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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/he Hydrogen energy system analysis for residential applications
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/he Hydrogen energy system analysis for residential applications

Hydrogen energy system analysis for residential applications in the southern region of Algeria

Wahiba Bendaikha a , Salah Larbi b , * , Bouziane Mahmah a

a Center of Development of Renewable Energy (CDER), B.P. 62, Route de l’Observatoire, 16340 Bouzareah, Algiers, Algeria b LGMD-Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic National School of Algiers, 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, B.P. 182, 16200 El-Harrach, Algiers, Algeria

article info

 

abstract

Article history:

The purpose of this paper is related to hydrogen energy system analysis for residential

Received 31 January 2011

applications in Ghardaia (southern region of Algeria). This system is based on proton

Received in revised form

exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, which is supplied by fuel reforming

7 April 2011

process, for producing hydrogen fuel starting from natural gas. The exhaust heat is recovered

Accepted 9 April 2011

by a Thermal Storage Tank (TST), which is used in an absorption sub-system as a generator

Available online 14 May 2011

for residential cooling system. The feasibility analysis of an absorption cooling device, using

 

thermal energy of PEMFC sub-system, for a residence application located at the unit of

 

Keywords:

applied research in renewable energy in Ghardaia has been studied and performances were

Absorption

 

analysed. Electrical and thermal powers generated by the PEMFC sub-system with variable

Thermal storage tank

electrical loads (Part Load Ratio) have been analysed. The feasibility study shows that using

PEMFC

PEMFC for residential cooling in Ghardaia is a promising solution. It is shown that the

Natural gas

 

temperature of the TST is sufficient to supply the absorption sub-system with a coefficient of

Ghardaı¨a residence

performance equals to 0.72 and, the efficiency of the HES equals to 97%.

 

Copyright ª 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

 

reserved.

1.

Introduction

solution for residential applications as cogeneration systems because of its efficiency in converting fuel gas into useful energy by recovering the waste heat from the electricity generation, which is used for hot water production and heating [6e14]. In addition, the electric power is generated at home and hence there is no energy losses associated to the central power generation device. In order to integrate a PEMFC sub-system into a residential application, a fuel reformer, a PEMFC stack with appropriate water-air, thermal management subsystems, an inverter, a power conditioner and a battery pack are necessary. Natural gas appears as the best fuel for hydrogen-rich gas production due to its favourable composition from lowermolecular weight compounds [15e17]. The main technology for natural gas fuel reforming for PEMFC applications is steam reforming [18] . For

Global warming by greenhouse effect and climate change problems due to the excessive use of fossil energy, the increase of energy demand and rising price of oil barrel can be consid- ered as important raisons for seeking other alternative energy sources. Owing to its energy saving and gas emission reduction by greenhouse effect property, fuel cell technology has gained particular attention as one among the future power generation systems [1e3]. These last decades, automobile manufacturers developed proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as

a propulsion device of electric vehicles. This development was given according to their good start-up performance due to

a relatively low operating temperature and high power density

[4,5]. PEM fuel cell technology is considered also as a promising

* Corresponding author . Fax: þ213 21 52 29 73. E-mail address: larbisalah@yahoo.fr (S. Larbi). 0360-3199/$ e see front matter Copyright ª 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.04.068

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simplicity, the natural gas is represented by puremethane, CH 4 [19]. In Algeria, the largest natural gas field is located in Hassi Rmel region, 450 km south of Algiers and 150 km from Ghar- daia. Its reserves represent half of all the Algerian proven reserves [20,21]. In our previous study [22], a simulation of Hydrogen Energy System (HES), composed of a PEMFC sub-system and a heat pump for cooling, using real data of a residence located at the Unit of Applied Research in Renewable Energies in Ghardaia (UARREG) (southern region of Algeria) was done. The simulation results [22] showed that there is a great loss of energy in the system because the heat transferred to the Thermal Storage Tank (TST) has not been used, HES efficiency is reduced to 66% and there has been an over sizing of PEMFC (5.3 kW). An important part of electrical energy is consumed by the heat pump in summer to cooling the residence [22]. However, using another cooling system based on a single- effect H 2 O eLiBr absorption chiller sub-system can reduce the PEMFC size and improve the HES efficiency. The objective of this study is to simulate a single-effect H 2 O eLiBr absorption sub-system powered by PEMFC sub- system and, supplied by hydrogen produced via steam methane reforming to cool a residence located in UARREG. The effect of the TST temperature variation on the absorption sub-system performance is examined and, the quantity of methane consumed by the PEMFC sub-system is estimated. The residence data used are provided by the solar potential laboratory and meteorological station located in UARREG.

