Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Proceedings Engineering, of July OMAE99, 1116, 1999 18 ^{t}^{h} International Conference
On Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering
Proceedings of OMAE99, 18
th
International Conference
July On 11–16, Offshore 1999, Mechanics St. Johns, and Newfoundland, Arctic Engineering Canada
July 11–16, 1999, St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada
OMAE99/PIPE5037
OMAE99/
BENDING
MOMENT
CAPACITY
OF PIPES
Snrren Hauch and Yong Bai” JP Kenny A/S, *) Stavanger University
Stavanger,
Norway
College
ABSTRQCT
In most modem pipeline design, the required minimum wall
thickness is determined basedon stressunder design pressure.This
come up with an initial wall thickness design under the assumptionthat pressurewill be the governing load. A pipeline may though be subjectedto additional loads due to installation, seabed contours and highpressure/hightemperatureoperating conditions for which the bending moment capacity often will be the limiting parameter. If inplace analyses predict that the maximum allowable moment to a pipeline will be exceeded,it will be necessaryto either increasethe wall thicknessor, as more normal, to perform seabedintervention to reducethe bending of thepipe.
the maximum allowable hoop has shown an efficient way to
In this paperthe bending momentcapacity for metallic pipes has
been investigated with
effectiveness in
compromisingthe safety to the pipe. ‘Ihe focus has been on how to accountfor the interaction betweenpressure,longitudinal force and bending in the bending moment capacity calculations. The
study is basedon an analytical approachand the solution hasbeen comparedagainstresultsobtainedfrom finite elementanalyses.
the intention
to
optimise the cost
design
without
the
seabed intervention
The result of the study is a set of equations for calculating the maximum allowable bending moment including proposedsafety factorsfor different target safetylevels. The maximum allowable moment is given as a function of initial outofroundness,
longitudinal
equationscan be used for materialswith isotropic as well as an isotropic stress/straincharacteristicsin the longitudinal and hoop direction. The analytical approachgiven herein may also be used for risers and pipes in structuresif the failure criteria and safety factorsareredefined.
force and internal/external overpressure. The
Keywords: Local buckling, Collapse,Capacity,Bending, Pressure,Longitudinal force,Metallic pipelines andrisers.
NOMENCLATURE
A 
Area 
D 
Averagediameter 
E 
Young’smodulus 
F 
True longitudinal force 
FI 
Limit true longitudinal force 
fo 
Initial outofroundness 
M 
Moment 
MC 
Momentcapacity 
P 
Pressure 
PC 
Characteristic collapsepressure 
Pe 
Externalpressure 
Per 
Elastic bucklingpressure 
Pi 
Internal pressure 
Pt 
Limit pressure 
PP 
Plastic bucklingpressure 
PY 
Yieldpressure 
r 
Averagepipe radius 
SMTS 
SpecifiedMinimum TensileStrength 
SMYS 
SpecifiedMinimum YieldStrength 
t 
Nominal wall thickness 
a 
Correctionfactor 
r 
Distancefrom axis of bendingto masscentre 
1% 
Condition loadfactor 
VR 
Strengthusagefactor 
K 
Curvature 
V 
Poisson’sratio 
ah 
Hoop stress 
ahI 
Limit hoopstressfor pure pressure 
4 
Longitudinal stress 
air 
Limit longitudinal stressfor pure longitudinal force 
w 
Angleporn bendingplane toplastic neutral axis 
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Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 1116, 1999
INTRODUCTION The European design of risers and offshore pipelines are today mainly basedon a Limit Statedesign. In a limit statedesign, all foreseeablefailure scenarios are considered and the system is designedagainstthe failure modethat providesthelowest strength
capacity. A pipe must sustain installation loads and operational loads. In addition external loads such as thoseinduced by waves, current, uneven seabed,trawlboard impact, pullover, expansion due to temperaturechangesetc needto be considered.Experience has shown that the main load effect on offshore pipes is bending combined with longitudinal force while subjected to external hydrostaticpressureduring installation andinternal pressurewhile in operation. A pipe subjectedto increasedbending may fail due
to
buckling/collapse Limit Statethat commonly dictatesthe design. The local buckling and collapse strength of metallic pipes has
been the main subject for many studies in
engineering and this paper should be seenas a supplementto the ongoing debate. See Murphey & Langner (1985), Winter et al (1985), Ellinas (1986), Winter et al (1988), Mohareb et al (1994), Bai et al (1993, 1997)etc.
local
buckling/collapse or
fracture, but it
is
the local
offshore and civil
BENDING MOMENT CAPACITY The pipe crosssectionalbending momentis directly proportional to the pipe curvature, see Figure 1. The example illustrates an initial straightpipe with low D/t (~60) subjectedto a load scenario where pressureand longitudinal force are kept constantwhile an increasingcurvatureis applied.
onset of local buckling has occurred,the global deformation will continue, but moreand moreof the appliedbendingenergywill be accumulatedin the local buckle which will continue until the LIMIT POINT is reached.At this point the maximum bending resistanceof the pipe is reachedand a geometricalcollapse will occur if the curvature is additional increased.Until the point of START OF CATASTROPHICALLY CAPACITY REDUCTION has been reached,the geometric collapse will be “slow” and the changes in cross sectional area negligible. After this point, material softening setsin and the pipe crosssection will collapse until the upper and lower pipe wall is in contact. For pipes subjected to longitudinal force and/or pressure close to the maximum capacity, START OF CATASTROPHICALLY CAPACITY REDUCTION occurs immediately after the LIMIT POINT. The momentcurvature relation for theseload conditions will be closerto that presentedby the dashedline in Figure 1.
The moment curvature relationship provides information
necessaryfor design againstfailure
the function of the pipe, any of the abovedescribedpoints can be
used as design limit. If the pipe is a part of a carrying structure, the elastic limit may be an obvious choice asthe designlimit. For pipelines and risers where the global shapeis lessimportant, this
criterion will though be overly
resourcesin the elasticplastic range. Higher design strength can therefore be obtained by using design criteria based on the stress/strainlevels reachedat the point of onsetfor local buckling
or at the limit point. For displacementcontrolledconfigurations, it can even be acceptableto allow the deformation of the pipe to
continue into the softening region
this is the knowledge of the carrying capacity with high deformations combined with a precise prediction of the deformationpatternandits amplitude.
due to bending. Dependingon
conservativedue to the significant
(not in design).The rationale of
of many
parameters.The main parametersare given below in arbitrary
sequence:
The limit bending moment for steel pipes is a function
. 
Diameterover wall thicknessratio 
. 
Material stressstrainrelationship 
. 
Material imperfections 
. 
Welding (Longitudinal aswell ascircumferential) 
. 
Initial outofroundness 
. 
Reduction in wall thicknessdueto e.g.corrosion 
. 
