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Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Proceedings Engineering, of July OMAE99, 11-16, 1999 18 th International Conference

On Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering

Proceedings of OMAE99, 18

th

International Conference

July On 11–16, Offshore 1999, Mechanics St. Johns, and Newfoundland, Arctic Engineering Canada

July 11–16, 1999, St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada

OMAE99/PIPE-5037

OMAE99/

St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada OMAE99/PIPE-5037 OMAE99/ BENDING MOMENT CAPACITY OF PIPES Snrren Hauch and Yong

BENDING

MOMENT

CAPACITY

OF PIPES

OMAE99/PIPE-5037 OMAE99/ BENDING MOMENT CAPACITY OF PIPES Snrren Hauch and Yong Bai” JP Kenny A/S, *)

Snrren Hauch and Yong Bai” JP Kenny A/S, *) Stavanger University

Stavanger,

Norway

College

ABSTRQCT

In most modem pipeline design, the required minimum wall

thickness is determined basedon stressunder design pressure.This

come up with an initial wall thickness design under the assumptionthat pressurewill be the governing load. A pipeline may though be subjectedto additional loads due to installation, seabed contours and high-pressure/high-temperatureoperating conditions for which the bending moment capacity often will be the limiting parameter. If in-place analyses predict that the maximum allowable moment to a pipeline will be exceeded,it will be necessaryto either increasethe wall thicknessor, as more normal, to perform seabedintervention to reducethe bending of thepipe.

the maximum allowable hoop has shown an efficient way to

In this paperthe bending momentcapacity for metallic pipes has

been investigated with

effectiveness in

compromisingthe safety to the pipe. ‘Ihe focus has been on how to accountfor the interaction betweenpressure,longitudinal force and bending in the bending moment capacity calculations. The

study is basedon an analytical approachand the solution hasbeen comparedagainstresultsobtainedfrom finite elementanalyses.

the intention

to

optimise the cost

design

without

the

seabed intervention

The result of the study is a set of equations for calculating the maximum allowable bending moment including proposedsafety factorsfor different target safetylevels. The maximum allowable moment is given as a function of initial out-of-roundness,

longitudinal

equationscan be used for materialswith isotropic as well as an- isotropic stress/straincharacteristicsin the longitudinal and hoop direction. The analytical approachgiven herein may also be used for risers and pipes in structuresif the failure criteria and safety factorsareredefined.

force and internal/external overpressure. The

Keywords: Local buckling, Collapse,Capacity,Bending, Pressure,Longitudinal force,Metallic pipelines andrisers.

NOMENCLATURE

A

Area

D

Averagediameter

E

Young’smodulus

F

True longitudinal force

FI

Limit true longitudinal force

fo

Initial out-of-roundness

M

Moment

MC

Momentcapacity

P

Pressure

PC

Characteristic collapsepressure

Pe

Externalpressure

Per

Elastic bucklingpressure

Pi

Internal pressure

Pt

Limit pressure

PP

Plastic bucklingpressure

PY

Yieldpressure

r

Averagepipe radius

SMTS

SpecifiedMinimum TensileStrength

SMYS

SpecifiedMinimum YieldStrength

t

Nominal wall thickness

a

Correctionfactor

r

Distancefrom axis of bendingto masscentre

1%

Condition loadfactor

VR

Strengthusagefactor

K

Curvature

V

Poisson’sratio

ah

Hoop stress

ahI

Limit hoopstressfor pure pressure

4

Longitudinal stress

air

Limit longitudinal stressfor pure longitudinal force

w

Angleporn bendingplane toplastic neutral axis

OMAE’99,

PL-99-5033

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Hauch & Bai

Copyright (C) 1999 by ASME

Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999

Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999 INTRODUCTION The European design of risers and offshore

INTRODUCTION The European design of risers and offshore pipelines are today mainly basedon a Limit Statedesign. In a limit statedesign, all foreseeablefailure scenarios are considered and the system is designedagainstthe failure modethat providesthelowest strength

capacity. A pipe must sustain installation loads and operational loads. In addition external loads such as thoseinduced by waves, current, uneven seabed,trawl-board impact, pullover, expansion due to temperaturechangesetc needto be considered.Experience has shown that the main load effect on offshore pipes is bending combined with longitudinal force while subjected to external hydrostaticpressureduring installation andinternal pressurewhile in operation. A pipe subjectedto increasedbending may fail due

to

buckling/collapse Limit Statethat commonly dictatesthe design. The local buckling and collapse strength of metallic pipes has

been the main subject for many studies in

engineering and this paper should be seenas a supplementto the ongoing debate. See Murphey & Langner (1985), Winter et al (1985), Ellinas (1986), Winter et al (1988), Mohareb et al (1994), Bai et al (1993, 1997)etc.

local

buckling/collapse or

fracture, but it

is

the local

offshore and civil

BENDING MOMENT CAPACITY The pipe crosssectionalbending momentis directly proportional to the pipe curvature, see Figure 1. The example illustrates an initial straightpipe with low D/t (~60) subjectedto a load scenario where pressureand longitudinal force are kept constantwhile an increasingcurvatureis applied.

onset of local buckling has occurred,the global deformation will continue, but moreand moreof the appliedbendingenergywill be accumulatedin the local buckle which will continue until the LIMIT POINT is reached.At this point the maximum bending resistanceof the pipe is reachedand a geometricalcollapse will occur if the curvature is additional increased.Until the point of START OF CATASTROPHICALLY CAPACITY REDUCTION has been reached,the geometric collapse will be “slow” and the changes in cross sectional area negligible. After this point, material softening setsin and the pipe crosssection will collapse until the upper and lower pipe wall is in contact. For pipes subjected to longitudinal force and/or pressure close to the maximum capacity, START OF CATASTROPHICALLY CAPACITY REDUCTION occurs immediately after the LIMIT POINT. The momentcurvature relation for theseload conditions will be closerto that presentedby the dashedline in Figure 1.