2. Thermodynamic hydrogen energy system

configuration

Hydrogen Energy System (HES) as shown in Fig. 1 is based on several sub-systems [23] and single-effect H 2 O eLiBr absorp- tion chiller for cooling.

The PEMFC sub-system is composed by a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), a fuel processing, and battery/ power conditioner. The fuel processing device converts natural gas into hydrogen-rich reformate one for providing the required hydrogen fuel. In the reforming process, natural gas is reacted with water steam at high temperature. The fuel processor typically incor- porates four separate reaction vessels [15] : the reformer, the high temperature water shift reactor (HTSR), the low temper- ature water shift reactor, and the preferential oxidation reactor (PROX). Natural gas and water steam pass through high tempera- ture reactor vessel, named reformer, where most of the fuel is converted into a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Some of the carbon monoxide produced in the reformer may react with water to form carbon dioxide. The reformer oper- ating temperature depends on the fuel used, for methane it is over 700 C. The high temperature water shift reactor (HTSR) is used to convert carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. This reactor typically operates at temperatures between 260 C and 320 C. The low temperature water shift reactor (LTSR) is used to convert the remaining carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. This LTSR reactor typically operates at temperatures between

200 C and 260 C.

The PEMFC uses a preferential oxidation (PROX) reactor to shift any remaining carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide by introducing a suitable amount of oxygen to the reformatted stream. The amount of carbon monoxide larger than 10 parts- per-million is absorbed on the platinum catalyst and then it blocks hydrogen access to the catalyst sites, inducing the reduction of the cell performances. In the PEMFC device, one of the main components is the power conditioner, which converts the direct current to alter- native one. Usually, the transient high start-up power demands of appliances are met by electricity stored in a battery pack

appliances are met by electricity stored in a battery pack Fig. 1 e Schematic description of

Fig. 1 e Schematic description of the simulated hydrogen energy system.

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since it is not economical to size the stack to meet short dura-

tion loads. Therefore, carefully sized battery packs are used in the PEMFC sub-system. In the PEMFC technology [ 24], hydrogen and oxygen gases react to form water, electricity, and thermal energy in the PEMFC stack. The components of the PEMFC stack are the anode, the proton exchange membrane, the cathode, and the gas channels for each electrode. Hydrogen-rich gas (fuel stream) is supplied to the anode side of the stack. At the anode, hydrogen gas reacts to form electrons and protons over noble metal catalysts. The protons diffuse through the membrane while the electrons transfer over an external circuit to the cathode side. The protons and electrons react with the oxygen

in the cathode stream to form water which is carried out of the

stack in the cathode gas channel (product stream). The PEMFC operates usually within a range of 65e90 C. Electricity for lights, appliances, fan coil and pumps of the absorption sub- system is provided by the PEMFC. The thermal energy from the PEMFC is transferred to the Thermal Storage Tank (TST) as seen in Fig. 1 . Water is with- drawn from the tank, pumped through the PEMFC heat exchanger, and returned to the tank at a higher temperature. The role of the thermal storage tank in the HES is to store thermal energy during periods of low thermal energy demand and to supply it during high demand. It is demonstrated that with using TST device, thermal energy can be better explored [25]. As shown in Fig. 1, the absorption system is composed by

a generator, a condenser, an evaporator, an absorber and

a solution heat exchanger. By supplying heat flow to the generator (point 11), the refrigerant (H 2 O) is separated from the absorbent (LiBr), it flows from the generator via state points 4, 5 and 6 and back to the absorber as a weak solution where it absorbs the vapour refrigerant coming from the evaporator. LiBr was conveyed to