Cracks(in pipe and/orwelding) 
. 
Local stressconcentrationsdueto e.g.coating 
. 
Additional loadsandtheir amplitude 
. 
Temperature 
Figure I: Examplesof bendingmomentversuscurvature relation.
Different significant points can be identified from the moment curvature relationship. When applying/increasing curvature the pipe will first be subjected to global deformation inside the
material’s elastic rangeand no
global deformationis here meantdeformation that can be looked upon as uniform over a range larger than 34 times the pipe diameter.After the LINEAR LIMIT of the pipe material hasbeen reached the pipe will no longer return to its initial shape after unloading, but the deformation will still be characterised as global. If the curvature is increased further, material or geometrical imperfections will initiate ONSET OF LOCAL
BUCKLING. Pipe imperfections will have an influence on at which curvature and where along the pipe the onset of local buckling will occur, but will, as long as they are small, for all practical use not influence the limit moment capacity. After the
permanentdeformation is seen.By
The criteria focusedupon in this paper are the bending moment capacity at the limit point shown in Figure 1. The limit bending
moment(momentcapacity) is in this
initial outofroundness,longitudinal force and internal/external
overpressurefor materials with either isotropic or anisotropic characteristics in longitudinal and hoop direction. Solutions
obtained from
models are described, covering a diameter over
ratios from 10 to 60. The remaining parametersgiven in the list will also be of importance in design of pipelines, but the main parameterswill in generalbe thosethat arestudiedin this paper.
wall thickness
both analytical expressions and finite element
papergiven as a function of
2
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FAILURE
MODES
As pointed out in the previous sectionthe limit momentis highly dependenton the amountof longitudinal force and pressureloads
and for cases with high external pressure also initial
roundness.To clarify the approachusedin the developmentof the analytical equations and to give a better understanding of the obtained results, characteristicsof the ultimate strengthfor pipes subjectedto single loadsandcombinedloadsarediscussedbelow.
outof
The cross sectional deformations just before failure of pipes subjectedto single loadsareshown in Figure 2.
Pure bending
Pure pressure
Pure longitudinal force
Figure 2: Pipe cross sectional deformation of pipes subjectedto single loaak‘
PUREBENDING
A pipe subjectedto increasingpure bending will fail asa result of
increasedovalisation of the crosssectionand reducedslopein the
stressstrain curve. Up to a certain
decrease in moment of inertia will be counterbalanced by
increasedpipe wall stressdue to strain hardening.When the lose
in momentof inertia canno morebe compensatedfor by the strain
hardening, the moment capacity has been reached and catastrophically cross sectional collapse will occur if additional bending is applied. For low D/t, the failure will be initiated on the tensile sideof the pipe dueto stressesat the outer fibres exceeding the limiting longitudinal stress.For D/t higher than approximately 3035, the hoop strengthof the pipe will be so low comparedto the tensile strength that the failure mode will be an inward buckling on the compressiveside of the pipe. The geometrical imperfections (excluding corrosion) that are normally allowed in pipeline design will not significantly influence the moment capacity for pure bending, and the capacity can be calculated as,
SUPERB(1996):
level of ovalisation, the
M _{C}_{(}_{F}_{=}_{o}_{.}_{P}_{=}_{o}_{)}
= 1.0%0.0015+
.SMYS.D* .t
where D is the averagepipe diameter, t the wall thickness and
SMYS
(I .05 0.0015.Dl t). SMYS represent the average longitudinal crosssectional stressat failure as a function of the diameterover wall thicknessratio.
Strength.
the
Specified
Minimum
Yield
PUREEXTERNALPRESSURE
Theoretically, a circular pipe without imperfections should
continue being circular when
external pressure. Due to material and/or geometrical imperfections,therewill though alwaysbe a flattening of the pipe, which with increased external pressure will end with a total collapse of the cross section. The change in outofroundness, causedby the external pressure,introduce circumferential bending stresses, where the highest stressesoccurs at respective the top/bottom and two sides of the flattened crosssection.For low
subjected to increasing uniform
D/t ratios, material softening will occur at these points points will behave as a kind of hinge at collapse. The
hoop stressat failure due to external pressurechangewith the D/t ratio. For small D/t ratios, the failure is governedby yielding of the cross section, while it for larger D/t ratios is governed by elastic buckling. By elastic buckling is meant that the collapse occurs before the averagehoop stressover the crosssection has reachedthe yield stress.At D/t ratios inbetween, the failure is a combination of yielding andelasticbuckling.
and the
average
Several formulations have been proposed for estimating the external collapse pressure,but in this paper, only Timoshenko’s and Haagsma’sequationsare described.Timoshenko’s equation, which gives the pressureat which yielding in the extremefibres begins, will in generalrepresenta lower bound, while Haagsma’s equation, using a fully plastic yielding conditions, will represent an upper bound for the collapsepressure.The collapsepressureof pipes is very dependenton geometricalimperfections and here in special initial outoffroundness. Both Timoshenko’s and Haagsma’scollapseequationaccountfor initial outoffroundness.
Timoshenko’s equation giving the pressurecausing yield at the outer pipe fibre:
P~[P~+(l+l.5.y).P4PC+P,“.P~,=0
where:
_{P}_{C}
PP
= Characteristiccollapsepressure
(2)
(3)
_{f}_{o} 
= Initial outofroundness,(DDmi,)/D 
D 
= Averagediameter 
t 
= Wall thickness 
SMYS 
= SpecifiedMinimum Yield Strengthin hoop direction 
E 
= Young’s Module 
2) 
= Poisson’sratio 
It should be noted that the pressure‘pc’ determinedin accordance
to Eq. (2) is lower than the actual collapsepressureof the pipe and it becomesequal to the latter only in the caseof a perfectly round pipe. Hence,by using ‘pc’ calculated from Eq. (2) as the ultimate
be on the safe side,
value of pressure,the results will normally
TimoshenkoandGere(1961).
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Haagsma’sequation giving the pressureat which fully plastic
yielding over the wall
thicknessoccurscanbe expressedas:
P:Pd.PcZ c P;+Pe,P~&q
.Pc+Per.P:=o
1
(5)
and represent the theoretical upper bound for the collapse pressure.For low D/t, the collapse pressurewill be closer to the collapse pressure calculated by Haagsma’s equation than that calculated by Timoshenko’s equation, Haagsma and Schaap
(1981).
The use of Timoshenko’s and Haagsma’s eguation relates specifically to a pipe that has initially linear elastic material propertiesand wherethe elastic buckling pressureis derived from classicalanalysis.This would be appropriatefor seamlesspipesor for pipes that has been subjected to an annealing process. However, for pipe fabricatedusing the UO or UOE methodthere are significant nonlinearities in the material properties in the hoop direction, due to residual strainsand the Bauschingereffect. These effects may be accounted for by introducing a strength
