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Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics

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A field of study in physics that is related to temperature and thermal energy is A heat B light C electricity D nuclear physics Which of the following is a SI base unit? A decimeter B meter C kilometer D Megameter Which of the following sets is the set of prefixes arranged in ascending order? A nano, mega, mili, kilo B mega, kilo, nano, mili C nano, mili, kilo, mega D kilo, mili, mega, nano Which of the following is not a symbol of a base SI unit? A kg B s C A Which group contains scalar quantities only? A
Distance / Jarak Work / Kerja Mass / Jisim Time / Masa

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Speed / Laju Weight / Berat Time / Masa Volume / Isipadu

Force / Daya Momentum / Momentum Velocity / Halaju Weight / Berat

Displacement / Sesaran Area / Luas Density / Ketumpatan Energy / Tenaga

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Time, work and speed are A base quantities B derived quantities Mass can be categorized as A. Derived quantity B. Base quantity C. Vector quantity

C D

scalar quantities vector quantities

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Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics 8. Which of the following quantities is a vector quantity ? A Mass B Speed C Work D Momentum Which of the following shows the relation between the base quantities for density? A mass length v length v length
mass v mass v length time

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time v time length v mass mass v length length v length v time

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Which of the following quantities below is a base quantity? A Momentum C Speed B Time D Force Which of the following physical quantities is not a base quantity? A Temperature C Mass B Electric charge D Time What is the unit of momentum in terms of base SI units? C kg m s-1 A Ns B kg m s D Nm Which of the following is the unit of a base quantity ? A. Kilometer C Joule B. Kilogram D Voltan. Which of the following submultiple and its prefix is correct ? Prefix Submultiple A. 10-6 kilo -3 B. 10 mili C 10-2 hecto -1 D 10 deca Which of the following arrangements of the prefixes is in descending order ? A Milli, centi, micro, deci B Deci , centi, milli, micro, C Centi, deci, milli, micro

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Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics 16. Which of the following lists of physical quantities consist of only scalar quantities ? A Mass, time, displacement, force B Density, speed, energy, temperature C Time, speed, momentum, temperature D Acceleration, speed, energy, time Which of the following physical quantities has the correct SI units? Quantities SI units A. Acceleration ms-1 B. Momentum kg ms-1 C. Density kg cm-3 D. Pressure kg m-1 s-1 Which of the following is a vector quantity? A Temperature B Electric current D Displacement C Density Which of the following is the correct option for scalar and vector quantity? Scalar quantity Displacement Frequency Power Vector quantity Velocity Speed Force

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A B C 20.

A scalar quantity is A a physical quantity that has magnitude only B a physical quantity that has magnitude and direction C a quantity that can be measured using a measuring scales. D a base quantity and cannot be derived from other quantities Which physical quantity has the correct S.I unit? A B C D Physical quantity Time Mass Length Temperature S.I Unit minute Newton meter Celcius

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Which of the following measurements has the smallest value? A 1.0 x 10 km C 1.0 x 108 cm 7 B 1.0 x 10 mm D 1.0 x 109 nm The velocity of a car is 40 m s-1 .What is its velocity in km h-1? A 112 km h-1 C 144 km h-1 -1 B 121 km h D 130 km h-1 Which one of the following measurements is the smallest ? A 1.5 x 10 2 kg B 1.5 x 10 7 g C 1.5 x 10 12 g

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Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics 25. What is the equivalent value for 40 ms-1 in kmh-1 A 1.10 x 10-5 B 1.44 x 10-5 D 144 E 1440

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A radio station transmitted a radio wave with frequency of 25 MHz. The value of the frequency is equivalent to A 2.5 x 10-5 Hz B 2.5 x 10-2 Hz. C 2.5 x 104 Hz. 7 9 D 2.5 x 10 Hz. E 2.5 x 10 Hz. ERA A. D. E. radio wave frequency 103.3 MHz, written in Hz unit is 1.033 x 104 Hz B. 1.033 x 105 Hz C. 1.033 x 107 Hz 1.033 x 108 Hz 1.033 x 106 Hz