the absorber as a solution with low refrigerant content whilst water liberated from the solution in the generator through evaporation flowed to the condenser (point 7) where it was condensed to release heat (point 15, 16). The difference in pressure caused a flow of the refrigerant to the evaporator (point 9) where, at low temperature and low pressure, it evaporated and absorbed heat which subsequently produced chilled water for cooling the residence with a fan coil (point 17, 18). The evaporated refrigerant was attracted by the absorbent in the absorber (point 10), where the refrigerant-rich absor- bent solution was formed once more and was conveyed to the generator (point 1, 2, 3) to start the whole cycle again. Eighteen points are used in the absorption sub-system [26,27], and each one has its temperature, pressure, enthalpy and flow rate. The H 2 O eLiBr absorption chiller sub-system with state points and its four main components are shown

in Fig. 1 . These components are: generator (g), condenser (c),

evaporator (e) and absorber (a). The solution heat exchanger, the solution pump and the throttling valves between absorber/solution heat exchanger and condenser/evaporator are also shown. The internal state points characterize the thermodynamic properties of LiBr/water solution (points 1 e6), water vapour (7, 10) and liquid water (8, 9). The external state points characterize the thermodynamic properties of hot water (11, 12), cooling water (13, 14, 15, 16) and chilled water (17, 18) [28].

PEMFC sub-system operates with approximately 40% of electric efficiency. Compared to the peak power operation, low Part Load Ratios (PLR) have slightly higher efficiencies [25]. However, at very low PLR’s (PLR < 10%) parasitic losses increase significantly and system performance drops drasti- cally. At all load conditions, waste heat is available from the PEMFC stack. The thermal energy is approximately equals to the electricity production and is available at a temperature close to the stack temperature. Cogeneration efficiencies for small-scale PEMFC systems are typically higher than 65% [25]. In analyzing the HES, the PEMFC sub-system is modelled as

a sub-system with methane as input parameter and, elec-

tricity and thermal energy, as output parameters. Empirical relations will be used to relate the fuel input to the electric and thermal energy outputs. The Part Load Ratio (PLR) is defined as the ratio of electric power load to the maximum of the PEMFC power generation.

It varies between 0 and 1 and it is given by [25]

PLR ¼

_

E FC

_

E FC; cap

Where

_

(1)

E FC ;cap is the maximum of output electric power of the

PEMFC sub-system.

_

E FC is the net output electric power of the PEMFC sub- system for supplying a part load. It is defined as the sum of the total electrical demand for the residence, and the electric power required running the fan coil and the pump of the absorption cooling sub-system. The thermal to electric output ratios of the fuel cell sub- system which are calculated by the ratio of heat output to the output electric power of the PEMFC sub-system are given by [25,29]

r TE ¼ 0: 6801

(2)

for PLR<0.05 and

r TE ¼ 1: 0785: PLR 4 1 : 9739: PLR 3 þ 1 :5005: PLR 2 0: 2817: PLR

þ 0: 6838

(3)

for PLR>0.05 The reformer heating value efficiency at full capacity is 94% [25]. The fuel (natural gas) utilization by the fuel cell stack is 80% and the rest of the fuel is burned to supply heat to the steam reforming process. The fraction of the heating value of the primary fuel that reacts electrochemically in the fuel cell is equal to the product of the heating value efficiency and the fuel utilization or 75 percent [25,29]. The complete PEMFC sub-system electric efficiency reflecting reformer efficiency and battery operation is given by

[25,29]

h electric ¼ 0: 2716

for PLR<0.05 and

h electric ¼ 0: 9033: PLR 5 2 : 9996: PLR 4 þ 3 :6503: PLR 3 2: 0704: PLR 2

(4)

þ 0: 4623:PLR þ 0 : 3747

(5)

for PLR>0.05 The thermal efficiency is given by Gunes [25] as

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h thermal ¼ h electric r TE

(6)

The cogeneration efficiency of the PEMFC sub-system is defined as the sum of the electrical and thermal efficiency calculated by Equation (4, 5 and 6). Its expression is [29]

h cogeneration ¼ h electric þ h thermal ¼ h electric ð1 þ r TE Þ

(7)

The following relation determines the total thermal power or the heat flow rate available from the PEMFC sub-system using in the residence [29]

_

Q FC ¼ r TE

_

E FC

(8)

Solving this differential equation yields the tank tempera- ture as a function of time [25]