reduction factor to the plastic buckling pressureterm given by Eq.
(4). No effort has in this study been given to estimatethe
this reduction factor, but according to DNV 1996 the plastic
buckling pressureshall be reducedwith 7.5% and 15% for pipes fabricatedby the UO and UOE processrespectively.
size of
For Pureinternal pressure,the failure modewill be bursting of the crosssection.Due to the pressure,the pipe crosssection expand and the pipe wall thickness decrease.The decreasein pipe wall thicknessis compensatedfor by an increasein the hoop stress.At a certain pressure,the material strain hardening can no longer compensatethe pipe wall thinning and the maximum internal pressure has been reached. The bursting pressure can in accordancewith API (1999)be given as:
whereO.S(SMTS+SMYS)is the hoop stressat failure.
PURETENSION
For pure tension, the failure of the pipe will be, as for bursting, results of pipe wall thinning. When the longitudinal tensile force are increased,the pipe cross section will narrow down and the pipe wall thicknessdecrease.At a certain tensile force, the cross sectional area of the pipe will be reduced so much that the maximum tensile stress for the pipe material is reached. An additional increasein tensile force will now causethe pipe to fail. The maximumtensile force canbe calculatedas:
4 =SMTS. A
_{(}_{7}_{)}
where A is the cross sectional area and SMTS the longitudinal stressat failure.
PURECOMPRESSION
A pipe subjectedto increasingcompressiveforce will be subjected
the compressive force are additional
the
pipe is restraint except from in the longitudinal direction, the
to Euler buckling. If
increasedthe pipe will finally fail due to local buckling. If
maximum compressiveforce will be close to the tensile failure force.
6 =SMTS.A
_{(}_{8}_{)}
COMBINEDLOALB
For pipes subjectedto single loads, the failure is, as described above,dominatedby either longitudinal or hoop stresses.For the combination of pressure,longitudinal force and bending the stress level at failure will be an interaction between longitudinal and hoop stresses.In accordancewith among others DNV (1995) classification notes for buckling strength analysis of plates, this interaction can, neglecting the radial stresscomponent and the shearstresscomponents,bedescribedas:
(9)
where q is the applied longitudinal stress,ch the applied hoop stressand ou and ou the limit stressin their respectivedirection. The limit stressmay differ depending on if the applied load is compressiveor tensile. a is a correction factor depending on the ratio between the limit stress in the longitudinal and hoop direction respectively. Basedon Eq. (9), Eq. (5), Eq. (6), Eq. (12) and finite element analyses, the following definition for the correction factor have been suggestedfor external and internal overpressurerespectively:
a=0.25P"
8
a=0.25$
I For pipesunder combinedpressureandlongitudinal force, Eq. (9) may be usedto find the pipe strengthcapacity.Alternatives to Eq. (9) areVon Mises, Tresca’s,Hill’s andT&Hill’s yield condition. Experimental tests have been performed by e.g. Corona and Kyriakides (1988). For combinedpressureand longitudinal force, the failure modewill be very similar to the onesfor single loads.
In general, the ultimate strength interaction betweenlongitudinal force and bending may be expressed by the fully plastic interaction curve for tubular crosssections.However, if D/t is higher than 35, local buckling may occur at the compressiveside, leading to a failure slightly inside the fully plastic interaction curve, Chen and Sohal (1988). When tension is dominating, the pipe capacity will be higher than the fully plastic condition due to tensile and strainhardening effects. Based on finite element results, the maximum compressiveor tensile force related with bendinghasbeenfound to:
5 =0.5@4YS+SMTS~
A
_{(}_{1}_{2}_{)}
whereO.Sx(SMYS+ SMTS) is longitudinal stressat failure.
As indicated in Figure 2, pressureandbending both lead to a cross sectional failure. Bending will always lead to ovalisation and finally collapse, while the pipe fails in different modes for respectively external and internal overpressure.When bending is combined with external overpressure,both loads will tend to increase the ovalisation, which leads to a rapid decreasein
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capacity. For bending combined with internal overpressure,the two failure modes work against each other and thereby “strengthen” the pipe. For high internal overpressure,the collapse will always be initiated on the tensile side of the pipe due to stressesat the outer flbres exceeding the material limit tensile stress. On the compressive side of the pipe, the high internal pressure will tend to initiate an outward buckle, which will increase the pipe diameter locally and thereby increase the momentof inertia and the bending momentcapacity to the pipe. The momentcapacity will thereforebe expectedto be higher for internal overpressurecompared with a corresponding external pressure.
ADDITIONALFAILUREMODE
In addition to the failure modes described above, fracture is a possible failure mode for all the described load conditions. In
particular for the combination of tension, high internal pressure
and bending, it is
the high stresslevel at the limit bending moment. The fracture criteria are not included in this paper,but shall be addressedin
design.
important to check against fracture becauseof
ANALYTICAL
EXPRESSION
FOR THE LIMIT
MOMENT
In the following,
combinedloadsis derived. To keepthe complexity of the bending momentLimit Stateequationson a reasonablelevel, the following
moment for pipes subjected to
the limit
a,, is now defined asthe limit longitudinal compressivestressin
the pipe wall
negativesign beforethe squareroot. The limit tensile stressa;, is accordingly equal to q with the positive sign in front of the square root.
andtherebyequal to 01asdeterminedabovewith the
(15)
(16)
THEBENDINGMOMENT
The bending momentcapacity of a pipe with an elastic perfectly plastic material behaviour can, assumedthat the entire cross
sectionhasreachedthe limit
stress,be calculatedas:
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{A}_{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{&}_{.}_{,}_{,} are respectively the cross sectional areain
compressionand tension, v
pipe centreando the stresslevel, seeFigure 3.
their masscentres distance to the
!Planof bending
assumptionshavebeenmade:
Geometrical perfect pipe except from initial
roundness Elastic perfectly plastic material Entire crosssectionhasreachedthelimit stress No changein crosssection geometrybefore the limit stress is reached The limit stresssurfacecan be describedin accordanceto
Eq. (9)
outoff
LIMITSTZESSSURFACE
The pipe wall stresscondition for thebendingmomentLimit State can be consideredas that of a material under biaxial loads. It is assumedthat the pipe wall limit stresssurfacecanbe describedin accordanceto Eq. (13). The limit stresssurfaceis here,neglecting the radial stress component and the shear stress components, describedas a function of the longitudinal stress ‘or’, the hoop
stress ‘oh’ 
and the limit stress ‘Q’ and 2~~’ in their respective 
direction. 