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A car is traveling at a speed of 90 km h-1. What is its speed in m s-1 ? C 25.0 ms-1 A 9.0 ms-1 B 18.0 ms-1 -1 -1 D 30.0 ms E 20.0 ms A piece of copper wire is 0.50 m long, and its diameter is1.52 mm. What is the appropriate instrument that can be used to measure the length and the thickness of the copper wire ? Length Thickness A Meter rule Vernier calipers B Meter rule Micrometer screw gauge C Measuring tape Vernier calipers D Vernier calipers Micrometer screw gauge Which of the following statements about zero error is true ? A Can be reduced by finding the average reading. B Exists in either positive value or negative value. C Increases when the range of the scale is larger. D Increases when the value of the reading is larger. An experiment is carried out to find the relationship between mass and acceleration of a trolley on a wooden runway. The experiment is repeated by adding the number of trolleys. The responding variable in this experiment is B. acceleration A. the length of the wooden runway. C. mass D. time Which of the following steps can reduce the parallax error while recording the value of current from an ammeter? A Use more sensitive ammeter . B Calculate the average value from the repeated readings C Use a magnifying lens to read the reading from the ammeter . D Use an ammeter with a plane mirror underneath the pointer needle . The ability of an instrument to detect a small changes in the quantity to be measured is called A. accuracy B. precision C. sensitivity D. error

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Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics 34. Among the 4 sets of archery results A, B, C and D shown in figure, which set is consistent but not accurate ? A

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Consistency of an instrument is A the ability to detect a small change in the quantity to be measured. B the ability to measure a quantity with a little deviation. C the ability to measure the actual value D the ability to stand a change of environmental factors Which of the following steps is the correct in designing and carrying out an experiment? A Analisation state the aim list the variables list of apparatus procedures tabulation B Procedures state the aim list the variables list of apparatus tabulation analysation C State the aim list the variables list of apparatus procedures tabulation analisation D List the variables list of apparatus state the aim procedures tabulation analysation A student conducted an experiment to study the relationship between the mass of the pendulum and its period of oscillation. Which of the following statements is correct? A The manipulated variable is the length of pendulum. B The responding variable can be determined with the stop watch. C The period of oscillation is scaled at x-axis for plotting the graph. D The mass of pendulum should be the same throughout the experiment Which of the following causes systematic errors? A Parallax error B Incorrect measurement C Change of temperature D Zero error

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Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics 39. A shop-keeper places two identical blocks of cheese on a set of scales and notices that combined mass is 240 g. Each block measures 2.0 cm x 5.0 cm x 10.0 cm. their

A 0.42 g / cm3 C 1.2 g / cm3 40.

B D

0.83 g / cm3 2.4 g / cm3

Diagram shows a hole at the wooden block.

Wooden block

Hole

Which measuring tool is the most suitable will be use to measure the diameter and the depth of the hole? A Ruler C Micrometer screw gauge and ruler B Ruler and vernier calipers D Vernier calipers 41. Diagram 41.1 above shows the existence of zero error when the gap of a micrometer screw gauge is closed. Diagram 41.2 shows the reading of the micrometer screw gauge after an object is placed for the measurement of its thickness.

Diagram 41.1 The actual reading of the thickness is A 2.25 mm C 2.75 mm B 2.28 mm D 2.78 mm

Diagram 41.2

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics 42. Figure 1 shows the scale of a micrometer screw gauge.

FIGURE 1 What A B C D 43. is the reading of the micrometer? 8.31 mm 8.81 mm 8.81 cm 8.31 cm shows the

Figure 1(a) shows the existence of zero error of a vernier calipers. Figure 1(b) reading of the vernier calipers for diameter of metal sphere.

The actual reading of diameter of the metal sphere is A C 2.02 cm 2.06 cm B D 2.04 cm 2.08 cm

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics 44. The diagram shows part of a micrometer screw gauge.