T TS;t 2 ¼ a

b þ T TS;t 1 a

b

exp 3600b

m TS C P

ðt 2 t 1 Þ

Where

a ¼ r TE

_

E FC m_ HW C P ðT HW T CW Þ þ U L A L T zone

b

¼ U L A L

(9)

(10)

(11)

Knowing E FC , the fuel use of the fuel cell sub-system can be calculated for any electric load of the residence with the equation

F FC ¼

E FC

h electrical

(12)

Energy balance equations are applied to the evaporator, the absorber, the condenser and the generator. The UA-LMTD method is used and the overall heat transfer coefficient (UA) is relatively constant throughout each heat exchanger. The input parameters of the model are given in the Table 1. The solution heat exchanger effectiveness is defined as

Eff hx ¼ Tð4Þ Tð5Þ

Tð4Þ Tð2Þ

(13)

The energy balance for the generator is

Q g ¼ DTLM g UA g ¼ m_ ð11Þðhð11Þ h ð12ÞÞ

Where

LMTD g ¼ ðT ð11Þ Tð4Þ Tð12Þ þ Tð7ÞÞ

ln Tð11Þ T ð4Þ Tð12Þ T ð7Þ

(14)

(15)

The energy balance for the evaporator is

Q e ¼ LMTD e UA e

Where

(16)

LMTD e ¼ ðTð17Þ Tð10Þ Tð18Þ þ Tð10ÞÞ

ln

Tð17Þ Tð 10Þ Tð18Þ Tð 10Þ

(17)

The energy balance for the condenser is

Q c ¼ LMTD c UA c

Where

LMTD c ¼ ðTð8Þ Tð15Þ T ð8Þ þ Tð16ÞÞ

ln Tð8 Þ T ð15Þ Tð8 Þ T ð16Þ

(18)

(19)

The energy balance for the absorber is

Q a ¼ LMTD a UA a

Where

LMTD a ¼ ðTð6 Þ Tð14Þ Tð1Þ þ Tð13ÞÞ

ln Tð6Þ Tð14Þ Tð1Þ Tð13Þ

(20)

(21)

The coefficient of performance is given by [28,30]

COP ¼

m_ ð9Þ ðhð10Þ hð9ÞÞ

m_ ð11Þ ðhð11Þ hð12ÞÞ ¼ Q e

Q

g

(22)

The numerical simulation of the HES shown in Fig. 1 is based on data related to 60 m 2 residence area. The calculation of lighting use in a dwelling is based on the proportion of fixed low-energy lighting outlets installed, and on the contribution of daylight. Cold water and ambient temperature data are those of 27 August 2007 day measured on the UARREG site, this data are used to avoid the system over sizing.

3. Technical data presentation

Residences in Ghardaia city, located in the southern region of Algeria (Latitude 32.5, Longitude 3.5) have a very huge problem of cooling following to hot summers in this city for a large part of the year [31]. The ambient temperature and cold water inlet temperature measured during 27 August 2007 in UARREG are shown in Fig. 2. As can be seen, the ambient temperature increases appreciably from 9:00 am until 8:00 pm and the cold domestic water inlet temperature begins to increase from 9.00 am to stabilize slightly at the end of the day. Fig. 3 shows the elec- trical loads variation and the Part Load Ratio (PLR) according to the time. The electrical loads variation shows that the pick demand on electrical energy is from 9:00 am until 6:00 pm that corresponds to the high values of the ambient temperature in this time (see Fig. 2). Fig. 4 shows that the average temperature is between 9 and 15 C for the winter period and from 19 to 28 C for periods of

Table 1 e Data used for the study case.

Table 1 e Data used for the study case.
Eff_hx m_ ð1Þ UAa UAc UAg UAe T(13) m_ ð13Þ T (15) m_ ð 15Þ
Eff_hx
m_ ð1Þ
UAa
UAc
UAg
UAe
T(13)
m_ ð13Þ
T
(15)
m_ ð 15Þ
m_ ð11Þ
m_ ð17Þ
T(17)
kg/s
kW/K
kW/K
kW/K
kW/K
C
kg/s
C
kg/s
kg/s
kg/s
C
0.64
0.05
1.8
1.2
1
2.25
25
0.28
27
0.28
1
0.4
10

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journal of hydrogen energy 36 (2011) 8159 e 8166 8163 Fig. 2 e Ambient and inlet

Fig. 2 e Ambient and inlet domestic water temperature evolution versus time.

autumn and spring. By the summer, the outside temperature is between 30 and 36 C. Thus, the latter leads us to predict cooling.