The moment curvature relationship provides information

necessaryfor design againstfailure

the function of the pipe, any of the above-describedpoints can be

used as design limit. If the pipe is a part of a carrying structure, the elastic limit may be an obvious choice asthe designlimit. For pipelines and risers where the global shapeis lessimportant, this

criterion will though be overly

resourcesin the elastic-plastic range. Higher design strength can therefore be obtained by using design criteria based on the stress/strainlevels reachedat the point of onsetfor local buckling

or at the limit point. For displacement-controlledconfigurations, it can even be acceptableto allow the deformation of the pipe to

continue into the softening region

this is the knowledge of the carrying capacity with high deformations combined with a precise prediction of the deformationpatternandits amplitude.

due to bending. Dependingon

conservativedue to the significant

(not in design).The rationale of

of many

parameters.The main parametersare given below in arbitrary

sequence:

The limit bending moment for steel pipes is a function

.

Diameterover wall thicknessratio

.

Material stress-strainrelationship

.

Material imperfections

.

Welding (Longitudinal aswell ascircumferential)

.

Initial out-of-roundness

.

Reduction in wall thicknessdueto e.g.corrosion

.

Cracks(in pipe and/orwelding)

.

Local stressconcentrationsdueto e.g.coating

.

Additional loadsandtheir amplitude

.

Temperature

Figure I: Examplesof bendingmomentversuscurvature relation.

Different significant points can be identified from the moment- curvature relationship. When applying/increasing curvature the pipe will first be subjected to global deformation inside the

material’s elastic rangeand no

global deformationis here meantdeformation that can be looked upon as uniform over a range larger than 3-4 times the pipe diameter.After the LINEAR LIMIT of the pipe material hasbeen reached the pipe will no longer return to its initial shape after unloading, but the deformation will still be characterised as global. If the curvature is increased further, material or geometrical imperfections will initiate ONSET OF LOCAL

BUCKLING. Pipe imperfections will have an influence on at which curvature and where along the pipe the onset of local buckling will occur, but will, as long as they are small, for all practical use not influence the limit moment capacity. After the

permanentdeformation is seen.By

The criteria focusedupon in this paper are the bending moment capacity at the limit point shown in Figure 1. The limit bending

moment(momentcapacity) is in this

initial out-of-roundness,longitudinal force and internal/external

overpressurefor materials with either isotropic or an-isotropic characteristics in longitudinal and hoop direction. Solutions

obtained from

models are described, covering a diameter over

ratios from 10 to 60. The remaining parametersgiven in the list will also be of importance in design of pipelines, but the main parameterswill in generalbe thosethat arestudiedin this paper.

wall thickness

both analytical expressions and finite element

papergiven as a function of

expressions and finite element papergiven as a function of 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by ASME OMAE’99,
expressions and finite element papergiven as a function of 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by ASME OMAE’99,

2

Copyright (C) 1999 by ASME

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Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999

Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999 FAILURE MODES As pointed out in the previous

FAILURE

MODES

As pointed out in the previous sectionthe limit momentis highly dependenton the amountof longitudinal force and pressureloads

and for cases with high external pressure also initial

roundness.To clarify the approachusedin the developmentof the analytical equations and to give a better understanding of the obtained results, characteristicsof the ultimate strengthfor pipes subjectedto single loadsandcombinedloadsarediscussedbelow.

out-of-

The cross sectional deformations just before failure of pipes subjectedto single loadsareshown in Figure 2.

Pure bending

Pure pressure

Pure longitudinal force

Figure 2: Pipe cross sectional deformation of pipes subjectedto single loaak‘

PUREBENDING

A pipe subjectedto increasingpure bending will fail asa result of

increasedovalisation of the crosssectionand reducedslopein the

stress-strain curve. Up to a certain

decrease in moment of inertia will be counterbalanced by

increasedpipe wall stressdue to strain hardening.When the lose

in momentof inertia canno morebe compensatedfor by the strain

hardening, the moment capacity has been reached and catastrophically cross sectional collapse will occur if additional bending is applied. For low D/t, the failure will be initiated on the tensile sideof the pipe dueto stressesat the outer fibres exceeding the limiting longitudinal stress.For D/t higher than approximately 30-35, the hoop strengthof the pipe will be so low comparedto the tensile strength that the failure mode will be an inward buckling on the compressiveside of the pipe. The geometrical imperfections (excluding corrosion) that are normally allowed in pipeline design will not significantly influence the moment capacity for pure bending, and the capacity can be calculated as,

SUPERB(1996):

level of ovalisation, the

M C(F=o.P=o)

= 1.0%0.0015-+

.SMYS.D* .t

where D is the averagepipe diameter, t the wall thickness and

SMYS

(I .05- 0.0015.Dl t). SMYS represent the average longitudinal crosssectional stressat failure as a function of the diameterover wall thicknessratio.

