of the NATO Senior Civilian Representative in Afghanistan to help coordinate the $20 million worth of funding through Japans Grassroots Grant Assistance Projects. Additionally, Japan has made generous contributions to a Partnership Trust Fund project in Afghanistan with a view to enhancing stockpile management and physical security of ammunitions and has also made valuable

contributions to the ANA Trust Fund aimed at equipping and sustaining the Afghan National Army, including $20 million for literacy programmes in February 2012, in addition to procuring medical supplies.