4. Results and discussion

Hydrogen Energy System (HES) integrating PEMFC sub-system with the absorption cooling one has been simulated. In this design, thermal energy is used for space cooling “Producing cold with hot”. For cooling hours, heat is removed from the house by the absorption sub-system. Absorption cooling sub- system based on H 2 Oe LiBr cycle is suitable for residential applications and they can be operated with thermal energy at temperatures as low as 80 C [32]. For most domestic PEMFC systems, water is the ideal material to store thermal energy. The net electric power provided by the PEMFC sub-system must be sufficient to meet the maximum hourly average demand as predicted by the HES model. The electrical and

demand as predicted by the HES model. The electrical and Fig. 3 e Electrical loads and

Fig. 3 e Electrical loads and PLR variation versus time.

Fig. 3 e Electrical loads and PLR variation versus time. Fig. 4 e Monthly average temperatures

Fig. 4 e Monthly average temperatures of Ghardaia.

thermal energy delivered by the PEMFC sub-system are shown in Fig. 9 . The electrical energy delivered by the PEMFC is 82% proportional to the heat generated. It is necessary to take the load fluctuations of electricity demand (PLR) into consider- ation. As it is demonstrated in the reference [33], when the fluctuations in the electricity demand are large, the heat supplied by the PEMFC differs from the case where there is no change in electricity demand. This result is confirmed by our study and shown in Fig. 8 . When the PEMFCs operates at the full load (1.6 kW), the heat transfer rate from the PEMFCs which is the thermal energy generated by this device is as important as the electrical power generated. Fig. 5 shows the TST and the PEMFC sub-system temper- ature evolution versus time. As it can be seen, when the electrical consumption increases (Fig. 3 ), the PEMFC sub- system temperature decreases from 74.5 to 71.6 C because of the heat transferred to the TST where its temperature increases from 70.3 to 74.5 C. The coefficient of performance (COP) is calculated for the cooling absorption sub-system with generator (desorber)

the cooling absorption sub-system with generator (desorber) Fig. 5 e Evolution of the TST and PEMFC

Fig. 5 e Evolution of the TST and PEMFC sub-system temperatures according to time.

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journal of hydrogen energy 36 (2011) 8159 e 8166 Fig. 6 e Absorption system performance according

Fig. 6 e Absorption system performance according to the generator temperatures.

temperatures from 50 to 120 C while values of other operating parameters are kept constant as shown in Table 1 . Hot water inlet temperature effect on COP is shown in Fig. 6. As it can be observed, the COP increases while increasing the generation temperature, reaching a maximum value of 0.72 between 70 and 85 C and later on it falls. The maximum value for the COP (0.72) corresponds to a generation temperature of 70 C. The minimum value of 0.53 corresponds to a generation temperature of 50.5 C. It has a low coefficient of performance. However, it can substantially reduce the operating costs because it is powered by low-grade waste heat. When the generator’s temperature is between 60 and 85 C, which is the temperature of the subcooled heated water at atmospheric pressure, as expected, the cycle COP increases as the generator temperature ( T TST ) increases according to Carnot principle [34]. However, this increase differs from one refrigerant to another.

this increase differs from one refrigerant to another. Fig. 7 e Cooling and desorber power according

Fig. 7 e Cooling and desorber power according to the TST temperature.

Cooling and desorber power according to the TST temperature. Fig. 8 e Absorption cycle temperatures evolution

Fig. 8 e Absorption cycle temperatures evolution versus TST temperature.