Strength.

the

Specified

Minimum

Yield

PUREEXTERNALPRESSURE

Theoretically, a circular pipe without imperfections should

continue being circular when

external pressure. Due to material and/or geometrical imperfections,therewill though alwaysbe a flattening of the pipe, which with increased external pressure will end with a total collapse of the cross section. The change in out-of-roundness, causedby the external pressure,introduce circumferential bending stresses, where the highest stressesoccurs at respective the top/bottom and two sides of the flattened cross-section.For low

subjected to increasing uniform

D/t ratios, material softening will occur at these points points will behave as a kind of hinge at collapse. The

hoop stressat failure due to external pressurechangewith the D/t ratio. For small D/t ratios, the failure is governedby yielding of the cross section, while it for larger D/t ratios is governed by elastic buckling. By elastic buckling is meant that the collapse occurs before the averagehoop stressover the crosssection has reachedthe yield stress.At D/t ratios in-between, the failure is a combination of yielding andelasticbuckling.

and the

average

Several formulations have been proposed for estimating the external collapse pressure,but in this paper, only Timoshenko’s and Haagsma’sequationsare described.Timoshenko’s equation, which gives the pressureat which yielding in the extremefibres begins, will in generalrepresenta lower bound, while Haagsma’s equation, using a fully plastic yielding conditions, will represent an upper bound for the collapsepressure.The collapsepressureof pipes is very dependenton geometricalimperfections and here in special initial out-off-roundness. Both Timoshenko’s and Haagsma’scollapseequationaccountfor initial out-off-roundness.

Timoshenko’s equation giving the pressurecausing yield at the outer pipe fibre:

P~-[P~+(l+l.5.y).P4PC+P,“.P~,=0

where:

PC

PP

= Characteristiccollapsepressure

(2)

(3)

fo

= Initial out-of-roundness,(D--Dmi,)/D

D

= Averagediameter

t

= Wall thickness

SMYS

= SpecifiedMinimum Yield Strengthin hoop direction

E

= Young’s Module

2)

= Poisson’sratio

It should be noted that the pressure‘pc’ determinedin accordance

to Eq. (2) is lower than the actual collapsepressureof the pipe and it becomesequal to the latter only in the caseof a perfectly round pipe. Hence,by using ‘pc’ calculated from Eq. (2) as the ultimate

be on the safe side,

value of pressure,the results will normally

TimoshenkoandGere(1961).

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Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999 Haagsma’sequation giving the pressureat which fully plastic

Haagsma’sequation giving the pressureat which fully plastic

yielding over the wall

thicknessoccurscanbe expressedas:

P:-Pd.PcZ- c P;+Pe,-P~&q

.Pc+Per.P:=o

1

(5)

and represent the theoretical upper bound for the collapse pressure.For low D/t, the collapse pressurewill be closer to the collapse pressure calculated by Haagsma’s equation than that calculated by Timoshenko’s equation, Haagsma and Schaap

(1981).

The use of Timoshenko’s and Haagsma’s eguation relates specifically to a pipe that has initially linear elastic material propertiesand wherethe elastic buckling pressureis derived from classicalanalysis.This would be appropriatefor seamlesspipesor for pipes that has been subjected to an annealing process. However, for pipe fabricatedusing the UO or UOE methodthere are significant non-linearities in the material properties in the hoop direction, due to residual strainsand the Bauschingereffect. These effects may be accounted for by introducing a strength

reduction factor to the plastic buckling pressureterm given by Eq.

(4). No effort has in this study been given to estimatethe

this reduction factor, but according to DNV 1996 the plastic

buckling pressureshall be reducedwith 7.5% and 15% for pipes fabricatedby the UO and UOE processrespectively.

size of

For Pureinternal pressure,the failure modewill be bursting of the cross-section.Due to the pressure,the pipe crosssection expand and the pipe wall thickness decrease.The decreasein pipe wall thicknessis compensatedfor by an increasein the hoop stress.At a certain pressure,the material strain hardening can no longer compensatethe pipe wall thinning and the maximum internal pressure has been reached. The bursting pressure can in accordancewith API (1999)be given as:

whereO.S(SMTS+SMYS)is the hoop stressat failure.

PURETENSION

For pure tension, the failure of the pipe will be, as for bursting, results of pipe wall thinning. When the longitudinal tensile force are increased,the pipe cross section will narrow down and the pipe wall thicknessdecrease.At a certain tensile force, the cross sectional area of the pipe will be reduced so much that the maximum tensile stress for the pipe material is reached. An additional increasein tensile force will now causethe pipe to fail. The maximumtensile force canbe calculatedas:

4 =SMTS. A

(7)

where A is the cross sectional area and SMTS the longitudinal stressat failure.

PURECOMPRESSION

A pipe subjectedto increasingcompressiveforce will be subjected

the compressive force are additional

the

pipe is restraint except from in the longitudinal direction, the

to Euler buckling. If

increasedthe pipe will finally fail due to local buckling. If

maximum compressiveforce will be close to the tensile failure force.

6 =SMTS.A

(8)

COMBINEDLOALB

For pipes subjectedto single loads, the failure is, as described above,dominatedby either longitudinal or hoop stresses.For the combination of pressure,longitudinal force and bending the stress level at failure will be an interaction between longitudinal and hoop stresses.In accordancewith among others DNV (1995) classification notes for buckling strength analysis of plates, this interaction can, neglecting the radial stresscomponent and the shearstresscomponents,bedescribedas:

(9)

where q is the applied longitudinal stress,ch the applied hoop stressand ou and ou the limit stressin their respectivedirection. The limit stressmay differ depending on if the applied load is compressiveor tensile. a is a correction factor depending on the ratio between the limit stress in the longitudinal and hoop direction respectively. Basedon Eq. (9), Eq. (5), Eq. (6), Eq. (12) and finite element analyses, the following definition for the correction factor have been suggestedfor external and internal overpressurerespectively:

a=0.25P"

8

a=0.25$

I For pipesunder combinedpressureandlongitudinal force, Eq. (9) may be usedto find the pipe strengthcapacity.Alternatives to Eq. (9) areVon Mises, Tresca’s,Hill’s andT&Hill’s yield condition. Experimental tests have been performed by e.g. Corona and Kyriakides (1988). For combinedpressureand longitudinal force, the failure modewill be very similar to the onesfor single loads.