where a is 
a correction factor dependingon the ou/ohlratio. 
Solving the seconddegreeequationfor the longitudinal stress‘q gives:
Figure 3: Pipe cross section with stress distribution diagram
(dashed line) and idealised stress diagram for plastified cross
section fill
line).
For a geometricalperfect circular pipe, the area in compression andtensioncanapproximatelybe calculatedas:
Ap =2yrt 
(18) 
A,e, =2(ny)rt 
(19) 
The distancefrom the masscentreto the pipe crosssectioncentre is given by:
(14)
(21)
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where r is the averagepipe wall radius and
bending plan to the plastic neutral axis. The plastic neutral axis is defined as the axis at which the longitudinal pipe wall stresses changefrom tensile to compressive,seeFigure 3.
vthe angle from the
Inserting Eq. (18) to (21) in Eq. (17) gives the bending moment capacityas:
M _{c}_{(}_{u}_{,}_{,}_{.}_{u}_{,}_{)}_{=} 2tr * sin(y)
+ 2tr’ sin&)a,~~~
_{(}_{2}_{2}_{)}
Loc*r~ONOFFUUYPLAsTICNEUTRAL~S
To calculate the angle to the fully plastic neutral axis from the plan of bending, it is necessaryto start with looking at the true
longitudinal 
pipe wall 
force, which 
approximately can be 
expressedas: 
where
_{M}_{C}
Mp
P
_{P}_{I}
F
_{F}_{I}
= Bending momentcapacity
= Plastic moment
= Pressureacting on the pipe
= Limit pressure
=
= Limit longitudinal force
True longitudinal force acting on the pipe
1)
F = %cwn,omp + &so tens
( 23 >
wherethe areain compression&O,,,pis calculatedas:
APPLICXBLERANGEFORMOMENTCAPACITYEQUAITON
(31), the
expressionsunder the squareroot must be positive, which gives thetheoreticalrangefor thepressureto:
To
avoid
complex solutions when solving
Eq.
Amp=2y,rt
andthe areain tension&,
as;
_{(}_{2}_{4}_{)}
~s~5~
^{(}^{3}^{2}^{)}
A,,
Giving:
= 2(x  y)r
t
F=2rt~omp+(~~)o,)
Solving Eq. (26) for w gives:
or
_{(} _{2}_{5} _{1}
(26)
( 27 1
where the limit load p1dependon the load condition and a on the ratio betweenthe limit forceandthe limit pressure.
Since the wall thicknessdesign is basedon the operating pressure to the pipeline, this range should not give any problems in the design.
Given by the physical limitation that the angle to the plastic neutral axis must be between0 and 180 degree,the equation is valid for the following rangeof longitudinal force:
(33)
FINK
EXPRESSIONFORMOMENTCAPACITY
Substituting the expressionfor the plastic neutral axis, Eq. (28), into the equationfor themomentcapacity,Eq. (22) gives:
where the limit loads Fi and pI dependson the load condition and
a on the ratio betweenthe limit force Fi and the limit
pressurepi.
For the design of pipelines, this range is normally not going to give any problems,but again,the rangemay be reduceddueto the questionof fracture.
( 29 1 and substituting the expressionfor tensile and compressivestress, Eq. (15) and (16) into Eq. (29) gives the final expressionfor the bendingmomentcapacity:
or alternatively andmoreuseful in designsituations:
FINITE
ELEMENT
MODEL
This section describeshow a pipe section is modelled using the finite element method. The finite element method is a method
where a physical system, such as an engineering component or structure,is divided into small subregions/elements.Eachelement
is an essentialsimple unit in spacefor which the behaviour can be
calculated by a shapefunction interpolated from the nodal values of the element. This in such a way that interelement continuity tends to be maintained in the assemblage.Connecting the shape functions for each elementnow forms an approximating function for the entire physical system.In the finite element formulation, the principle of virtual work, together with the establishedshape functions are used to transform the differential equations of
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equilibrium into algebraic equations. In a few words, the finite element method can be defined as a RayleighRitz method in which the approximating field is interpolatedin piecewise fashion from the degreeof freedomthat arenodal valuesof the field. The modelledpipe sectionis subjectto pressure,longitudinal force and bending with the purposeto provoke structural failure of the pipe. The deformation pattern at failure will introduce both geometrical and material nonlinearity. The nonlinearity of the buckling/collapse phenomenon makes finite element analyses superior to analytical expressions for estimating the strength capacity.
In
buckling/collapse deformation behaviour the following
mustbe takeninto account:
order to
get a reliable finite
element prediction of the
factors
l 
A proper representationof the constitutive law of the pipe material 