What is the reading of the micrometer? A C 45. 4.28 mm 4.78 mm B D 4.32 mm 4.82 mm

Figure shows a micrometer screw gauge which is used to measure the diameter of an object.

Without an object

With an object

Diameter of the object is A. 2.31 mm D. 2.87 mm 46. B. 2.32 mm E. 2.88 mm C. 2.33 mm

Diagram (a)

Diagram (b)

Diagram (a) shows the reading of the micrometer screw gauge when the jaws are tight. Diagram (b) shows the reading of the micrometer screw gauge when it is used to measure the thickness of a coin. What is the thickness of the coin ? A 2.20 mm B 2.30 mm C 2.40 mm D 2.50 mm E 2.90 mm

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics 47.

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Diagram shows a pair of vernier calipers used to measure the thickness of a wooden block. If a pair of vernier calipers has -0.02 cm zero error, the actual reading of the vernier calipers is

A D 48.

1.55 cm 1.58 cm

B E

1.56 cm 2.50 cm

1.57 cm

Which of the following statements is true concerning the use of a pair of vernier calipers. A The outside jaws are used to measure internal diameters B The inside jaws are used to measure thickness of a book C The tail is used to measure the depths of a liquid in a beaker D The inside jaws are used to measure external diameters The diagram shows the reading of a ball bearing. The diameter of the ball bearing is

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A B C 50.

1.100 cm 1.110 cm 1.133 cm

D E

1.150 cm 1.183 cm

Diagram (i) shows a vernier caliper scale with a zero error when the two jaws of the vernier calipers touch each other. Diagram (ii) shows a reading when it is used to measure the thickness of a piece of wood.

Diagram (i)

Diagram (ii)

What A. B. C. D.

is the actual reading of the measurement? 9.01 cm 9.11 cm 9.14 cm 9.15 cm

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics 51. The diagram shows the scale of a micrometer screw gauge.

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What is the reading of the micrometer ? A 6.58 mm B 6.52 mm 52.

C D

6.03 mm 6.02 mm

The diagram above shows a micrometer screw gauge used to measure the thickness of a coin.

What is the reading shown ? A 3.05 mm B 3.50 mm C 3.55 mm 53.

D E

3.65 mm 3.95 mm

What is the reading of the vernier calipers as shown in the diagram below?

A D 54.

3.90 cm 2.67 cm

B E

3.70 cm 2.61 cm

3.16 cm

Diagram (i) shows the zero error of a vernier calipers. Diagram (ii) shows the reading of the thickness of a coin when this vernier callipers is used. What is the corrected value of the thinkness of the coin?

Diagram (i) A B C 4.11 cm 4.15 cm 4.21 cm D E 4.66 cm 4.70 cm

Diagram (ii)

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics

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Diagram shows a pair of vernier calipers reading when it is closed. The subsequent readings must be corrected by..
Main scale

Vernier scale

A B 56.

Adding 0.06 cm Substracting 0.06 cm

C D

Adding 0.04 cm Substracting 0.04 cm

A vernier calipers is shown in diagram below.

The vernier calipers is used to measure the diameter of a marble . The reading produced has to be A subtracted by 0.07 cm . B added with 0.07 cm C subtracted by 0.03 cm . D added with 0.03 cm . 57. Which of the following statements about micrometer screw gauge is correct? A Its sensitivity is 0.01 cm B It has two types of jaw C Each division on the thimble is 0.01 mm D The main division is on its ratchet A glass rod being measured by three different instruments. Which of the following readings is measured with micrometer screw gauge? A 1.85 mm C 1.851 mm B 1.85 cm D 18.51 cm

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Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics 59. Which of the following is suitable measured with micrometer screw gauge? A The thickness of a book B The width of a book C The width of a crack D The thickness of a cardboard A student needs to measure the internal diameter of a test tube as accurately as possible. Which instrument should be used? A. Metre rule C. Vernier calipers B. Measuring tape D. Micrometer screw gauge What is the reading of ammeter

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A. D. 62.