In general, the ultimate strength interaction betweenlongitudinal force and bending may be expressed by the fully plastic interaction curve for tubular cross-sections.However, if D/t is higher than 35, local buckling may occur at the compressiveside, leading to a failure slightly inside the fully plastic interaction curve, Chen and Sohal (1988). When tension is dominating, the pipe capacity will be higher than the fully plastic condition due to tensile and strain-hardening effects. Based on finite element results, the maximum compressiveor tensile force related with bendinghasbeenfound to:

5 =0.5@4YS+SMTS~

A

(12)

whereO.Sx(SMYS+ SMTS) is longitudinal stressat failure.

As indicated in Figure 2, pressureandbending both lead to a cross sectional failure. Bending will always lead to ovalisation and finally collapse, while the pipe fails in different modes for respectively external and internal overpressure.When bending is combined with external overpressure,both loads will tend to increase the ovalisation, which leads to a rapid decreasein

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Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999 capacity. For bending combined with internal overpressure,the
Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999 capacity. For bending combined with internal overpressure,the

capacity. For bending combined with internal overpressure,the two failure modes work against each other and thereby “strengthen” the pipe. For high internal overpressure,the collapse will always be initiated on the tensile side of the pipe due to stressesat the outer flbres exceeding the material limit tensile stress. On the compressive side of the pipe, the high internal pressure will tend to initiate an outward buckle, which will increase the pipe diameter locally and thereby increase the momentof inertia and the bending momentcapacity to the pipe. The momentcapacity will thereforebe expectedto be higher for internal overpressurecompared with a corresponding external pressure.

ADDITIONALFAILUREMODE

In addition to the failure modes described above, fracture is a possible failure mode for all the described load conditions. In

particular for the combination of tension, high internal pressure

and bending, it is

the high stresslevel at the limit bending moment. The fracture criteria are not included in this paper,but shall be addressedin

design.

important to check against fracture becauseof

ANALYTICAL

EXPRESSION

FOR THE LIMIT

MOMENT

In the following,

combinedloadsis derived. To keepthe complexity of the bending momentLimit Stateequationson a reasonablelevel, the following

moment for pipes subjected to

the limit

a,, is now defined asthe limit longitudinal compressivestressin

the pipe wall

negativesign beforethe squareroot. The limit tensile stressa;, is accordingly equal to q with the positive sign in front of the square root.

andtherebyequal to 01asdeterminedabovewith the

(15)

(16)

THEBENDINGMOMENT

The bending momentcapacity of a pipe with an elastic- perfectly plastic material behaviour can, assumedthat the entire cross

sectionhasreachedthe limit

stress,be calculatedas:

whereAcompand&.,, are respectively the cross sectional areain

compressionand tension, v

pipe centreando the stresslevel, seeFigure 3.

their masscentres distance to the

!Planof bending

assumptionshavebeenmade:

Geometrical perfect pipe except from initial

roundness Elastic- perfectly plastic material Entire crosssectionhasreachedthelimit stress No changein crosssection geometrybefore the limit stress is reached The limit stresssurfacecan be describedin accordanceto

Eq. (9)

out-off-

be describedin accordanceto Eq. (9) out-off- LIMITSTZESSSURFACE The pipe wall stresscondition for

LIMITSTZESSSURFACE

The pipe wall stresscondition for thebendingmomentLimit State can be consideredas that of a material under biaxial loads. It is assumedthat the pipe wall limit stresssurfacecanbe describedin accordanceto Eq. (13). The limit stresssurfaceis here,neglecting the radial stress component and the shear stress components, describedas a function of the longitudinal stress ‘or’, the hoop

stress ‘oh’

and the limit stress ‘Q’ and 2~~’ in their respective

direction.

where a is

a correction factor dependingon the ou/ohlratio.

Solving the second-degreeequationfor the longitudinal stress‘q gives:

Figure 3: Pipe cross section with stress distribution diagram

(dashed line) and idealised stress diagram for plastified cross

section fill

line).

For a geometricalperfect circular pipe, the area in compression andtensioncanapproximatelybe calculatedas:

A-p =2yrt

(18)

A,e, =2(n-y)rt

(19)

The distancefrom the masscentreto the pipe crosssectioncentre is given by:

the masscentreto the pipe crosssectioncentre is given by: (14) (21) OMAE’99, PL-99-5033 5 Hauch & Bai

(14)

(21)

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Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999

Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999 where r is the averagepipe wall radius and

where r is the averagepipe wall radius and

bending plan to the plastic neutral axis. The plastic neutral axis is defined as the axis at which the longitudinal pipe wall stresses changefrom tensile to compressive,seeFigure 3.

vthe angle from the

tensile to compressive,seeFigure 3. vthe angle from the Inserting Eq. (18) to (21) in Eq. (17)

Inserting Eq. (18) to (21) in Eq. (17) gives the bending moment capacityas:

M c(u,,.u,)= -2tr * sin(y)

+ 2tr’ sin&)a,~~~

(22)

Loc*r~ONOFFUUYPLAsTICNEUTRAL~S

To calculate the angle to the fully plastic neutral axis from the plan of bending, it is necessaryto start with looking at the true

longitudinal

pipe wall

force, which

approximately can be

expressedas:

where

MC

Mp

P

PI

F

FI

= Bending momentcapacity

= Plastic moment

= Pressureacting on the pipe

= Limit pressure

=

= Limit longitudinal force

True longitudinal force acting on the pipe

1)

F = -%cwn,omp + &so tens

( 23 >

wherethe areain compression&O,,,pis calculatedas:

APPLICXBLERANGEFORMOMENTCAPACITYEQUAITON

(31), the

expressionsunder the squareroot must be positive, which gives thetheoreticalrangefor thepressureto:

To

avoid

complex solutions when solving

Eq.