l 
A 
properrepresentationof the boundaryconditions 
l 
A 
proper application of the load sequence 
l 
The ability to addresslarge deformations,large rotations,and finite strains 

l 
The ability to model/describeall relevantfailure modes 
The material definition included in the finite elementmodel is of high importance, since the model is subjectedto deformations
long
strain levels between 10% and 20% is usual and the material
definition should thereforeat leastbe governing up to this level. In the presentanalyses,a RambergOsgoodstressstrainrelationship
has been used. For requiredalong with
can be anywhere along the curve, and for the present model, specifiedminimum yield strength(SMYS) associatedwith a strain of 0.5% and the specified minimum tensile strength (SMTS) correspondingto approximately 20% strain has been used. The material yield limit has been defined as approximately 80% of SMYS.
this, two points on the stressstraincurve are the materialYoung’s modules.The two points
into the elastoplastic range. In the post buckling phase,
The advantagein using SMYS andSMTS insteadof a stressstrain curve obtainedfrom a specific testis that the statisticaluncertainty in the material stressstrainrelation is accountedfor. It is thereby ensured that the stressstrain curve used in a finite element analysis in general will be more conservative than that from a specificlaboratorytest.
To reduce computing time, symmetry of the problem has been used to reduce the finite elementmodel to onequarterof a pipe section. The length of the model is two times the pipe diameter, which in general will be sufficient to catch all buckling/collapse failure modes.
The generalpurposeshell element used iu the present model,
account for finite membranestrains and allows
thickness,which makesit suitable for largestrain analysis. The
elementdefinition allows for transversesheardeformationanduses
for changesin
thick shell theory when the shell thicknessincreasesand discrete
Kirchoff thin
shell theory asthe thicknessdecreases.
For a further discussionand verification of the usedfinite element model, seeBai et al (1993), Mohareb et al (1994), Bruschi et al (1995)andHauch& Bai (1998).
ANALYTICAL 
SOLUTION 
VERSUS FllvITE 
ELEMENT 
RESULTS 
In the following, the abovepresentedequations are compared
with results obtained from finite element analyses.First are the capacity equations for pipes subjectedto single loads compared
with finite elementresults for a D/t the moment capacity equation for
pressureandbendingarecomparedagainstfinite elementresults.
STRENGTHCAPACITYOFPIPESSUBJECTEDTOSINGLELOADS
As a verification of the finite element model, the strength
capacitiesfor single loads obtained from finite element analyses arecomparedagainstthe verified analytical expressionsdescribed in the previous sectionsof this paper.The strength capacity has
been comparedfor
to demonstratethe finite elementmodel’s capability to catch the right failure mode independently of the D/t ratio. For all the analyses,the averagediameteris 0.5088m,SMYS = 450 MPa and SMTS = 530 MPa. In Figure 4 the bending moment capacity found from finite elementanalysishasbeencomparedagainstthe
bending momentcapacity equation, Bq. (1).
tensile longitudinal force Bq. (7), in Figure 6 the collapsepressure
Bq. (2, 5) and in Figure 7 the bursting pressure Bq. (6) are compared against finite element results. The good agreement between the finite element results and analytical solutions presentedin figure 47 give good reasonsto expect that the finite element model also will give reliable predictions for combined loads.
ratio from 10 to 60. Secondly
combined longitudinal force,
a large range of diameterover wall thickness
In Figure 5 the limit
X
=
FE results
 = Analytical
0 
I 