0.27 A 3.7 A

B. E.

0.54 A 5.4 A

C.

2.7 A

The table shows the results obtained from an experiment to examine the resistivity of a wire. Diameter of wire / mm Current / A Potential difference / V 0.40 0.36 3.6 0.80 0.41 3.8 1.20 0.55 4.5 1.60 0.72 5.0 2.00 0.88 5.1 Which one of the following statements is true about the experiment? A The smallest scale on the ammeter is 0.02 A. B The smallest scale on the voltmeter is 0.1 V. C The diameter of the wire is the responding variable. D The diameter of the wire is measured with vernier calipers.

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics

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63.

The accuracy of a measurement can be increased by A. Neglecting the zero error B. Neglecting the parallax error C. Taking average of several readings D. Rounding up values to the nearest decimals Which of the following steps can reduce the parallax error while recording the value of current from an ammeter? A. Use more sensitive ammeter. B. Calculate the average value from the repeated readings C. Use a magnified lens to read the reading from the ammeter. D. Use an ammeter with a plane mirror underneath the pointer needle. A, B, C and D show the shooting marks on a target. Which marks can explain the concept of consistency of a measurement? A B

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Diagram below shows the marks on a target board made by arrows shot by two archers, M and N.

Which of the following is true about the archers ? A. N is not accurate because his arrow marks are far from each other. B. N is not consistent because his five arrow marks are far from the target. C. M is more accurate because his five arrow marks are close to each other. D. M is more precise because his five arrow marks are close to each other. 67. The graphical method is an easy and effective method of analyzing experimental results because a graph can A produce accurate experimental results. B improve the accuracy of experimental measurements. C improve the sensitivity of the measuring instrument. D clearly show the relationship between the experimental quantities

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics 68. The diagram shows an ammeter has a mirror behind the pointer.

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Mirror Pointer

What A B C D

is the function of the mirror? Focus the light To avoid parallax error The scale can be brighter The image of pointer becomes bigger

69.

The diagram shows a graph plotted from an experiment .

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Which of the following statement about the graph is not true? A B C D The title of the graph is graph force,F against time,t . Time, t is the manipulated variable . The gradient of the graph is 4 Ns-1 . The force is directly proportional to the time .

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics

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70.

Diagram show a graph of P against 1/Q.


P

1/Q

Which of the following is true? A. B. C. 71. P is directly proportional with Q P is inversely to 1/Q P is inversely to Q

The diagram shows graph Y against 1/X . Which of the following relationship between X and Y is correct if the gradient is -m and the Y-intercept is t?

A B

Y = t - mX
m Y

C D

Y !t

m X

X !t

X = t mY

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The graph shows the relationship between s and t.

The relationship between a and b is represented by the equation A C


s!
s!

a t b b

B D

s!
s!

a t a b

a t b b

a t a b

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics 73. The graph shows the relationship between s and t.
s m

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Which of the following equations represent the graph? A B C D E


s! s s s s m t m n m ! t n n m ! tm n n ! t n m n ! tm m

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The graph shows the relationship between v and t. v/m

t/s

-12

The relationship between v and t is represented by the equation: A C


t v ! 4  12 v ! 4 t  12

B D

t v ! 4  12 v ! 4 t  12

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics

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75.

v/ms-1

10

t/s

Which statement about the graph is correct? A v = 10 t + 5 C v = -2t + 10 76. B v = 2t + 10 D v = 5t -10

Based on the figure shown, state the relationship between mass and acceleration.
a/ms-2

1 / kg-1 m

A. B. C. 77.

Acceleration is inversely proportional to mass Acceleration is directly proportional to mass 1 Acceleration is inversely proportional to m

Diagram shows a graph relating two physical quantities, H and K.


H

Which statement is correct? / Pernyataan manakah benar? A H is the manipulated variable / H ialah pembolehubah dimanipulasi B K is the constant variable / K ialah pembolehubah dimalarkan C H decreases linearly with K / H berkurang secara linear dengan K D H is directly proportional to K / H berkadar terus dengan K

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics

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A physical quantity is ..