Amp=2y,rt

andthe areain tension&,

as;

(24)

-~s~5~

(32)

A,,

Giving:

= 2(x - y)r

t

F=2rt~omp+(~-~)o,)

Solving Eq. (26) for w gives:

or

( 25 1

(26)

( 27 1

where the limit load p1dependon the load condition and a on the ratio betweenthe limit forceandthe limit pressure.

Since the wall thicknessdesign is basedon the operating pressure to the pipeline, this range should not give any problems in the design.

Given by the physical limitation that the angle to the plastic neutral axis must be between0 and 180 degree,the equation is valid for the following rangeof longitudinal force:

is valid for the following rangeof longitudinal force: (33) FINK EXPRESSIONFORMOMENTCAPACITY Substituting the

(33)

FINK

EXPRESSIONFORMOMENTCAPACITY

Substituting the expressionfor the plastic neutral axis, Eq. (28), into the equationfor themomentcapacity,Eq. (22) gives:

where the limit loads Fi and pI dependson the load condition and

a on the ratio betweenthe limit force Fi and the limit

pressurepi.

For the design of pipelines, this range is normally not going to give any problems,but again,the rangemay be reduceddueto the questionof fracture.

( 29 1 and substituting the expressionfor tensile and compressivestress, Eq. (15) and (16) into Eq. (29) gives the final expressionfor the bendingmomentcapacity:

or alternatively andmoreuseful in designsituations:

FINITE

ELEMENT

MODEL

This section describeshow a pipe section is modelled using the finite element method. The finite element method is a method

where a physical system, such as an engineering component or structure,is divided into small subregions/elements.Eachelement

is an essentialsimple unit in spacefor which the behaviour can be

calculated by a shapefunction interpolated from the nodal values of the element. This in such a way that inter-element continuity tends to be maintained in the assemblage.Connecting the shape functions for each elementnow forms an approximating function for the entire physical system.In the finite element formulation, the principle of virtual work, together with the establishedshape functions are used to transform the differential equations of

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Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999 equilibrium into algebraic equations. In a few words,

equilibrium into algebraic equations. In a few words, the finite element method can be defined as a Rayleigh-Ritz method in which the approximating field is interpolatedin piecewise fashion from the degreeof freedomthat arenodal valuesof the field. The modelledpipe sectionis subjectto pressure,longitudinal force and bending with the purposeto provoke structural failure of the pipe. The deformation pattern at failure will introduce both geometrical and material non-linearity. The non-linearity of the buckling/collapse phenomenon makes finite element analyses superior to analytical expressions for estimating the strength capacity.

In

buckling/collapse deformation behaviour the following

mustbe takeninto account:

order to

get a reliable finite

element prediction of the

factors

l

A proper representationof the constitutive law of the pipe material

l

A

properrepresentationof the boundaryconditions

l

A

proper application of the load sequence

l

The ability to addresslarge deformations,large rotations,and finite strains

l

The ability to model/describeall relevantfailure modes

The material definition included in the finite elementmodel is of high importance, since the model is subjectedto deformations

long

strain levels between 10% and 20% is usual and the material

definition should thereforeat leastbe governing up to this level. In the presentanalyses,a Ramberg-Osgoodstress-strainrelationship

has been used. For requiredalong with

can be anywhere along the curve, and for the present model, specifiedminimum yield strength(SMYS) associatedwith a strain of 0.5% and the specified minimum tensile strength (SMTS) correspondingto approximately 20% strain has been used. The material yield limit has been defined as approximately 80% of SMYS.

this, two points on the stress-straincurve are the materialYoung’s modules.The two points

into the elasto-plastic range. In the post buckling phase,

The advantagein using SMYS andSMTS insteadof a stress-strain curve obtainedfrom a specific testis that the statisticaluncertainty in the material stress-strainrelation is accountedfor. It is thereby ensured that the stress-strain curve used in a finite element analysis in general will be more conservative than that from a specificlaboratorytest.

To reduce computing time, symmetry of the problem has been used to reduce the finite elementmodel to one-quarterof a pipe section. The length of the model is two times the pipe diameter, which in general will be sufficient to catch all buckling/collapse failure modes.

The general-purposeshell element used iu the present model,

account for finite membranestrains and allows

thickness,which makesit suitable for large-strain analysis. The

elementdefinition allows for transversesheardeformationanduses

for changesin

thick shell theory when the shell thicknessincreasesand discrete

Kirchoff thin

shell theory asthe thicknessdecreases.

For a further discussionand verification of the usedfinite element model, seeBai et al (1993), Mohareb et al (1994), Bruschi et al (1995)andHauch& Bai (1998).

ANALYTICAL

SOLUTION

VERSUS FllvITE

ELEMENT

RESULTS

In the following, the above-presentedequations are compared

with results obtained from finite element analyses.First are the capacity equations for pipes subjectedto single loads compared

with finite elementresults for a D/t the moment capacity equation for

pressureandbendingarecomparedagainstfinite elementresults.