10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
Diameter 
Over Wall Thickness 
Figure 4: Moment capacity as a function of diameter over wall thicknessfor apipe subjectedtopure bending.
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1.5
l
^{0}^{.}^{5} _{1}_{0}
X = 
FE results 
 

 = Analytical 

< 

20 
30 
40 
50 
60 

Diameter 
Over Wal 
Ttddumss 
Figure 5: Limit longitudinal force as afunction of diameter over wall thicknessfor apipe subjectedtopure tensileforce.
X = 
FE results 

 = 
Haagsma 
 

= Timoshenko 

2 

l 

01 
* 

10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
Figure 6: Collapsepressure as a function of diameter over wall
thicknessfor
Initial outofroundnessfO equal to 1.5%.
a pipe subjected to pure external overpressure.
STRENCTHCAPACITYFORCOMBINEDLOADS
For the results presented in Figures 813 the following dimensionshasbeenused:
pipe
D/t = 
35 

_{f}_{c} 
= 
1.5 % 
SMYS 
= 450MPa 

SMTS 
= 530MPa 

a 
= l/5 for external overpressureand2/3 for internal overpressure 
Figures 8 and 9 shows the momentcapacity surfacegiven by Eq. (31). In Figure 8 the moment capacity surface is seenfrom the external pressure, compressive longitudinal force side and in Figure 9 it is seenfrom above.Figures 4 to 7 have demonstrated
that for single loads, the failure surfaceagreeswell with finite element analysesfor a large D/t range. To demonstratethat Eq. (31) also agreeswith finite elementanalysesfor combinedloads, the failure surface has been cut for different fixed values of longitudinal force and pressurerespectively as demonstratedin
Figure 9 by the black lines. The cuts and respectivefinite element
results are shown in Figures 10 to 13. In Figure 10 the moment capacityis plotted asa function of pressure.The limit pressurefor external overpressure is here given by Haagsma’s collapse
equationEq.
the bursting pressureBq. (6). For the nonpressurisedpipe, the
moment capacity is given by Bq. (1). In Figure 11, the moment
capacity is plotted as a function of longitudinal
force has been given by Bq. (12) for both compression and
tension. For a given water depth, the external pressurewill
approximatelyconstant,while the axial force may vary. Figure 12 showsthe momentcapacity as a function of longitudinal force for an external overpressureequal to 0.8 times the collapse pressure calculated by Haagsma’scollapse equation Bq. (5). Figure 13 again shows the moment capacity as a function of longitudinal force, but this time for an internal overpressureequal to 0.9 times the plastic buckling pressuregiven by Bq. (4). Basedon the results presentedin Figures 10 to 13, it is concluded that the analytical deducedmoment capacity and finite element results are in good agreementfor the entire rangeof longitudinal force and pressure. The equations though tent to be a little nonconservative for external pressurevery close to the collapse pressure.This is in agreementwith the previous discussionabout Timoshenko’s and
Haagsma’scollapseequation.
(5) and the limit pressurefor internal overpressureby
force. The limit
be
i0
20
30 
40 
50 
Diameter 
Over Wall rndcnea 
60
Figure 7: Bursting pressure as a junction of diameter over wall thicknessfor apipe subjectedtopure internal overpressure.
Figure 8: Limit bendingmomentSt&aceas afunction ofpressure _{a}_{n}_{d} _{l}_{o}_{n}_{g}_{i}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{l} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e}_{.}
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^{0}^{.}^{6}
$0
s
t
x
x
(
x 
x 
x 