BASE QUANTITIES 2 A base quantity is a physical quantity which cannot be defined in terms of other physical quantities. List of 5 basic physical quantities and their units. Base quantity Length Mass Time Current Temperature 4 Two quantities that have also identified as basic quantity. There are : i) ii) . .. unit .. unit .. Symbol S.I. Unit Symbol for S.I. Unit

DERIVED QUANTITIES 1 2 A derived quantity is . Determine the derived unit for the following derived quantities. Derived quantity area volume density velocity momentum Formula area = length x width volume = length x width x height
density ! velocity ! mass volume

Derived unit m x m = m2 mxmxm=m


kg m3 ! kg m  3
3

Name of derived unit

displaceme nt time

m ! m s 1 s

momentum = mass x velocity

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics

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Derived quantity Acceleration Force pressure weight work power kinetic energy potential energy charge voltage resistance

Formula
change in velocity time

Derived unit

accelerati on !

force = mass x acceleration


pressure ! force area

weight = mass x gravitational acceleration work = force x displacement


power ! work time

1 K.E ! v mass v velocity 2 2

P.E = mass x gravitational acceleration x height charge = current x time


voltage ! ork charge

resistance !

voltage current

Note that the physical quantities such as width, thickness, height, distance, displacement, perimeter, radius and diameter are equivalent to length. STANDARD FORM 1. 2. Standard form = A x 10n , 1 < A < 10 and n = integer

Standard form is used to simplify the expression of very large and small numbers

PREFIXES 1. Prefixes are usually used to represent a large physical quantity or extremely small quantity in S.I units. It will be written before the unit as a multiplying factor

2.

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics

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How to change the unit : Eg : 1. Mega to nano 1.33 MA = 1.33 x 106 A = 1.33 x 10 6-(-9) nA = 1.33 x 10 -15 nA

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Tera to micro 1.23 Tm = 1.23 x 10 12m = 1.23 x 10 12 (-6)m = 1.23 x 10 18m

3.

piko to Mega 5456 pA = 5.456 x 10 3 + (-12) pA = 5.456 x 10 -9pA = 5.456 x 10 -9 (6) MA = 5.456 x 10 -15 MA

4. Some physical quantities have extremely small magnitudes. These extremely large and small values can be written in standard form or using standard prefixes A. Write the following quantities in standard form : a. Radius of the earth b. Mass of an electron c. Size of a particle = 6 370 000 m =. = 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 911 kg = . = 0.000 03 m =

d. Diameter of an atom = 0.000 000 072 m = .......... e. Wavelength of light = 0.000 000 55 m = .

B. Write the quantities in standard prefixes: a. Frequency of radio wave = 91 000 000 Hz = . b. Diameter of the earth = 12 800 000 m = . c. Distance between the moon and the earth = 383 000 000 m = .. d. Mass of the earth = 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg = ..

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES 1 Scalar quantities are . Examples : 2 Vector quantities are... Examples :

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MEASUREMENTS Using Appropriate Instruments to Measure 1. 2. There are various types of measuring instrument with different measuring capabilities. We must know how to choose the appropriate instrument to measure a particular quantity Eg: A. Ammeter : is use to determine the electric current
1 0 2 3

incorret reading
4 0

correct 4 reading

pointer

mirror

pointer

mirror

Pointers image can be seen B.

Pointers image is behind the pointer

Measuring cylinder : is use to determine the volume of liquid. wrong position of eye Right position of eye (eye are in a line perpendicular to the plane of the scale)
water

wrong position of eye

B.