STRENGTHCAPACITYOFPIPESSUBJECTEDTOSINGLELOADS

As a verification of the finite element model, the strength

capacitiesfor single loads obtained from finite element analyses arecomparedagainstthe verified analytical expressionsdescribed in the previous sectionsof this paper.The strength capacity has

been comparedfor

to demonstratethe finite elementmodel’s capability to catch the right failure mode independently of the D/t ratio. For all the analyses,the averagediameteris 0.5088m,SMYS = 450 MPa and SMTS = 530 MPa. In Figure 4 the bending moment capacity found from finite elementanalysishasbeencomparedagainstthe

bending momentcapacity equation, Bq. (1).

tensile longitudinal force Bq. (7), in Figure 6 the collapsepressure

Bq. (2, 5) and in Figure 7 the bursting pressure Bq. (6) are compared against finite element results. The good agreement between the finite element results and analytical solutions presentedin figure 4-7 give good reasonsto expect that the finite element model also will give reliable predictions for combined loads.

ratio from 10 to 60. Secondly

combined longitudinal force,

a large range of diameterover wall thickness

In Figure 5 the limit

X

=

FE results

- = Analytical

0

I

10

20

30

40

50

60

 

Diameter

Over Wall Thickness

Figure 4: Moment capacity as a function of diameter over wall thicknessfor apipe subjectedtopure bending.

OMAE’99.

PL-99-5033

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Copyright (C) 1999 by ASME

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Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11- 16, 1999

Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11- 16, 1999 1.5- l- 0 . 5 1 0

1.5-

l-

0.5 10

 

X =

FE results

-

- = Analytical

 

<

20

30

40

50

60

Diameter

Over Wal

Ttddumss

Figure 5: Limit longitudinal force as afunction of diameter over wall thicknessfor apipe subjectedtopure tensileforce.

 

X =

FE results

- =

Haagsma

-

= Timoshenko

2-

l-

01

*

10

20

30

40

50

60

Figure 6: Collapsepressure as a function of diameter over wall

thicknessfor

Initial out-of-roundnessfO equal to 1.5%.

a pipe subjected to pure external overpressure.

STRENCTHCAPACITYFORCOMBINEDLOADS

For the results presented in Figures 8-13 the following dimensionshasbeenused:

pipe

D/t =

35

fc

=

1.5 %

SMYS

= 450MPa

SMTS

= 530MPa

a

= l/5 for external overpressureand2/3 for internal overpressure

Figures 8 and 9 shows the momentcapacity surfacegiven by Eq. (31). In Figure 8 the moment capacity surface is seenfrom the external pressure, compressive longitudinal force side and in Figure 9 it is seenfrom above.Figures 4 to 7 have demonstrated

that for single loads, the failure surfaceagreeswell with finite element analysesfor a large D/t range. To demonstratethat Eq. (31) also agreeswith finite elementanalysesfor combinedloads, the failure surface has been cut for different fixed values of longitudinal force and pressurerespectively as demonstratedin

Figure 9 by the black lines. The cuts and respectivefinite element

results are shown in Figures 10 to 13. In Figure 10 the moment capacityis plotted asa function of pressure.The limit pressurefor external overpressure is here given by Haagsma’s collapse

equationEq.

the bursting pressureBq. (6). For the non-pressurisedpipe, the

moment capacity is given by Bq. (1). In Figure 11, the moment

capacity is plotted as a function of longitudinal

force has been given by Bq. (12) for both compression and

tension. For a given water depth, the external pressurewill

approximatelyconstant,while the axial force may vary. Figure 12 showsthe momentcapacity as a function of longitudinal force for an external overpressureequal to 0.8 times the collapse pressure calculated by Haagsma’scollapse equation Bq. (5). Figure 13 again shows the moment capacity as a function of longitudinal force, but this time for an internal overpressureequal to 0.9 times the plastic buckling pressuregiven by Bq. (4). Basedon the results presentedin Figures 10 to 13, it is concluded that the analytical deducedmoment capacity and finite element results are in good agreementfor the entire rangeof longitudinal force and pressure. The equations though tent to be a little non-conservative for external pressurevery close to the collapse pressure.This is in agreementwith the previous discussionabout Timoshenko’s and

Haagsma’scollapseequation.

(5) and the limit pressurefor internal overpressureby

force. The limit

be

pressurefor internal overpressureby force. The limit be i0 20 30 40 50 Diameter Over Wall rndcnea
pressurefor internal overpressureby force. The limit be i0 20 30 40 50 Diameter Over Wall rndcnea
pressurefor internal overpressureby force. The limit be i0 20 30 40 50 Diameter Over Wall rndcnea
pressurefor internal overpressureby force. The limit be i0 20 30 40 50 Diameter Over Wall rndcnea
pressurefor internal overpressureby force. The limit be i0 20 30 40 50 Diameter Over Wall rndcnea

i0

20

30

40

50

Diameter

Over Wall rndcnea

60

Figure 7: Bursting pressure as a junction of diameter over wall thicknessfor apipe subjectedtopure internal overpressure.

Figure 8: Limit bendingmomentSt&aceas afunction ofpressure and longitudinal force.

OMAE’99,

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Copyright (C) 1999 by ASME

8

Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999

Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999 0 . 6 $0 s t x x

0.6

$0

s

t

x

x

(

 

x

x

x

X

=

FE

results

-=

Analytical

x x x X = FE results -= Analytical - 0 . 6 , X,x ‘1’
x x x X = FE results -= Analytical - 0 . 6 , X,x ‘1’

-0.6

,

X,x

‘1’

 

-1

4.6

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

6

 

Longitudinal

force I Longitudinal

limit force

 

Figure 9: Limit bendingmomentsur$aceas afinction ofpressure and longitudinal force including crosssectionsfor which comparisonbetweenanalytical solution and resultsporn finite elementanalyseshasbeenperformed.