X 
= 
FE 
results 

= 
Analytical 
_{}_{0}_{.}_{6} 
, 
X,x 
‘1’ 

1 
4.6 
0.6 
0.4 
0.2 
0 
0.2 
0.4 
0.6 
6 

Longitudinal 
force I Longitudinal limit force 
Figure 9: Limit bendingmomentsur$aceas afinction ofpressure and longitudinal force including crosssectionsfor which comparisonbetweenanalytical solution and resultsporn finite elementanalyseshasbeenperformed.
Figure 12: Normalised bendingmomentcapacity as afunction longitudinal force. Pressureequal to 0.8 timesHaagsma‘s collapsepressureEq. (5).
of
Figure 10: Normalisedbendingmomentcapacity as afunction of pressure.No longitudinalforce is applied.
X 
= 
FE 
results 

 
= 
halytic6l 

1.5’ 

1 
0.5 
0 
0.5 

Lorrgitdinal 
force I Lorgitdnal 
limit force 
I
1
Figure 1I: Normalisedbendingmomentcapacity as afunction of longitudinal force. Pressureequal to zero.
Figure 13: Normalised bendingmomentcapacity as ajimction of longitudinalforce. Pressureequal to 0.9 timestheplastic buckling pressureEq. (4).
USAGhZAFETYFACTORS
The local buckling check can be separatedinto a check for load controlled situations (bending moment)and one for displacement controlled situations (strain level). When no usage/safetyfactors are applied in the buckling check calculations, the two checks ought to result in the same bending capacity. In design, usage/safety factors are though introduced to account for modelling and input uncertainties. The reduction in bending capacity introduced by the usagefactors will not be the samefor load and displacement controlled situation. Due to the pipe momentversusstrain relationship, a higher allowable strengthcan be achievedfor a given target safety level by using a strainbased
criterion than by a moment criterion. III this paper only the allowable bending momentcriterion is given. This criterion canbe usedfor both load anddisplacementcontrolled situations,but may as mentioned be overly conservativefor displacementcontrolled situations.
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The usage factor approach presentedin this paper is based on shrinking the failure surfaceshown in Figures 8 and 9. Insteadof representingthe bending momentcapacity,the surfaceis scaledto represent the maximum allowable bending moment associated with a given target safety level. The shapeof the failure surface given Eq. (31) is dictated by four parameters;the plastic moment M,, the limit longitudinal force Fi, the limit pressurePi and the correction factor (shape parameter) a. To shrink the failure surface usage factors are applied to the plastic moment, longitudinal limit force and the limit pressurerespectively. The usagefactors arefunctions of modelling, geometricaland material uncertainties and will therefore vary for the three capacity parameters. In general, the variation will be small and for simplification purposes,the most conservativeusagefactor may be applied to all capacity loads. The correction factor a is a function of the longitudinal limit force and the limit pressureand no usage factor is applied to this parameter. The modelling uncertainty is highly connectedto the use of the equation. In the SLJPEBB(1996)project, the useof the momentcriteria is divided into four unlike scenarios;1) pipelines resting on uneven seabed, 2) pressuretest condition, 3) continuesstiff supportedpipe and4) all other scenarios. To account for the variation in modelling uncertainty, a condition load factor 2 is applied to the plastic momentand the limit longitudinal force. The pressure,which is a function of internal pressureandwaterdepth,will not be subjected to the samemodel uncertainty and the condition load factor will be close to one and can be neglected. Based on the above discussion, the maximum allowable bending moment may be expressedas:
side of the pipe. The criteria given in this guideline may be used to calculate the maximum allowable bending moment for a given scenario. It shall be noted that the maximum allowable bending moment given in this guideline does not take fracture into accountand that fracture criteria thereforemay reducethe bending capacityto the pipe. This particularly applies for high tension/highpressureload conditions.
_{l} LOAD VER.WSDISPLACEMENTCONTROLLEDSITUATIONS:
The local buckling checkcan be separatedinto a check for load controlled situations (bending moment) and one for displacement controlled situations (strain level). Due to the relation betweenapplied bending momentand maximum strain
in a pipe, a higher allowable strength for a given target safety
level can be achievedby using a strainbasedcriterion than the bending moment criterion. The bending moment criterion can due to this, conservatively be used for both load and displacement controlled situations. In this guideline only the bending momentcriterion is given.
l Locar. BUCKLINGANDACCUWLATED OUTOFROUNDNESS:
Increased outofroundness due to installation and cyclic
operating loads may aggravate local buckling and is
considered. It is recommendedthat outofroundness, due to through life loads,be simulatedusing finite elementanalysis.
to
be
l M~MUMALLO
WMLEBENDINGMOME~T:
The allowablebendingmomentfor local buckling underload controlled situationscanbe expressedas:
(34)
where _{~}_{A}_{I}_{k}_{m}_{n}_{b}_{k} = Allowable bendingmoment
_{Y}_{?}
_{1}_{7}_{R}
Condition load factor
= = Strengthusagefactors
The usage/safetyfactor methodologyusedin Eq. (34) ensuresthat
load
combinations.
the
safety levels
are uniformly
maintained for
all
In the following guideline for bending strength calculations, the suggestedcondition load factor is in accordancewith the results presentedin the SUPERB(1996)report,later usedin DNV (1996) andin the new DNV (1999) rules for submarinepipeline systems.
The strength usage factors qm,
comparisonwith existing codesand the engineeringexperienceof the authors.
qm and qW are based on
GUIDELINE
FOR BENDING
STRENGTH
CALCULATIONS
l LOCALBUCKLING:
For pipelines subjectedto combinedpressure,longitudinal force and bending, local buckling may occur. The failure modemay be yielding of the cross sectionor buckling on the compressive
where
i
MAlmk = Allowable bendingmoment
_{4} = Plasticmoment
_{P}_{I} = Limit pressure
_{P} = Pressureacting on the pipe
_{F}_{l} = Limit longitudinal force
F = Longitudinal force acting on the pipe
_{l}
a
_{1}_{%}
_{1}_{7}_{R}
= Correctionfactor = Condition load factor = Strengthusagefactor
CORRECTIONFACTOR:
a = 0.25P,
4
for
external overpressure
a for internal overpressure
= 0.25fi
4
If possible, the correction factor should be verified by finite elementanalyses.
l PLAWK(LIMIT)MOMENT:
The limit momentmay be given as:
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Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 1116, 1999
M
C(F=O,W)