Ruler : is use to determine the length wrong 10 11 right 12 13 wrong 14 15 Reading = cm

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics

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C. Vernier calliper 1. A venier calliper is used to measure : i. small object ii. depth of a hole iii. external diameter of a cylinder or pipe iv. internal diameter of a pipe or tube 2. A vernier calliper gives readings to an accuracy of 0.01 cm.

inside jaws Vernier cm 0 scale 1

4 Main scale SKALA

outside jaws
Main scale in cm 0 0 5 10 1 Vernier scale

The different between the main scale and vernier scale is = . cm

3. Length of vernier scale = cm Vernier scale is divided into 10 divisions Length of the divisions = . cm Eg:
0 cm 0 1 2 3 4 5 1

6 7 8 9 10

Find the division of vernier scale which is coincides with any part of the main scale

Main scale

= .

Vernier scale = ..

Final reading = ..

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics

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Eg:

The diagram below shows a vernier calliper with reading.


0 1

10

Vernier calliper reading = . cm D. Micrometer screw gauge. A micrometer screw gauge is used to measure : i. objects that are small in size ii. diameter of a wire iii. diameter of small spheres such as ball bearings

Sleeve scale : Thimble scale : . Total reading : ..

One complete turn of the thimble (50 division) moves the spindle by 0.50 mm. Division of thimble = .. = .. A accuracy of micrometer screw gauge = .. Eg:

Sleeve scale : Thimble scale : . Total reading : ..

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics Exercise: Vernier Callipers And Micrometer Screw Gauge 1. Write down the readings shown by the following (a)

25

10

Answer :

(b)

P 0

Q 10

Answer :

(c)

1 0

Answer : (d)

10

Answer :

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics 2. (a) The following diagram shows the scale of a vernier calliper when the jaws are closed.
0 1

26

10

Zero error = cm (b) The following diagram shows the scale of the same vernier calliper when there are 40 pieces of cardboard between the jaws.

10

Reading shown

= ...cm

Corrected reading = ....cm 3. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges. (a)
0 5 40

(b)
0 5 10 35

35

30

Answer: .

Answer:..

(c)
0

(d)
25 20 0 5 20 15

Answer:

Answer:.

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics

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4.

(a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

0 45

Zero error = .......... mm

Zero error = ................ mm

(b) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.


20

5 0

15

Zero error = mm

Reading shown

= mm

Corrected reading = mm ACCURACY AND CONSISTENCY IN MEASUREMENTS 1. Accuracy :

2. Consistency : 3. Sensitivity :

target

..

target

..

..

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics ERRORS IN MEASUREMENTS of approximation only. 1. All measurements are values how close the measurement is to the actual value. 2. In other word, it is a matter of error exist in all measurements. 3. This is because 4. Two main types of errors: Systematic errors 4.1 Occurs due to : a weakness of the instrument a) the difference between reaction time of the brain and the action. b) zero error is when the pointer is not at zero when not in use. c) Examples : of the measuring instrument absolute error . a) Range time of the brain. b) Reaction Initial reading is not at the zero scale zero error c) Random error 4.2 .. Occurs due to carelessness in making the measurement. a) parallex error , incorrect positioning of the eye when taking the readings. b) sudden change of ambient factors such as temperature or air circulation. c) Example : Readings are close to the actual value but they are not consistent. a) .. b) Can be minimized by consistently repeating the measurement at different .. places in an identical manner. .....................................................................................................................

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Eg: a. Parallax error : It occurs because the position of the eye is not perpendicular to the scale of the instrument. Example : Wrong Right position of the eye (no error) Wrong

Physics Module : Paper 1 (by nick SMSHS) j Introduction To Physics b. Zero error : where the pointer is not at zero when not in use

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Correct reading = observed reading zero error


Positive zero error
0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 cm

Negative zero error


0 1 cm

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Zero error = + 0.03 cm

Zero error = - 0.04 cm

Positive zero error

Negative zero error

Horizontal reference

2 divisions below horizontal reference

Horizontal reference

3 divisions above horizontal reference

Zero error of micrometer screw gauge Zero error = 0.02 mm Zero error = 0.03 mm

c. Absolute error : Refer to the smallest reading that can be measured by an instrument. Eg. If, the smallest reading = 0.1 cm Then, Absolute error = 0.1 / 2 = 0.05 cm