Figure 12: Normalised bendingmomentcapacity as afunction longitudinal force. Pressureequal to 0.8 timesHaagsma‘s collapsepressureEq. (5).

of

l- ‘t xx xx 0.60.6 -- hh 0.60.6 -- ”” 0.40.4 -- i!i! 0.2-0.2- =
l- ‘t
xx
xx
0.60.6
--
hh
0.60.6
--
””
0.40.4
--
i!i!
0.2-0.2-
=
FE results
==
FEFE
resultsresults
::
o-
o-
bb
ll
-0.2-0.2
----
-0.4-0.4
-0.6-0.6
--
-0.6
-
xx
xx
-1.51
I
-0.4
-0.2
0
02
0.4
0.6
0.6
1
12
-0.4
-02
0
02
0.4
0.6
0.6
1
1.2
1.4
Pressue
I PfastiC Bucknrg
Pmssue
Longitiinal
force I Longitudinal
Umit force

Figure 10: Normalisedbendingmomentcapacity as afunction of pressure.No longitudinalforce is applied.

 

X

=

FE

results

-

=

halytic6l

 

-1.5’

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

Lorrgitdinal

force I Lorgitdnal

limit force

I

1

Figure 1I: Normalisedbendingmomentcapacity as afunction of longitudinal force. Pressureequal to zero.

Figure 13: Normalised bendingmomentcapacity as ajimction of longitudinalforce. Pressureequal to 0.9 timestheplastic buckling pressureEq. (4).

USAGhZAFETYFACTORS

The local buckling check can be separatedinto a check for load controlled situations (bending moment)and one for displacement controlled situations (strain level). When no usage/safetyfactors are applied in the buckling check calculations, the two checks ought to result in the same bending capacity. In design, usage/safety factors are though introduced to account for modelling and input uncertainties. The reduction in bending capacity introduced by the usagefactors will not be the samefor load and displacement controlled situation. Due to the pipe momentversusstrain relationship, a higher allowable strengthcan be achievedfor a given target safety level by using a strain-based

criterion than by a moment criterion. III this paper only the allowable bending momentcriterion is given. This criterion canbe usedfor both load anddisplacementcontrolled situations,but may as mentioned be overly conservativefor displacementcontrolled situations.

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Copyright (C) 1999 by ASME

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Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999

Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999 The usage factor approach presentedin this paper is

The usage factor approach presentedin this paper is based on shrinking the failure surfaceshown in Figures 8 and 9. Insteadof representingthe bending momentcapacity,the surfaceis scaledto represent the maximum allowable bending moment associated with a given target safety level. The shapeof the failure surface given Eq. (31) is dictated by four parameters;the plastic moment M,, the limit longitudinal force Fi, the limit pressurePi and the correction factor (shape parameter) a. To shrink the failure surface usage factors are applied to the plastic moment, longitudinal limit force and the limit pressurerespectively. The usagefactors arefunctions of modelling, geometricaland material uncertainties and will therefore vary for the three capacity parameters. In general, the variation will be small and for simplification purposes,the most conservativeusagefactor may be applied to all capacity loads. The correction factor a is a function of the longitudinal limit force and the limit pressureand no usage factor is applied to this parameter. The modelling uncertainty is highly connectedto the use of the equation. In the SLJPEBB(1996)project, the useof the momentcriteria is divided into four unlike scenarios;1) pipelines resting on uneven seabed, 2) pressuretest condition, 3) continuesstiff supportedpipe and4) all other scenarios. To account for the variation in modelling uncertainty, a condition load factor 2 is applied to the plastic momentand the limit longitudinal force. The pressure,which is a function of internal pressureandwaterdepth,will not be subjected to the samemodel uncertainty and the condition load factor will be close to one and can be neglected. Based on the above discussion, the maximum allowable bending moment may be expressedas:

side of the pipe. The criteria given in this guideline may be used to calculate the maximum allowable bending moment for a given scenario. It shall be noted that the maximum allowable bending moment given in this guideline does not take fracture into accountand that fracture criteria thereforemay reducethe bending capacityto the pipe. This particularly applies for high- tension/high-pressureload conditions.

l LOAD VER.WSDISPLACEMENTCONTROLLEDSITUATIONS:

The local buckling checkcan be separatedinto a check for load controlled situations (bending moment) and one for displacement controlled situations (strain level). Due to the relation betweenapplied bending momentand maximum strain

in a pipe, a higher allowable strength for a given target safety

level can be achievedby using a strain-basedcriterion than the bending moment criterion. The bending moment criterion can due to this, conservatively be used for both load and displacement controlled situations. In this guideline only the bending momentcriterion is given.

l Locar. BUCKLINGANDACCUWLATED OUT-OF-ROUNDNESS:

Increased out-of-roundness due to installation and cyclic

operating loads may aggravate local buckling and is

considered. It is recommendedthat out-of-roundness, due to through life loads,be simulatedusing finite elementanalysis.

to

be

l M~MUMALLO

WMLEBENDINGMOME~T:

The allowablebendingmomentfor local buckling underload controlled situationscanbe expressedas:

buckling underload controlled situationscanbe expressedas: (34) where ~ A I k m n b k =
buckling underload controlled situationscanbe expressedas: (34) where ~ A I k m n b k =

(34)

where ~AIkmnbk = Allowable bendingmoment

Y?