1.050.0015.~
t
.SMys.#
.t
where
SMYS
D
t
= SpecifiedMinimum Yield Strengthin longitudinal direction = Averagediameter = Wall thickness
l LIMIT LONGITUDINALFORCEFORCOMWKWIONAND TENSION:
The limit longitudinal force may be estimatedas:
4 =05(sMYs+SMTs)~A
A 
= 
Crosssectionalarea,which may be calculatedasrtXDxt. 
SMYS 
= 
SpecifiedMinimum Yield Strengthin longitudinal direction 
SMTS 
= 
SpecifiedMinimum Tensile Strengthin longitudinal direction 
a LIMIT PRESSUREFOREXTERML O~RPRESSURECONDI~ON:
The limit external pressure‘pL(is to be calculatedbasedon:
where
PC1
PP
=

2E
(1v’)
t3

0 D
2t
= qJdsMYsD
1)
_{f}_{o} 
= Initial outofroundness*),(DD,,)/D 
SMYS 
= SpecifiedMinimum Yield Strengthin hoop direction 
E 
= Young’s Module 
II 
= Poisson’sratio 
Guidancenote:
‘) 
ntit, is 0.925 for pipes fabricatedby the UO precess,0.85 for 
‘) 
pipes fabricatedby the UOE processand 1 for seemlessor annealedpipes. Gutofroundnesscausedduring the construction phaseis to be included, but not flattening dueto external waterpressure or bendingin aslaidposition. 
l 
LIMT PRESSUREFORINTERNALOVERPRE~~URECONDITION: 

The limit pressurewill be equal to the bursting pressuregiven by: 

p, = O.J(SMTS+SMY&S~ 

where 

_{S}_{M}_{Y}_{S} 
= 
SpecifiedMinimum Yield Strengthin hoop direction 

_{S}_{M}_{T}_{S} 
= SpecifiedMinimum Tensile Strengthin hoop direction 

l 
LOADAND USAGEFACTORS: 
Load factor yc andusagefactor na arelisted in Table 1.
Guidancenotes:
 Load Condition Factors may be combined e.g. Load Condition Factor for pressuretest of pipelines resting on unevenseabed,1.07x0.93= 1.OO
 Safety classis low for temporaryphases.For the operating phase,safety class is normal and high for areaclassified as zone 1 andzone2 respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
The momentcapacity equationsin the existing codesare for some
load
conservative.This paper presentsa new set of design equations that are accurate and simple. The derived analytical equations have been based on the mechanismof failure modes and have beenextensively comparedwith finite elementresults. The useof safety factors has been simplified comparedwith existing codes
and the target safety levels are in accordancewith DNV (1996),
IS0
conditions
overly
conservative and for
others non
(1998)
and API
(1998). The
applied
safety factor
methodology ensuresthat the target safety levels are uniformly maintainedfor all load combinations.It is the hope of the authors that this paper will help engineersin their aim at designing safer andmorecosteffectivepipes.
It is recommendedthat the alpha correction factor
processreduction factor areinvestigatedin moredetails.
and fabrication
REFERENCES
API (1998)“Design, Construction, Operationand Maintenanceof OffshoreHydrocarbon Pipelines (Limit StateDesign)“.
Bai, Y., Igland, R. and Moan, T. (1993) “Tube Collapse under CombinedPressure,Tensionand Bending”, InternationalJournalof OffshoreandPolarEngineering,Vol. 3(2),pp. 121129.
Bai, Y., Igland, R.
CombinedExternal Pressure, Tension and Bending”, Journal of Marine Structures,Vol. 10,No.5,pp.389410.
and Moan, T. (1997) “Tube Collapse under
Bruschi, R., Monti, P., Bolzoni, G., Tagliafeni, R. (1995), ‘Finite ElementMethod asNumerical Laboratoryfor Analysing Pipeline ResponseunderInternal Pressure,Axial Load, BendingMoment’
OMAE’95.
Chen,W. F., andSohal,I. S. (1988),“Cylindrical MembersIn OffshoreStructures” ThinWalled Structure,Vol. 6 1988.Special Issueon Offshore Structures,Elsevier Applied Science.
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