As shown in Fig. 7, the cooling power increases with an increase in the generation temperature. For the generation temperature value of 70 C, the cooling power value (Q e ) is 4.86 kW. It can be seen that, increasing the TST temperature from 65 to 80 C, the evaporator heat transfer rate ( Q e ) increases from 4.1 to 6.69 kW and the generator heat transfer rate (Q g ) increases from 5.57 to 9.26 kW ( þ18%), so reducing the alimentation power to 18% the cooling power is reduced to 12%. This shows the feasibility to use the PEMFC as power sources. The evolution of the outlet absorber temperature T (1), the outlet generator temperature T(4) and the temperature between evaporator and absorber T(10) versus TST tempera- ture is shown in Fig. 8. It shows that T(4) is proportional to TST temperature, T(1) is not varying according TST temperature and T(10) is lower in higher TST temperature. This is similar to a H 2 OeLiBr absorption cycle [35]. Fig. 10 shows the CH 4 quantity consumed by the PEMFC to meet the loads of the residence. Methane consumption

to meet the loads of the residence. Methane consumption Fig. 9 e Electrical and dissipated thermal

Fig. 9 e Electrical and dissipated thermal power in the PEMFC sub-system.

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journal of hydrogen energy 36 (2011) 8159 e 8166 8165 Fig. 10 e Quantity of fuel

Fig. 10 e Quantity of fuel consumed according to the time.

increases with the increase of the electrical loads of the resi- dence. At maximum power of 1.58 kW; methane consumption is about 0.0017 m 3 . Fig. 10 shows the PEMFC sub-system electrical and cogen- eration efficiencies and the HES efficiency. As can be seen, the cogeneration PEMFC sub-system efficiency does not exceed 0.7, in Ref. [36] it is found 82%, because of difficulties in the recovery of the low temperature heat produced by the PEMFC due to the low operating temperature of PEMFC limits the amount of heat that can be effectively utilized in combined heat and power applications ( Fig. 11). Electrical PEMFC sub-system efficiency does not exceed 0.4, when the part load rises the electrical efficiency decreases, due to the higher ohmic losses, which is similar to the Mihai Radulescu results [37] , and in Ref. [38] electrical efficiency is found between 0.45 and 0.35 according to PLR variation between (0.25 and 1). The simulation results show that the HES efficiency varies within the interval 0.79e0.97. Compared to the results

within the interval 0.79 e 0.97. Compared to the results Fig. 11 e Efficiencies evolution versus

Fig. 11 e Efficiencies evolution versus time.

obtained in our previous study [22] (0.64e0.66), there is a great improvement of HES efficiency.

5.

Conclusion

In this paper, hydrogen energy system integrating the PEMFC sub-system and the absorption sub-system has been simu- lated by using UARREG residence data. Given operating conditions of PEMFC, the single-effect absorption chiller system LiBreH 2 O is the most adequate to operate at generation temperatures between 70 and 85 C. Obtained results show that the best COP of absorption sub- system is about 0.72 which corresponds to a generation temperature of 70 C and amaximum cooling power of 4.86 kW. At maximum PEMFC sub-system electrical power (1.58 kW), the methane consumption is about 0.0017 m 3 and, the simu- lation results showed that the PEMFC sub-system cogeneration efficiency is about 70% while the electrical PEMFC sub-system efficiency does not exceed 40%. Compared to the results presented in our previous study, the HES efficiency is improved by approximately 23e 46%. Using HES based on the PEMFC sub-system and a single- effect H 2 Oe LiBr absorption chiller sub-system, present an interesting and efficient system to cool residences located in the southern region of Algeria. In addition, the PEMFC size can be reduced inducing a reduction in cost.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. Saı¨d Diaf for his helpful comments while preparing the manuscript.

Nomenclature

COP

Coefficient of performance

LiBr

Lithium bromide

LMTD

Log mean temperature difference

A

Area, m 2

E

Energy, kWh

_

E

Electrical power, kW

Eff

Efficiency

h

Enthalpy, kJ/kg K

m_

Mass flow rate, kg/s

PLR

Part load ratio

Q

Heat flow, kWh

_

Q

Heat flow rate, kW

r TE

Thermal to electric output ratio of the PEMFC sub- system

T

Temperature, C

U

Overall heat transfer coefficient, kW/m 2 K

x

Concentration of LiBr

a

Absorber

c

Condenser

CW

Cold water from the city water line

d

Desorber

e

Evaporator

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FC

PEMFC

g

Generator

hx

Heat exchanger

HW

Hot water

L

Loss

TS

Thermal storage

zone

Controlled zone

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