17R

Condition load factor

= = Strengthusagefactors

The usage/safetyfactor methodologyusedin Eq. (34) ensuresthat

load

combinations.

the

safety levels

are uniformly

maintained for

all

In the following guideline for bending strength calculations, the suggestedcondition load factor is in accordancewith the results presentedin the SUPERB(1996)report,later usedin DNV (1996) andin the new DNV (1999) rules for submarinepipeline systems.

The strength usage factors qm,

comparisonwith existing codesand the engineeringexperienceof the authors.

qm and qW are based on

GUIDELINE

FOR BENDING

STRENGTH

CALCULATIONS

l LOCALBUCKLING:

For pipelines subjectedto combinedpressure,longitudinal force and bending, local buckling may occur. The failure modemay be yielding of the cross sectionor buckling on the compressive

where

i

MAlmk = Allowable bendingmoment

4 = Plasticmoment

PI = Limit pressure

P = Pressureacting on the pipe

Fl = Limit longitudinal force

F = Longitudinal force acting on the pipe

l

a

1%

17R

= Correctionfactor = Condition load factor = Strengthusagefactor

CORRECTIONFACTOR:

a = 0.25P,

4

for

external overpressure

a for internal overpressure

= 0.25fi

4

If possible, the correction factor should be verified by finite elementanalyses.

l PLAWK(LIMIT)MOMENT:

The limit momentmay be given as:

OMAE’99,

PL-99-5033

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Copyright (C) 1999 by ASME

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Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999

Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999 M C(F=O,W) - - 1.05-0.0015.~ t .SMys.# .t
Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, July 11-16, 1999 M C(F=O,W) - - 1.05-0.0015.~ t .SMys.# .t

M

C(F=O,W)

-

-

1.05-0.0015.~

t

.SMys.#

.t

where

SMYS

D

t

= SpecifiedMinimum Yield Strengthin longitudinal direction = Averagediameter = Wall thickness

l LIMIT LONGITUDINALFORCEFORCOMWKWIONAND TENSION:

The limit longitudinal force may be estimatedas:

4 =05(sMYs+SMTs)~A

A

=

Crosssectionalarea,which may be calculatedasrtXDxt.

SMYS

=

SpecifiedMinimum Yield Strengthin longitudinal direction

SMTS

=

SpecifiedMinimum Tensile Strengthin longitudinal direction

a LIMIT PRESSUREFOREXTERML O~RPRESSURECONDI~ON:

The limit external pressure‘pL(is to be calculatedbasedon:

where

PC1

PP

=

-

2E

(1-v’)

t3

-

0 D

2t

= qJdsMYsD

1)

fo

= Initial out-of-roundness*),(D--D,,)/D

SMYS

= SpecifiedMinimum Yield Strengthin hoop direction

E

= Young’s Module

II

= Poisson’sratio

Guidancenote:

‘)

ntit, is 0.925 for pipes fabricatedby the UO precess,0.85 for

‘)

pipes fabricatedby the UOE processand 1 for seemlessor annealedpipes. Gut-of-roundnesscausedduring the construction phaseis to be included, but not flattening dueto external waterpressure or bendingin as-laidposition.

l

LIMT PRESSUREFORINTERNALOVERPRE~~URECONDITION:

The limit pressurewill be equal to the bursting pressuregiven by:

p, = O.J(SMTS+SMY&S~

where

SMYS

=

SpecifiedMinimum Yield Strengthin hoop direction

SMTS

= SpecifiedMinimum Tensile Strengthin hoop direction

l

LOADAND USAGEFACTORS:

Load factor yc andusagefactor na arelisted in Table 1.

Guidancenotes:

- Load Condition Factors may be combined e.g. Load Condition Factor for pressuretest of pipelines resting on unevenseabed,1.07x0.93= 1.OO

- Safety classis low for temporaryphases.For the operating phase,safety class is normal and high for areaclassified as zone 1 andzone2 respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The momentcapacity equationsin the existing codesare for some

load

conservative.This paper presentsa new set of design equations that are accurate and simple. The derived analytical equations have been based on the mechanismof failure modes and have beenextensively comparedwith finite elementresults. The useof safety factors has been simplified comparedwith existing codes

and the target safety levels are in accordancewith DNV (1996),

IS0

conditions

overly

conservative and for

others non-

(1998)

and API

(1998). The

applied

safety factor

methodology ensuresthat the target safety levels are uniformly maintainedfor all load combinations.It is the hope of the authors that this paper will help engineersin their aim at designing safer andmorecost-effectivepipes.

It is recommendedthat the alpha correction factor

processreduction factor areinvestigatedin moredetails.

and fabrication

REFERENCES

API (1998)“Design, Construction, Operationand Maintenanceof OffshoreHydrocarbon Pipelines (Limit StateDesign)“.

Bai, Y., Igland, R. and Moan, T. (1993) “Tube Collapse under CombinedPressure,Tensionand Bending”, InternationalJournalof OffshoreandPolarEngineering,Vol. 3(2),pp. 121-129.

Bai, Y., Igland, R.

CombinedExternal Pressure, Tension and Bending”, Journal of Marine Structures,Vol. 10,No.5,pp.389-410.

and Moan, T. (1997) “Tube Collapse under

Bruschi, R., Monti, P., Bolzoni, G., Tagliafeni, R. (1995), ‘Finite ElementMethod asNumerical Laboratoryfor Analysing Pipeline ResponseunderInternal Pressure,Axial Load, BendingMoment’

OMAE’95.

Chen,W. F., andSohal,I. S. (1988),“Cylindrical MembersIn OffshoreStructures” Thin-Walled Structure,Vol. 6 1988.Special Issueon Offshore Structures,Elsevier Applied Science.

OMAE’99,

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